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Medicina, Volume 59, Issue 1 (January 2023) – 183 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Cardiothoracic surgical critical care medicine (CT-CCM) is an inseparable component of any successful cardiothoracic surgical program. The demand for services provided by CT-CCM is projected to increase as the population grows older and sicker. With these trends in mind, it is important to evaluate the current state of CT-CCM. Here, we propose a set of principles that we find essential to the advancement of CT-CCM as a science and identify existing knowledge gaps in the field. View this paper
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8 pages, 453 KiB  
Review
International Consensus on Definition of Mild-to-Moderate Ulcerative Colitis Disease Activity in Adult Patients
by Bénédicte Caron, Vipul Jairath, Ferdinando D’Amico, Sameer Al Awadhi, Axel Dignass, Ailsa L. Hart, Taku Kobayashi, Paulo Gustavo Kotze, Fernando Magro, Britta Siegmund, Kristine Paridaens, Silvio Danese and Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010183 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3047
Abstract
Background and Objectives: At present, there is no consensus definition of mild-to-moderate disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis. The objective of the present study was to establish a reliable definition of mild-to-moderate disease activity in adult patients with ulcerative colitis. Materials [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: At present, there is no consensus definition of mild-to-moderate disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis. The objective of the present study was to establish a reliable definition of mild-to-moderate disease activity in adult patients with ulcerative colitis. Materials and Methods: Twelve physicians from around the world participated in a virtual consensus meeting on 26 September 2022. All the physicians had expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. After a systematic review of the literature and expert opinion, a modified version of the RAND/University of California, Los Angeles appropriateness method was applied. A total of 49 statements were identified and then anonymously rated (on a 9-point scale) as being appropriate (scores of 7 to 9), uncertain (4 to 6) or inappropriate (1 to 3). The survey results were reviewed and amended before a second round of voting. Results: Symptom and endoscopic-based measurements are of prime importance for assessing mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis activity in clinical trials. The experts considered that clinical activity should be assessed in terms of stool frequency, rectal bleeding and fecal urgency, whereas endoscopic activity should be evaluated with regard to the vascular pattern, bleeding, erosions and ulcers. Fecal calprotectin was considered to be a suitable disease activity marker in mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis. Lastly, mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis should not have more than a small impact on the patient’s daily activities. Conclusions: The present recommendations constitute a standardized framework for defining mild-to-moderate disease activity in clinical trials in the field of ulcerative colitis. Full article
13 pages, 728 KiB  
Review
Clinical Inertia in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review
by Turky H. Almigbal, Sarah A. Alzarah, Flwah A. Aljanoubi, Nouryah A. Alhafez, Munirah R. Aldawsari, Zahraa Y. Alghadeer and Abdullah A. Alrasheed
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010182 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3714
Abstract
This review seeks to establish, through the recent available literature, the prevalence of therapeutic intensification delay and its sequences in poorly controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients. The strategy identified studies exploring the clinical inertia and its associated factors in the treatment [...] Read more.
This review seeks to establish, through the recent available literature, the prevalence of therapeutic intensification delay and its sequences in poorly controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients. The strategy identified studies exploring the clinical inertia and its associated factors in the treatment of patients with T2DM. A total of 25 studies meeting the pre-established quality criteria were included in this review. These studies were conducted between 2004 and 2021 and represented 575,067 patients diagnosed with T2DM. Trusted electronic bibliographic databases, including Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, were used to collect studies by utilizing a comprehensive set of search terms to identify Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. Most o the studies included in this review showed clinical inertia rates over 50% of T2DM patients. In the USA, clinical inertia ranged from 35.4% to 85.8%. In the UK, clinical inertia ranged from 22.1% to 69.1%. In Spain, clinical inertia ranged from 18.1% to 60%. In Canada, Brazil, and Thailand, clinical inertia was reported as 65.8%, 68%, and 68.4%, respectively. The highest clinical inertia was reported in the USA (85.8%). A significant number of patients with T2DM suffered from poor glycemic control for quite a long time before treatment intensification with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) or insulin. Barriers to treatment intensification exist at the provider, patient, and system levels. There are deficiencies pointed out by this review at specialized centers in terms of clinical inertia in the management of T2DM including in developed countries. This review shows that the earlier intensification in the T2DM treatment is appropriate to address issues around therapeutic inertia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology)
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11 pages, 998 KiB  
Article
A Real-World Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Rivaroxaban versus Vitamin K Antagonists for the Treatment of Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism: Lessons from the REMOTEV Registry
by Sabrina Kepka, Elena-Mihaela Cordeanu, Kevin Zarca, Anne-Sophie Frantz, Patrick Ohlmann, Emmanuel Andres, Pascal Bilbault, Isabelle Durand-Zaleski and Dominique Stephan
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010181 - 16 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1935
Abstract
Background and objectives: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) represents a health and economic burden with consequent healthcare resource utilization. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have emerged as the mainstay option for VTE treatment but few data exist on their cost-effectiveness as compared to the standard [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) represents a health and economic burden with consequent healthcare resource utilization. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have emerged as the mainstay option for VTE treatment but few data exist on their cost-effectiveness as compared to the standard therapy (vitamin K antagonists (VKAs)). This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban compared to VKAs in VTE treatment by calculating the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER). Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective observational study based on the REMOTEV registry, including patients hospitalized for VTE from 23 October 2013 to 31 July 2015, to evaluate the impact of the anticoagulant treatment (DOACs versus VKAs) on 6-month complications: major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding, VTE recurrence and all-cause death. Rivaroxaban was the only DOAC prescribed in this study. The ICER was calculated as the difference in costs divided by the difference in effectiveness. Results: Among the 373 patients included, 279 were treated with rivaroxaban (63.1 ± 17.9 years old; 49% men) and 94 with VKAs (71.3 ± 16.6 years old; 46% men). The mean cost was EUR 5662 [95% CI 6606; 9060] for rivaroxaban and EUR 7721 [95% CI 5130; 6304] for VKAs, while effectiveness was 0.0586 95% CI [0.0114; 0.126] for DOACs and 0.0638 [95% CI 0.0208; 0.109] for VKAs. The rivaroxaban treatment strategy was dominant with costs per patient EUR 2059 lower [95% CI −3582; −817] and a higher effectiveness of 0.00527 [95% CI −0.0606; 0.0761] compared to VKAs. Conclusions: This study provides real-world evidence that rivaroxaban is not only an efficient and safe alternative to VKAs for eligible VTE patients, but also cost-saving. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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12 pages, 327 KiB  
Article
Coping with Symptoms of Mental Health Disorders among University Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Relation to Their Lifestyle Habits
by Tamara Jovanović and Aleksandar Višnjić
