Advances in Research on Oral and Periodontal Surgery, Biomaterials, and Oral Disease Management

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144). This special issue belongs to the section "Dentistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 24854

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Interests: periodontal surgery; guided tissue regeneration; implant surgery; guided bone regeneration; maxillary sinus augmentation; periodontal risk assessment; epidemiology; periodontal maintenance

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Guest Editor
Missouri School of Dentistry & Oral Health, A. T. Still University, 1500 Park Ave., St. Louis, MO 63104, USA
Interests: bone grafting and biology; tissue repair; material testing; gingival recession; image analysis (histomorphometry and stereology); stem cell research; laser treatment; blood concentrates; dental implants; oral rehabilitation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The practical, contemporary, and evidence-based therapy/surgical approaches for treating periodontal and peri-implant tissues, including advanced forms of periodontal and peri-implant diseases and reconstructions, gingival recession, and complex cases requiring interdisciplinary management, are the most critical topic in this field. The research in this field focuses on the key points in periodontal therapy, i.e., diagnosis and prognosis, and presenting decision trees that can be useful in daily practice.

Articles on resective and/or regenerative techniques for the treatment of periodontitis/peri-implantitis and mucogingival surgical procedures for the management of soft tissue deficiencies will be considered for this Special Issue, which should describe and illustrate, in detail, cases that highlight important tips and tricks as well as potential difficulties and complications. Interdisciplinary care will be considered, which is of key importance when periodontal treatment is needed in cases requiring orthodontic, endodontic, oral rehabilitation, and restorative therapy. Advances in periodontal treatment and surgery are of value for practitioners at all levels of experience, as well as for students entering the field.

This Special Issue covers a large research field in periodontology, with a specific focus on research involving oral and periodontal surgery, biomaterials, and the management of oral disease, exposing diagnosis, treatment planning, and outcomes. Thus, clinical papers (RCT, CCT, case series, and case reports), systematic/narrative reviews, technical notes, and possible preclinical studies are all welcome.

Dr. Muhammad Saleh
Dr. Gustavo Fernandes
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • periodontal surgery
  • dental implant surgery
  • guided bone regeneration
  • oral diseases
  • mucogingival surgery