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010180 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The time of the pandemic brought great difficulties, both in state and interstate systems, industry, trade, and with individuals themselves. In addition, numerous studies have shown a drastic increase in mental disorders in people around the world. Therefore, the [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The time of the pandemic brought great difficulties, both in state and interstate systems, industry, trade, and with individuals themselves. In addition, numerous studies have shown a drastic increase in mental disorders in people around the world. Therefore, the basic idea of our study was to investigate these disorders in university students in relation to their different lifestyles. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out at the University of Niš (Serbia) from December 2021 to February 2022. All of the participants were assessed by using appropriate questionnaires. The study included 1400 randomly selected students (692 females and 708 males). The statistical analysis of the data included the application of multiple regression analyses and correlation tests. Results: Statistical analysis indicates that extremely severe levels of depression symptoms were reported by 232 students (16.6%). Severe and extremely severe anxiety symptoms were reported by 480 students (34.3%). Multiple linear regression analysis found that for the increased depressive symptoms, the “most deserving” parameters were related to the consumption of alcoholic beverages and psychoactive substances (β = 0.10, and 0.11, respectively), compared to the period before the COVID-19 pandemic. For anxiety symptoms, the main role was played by alcohol consumption (β = 0.11) but also by the use of social networks as an adequate substitute for deprived content during the pandemic (β = 0.13). Alcohol consumption was the most “responsible” for elevated stress levels compared to the period before the pandemic (β = 0.19). Conclusions: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress were drastically increased in the university students. There was significantly more frequent consumption of alcoholic beverages and psychoactive substances among them. That is why social support from a close environment is the most important strategy in coping with mental health issues during emergency situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Burden of COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health)
13 pages, 981 KiB  
Article
Relation of Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Factors and Childhood Asthma: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Pre-School Children Aged 2–5 Years Old
by Dimitrios Papandreou, Eleni Pavlidou, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Maria Mantzorou, Eleni Andreou, Evmorfia Psara, Georgios Antasouras, Georgios K. Vasios, Efthymios Poulios and Constantinos Giaginis
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010179 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Asthma constitutes a constant, prolonged, inflammation-related pulmonary disorder in childhood with serious public health concerns. Several maternal risk factors can enhance the prevalence of its development in this stage of life; however, the currently available data remain contradictory and/or [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Asthma constitutes a constant, prolonged, inflammation-related pulmonary disorder in childhood with serious public health concerns. Several maternal risk factors can enhance the prevalence of its development in this stage of life; however, the currently available data remain contradictory and/or inconsistent. We aim to evaluate the potential impacts of mothers’ sociodemographic, anthropometric and prenatal and perinatal factors on the prevalence of developing asthma in pre-school children. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional survey, which includes 5133 women and their matched pre-school children. Childhood asthma was diagnosed using validated questionnaires. Statistical analysis was accomplished to evaluate whether maternal sociodemographic, anthropometric and prenatal and perinatal factors can increase the probability of childhood asthma in pre-school age. Results: A prevalence of 4.5% of childhood asthma was recorded in pre-school age. Maternal age and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity, caesarean section, gestational diabetes and hypertension and not breastfeeding were associated with childhood asthma after adjustment for multiple confounding factors. Conclusion: Our research showed that several maternal factors increase the prevalence of childhood asthma in pre-school age. Suitable and effective health policies and strategies should be taken into account to confront the predominant maternal factors that increase its prevalence in pre-school age. Full article
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15 pages, 3094 KiB  
Article
A Nonrandomized Phase 2 Trial of EG-Mirotin, a Novel, First-in-Class, Subcutaneously Deliverable Peptide Drug for Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy
by Seunghoon Yoo, Dae Hyuk You, Jeongyoon Lee, H. Christian Hong and Sung Jin Lee
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010178 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2039
Abstract
Background and objectives: EG-Mirotin (active ingredient EGT022) targets nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), the early stage of retinopathy. EG-Mirotin reverses capillary damage before NPDR progresses to an irreversible stage. EG-Mirotin safety and efficacy were investigated in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: EG-Mirotin (active ingredient EGT022) targets nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), the early stage of retinopathy. EG-Mirotin reverses capillary damage before NPDR progresses to an irreversible stage. EG-Mirotin safety and efficacy were investigated in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus and moderate to severe NPDR. Methods: In this open-label, single-arm, single-center, exploratory phase II study, 10 patients (20 eyes) received EG-Mirotin once a day (3 mg/1.5 mL sterile saline) for 5 days and were evaluated for ischemic index changes and safety. End of study was approximately 8 ± 1 weeks (57 ± 7 days) after the first drug administration. Results: EG-Mirotin injections were well tolerated, with no dose-limiting adverse events, serious adverse events, or deaths. Four treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) unrelated to the investigational drug were observed in 2 out of 10 participants (20%) who had received the investigational drug. The overall average percent change in ischemic index at each evaluation point compared with baseline was statistically significant (Greenhouse–Geisser F = 9.456, p = 0.004 for the main effect of time), and a larger change was observed when the baseline ischemic index value was high (Greenhouse–Geisser F = 10.946, p = 0.002 for time × group interaction). Conclusions: The EG-Mirotin regimen established in this study was shown to be feasible and safe and was associated with a trend toward potential improvement in diabetes-induced ischemia and retinal capillary leakage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology)
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18 pages, 3480 KiB  
Systematic Review
Auricular Acupressure for Dry Eye Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
by Qiong Huang, Mengqi Zhan and Zhe Hu
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010177 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2317
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the current evidence to examine the safety and effectiveness of auricular acupressure on dry eye diseases. Materials and Methods: Twenty databases were searched from their inception until November 2022. [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the current evidence to examine the safety and effectiveness of auricular acupressure on dry eye diseases. Materials and Methods: Twenty databases were searched from their inception until November 2022. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which auricular acupressure was used for dry eye diseases were included. The selection process, data extraction and quantitative were conducted according to the guidelines. Results: Seven RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed that compared to artificial tears, auricular acupressure had a favorable effect on prolonging tear breakup time (TBUT), improving the Schirmer I test (SIT) score and the score of symptoms (SOS) of patients with dry eye disease (p < 0.05). Furthermore, compared to the artificial tears alone, auricular acupressure plus artificial tears had a significantly greater SIT score (p < 0.001) and response rate (p = 0.006), significantly longer TBUT (p < 0.001), and significantly lower Ocular surface disease index (OSDI) (p = 0.02) and SOS (p = 0.03). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the auricular acupressure plus artificial tears group and the artificial tears group in terms of cornea fluorescein staining (CFS) (p = 0.09). Conclusions: Auricular acupressure, as a sole intervention or in combination with artificial tears, may have a beneficial effect on dry eye disease. However, more high-quality RCTs need to be included in the future to further prove the positive effects of auricular acupressure on patients with dry eye disease. Full article
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8 pages, 4972 KiB  
Case Report
Bone Regenerative Potential of Cross-Linked Collagen Membrane in Peri-Implant Osseous Defect: Case Series with Histologic/Micro-Computed Tomographic Findings
by Won-Bae Park, Gazelle Jean Crasto, Ji-Young Han, Philip Kang and Hyun-Chang Lim
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010176 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1698
Abstract
The role of a barrier membrane is crucial in guided bone regeneration (GBR) for space creation and cell occlusiveness. Those properties of the membrane should be sustained for a sufficient period. For such purpose, several cross-linked collagen membranes were introduced and demonstrated favorable [...] Read more.
The role of a barrier membrane is crucial in guided bone regeneration (GBR) for space creation and cell occlusiveness. Those properties of the membrane should be sustained for a sufficient period. For such purpose, several cross-linked collagen membranes were introduced and demonstrated favorable clinical outcomes. However, histologic data were not sufficient to support the effect of cross-linked collagen membranes. In the present case series, healing after GBR using a cross-linked collagen membrane was investigated in-depth via histologic and micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) analyses. 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide cross-linked collagen membrane was used in GBR for treating various peri-implant bone defects in seven patients. After 4–7 months of healing, newly formed tissue of hard consistency was observed over the implant platform. This tissue was carefully harvested and assessed. In micro-CT and histological analyses, evident new bone formation was revealed, especially in the vicinity of the collagen membrane. Moreover, it was histologically found that some newly formed bone was in intimate contact with the membrane. Although the exact mechanism of bone regeneration in the present cases was not clearly elucidated, the cross-linked collagen membrane appeared to contribute to ossification in GBR. Further studies are needed to confirm the findings of the present case series. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Periodontics and Dental Implantology)
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10 pages, 815 KiB  
Article
The Association between Burnout, Social Support, and Psychological Capital among Primary Care Providers in Togo: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Solim Essomandan Clémence Bafei, Jiaping Chen, Yinan Qian, Lei Yuan, Yimin Zhou, Muhammed Lamin Sambou, Anita Nyarkoa Walker, Wei Li and Sijun Liu
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010175 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2044
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Job burnout is prevalent among primary care providers (PCPs) in different countries, and the factors that can alleviate burnout in these countries have been explored. However, no study has addressed the prevalence and the correlates of job burnout among [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Job burnout is prevalent among primary care providers (PCPs) in different countries, and the factors that can alleviate burnout in these countries have been explored. However, no study has addressed the prevalence and the correlates of job burnout among Togolese PCPs. Therefore, we aimed to examine the prevalence of burnout and its association with social support and psychological capital among PCPs in Togo. Material and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in Togo from 5 to 17 November 2020 among 279 PCPs of 28 peripheral care units (PCUs). Participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Job Content Questionnaire, and Psychological Capital Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U test, Kruskal–Wallis H test, Pearson correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression. Results: We received 279 responses, out of which 37.28% experienced a high level of emotional exhaustion (EE), 13.62% had a high level of depersonalization (DP), and 19.71% experienced low levels of personal accomplishment (PA). EE had a significant negative correlation with the supervisor’s support. In contrast, self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience had a significant negative correlation with DP and a significant positive correlation with PA. Furthermore, supervisors’ support significantly predicted lower levels of EE. Optimism significantly predicted lower levels of DP and higher levels of PA. Conclusions: Burnout is common among Togolese PCPs, and self-efficacy, optimism, and supervisors’ support significantly contribute to low levels of job burnout among Togolese PCPs. This study provided insight into intervention programs to prevent burnout among PCPs in Togo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
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21 pages, 1986 KiB  
Review
Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P MRS) and Cardiovascular Disease: The Importance of Energy
by Vasiliki Tsampasian, Donnie Cameron, Rashed Sobhan, George Bazoukis and Vassilios S. Vassiliou
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010174 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2872
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The heart is the organ with the highest metabolic demand in the body, and it relies on high ATP turnover and efficient energy substrate utilisation in order to function normally. The derangement of myocardial energetics may lead to abnormalities [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The heart is the organ with the highest metabolic demand in the body, and it relies on high ATP turnover and efficient energy substrate utilisation in order to function normally. The derangement of myocardial energetics may lead to abnormalities in cardiac metabolism, which herald the symptoms of heart failure (HF). In addition, phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) is the only available non-invasive method that allows clinicians and researchers to evaluate the myocardial metabolic state in vivo. This review summarises the importance of myocardial energetics and provides a systematic review of all the available research studies utilising 31P MRS to evaluate patients with a range of cardiac pathologies. Materials and Methods: We have performed a systematic review of all available studies that used 31P MRS for the investigation of myocardial energetics in cardiovascular disease. Results: A systematic search of the Medline database, the Cochrane library, and Web of Science yielded 1092 results, out of which 62 studies were included in the systematic review. The 31P MRS has been used in numerous studies and has demonstrated that impaired myocardial energetics is often the beginning of pathological processes in several cardiac pathologies. Conclusions: The 31P MRS has become a valuable tool in the understanding of myocardial metabolic changes and their impact on the diagnosis, risk stratification, and prognosis of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Magnetic Resonance)
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13 pages, 1327 KiB  
Review
MicroRNAs: Small Molecules with Significant Functions, Particularly in the Context of Viral Hepatitis B and C Infection
by Fayed Megahed, Ashraf Tabll, Shimaa Atta, Ameera Ragheb, Robert Smolic, Ana Petrovic and Martina Smolic
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010173 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2603
Abstract
A MicroRNA (miRNA) is defined as a small molecule of non-coding RNA (ncRNA). Its molecular size is about 20 nucleotides (nt), and it acts on gene expression’s regulation at the post-transcription level through binding to the 3’untranslated regions (UTR), coding sequences, or 5’UTR [...] Read more.
A MicroRNA (miRNA) is defined as a small molecule of non-coding RNA (ncRNA). Its molecular size is about 20 nucleotides (nt), and it acts on gene expression’s regulation at the post-transcription level through binding to the 3’untranslated regions (UTR), coding sequences, or 5’UTR of the target messenger RNAs (mRNAs), which leads to the suppression or degradation of the mRNA. In recent years, a huge evolution has identified the origin and function of miRNAs, focusing on their important effects in research and clinical applications. For example, microRNAs are key players in HCV infection and have important host cellular factors required for HCV replication and cell growth. Altered expression of miRNAs affects the pathogenicity associated with HCV infection through regulating different signaling pathways that control HCV/immunity interactions, proliferation, and cell death. On the other hand, circulating miRNAs can be used as novel biomarkers and diagnostic tools for HCV pathogenesis and early therapeutic response. Moreover, microRNAs (miRNA) have been involved in hepatitis B virus (HBV) gene expression and advanced antiviral discovery. They regulate HBV/HCV replication and pathogenesis with different pathways involving facilitation, inhibition, activation of the immune system (innate and adaptive), and epigenetic modifications. In this short review, we will discuss how microRNAs can be used as prognostic, diagnostic, and therapeutic tools, especially for chronic hepatitis viruses (HBV and HCV), as well as how they could be used as new biomarkers during infection and advanced treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease)
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8 pages, 1413 KiB  
Article
Deep-Learning and Device-Assisted Enteroscopy: Automatic Panendoscopic Detection of Ulcers and Erosions
by Miguel Martins, Miguel Mascarenhas, João Afonso, Tiago Ribeiro, Pedro Cardoso, Francisco Mendes, Hélder Cardoso, Patrícia Andrade, João Ferreira and Guilherme Macedo
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010172 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE) has a significant role in approaching enteric lesions. Endoscopic observation of ulcers or erosions is frequent and can be associated with many nosological entities, namely Crohn’s disease. Although the application of artificial intelligence (AI) is growing [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Device-assisted enteroscopy (DAE) has a significant role in approaching enteric lesions. Endoscopic observation of ulcers or erosions is frequent and can be associated with many nosological entities, namely Crohn’s disease. Although the application of artificial intelligence (AI) is growing exponentially in various imaged-based gastroenterology procedures, there is still a lack of evidence of the AI technical feasibility and clinical applicability of DAE. This study aimed to develop and test a multi-brand convolutional neural network (CNN)-based algorithm for automatically detecting ulcers and erosions in DAE. Materials and Methods: A unicentric retrospective study was conducted for the development of a CNN, based on a total of 250 DAE exams. A total of 6772 images were used, of which 678 were considered ulcers or erosions after double-validation. Data were divided into a training and a validation set, the latter being used for the performance assessment of the model. Our primary outcome measures were sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and an area under the curve precision–recall curve (AUC-PR). Results: Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were respectively 88.5%, 99.7%, 96.4%, and 98.9%. The algorithm’s accuracy was 98.7%. The AUC-PR was 1.00. The CNN processed 293.6 frames per second, enabling AI live application in a real-life clinical setting in DAE. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study regarding the automatic multi-brand panendoscopic detection of ulcers and erosions throughout the digestive tract during DAE, overcoming a relevant interoperability challenge. Our results highlight that using a CNN to detect this type of lesion is associated with high overall accuracy. The development of binary CNN for automatically detecting clinically relevant endoscopic findings and assessing endoscopic inflammatory activity are relevant steps toward AI application in digestive endoscopy, particularly for panendoscopic evaluation. Full article
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11 pages, 2944 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients Based on Machine Learning Algorithms
by Ruoran Wang, Linrui Cai, Jing Zhang, Min He and Jianguo Xu
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010171 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2005
Abstract
Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) commonly develops in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and is a risk factor for poor prognosis. We designed this study to evaluate the performance of several machine learning algorithms for predicting ARDS in TBI patients. Methods [...] Read more.
Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) commonly develops in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and is a risk factor for poor prognosis. We designed this study to evaluate the performance of several machine learning algorithms for predicting ARDS in TBI patients. Methods: TBI patients from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care-III (MIMIC-III) database were eligible for this study. ARDS was identified according to the Berlin definition. Included TBI patients were divided into the training cohort and the validation cohort with a ratio of 7:3. Several machine learning algorithms were utilized to develop predictive models with five-fold cross validation for ARDS including extreme gradient boosting, light gradient boosting machine, Random Forest, adaptive boosting, complement naïve Bayes, and support vector machine. The performance of machine learning algorithms were evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and F score. Results: 649 TBI patients from the MIMIC-III database were included with an ARDS incidence of 49.5%. The random forest performed the best in predicting ARDS in the training cohort with an AUC of 1.000. The XGBoost and AdaBoost ranked the second and the third with an AUC of 0.989 and 0.815 in the training cohort. The random forest still performed the best in predicting ARDS in the validation cohort with an AUC of 0.652. AdaBoost and XGBoost ranked the second and the third with an AUC of 0.631 and 0.620 in the validation cohort. Several mutual top features in the random forest and AdaBoost were discovered including age, initial systolic blood pressure and heart rate, Abbreviated Injury Score chest, white blood cells, platelets, and international normalized ratio. Conclusions: The random forest and AdaBoost based models have stable and good performance for predicting ARDS in TBI patients. These models could help clinicians to evaluate the risk of ARDS in early stages after TBI and consequently adjust treatment decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Neurocritical Care)
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10 pages, 1122 KiB  
Article
The Risk of Endoscopy-Related Bleeding in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: A Retrospective Study
by Su Bee Park, Jung Won Jeon and Hyun Phil Shin
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010170 - 14 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1693
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The risk of bleeding after endoscopic procedures in patients with liver cirrhosis remains unclear because of secondary blood coagulation disorders. In this study, we used various indices to evaluate the risk of bleeding in patients with cirrhosis. Materials and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The risk of bleeding after endoscopic procedures in patients with liver cirrhosis remains unclear because of secondary blood coagulation disorders. In this study, we used various indices to evaluate the risk of bleeding in patients with cirrhosis. Materials and Methods: Patients with liver cirrhosis aged ≥18 years who underwent endoscopic interventions at Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong between February 2007 and September 2021 were included. Clinical information, including demographic data, laboratory results, the presence of cirrhosis complications, and the degree of fibrosis, was checked and evaluated based on medical records. Results: A total of 101 patients with cirrhosis were analyzed. A total of 16 of the 101 patients (15.8%) experienced bleeding after the endoscopic procedure. One patient (0.99%) presented with spurting, while the others presented with mild oozing. All patients underwent hemostatic procedures using hemoclips. The presence of a varix significantly increased post-endoscopic bleeding (p = 0.03). Patients with FIB > 3.25 showed a statistically significant bleeding tendency (p = 0.00). Conclusions: There was no significant difference in bleeding risk according to the platelet count, prothrombin time, Child–Pugh score, and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD). Considering the degree of liver fibrosis and the invasiveness of the planned procedure, most endoscopic procedures can be performed safely but should be further evaluated in a cohort with a larger sample size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatology)
5 pages, 1218 KiB  
Case Report
Cocaine Abuse as an Immunological Trigger in a Case Diagnosed with Eales Disease
by Ludovico Iannetti, Fabio Scarinci, Ludovico Alisi, Alessandro Beccia, Andrea Cacciamani, Maria Carmela Saturno and Magda Gharbiya
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010169 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1910
Abstract
Background: Eales disease is a clinical syndrome affecting the mid-peripheral retina with an idiopathic occlusive vasculitis and possible subsequent retinal neovascularization. The disease can develop into visually threatening complications. Case Presentation: We report the case of a 40-year-old Caucasian male with [...] Read more.
Background: Eales disease is a clinical syndrome affecting the mid-peripheral retina with an idiopathic occlusive vasculitis and possible subsequent retinal neovascularization. The disease can develop into visually threatening complications. Case Presentation: We report the case of a 40-year-old Caucasian male with a history of cocaine abuse who presented with blurred vision in the left eye (LE). Fundus examination showed vitreous hemorrhages, peripheral sheathing of venous blood vessels, areas of retinal neovascularization in the LE, and peripheral occlusive phlebitis in the right eye. The full serologic panel was negative except for the heterozygous mutation of factor V Leiden. Clinical and biochemical parameters suggested a diagnosis of Eales disease. Therapy with dexamethasone, 1 mg per kg per day, tapered down slowly over 4 months, and peripheral laser photocoagulation allowed a regression of clinical signs and symptoms. Conclusion: This case shows an uncommon presentation of Eales disease associated with cocaine abuse. Both cocaine abuse and a thrombophilic pattern, as cofactors, might have sensitized the retinal microcirculation on the pathogenetic route to this retinal pathology. Furthermore, in view of this hypothesis, a thorough ocular and general medical history investigating drug abuse and coagulation disorders is recommended for ophthalmologists in such cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Retinal Vascular Eye Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment)
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15 pages, 3550 KiB  
Article
Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Insertion Torque and Implant Stability of Two Different Implant Macrogeometries in the Initial Periods of Osseointegration
by Sergio Alexandre Gehrke, Guillermo Castro Cortellari, Gustavo Vicentis de Oliveira Fernandes, Antonio Scarano, Rafael Garcia Martins, Renata Moreira Cançado and Alfredo Mikail Melo Mesquita
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010168 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
Objectives: The present study compared two implants with different macrogeometries placed in healed alveolar sites, evaluating the insertion torque (ITV) and implant stability quotient (ISQ) values at three different periods. Methods: Seventy patients with a total of 100 dental implants were [...] Read more.