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 1127 KiB  
Article
Gingival Manifestations in Oral Chronic Autoimmune Bullous Diseases: A Retrospective Study
by Ioanina Parlatescu, Serban Tovaru, Cristina Tofan, Paula Perlea, Elena Milanesi, Maria Dobre and Laurenta Lelia Mihai
Medicina 2024, 60(1), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60010167 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 857
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Desquamative gingivitis (DG) is a clinical term indicating “peeling gums” and is associated with different oral manifestations. In this study, we aimed to assess the association between DG and autoimmune blistering mucocutaneous diseases (ABMD) with oral manifestations. Materials and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Desquamative gingivitis (DG) is a clinical term indicating “peeling gums” and is associated with different oral manifestations. In this study, we aimed to assess the association between DG and autoimmune blistering mucocutaneous diseases (ABMD) with oral manifestations. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study including 88 patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2019 with ABMD (intraepithelial and subepithelial autoimmune blistering diseases) was performed at the Oral Medicine Department, Faculty of Dentistry, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Bucharest. For each patient, the sociodemographic and anamnestic data, as well as clinical features of oral lesions (location), histological evaluation, and direct immunofluorescence data were collected. Results: Most of the patients involved in the study were female (78.4%). In total, 34 patients (38.63%) were diagnosed with subepithelial autoimmune diseases (SAD) and 54 (61.36%) had intraepithelial autoimmune diseases (IAD). Differences in the anatomic distribution of oral involvement were found between SAD and IAD. The presence of DG was significantly more common in patients with SAD compared to those with a diagnosis of IAD. Conclusions: Specific anatomical locations of the oral lesions are significantly associated with different subtypes of ABMD, with gingiva and hard palate mucosa being more involved in SAD and the soft palate and buccal mucosa in IAD. Desquamative gingivitis is a clinical sign that raises diagnostic challenges for several conditions in oral medicine. Full article
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10 pages, 5338 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Antifungal Effect of Rhus verniciflua Stokes Extract for Oral Application Potential
by Yu-Rin Kim, Gyoo-Cheon Kim and Seoul-Hee Nam
Medicina 2023, 59(9), 1642; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59091642 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 904
Abstract
Background and Objectives: This study confirms the possibility of using Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) extract as a natural treatment for oral candidiasis. Materials and Methods: RVS was extracted with 70% ethanol to examine the antioxidant activity through polyphenol, flavonoid content, and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This study confirms the possibility of using Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) extract as a natural treatment for oral candidiasis. Materials and Methods: RVS was extracted with 70% ethanol to examine the antioxidant activity through polyphenol, flavonoid content, and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl). To evaluate the antifungal effect against Candida albicans (C. albicans; KCTC 7965/ATCC 10231) and evaluate the stability of RVS, a water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assay was performed in human keratinocytes (HaCaT). Results: The findings revealed that RVS extract has fairly high antioxidant activity. The clear zones of the RVS extract against C. albicans increased in diameter due to the inhibition of fungal growth at higher concentrations. Treatment with the 1.25 mg/mL RVS extract had a more than 99% antifungal effect against C. albicans, and the 20 mg/mL RVS extract had a 100% antifungal effect. The WST-1 assay showed that the RVS extract induced low cell viability in the HaCaT cells, which inhibited their proliferation, and the RVS extract is also toxic to normal cells. Conclusions: Although the RVS extract with high antioxidant activity showed clear antifungal activity against C. albicans, it exhibited a low survival rate. Therefore, the development of a safe natural antibiotic is necessary. Full article
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10 pages, 1505 KiB  
Article
Alveolar Ridge Augmentation Assessment Using a Minimalistic Approach, with and without Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT)—A Comparative Clinical Trial
by K. Padmanabhan Akhil, Rashmi Pramashivaiah, Munivenkatappa Laxmaiah Venkatesh Prabhuji, Robina Tasleem, Hussain Almubarak, Ghadah Khaled Bahamdan, Alexander Maniangat Luke, Krishna Prasad Shetty, Niher Tabassum Snigdha and Shaeesta Khaleelahmed Bhavikatti
Medicina 2023, 59(6), 1178; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59061178 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1362
Abstract
Background and Objective: A narrow alveolar ridge is an obstacle to optimal rehabilitation of the dentition. There are several complex and invasive techniques to counter the ridge augmentation dilemma, with most of them exhibiting low feasibility. Hence, this randomized clinical trial aims [...] Read more.