Objectives: The present study compared two implants with different macrogeometries placed in healed alveolar sites, evaluating the insertion torque (ITV) and implant stability quotient (ISQ) values at three different periods. Methods: Seventy patients with a total of 100 dental implants were allocated into two groups (n = 50 per group): DuoCone implants (DC group) that included 28 implants in the maxilla and 22 in the mandible, and Maestro implants (MAE group) that included 26 in the maxilla and 24 in the mandible. The ITV was measured during the implant placement, and the ISQ values were measured immediately at implant placement (baseline) and after 30 and 45 days. Results: The mean and standard deviations of the ITV were statistically significant (p < 0.0001), 56.4 ± 6.41 Ncm for the DC group and 29.3 ± 9.65 Ncm for the MAE group. In the DC group, the ISQs ranged between 61.1 ± 3.78 and 69.8 ± 3.86, while the MAE group presented similar values compared with the other group, ranging between 61.9 ± 3.92 and 72.1 ± 2.37. Conclusions: The value of implant insertion torque did not influence the ISQ values measured immediately after implant placement. However, the ITV influenced the ISQ values measured in the two initial periods of osseointegration, with implants installed with lower torques presenting higher ISQ values. Full article
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11 pages, 774 KiB  
Article
Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Level in Synovial Fluid—Association with Joint Destruction in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis
by Sonja K. Stojanovic, Bojana N. Stamenkovic, Jovana M. Cvetkovic, Valentina G. Zivkovic and Marija R. Andjelkovic Apostolovic
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010167 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1750
Abstract
Background and objective: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the key enzymes in the pathogenesis of cartilage and joint damage and potentially a new biomarker of the early erosive form of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Firstly, the study aimed to compare the level of MMP-9 [...] Read more.
Background and objective: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the key enzymes in the pathogenesis of cartilage and joint damage and potentially a new biomarker of the early erosive form of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Firstly, the study aimed to compare the level of MMP-9 in plasma (PL) and synovial fluid (SF) of patients with RA and osteoarthritis (OA). Secondly, the goal was to examine the association of MMP-9 level in PL and SF with early erosive changes in RA, and finally, to determine the association of MMP-9 level with serological parameters of the disease (rheumatoid factor-RF and anti-citrulline protein antibodies-ACPA). Materials and Methods: A total of 156 subjects were involved in this study (84 patients with RA and 72 patients with OA, who were involved as a control group). MMP-9 level was measured in PL and SF of all subjects by the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Standard radiographs of the hands and feet were used to detect joint damage and classification into erosive or non-erosive RA. The Larsen score (LS) was used for the quantitative assessment of joint damage, and its annual change (∆ LS) was used to assess the radiographic progression of the disease. Results: MMP-9 level in PL and SF was significantly higher in RA compared to controls (PL: 19.26 ± 7.54 vs. 14.57 ± 3.11 ng/mL, p< 0.01; SF: 16.17 ± 12.25 vs. 0.75 ± 0.53 ng/mL, p < 0.001) as well as in SF of patients with erosive compared to non-erosive RA (18.43 ± 12.87 vs. 9.36 ± 7.72; p < 0.05). Faster radiographic progression was recorded in erosive compared to non-erosive early RA (11.14 ± 4.75 vs. 6.13 ± 2.72; p < 0.01). MMP-9 level in SF, but not in PL, significantly correlates with the radiographic progression in both erosive and non-erosive RA (ρ = 0.38 and ρ = 0.27). We did not find a significant association between RF and MMP-9 level in early RA, but the ACPA level significantly correlates with MMP-9 level in SF (r = 0.48). Conclusion: The level of MMP-9 in plasma and synovial fluid of patients with RA is significantly higher compared to patients with osteoarthritis. The level of MMP-9 in synovial fluid is significantly higher in erosive than non-erosive early RA. It is significantly associated with the radiographic progression of the disease and the level of anti-citrulline protein antibodies. Full article
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9 pages, 523 KiB  
Article
Risk Factors for Anticancer Drug-Induced Hyponatremia: An Analysis Using the Japanese Adverse Drug Report (JADER) Database
by Naohisa Tamura, Tomoaki Ishida, Kei Kawada, Kohei Jobu, Shumpei Morisawa, Saburo Yoshioka and Mitsuhiko Miyamura
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010166 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2274
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Hyponatremia is among the most prevalent electrolyte abnormalities observed in patients with cancer during chemotherapy. Therefore, managing hyponatremia is crucial since it causes a severe electrolyte imbalance that can lead to significant mortality, and this study aimed to investigate the [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Hyponatremia is among the most prevalent electrolyte abnormalities observed in patients with cancer during chemotherapy. Therefore, managing hyponatremia is crucial since it causes a severe electrolyte imbalance that can lead to significant mortality, and this study aimed to investigate the relationship between hyponatremia, anticancer drugs, and cancer types. Materials and Methods: Reported odds ratios were calculated and evaluated based on adverse event reports submitted to the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database. Results: Overall, 2943 patients had hyponatremia. Notably, cisplatin, pemetrexed, and etoposide had marked hyponatremia signals. In addition, significant hyponatremia signals were detected for oesophageal, lung, and renal cancers. Conclusions: Hyponatremia has been reported in women and patients with lung cancer receiving cisplatin, with a growing trend in the number of elderly patients receiving cisplatin. Furthermore, since the onset of hyponatremia during cisplatin administration is frequently reported within 10 days, patient information should be thoroughly examined before and monitored throughout the administration, which can contribute to the early detection and prevention of hyponatremia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
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6 pages, 1848 KiB  
Communication
Increased Thromboxane A2 Levels in Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells Isolated from Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
by Abdullah A. Alqarni
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010165 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1499
Abstract
Introduction: Pulmonary hypertension due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is classified as Group 3 pulmonary hypertension, with no current proven targeted therapies. It has been shown that cigarette smoke, the main risk factor for COPD, can increase thromboxane A2 production in [...] Read more.
Introduction: Pulmonary hypertension due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is classified as Group 3 pulmonary hypertension, with no current proven targeted therapies. It has been shown that cigarette smoke, the main risk factor for COPD, can increase thromboxane A2 production in healthy human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and pulmonary artery endothelial cells, and that blocking the effect of increased thromboxane A2 using daltroban, a thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, can inhibit cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary artery cell proliferation. However, it is largely unknown whether thromboxane A2 is increased in smokers with COPD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the level of thromboxane A2 production in patients with COPD who smoke. Methods: Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from three smokers with COPD and three healthy donors were cultured in cell culture medium. The culture medium was collected and the thromboxane B2 (a stable metabolite of thromboxane A2) released in the culture medium was quantified using an ELISA kit. The data were normalised with the total protein concentration and then expressed in pg/mg protein. Demographic data were collected and baseline pulmonary function tests of patients with COPD were conducted. Results: The mean age of patients with COPD was 69 ± 7 years. All patients were smokers and had a mean smoking history of 39.66 ± 9.50 packs per year. The mean forced expiratory volume in one second, that is, FEV1%, and the ratio of forced vital capacity (FVC) to FEV1% of COPD patients were 63.33 ± 19.60% and 52.66 ± 14.64%, respectively. The results revealed that thromboxane A2 production was significantly increased in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from smokers with COPD (434.56 ± 82.88 pg/mg protein) compared with the thromboxane A2 levels in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from healthy donors (160 ± 59.3 pg/mg protein). Conclusions: This is the first report of increased thromboxane A2 production in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from smokers with COPD. This observation strongly suggests that thromboxane A2 can be used as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with COPD-associated pulmonary hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pulmonary)
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13 pages, 738 KiB  
Article
The GSTO2 (rs156697) Polymorphism Modifies Diabetic Nephropathy Risk
by Dragana Pavlovic, Sinisa Ristic, Ljubica Djukanovic, Marija Matic, Marijana Kovacevic, Marija Pljesa-Ercegovac, Jovan Hadzi-Djokic, Ana Savic-Radojevic and Tatjana Djukic
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010164 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1667
Abstract
Background and Objectives: In the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications, genetic and environmental factors play important roles. Diabetic nephropathy (DN), one of the major microangiopathic chronic diabetic complications, is associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: In the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications, genetic and environmental factors play important roles. Diabetic nephropathy (DN), one of the major microangiopathic chronic diabetic complications, is associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. The present study was designed to investigate the possible modifying effect of glutathione transferase polymorphisms (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 rs1138272/rs1695, GSTO1 rs4925 and GSTO2 rs156697) in the susceptibility to T2DM and diabetic nephropathy. Materials and Methods: GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms were determined by multiplex PCR, whereas GSTO1, GSTO2, and GSTP1 polymorphisms were determined by the real-time PCR in 160 T2DM patients and 248 age- and gender-matched controls. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were measured by ELISA. Results: Among six investigated GST polymorphisms, a significant association between the GST genotypes and susceptibility for development of diabetes mellitus was found for the GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 (rs1138272) and GSTO1 polymorphisms. When the GST genotypes’ distribution in diabetes patients was assessed in the subgroups with and without diabetic nephropathy, a significant association was found only for the GSTO2 rs156697 polymorphism. Diabetic patients, carriers of the GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null and variant GSTO1*AA genotypes, had significantly increased levels of AGEs in comparison with carriers of the GSTM1 active, GSTT1 active and referent GSTO1*CC genotypes (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions: The present study supports the hypothesis that GST polymorphisms modulate the risk of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy and influence the AGEs concentration, suggesting the potential regulatory role of these enzymes in redox homeostasis disturbances. Full article
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6 pages, 1610 KiB  
Case Report
Bilateral Thygeson’s Superficial Punctate Keratitis with Dendritic Corneal Lesion: A Case Report
by Woo Seok Choe and Tae Gi Kim
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010163 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 3304
Abstract
Thygeson’s superficial punctate keratitis (TSPK) is a recurrent bilateral corneal epithelial disease. Typically, small, multiple discrete epithelial lesions occur in the central cornea. However, dendritic corneal lesions are rare. Herein, we report a rare case of TSPK in both eyes after a unilateral [...] Read more.
Thygeson’s superficial punctate keratitis (TSPK) is a recurrent bilateral corneal epithelial disease. Typically, small, multiple discrete epithelial lesions occur in the central cornea. However, dendritic corneal lesions are rare. Herein, we report a rare case of TSPK in both eyes after a unilateral dendritic corneal lesion. A 42-year-old woman presented with decreased vision and foreign body sensation in her right eye that persisted for 1 month. Her uncorrected visual acuity and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were 20/160 in the right eye. Slit-lamp microscopy revealed a dendritic lesion in the central cornea of the right eye. No abnormalities were observed in her left eye. Herpetic keratitis in the right eye was diagnosed and systemic acyclovir was prescribed, along with topical acyclovir ointment and steroids. After one week, most of the corneal lesions had disappeared, and the BCVA in the right eye had improved to 20/25. The corneal epithelium completely recovered after 2 weeks. However, 2 weeks later, the patient visited the hospital with decreased visual acuity in the right eye, and the BCVA decreased to 20/40. Multiple fine corneal lesions were observed under a slit-lamp microscope. The patient was diagnosed with TSPK of the right eye. Topical steroids were started, and after 7 days, the corneal condition improved. However, after 6 weeks, visual acuity decreased in the left eye, and a corneal lesion similar to that in the right eye was observed; therefore, the patient was diagnosed with bilateral TSPK. Short-term topical steroids and long-term topical cyclosporine A 0.1% were used in both eyes, and the disease was maintained without recurrence for 3 months. TSPK can appear as a unilateral dendritic corneal lesion similar to herpetic keratitis. Therefore, in case of unilateral dendritic corneal lesions, it should be considered that TSPK may develop later. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ophthalmology)
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6 pages, 1906 KiB  
Case Report
Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty Utilizing Threaded Pins in Cement for Tibial Bone Loss
by Max Jiganti and Nicholas Tedesco
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010162 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2154
Abstract
Introduction: a primary goal in revision total knee arthroplasty is to recreate and restore near-normal knee biomechanics by reapproximating the native anatomy. Tibial bone loss poses a challenge for surgeons. Bone cement, bone allograft, screws-in-cement, metaphyseal sleeves or cones, and metallic augments [...] Read more.
Introduction: a primary goal in revision total knee arthroplasty is to recreate and restore near-normal knee biomechanics by reapproximating the native anatomy. Tibial bone loss poses a challenge for surgeons. Bone cement, bone allograft, screws-in-cement, metaphyseal sleeves or cones, and metallic augments are some options for addressing bony deficiency, with endoprosthetic proximal tibia replacement a consideration for the most severe cases. Case Description: we present a case for the novel use of threaded Steinmann pins augmented with cement to reconstruct a massive tibial metaphyseal cortical defect during revision knee arthroplasty. A 76-year-old male presented with an infected primary total knee arthroplasty using MSIS (Musculoskeletal Infection Society) criteria and underwent a standard two-stage revision total knee arthroplasty once the knee was confirmed sterile. Intraoperatively, significant posteromedial and metaphyseal tibial bone loss was identified. In order to avoid proximal tibial replacement and the extensor mechanism complications seen with these, coupled with obligate gastrocnemius flap, a metaphyseal cone was utilized in the proximal tibia with four vertical threaded Steinmann pins spaced approximately 1 cm apart at its periphery, subsequently cut flush with the level of the cone after cementation to recreate the tibial cortex. The patient’s function and range of motion continue to improve with no evidence of structural complication at 2.5 years of follow-up. Discussion: the implementation of threaded Steinmann pins was utilized in this case to stabilize a cemented metaphyseal cone in the revision of an infected total knee with significant tibial bone loss. The threaded property may help prevent migration of these pins in comparison to smooth pins. Creation of a stable platform in a revision total knee arthroplasty poses a substantial challenge in the context of significant bone loss, and our case depicts a good short-term outcome and another option for surgeons to consider before moving toward endoprostheses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Developments in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Technology)