Background and Objective: A narrow alveolar ridge is an obstacle to optimal rehabilitation of the dentition. There are several complex and invasive techniques to counter the ridge augmentation dilemma, with most of them exhibiting low feasibility. Hence, this randomized clinical trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a Minimalistic Ridge Augmentation (MRA) technique, in conjunction with low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients (n = 20) were selected, with 10 assigned to the test group (MRA+LLLT) and the other 10 to the control group (MRA). A vertical incision of approximately 10 mm was placed mesial to the defect and tunneled to create a subperiosteal pouch across the entire width of the defect. At the test sites, a diode laser (AnARC FoxTM Surgical Laser 810 nm) was used to deliver LLLT (parameters: 100 mW, with a maximum energy distribution of 6 J/cm2 in the continuous wave mode for 60 s per point) to the exposed bone surface inside the pouch, followed by graft (G-Graft, SurgiwearTM, Shahjahanpur, India) deposition with a bone graft carrier. The control sites were not irradiated with a laser. Results: A horizontal ridge width gain of >2 mm was observed in both groups. The changes in bone density for the test and control groups were −136 ± 236.08 HU and −44.30 ± 180.89 HU, respectively. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference between the test and control groups in these parameters. Conclusion: The study findings reveal that the MRA technique is relatively simple and feasible for alveolar ridge augmentation. The role of LLLT in the process requires further elucidation. Full article
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12 pages, 6361 KiB  
Article
The Interference of Age and Gender on Smile Characterization Analyzed on Six Parameters: A Clinical-Photographic Pilot Study
by Joana Cunha, Gustavo Vicentis Oliveira Fernandes, Juliana Campos Hasse Fernandes, Pedro C. Lopes and Rute Rio
Medicina 2023, 59(3), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59030595 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1724
Abstract
Background and Objective: This study aimed to evaluate six smile-esthetic parameters (deviation of the upper dental midline from the facial midline, upper lip curvature, smile line, smile arch, smile width, and shape of the maxillary central incisors), correlating them with age and [...] Read more.
Background and Objective: This study aimed to evaluate six smile-esthetic parameters (deviation of the upper dental midline from the facial midline, upper lip curvature, smile line, smile arch, smile width, and shape of the maxillary central incisors), correlating them with age and gender. Materials and methods: Caucasian individuals (N = 114) were grouped by gender (male and female) and age (group I—18 to 30 years old; group II—31 to 50 years old; and group III—over 50 years old). Using a digital camera, extra and intraoral pictures were taken to analyze the variables above-mentioned. The data were statistically evaluated, considering a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: Most participants found deviations of the upper dental midline, straight upper lip curvature, and the medium smile line coincided with the facial midline. The parallel smile arch exposing 9 to 11 upper teeth, the absence of exposure of lower teeth when smiling, and oval upper incisors were prevalent parameters. Regarding gender, significant results were found for the curvature of the upper lip (p = 0.049), the smile arch (p = 0.001), and the shape of the upper central incisors (p = 0.004). For age, the association with the curvature of the upper lip (p = 0.032), the smile line (p = 0.001), the smile arch (p = 0.007), the width of the smile exposing lower teeth (p = 0.002), and the shape of the upper central incisors (0.012) were significant. Conclusions: Within this study’s limitations, gender and age affect the anterior teeth shape and upper lip curves; gender and age did not influence the coincidence between dental and facial midlines. Full article
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11 pages, 322 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Most Effective Apical Seal for Contemporary Bioceramic and Conventional Endodontic Sealers Using Three Obturation Techniques
by Hira Akhtar, Farah Naz, Arshad Hasan, Anum Tanwir, Danish Shahnawaz, Umair Wahid, Fariha Irfan, Muhammad Adeel Ahmed, Khalid H. Almadi, Mazen F. Alkahtany, Tariq Abduljabbar and Fahim Vohra
Medicina 2023, 59(3), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59030567 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2103
Abstract
Background and Objective: Despite a plethora of studies conducted to date, researchers continue to investigate the best sealer and obturation technique combinations. The aim of this study is to compare the apical seal provided by two bioceramic sealers (Endoseal and Endosequence) with that [...] Read more.
Background and Objective: Despite a plethora of studies conducted to date, researchers continue to investigate the best sealer and obturation technique combinations. The aim of this study is to compare the apical seal provided by two bioceramic sealers (Endoseal and Endosequence) with that provided by a calcium hydroxide sealer (Sealapex), and to evaluate the effect of different obturation techniques (cold lateral condensation, continuous wave compaction and single cone) on the apical seal under a stereomicroscope. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were decoronated, cleaned and shaped using the Endosequence filing system to tip size 30/0.04 taper. Canals were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. The samples were randomly divided into 11 groups (9 experimental and 2 control groups) according to the designated sealer and technique. Samples were stored in an incubator for 7 days at 37 °C under 100% humidity. Samples were coated with nail varnish except for apical 2 mm and vertically placed in 0.2% rhodamine B dye solution for 48 h. Samples were split longitudinally and viewed under a stereomicroscope at 40× magnification. Results: Insignificant results were obtained between obturation techniques (p = 0.499) whereas statistically significant results were attained based on the type of endodontic sealer (p < 0.001). The overall lowest mean apical microleakage and best sealing ability was demonstrated by Sealapex (2.59 ± 1.20 mm) and amongst techniques by continuous wave compaction (3.90 ± 2.51 mm). Conclusions: Endosequence produced the best apical seal with the continuous wave compaction technique, whereas Endoseal did so with the bioceramic-coated single-cone technique. For the Sealapex sealer, the most effective apical seal was observed using cold lateral condensation. The quality and effectiveness of apical seal differed with the type of endodontic sealer and obturation technique used, and vice versa. Full article
13 pages, 1414 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Plasma-Rich Fibrin and De-Epithelialized Free Gingival Graft in the Treatment of Gingival Recessions
by Bojan Jovičić, Stevo Matijević, Stefan Veličković, Momir Stevanović, Aleksandra Mišić, Slavoljub Stanojević and Marija Bubalo
Medicina 2023, 59(3), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59030447 - 23 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2274
Abstract
Introduction/Aim: Soft tissue dehiscences such as gingival recessions are a very common problem that we face in modern periodontics. This clinical study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of surgical procedures using a de-epithelialized gingival graft (DGG) combined with a coronally advanced flap [...] Read more.
Introduction/Aim: Soft tissue dehiscences such as gingival recessions are a very common problem that we face in modern periodontics. This clinical study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of surgical procedures using a de-epithelialized gingival graft (DGG) combined with a coronally advanced flap and to evaluate the application of plasma-rich fibrin (PRF). Methods: The study included 40 teeth (20 patients) with Miller class I and II gingival recessions. Twenty recessions (20 patients) were treated utilizing the de-epithelialized gingival graft in combination with the coronally advanced flap, and on the opposite side of the jaw, the same number of recessions were treated utilizing plasma-rich fibrin combined with the coronally advanced flap. To evaluate tissue condition and the clinical parameters before and after the surgical procedure, the following parameters were used: the degree of epithelial attachment (DEA), the width of keratinized gingiva (WKG), and the vertical depth of recession (VDR). Results: based on the achieved results and the analysis of clinical parameters, a statistically significant reduction in the vertical depth of recession was proven in both groups, with very similar mean percentages of root coverage, with the difference being that the stability of the soft tissues of the treated region was more visible in the DGG. Conclusion: using modern surgical procedures allows the regeneration of not only the soft tissues but also deeper periodontal tissues. Full article
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15 pages, 3550 KiB  
Article
Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Insertion Torque and Implant Stability of Two Different Implant Macrogeometries in the Initial Periods of Osseointegration
by Sergio Alexandre Gehrke, Guillermo Castro Cortellari, Gustavo Vicentis de Oliveira Fernandes, Antonio Scarano, Rafael Garcia Martins, Renata Moreira Cançado and Alfredo Mikail Melo Mesquita
Medicina 2023, 59(1), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59010168 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1953
Abstract
Objectives: The present study compared two implants with different macrogeometries placed in healed alveolar sites, evaluating the insertion torque (ITV) and implant stability quotient (ISQ) values at three different periods. Methods: Seventy patients with a total of 100 dental implants were [...] Read more.
Objectives: The present study compared two implants with different macrogeometries placed in healed alveolar sites, evaluating the insertion torque (ITV) and implant stability quotient (ISQ) values at three different periods. Methods: Seventy patients with a total of 100 dental implants were allocated into two groups (n = 50 per group): DuoCone implants (DC group) that included 28 implants in the maxilla and 22 in the mandible, and Maestro implants (MAE group) that included 26 in the maxilla and 24 in the mandible. The ITV was measured during the implant placement, and the ISQ values were measured immediately at implant placement (baseline) and after 30 and 45 days. Results: The mean and standard deviations of the ITV were statistically significant (p < 0.0001), 56.4 ± 6.41 Ncm for the DC group and 29.3 ± 9.65 Ncm for the MAE group. In the DC group, the ISQs ranged between 61.1 ± 3.78 and 69.8 ± 3.86, while the MAE group presented similar values compared with the other group, ranging between 61.9 ± 3.92 and 72.1 ± 2.37. Conclusions: The value of implant insertion torque did not influence the ISQ values measured immediately after implant placement. However, the ITV influenced the ISQ values measured in the two initial periods of osseointegration, with implants installed with lower torques presenting higher ISQ values. Full article
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Review