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7 pages, 284 KiB  
Article
Negative Outcome of Temporalis Fascia Graft in Tympanoplasty with Excessive Bleeding: A Retrospective Study
by Andrea Lovato, Antonio Frisina, Andrea Frosolini, Daniele Monzani and Roberto Saetti
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010161 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1366
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Non-autologous graft materials hold promise for tympanic membrane (TM) perforation closure. In the present manuscript, we aimed to evaluate the influence of clinical and surgical (i.e., graft materials) characteristics on tympanoplasty outcome in chronic otitis media (COM). Materials and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Non-autologous graft materials hold promise for tympanic membrane (TM) perforation closure. In the present manuscript, we aimed to evaluate the influence of clinical and surgical (i.e., graft materials) characteristics on tympanoplasty outcome in chronic otitis media (COM). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical and surgical characteristics of COM patients with TM perforation treated with tympanoplasty and mastoidectomy. Univariate and multivariate appropriate tests were applied. Results: We used xenograft (porcine submucosal collagen) in 163 patients, and temporalis fascia in 210. The mean follow-up time was 37.2 months. Postoperative TM perforation (i.e., negative outcome) was detected in 11.6% of cases with xenograft, and in 12.8% with temporalis fascia. Performing uni- and multivariate analysis, we determined that large (three or all quadrants) TM perforation (p = 0.04) and moderate-to-severe intraoperative bleeding (p = 0.03) were independent prognostic factors of negative outcome. Considering the 197 patients with moderate-to-severe intraoperative bleeding, we disclosed that the use of temporalis fascia (p = 0.03) was an independent risk factor of postoperative TM perforation. Conclusions: According to our results, large TM perforation and moderate-to-severe intraoperative bleeding were independent prognostic factors of negative outcome in adult COM patients treated with tympanoplasty. In the sub-group of COM patients with excessive intraoperative bleeding, use of temporalis fascia was associated with negative outcome; these patients could benefit from xenograft materials. These findings should be tested in large randomized clinical trials. Full article
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Article
Safety and Efficacy of the Transaxillary Access for Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Surgery
by Manuel Wilbring, Konstantin Alexiou, Torsten Schmidt, Asen Petrov, Ali Taghizadeh-Waghefi, Efstratios Charitos, Klaus Matschke, Sebastian Arzt and Utz Kappert
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010160 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1605
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Transaxillary access is one of the latest innovations for minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MICS-AVR). This study compares clinical performance in a large transaxillary MICS-AVR group to a propensity-matched sternotomy control group. Materials and Methods: This study enrolled [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Transaxillary access is one of the latest innovations for minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MICS-AVR). This study compares clinical performance in a large transaxillary MICS-AVR group to a propensity-matched sternotomy control group. Materials and Methods: This study enrolled 908 patients undergoing isolated AVR with a mean age of 69.4 ± 18.0 years, logistic EuroSCORE of 4.0 ± 3.9%, and body mass index (BMI) of 27.3 ± 6.1 kg/m2. The treatment group comprised 454 consecutive transaxillary MICS-AVR patients. The control group was 1:1 propensity-matched out of 3115 consecutive sternotomy aortic valve surgeries. Endocarditis, redo, and combined procedures were excluded. The multivariate matching model included age, left ventricular ejection fraction, logistic EuroSCORE, pulmonary hypertension, coronary artery disease, chronic lung disease, and BMI. Results: Propensity-matching was successful with subsequent comparable clinical baselines in both groups. MICS-AVR had longer skin-to-skin time (120.0 ± 31.5 min vs. 114.2 ± 28.7 min; p < 0.001) and more frequent bleeding requiring chest reopening (5.0% vs. 2.4%; p < 0.010), but significantly less packed red blood cell transfusions (0.57 ± 1.6 vs. 0.82 ± 1.6; p = 0.040). In addition, MICS-AVR patients had fewer access site wound abnormalities (1.5% vs. 3.7%; p = 0.038), shorter intensive care unit stays (p < 0.001), shorter ventilation times (p < 0.001), and shorter hospital stays (7.0 ± 5.1 days vs. 11.1 ± 6.5; p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in stroke > Rankin 2 (0.9% vs. 1.1%; p = 0.791), renal replacement therapy (1.5% vs. 2.4%; p = 0.4762), and hospital mortality (0.9% vs. 1.5%; p = 0.546). Conclusions: Transaxillary MICS-AVR is at least as safe as AVR by sternotomy and can be performed in the same time frame. Its advantages are fewer transfusions and quicker postoperative recovery with a significantly shorter hospital stay. The cosmetic result and unrestricted physical abilities due to the untouched sternum and ribs are unique advantages of transaxillary access. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery)
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10 pages, 9744 KiB  
Case Report
A Rare Case of Primary Purulent Pericarditis Caused by Streptococcus constellatus
by Medeinė Kapačinskaitė, Dovilė Gabartaitė, Agnė Šatrauskienė, Ieva Sakaitė, Vytė Valerija Maneikienė, Aleksejus Zorinas and Vilius Janušauskas
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010159 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1790
Abstract
Background: Bacteria-caused acute pericarditis is a very rare entity. It is usually associated with an underlying infection or compromised immune system. Primary purulent pericarditis in a previously healthy individual is highly unexpected; therefore, it is likely to have a delayed diagnosis and [...] Read more.
Background: Bacteria-caused acute pericarditis is a very rare entity. It is usually associated with an underlying infection or compromised immune system. Primary purulent pericarditis in a previously healthy individual is highly unexpected; therefore, it is likely to have a delayed diagnosis and poor outcomes. Case: We report a case of an adult immunocompetent patient with primary bacterial pericarditis caused by a member of the commensal oral flora Streptococcus constellatus. The patient presented with septic shock and cardiac tamponade, and was further complicated with constrictive pericarditis, which was successfully treated with pericardiectomy. Conclusions: Bacterial pericarditis is a fulminant disease with a high mortality and complication rate. Fast recognition and prompt therapy are required to achieve a full recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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10 pages, 1216 KiB  
Article
Prognostic Implication of Small Dense LDL-Cholesterol Levels following Acute Coronary Syndrome
by Teruhiko Imamura, Masakazu Hori, Nikhil Narang, Hiroshi Ueno and Koichiro Kinugawa
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010158 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1872
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Small dense LDL cholesterol is a strong risk factor for atherosclerosis. However, few studies have investigated the impacts of this specific lipid profile on the incident risk of adverse cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Materials and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Small dense LDL cholesterol is a strong risk factor for atherosclerosis. However, few studies have investigated the impacts of this specific lipid profile on the incident risk of adverse cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Materials and Methods: Patients with acute coronary syndrome, who underwent revascularization, were included and followed for 2 years. The levels of small dense LDL cholesterol were measured at index discharge (day 0) in the setting of newly administered therapies for secondary prevention, including aspirin and statins, during the index hospitalization. The prognostic impact of small dense LDL-cholesterol levels on the risk of a primary composite endpoint, including cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, stroke, and heart failure, was investigated. Results: In total, 46 patients (median 75 (59, 83) years old, 63% men) were included. Median small dense LDL cholesterol was 19.4 (13.5, 23.8) mg/dL at index discharge. All patients initiated statin treatment before the index discharge, with a median LDL-cholesterol level of 77 (64, 109) mg/dL. Small dense LDL-cholesterol level was independently associated with an incremental risk for the primary endpoint (p < 0.05 by adjusting for several potential risk factors, including LDL cholesterol) with a cutoff of 32.6 mg/dL. Conclusions: Small dense LDL-cholesterol level was a significant risk factor for cardiovascular events following presentations of acute coronary syndrome. Full article
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8 pages, 2197 KiB  
Case Report
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Developed Shortly after mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature
by Luigi Cavanna, Sergio Ottavio Grassi, Livia Ruffini, Emanuele Michieletti, Egidio Carella, Dante Palli, Adriano Zangrandi, Nicola Inzerilli, Patrizia Bernuzzi, Camilla Di Nunzio and Chiara Citterio
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010157 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 27024
Abstract
We report on a 66-year-old man who presented with a right axillary lymphadenopathy approximately 10 days after receiving the third dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. The lymphadenopathy gradually enlarged, and physical examination and ultrasound (US) revealed one right axillary 6.99 cm and one [...] Read more.
We report on a 66-year-old man who presented with a right axillary lymphadenopathy approximately 10 days after receiving the third dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. The lymphadenopathy gradually enlarged, and physical examination and ultrasound (US) revealed one right axillary 6.99 cm and one right supraclavicular 2.36 cm lymphadenopathy. Histologic examination of the right axillary nodule revealed anaplastic large-cell lymphoma that was ALK negative and CD30 positive. A total body computerized tomography (CT) scan, positron emission tomography (PET) and bone-marrow biopsy showed a stage-II non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The patient was treated with chemotherapy and a scheme of Brentuximab Vedotin, Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin and Prednisone (BV-CHP) for six cycles and is now well and in complete remission. The revision of the literature revealed eight additional cases of NHL developed shortly after COVID-vaccination. There were four cases of diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (one in a patient who was a heart transplant recipient and developed an Epstein–Bar-virus-positive DLBCL), one case of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, one patient with subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma, one case of marginal zone B-cell lymphoma and one primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (PC-ALCL). In five cases, the lymphoma developed after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination, including one case after ChAdOx1 nCOV-19, one case after the adenovirus type 26 (Ad26) vaccine and one after mRNA-1273/Spikevax (ModernaTX). We are aware that the link between COVID-19 vaccination and lymphoma most likely is a chance phenomenon, and that COVID-19 vaccines represent very efficient products for many people around the world. However, we believe that clinical events, even if only temporally associated with novel treatments or novel vaccines, should be reported for the benefit of the patients and the scientific community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
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13 pages, 2777 KiB  
Case Report
A Surgical Challenge Generated by Colonic Malakoplakia in Disguise as a Locally Advanced Colonic Malignancy—A Case Report
by Cristina Șerban, Alexandra Toma, Dragoș Cristian Voicu, Constantin Popazu, Dorel Firescu, George Țocu, Raul Mihailov and Laura Rebegea
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010156 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1466
Abstract
Colonic malakoplakia is an uncommon granulomatous development of cells resulting from the impaired capacity of the mononuclear cells to eliminate the phagocytosed bacteria, and in rare cases it can also affect the gastrointestinal tract. We report the case of a 78-year-old female patient [...] Read more.
Colonic malakoplakia is an uncommon granulomatous development of cells resulting from the impaired capacity of the mononuclear cells to eliminate the phagocytosed bacteria, and in rare cases it can also affect the gastrointestinal tract. We report the case of a 78-year-old female patient that was admitted to hospital by The Emergency Department with the diagnosis of bowel obstruction, confirmed by the clinical and paraclinical investigations. We decided to surgically manage the case for suspicious symptomatic colonic neoplasm. The histological examination of the surgical specimens revealed colonic malakoplakia, characterized by the presence of the aggregated granular histiocytes and Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Through this paper, we want to raise awareness for Malakoplakia, which remains an extremely rare disease that may affect multiple organs, and because it does not present specific symptoms or clinical manifestations, the final diagnosis remains the histopathological study. The clinical conduct should be decided after taking into consideration all the aspects of this pathology along with the benefits and risks for the patient. Full article
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9 pages, 1932 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study on the Clinical Efficacy of Simple Transobturator Midurethal Sling and Posterior Pelvic Floor Reconstruction
by Daoming Tian, Zhenhua Gao, Hang Zhou, Han Lin, Xingqi Wang, Ling Li, Xunguo Yang, Yubin Wen, Quan Zhang and Jihong Shen
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010155 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3152
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the complications, success rate and satisfaction of pelvic floor reconstruction after transobturator midurethral sling (TOT) and TOT combined with pelvic floor reconstruction in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. To explore [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the complications, success rate and satisfaction of pelvic floor reconstruction after transobturator midurethral sling (TOT) and TOT combined with pelvic floor reconstruction in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. To explore the pathogenesis of stress urinary incontinence after pelvic floor stress injury and improve the surgical treatment strategy. Materials and Methods: From 15 August 2018 to 24 February 2022, patients diagnosed with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and secondary prolapse of the anterior pelvis were selected to receive surgically. Participants were followed up and evaluated at 2 months, 6 months and 1 year after treatment. According to the patient’s chief complaint, the patient can urinate automatically without incontinence. The number of urinary incontinence and urine leakage was significantly reduced compared with those before operation. Urinary incontinence symptoms did not improve or worsen as ineffective, observing the efficacy and complications. Results: We included 191 patients in the TOT group and 151 patients in the pelvic floor reconstruction group after TOT was combined. The operation time and hospital stay in the TOT group were short, but the TOT group needed a second operation to treat recurrent SUI. Perioperative complications were mostly dysuria, and the incidence of postoperative complications in the group of TOT combined with pelvic floor reconstruction was low. The complete success rate and effective rate of pelvic floor reconstruction after TOT in the merger group were significantly higher than those in the TOT group, and the patient satisfaction and complete success rate were also higher. Conclusions: TOT combined with posterior pelvic floor reconstruction has a definite short-term effect on patients with SUI and anterior pelvic secondary prolapse. The operation design should pay attention to the support of the posterior wall of the perineum to the bladder neck and the middle and proximal end of the urethra. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Female Pelvic Floor Dysfunctions Management)
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9 pages, 7010 KiB  
Case Report
Asymptomatic Esophageal Necrosis in a Patient with Recent COVID-19: The First Case Diagnosed through Autopsy
by Ionuț Isaia Jeican, Patricia Inișca, Bogdan Alexandru Gheban, Vlad Anton, Costel Vasile Siserman, Codrin Rebeleanu, Maria Aluaș, Carmen Bianca Crivii, Silviu Albu and Veronica Trombitaș
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010154 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1968
Abstract
Acute esophageal necrosis is a rare condition, characterized by a distinctive endoscopic/necropsic image–circumferential black area of the esophagus. This paper presents a case of a 78-year-old patient with recent history of a severe form of COVID-19 (2 months previously), with multiple comorbidities, which [...] Read more.
Acute esophageal necrosis is a rare condition, characterized by a distinctive endoscopic/necropsic image–circumferential black area of the esophagus. This paper presents a case of a 78-year-old patient with recent history of a severe form of COVID-19 (2 months previously), with multiple comorbidities, which presents sudden death in hospital. Anatomic-pathological autopsy showed extensive esophageal necrosis, pulmonary thromboses, and coronarian and aortic atherosclerosis. The histopathological examination revealed necrosis of the esophageal mucosa and phlegmonous inflammation extended to the mediastinum, chronic pneumonia with pulmonary fibrosis, viral myocarditis, papillary muscle necrosis, and pericoronary neuritis. Thromboses and necroses were identified also in the liver, pancreas, and adrenal glands. Post-COVID-19 thromboses can manifest late, affecting various vascular territories, including esophageal ones. Their clinical picture may be diminished or absent in elderly and/or diabetic patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
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