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14 pages, 4072 KiB  
Review
Oral Manifestations of Graft vs. Host Disease: A Comprehensive Review for Best Practice in Dentistry
by Michele Miranda, Francesco Gianfreda, Danesi Carlotta, Sofia Armati, Alberta Barlattani and Patrizio Bollero
Medicina 2023, 59(11), 1937; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59111937 - 01 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1064
Abstract
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). GVHD may also develop following solid transplants or blood transfusions if white blood cells are transferred. GVHD affects multiple organs, including the oral tissues. This pictorial review provides a background of [...] Read more.
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). GVHD may also develop following solid transplants or blood transfusions if white blood cells are transferred. GVHD affects multiple organs, including the oral tissues. This pictorial review provides a background of GVHD to dental practitioners, describes the most common oral manifestations of GVHD, and highlights the main treatment modifications needed to deliver dental care to patients with GVHD. A narrative review enriched with clinical data was performed by searching the scientific literature for all articles regarding GVHD and oral manifestations/therapies. All articles without exclusion criteria, except animal tests, were included in the above review. Acute GVHD may manifest in the oral mucosa; however, it often develops immediately following HSCT when routine dental treatment is postponed. Chronic GVHD may manifest in the oral mucosa, the salivary glands, and the musculoskeletal compartment. It may indirectly affect the teeth and the oral flora, putting the patient at risk for infections. Importantly, GVHD poses an increased risk for oral cancer. GVHD has a wide range of oral manifestations, some of which may affect dental treatment. Full article
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13 pages, 3479 KiB  
Review
Benefits of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy as an Adjunct to Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatment in Smokers with Periodontitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Kelly R. V. Villafuerte, Cristhiam Jesus H. Martinez, Luiz H. Palucci Vieira and Atila V. Nobre
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040684 - 30 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1573
Abstract
The objective of this study was to analyze evidence of the clinical and microbiological benefits of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) adjunctive to scaling and root planing (SRP) in smokers with periodontitis. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included, through an electronic search in PubMed/MEDLINE, [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to analyze evidence of the clinical and microbiological benefits of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) adjunctive to scaling and root planing (SRP) in smokers with periodontitis. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included, through an electronic search in PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles published in English until December 2022. The quality of the studies was assessed using the JADAD scale and the risk of bias was estimated using the Cochrane Collaboration assessment tool. Of the 175 relevant articles, eight RCTs were included. Of these, seven reported clinical results and five microbiological results, with a follow-up time of 3–6 months. A meta-analysis was performed for the probing depth (PD) reduction and clinical attachment level (CAL) gain at 3 and 6 months. The weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were counted for the PD and CAL. The overall effect for the PD reduction at 3 and 6 months (WMD = −0.80, 95% CI = −1.44 to −0.17, p = 0.01; WMD = −1.35, 95% CI = −2.23 to −0.46, p = 0.003) was in favor of aPDT. The CAL gain (WMD = 0.79, 95% CI = −1.24 to −0.35, p = 0.0005) was statistically significant at 6 months, in favor of aPDT. In these RCTs, aPDT was unable to demonstrate efficacy in reducing the microbial species associated with periodontitis. aPDT as an adjuvant to SRP improves the PD reduction and CAL gain more effectively than only SRP. RCTs are needed to establish standardized protocols with longer follow-up times in order to provide more results on aPDT adjunctive to SRP in smokers with periodontitis. Full article
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14 pages, 1041 KiB  
Review
Histologic Evidence of Oral and Periodontal Regeneration Using Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
by Mohamed M. Meghil, Obada Mandil, Myron Nevins, Muhammad H. A. Saleh and Hom-Lay Wang
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040676 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1878
Abstract
Human histology provides critical information on the biological potential of various regenerative protocols and biomaterials, which is vital to advancing the field of periodontal regeneration, both in research and clinical practice. Outcomes of histologic studies are particularly valuable when interpreted considering additional evidence [...] Read more.
Human histology provides critical information on the biological potential of various regenerative protocols and biomaterials, which is vital to advancing the field of periodontal regeneration, both in research and clinical practice. Outcomes of histologic studies are particularly valuable when interpreted considering additional evidence available from pre-clinical and clinical studies. One of the best-documented growth factors areproven to have positive effects on a myriad of oral regenerative procedures is recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor—BB (rhPDGF-BB). While a systematic review of clinical studies evaluating rhPDGF in oral regenerative procedures has been recently completed, a review article that focuses on the histologic outcomes is needed. Hence, this communication discusses the histologic effects of rhPDGF-BB on oral and periodontal regenerative procedures, including root coverage and soft tissue augmentation, intrabony defects, furcation defects, peri-implant bone augmentation, and guided bone regeneration. Studies from 1989 to 2022 have been included in this review. Full article
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Other

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8 pages, 5194 KiB  
Case Report
Submerged Technique of Partially De-Epithelialized Free Gingival Grafts for Gingival Phenotype Modification in the Maxillary Anterior Region: A Case Report of a 34-Year Follow-up
by Won-Bae Park, Wonhee Park, Philip Kang, Hyun-Chang Lim and Ji-Young Han
Medicina 2023, 59(10), 1832; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59101832 - 15 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
A coronally advanced flap combined with a subepithelial connective tissue graft is considered the gold standard for achieving root coverage on exposed root surfaces. Nevertheless, challenges arise when this technique is applied to multiple teeth and when the palatal soft tissue is very [...] Read more.
A coronally advanced flap combined with a subepithelial connective tissue graft is considered the gold standard for achieving root coverage on exposed root surfaces. Nevertheless, challenges arise when this technique is applied to multiple teeth and when the palatal soft tissue is very thin. Several surgical modifications have been reported to simultaneously achieve both single or multiple root coverage and widening of the keratinized gingiva. In this context, there have been no reported cases utilizing the submerged technique with partially de-epithelialized free gingival grafts. We intend to introduce a submerged technique involving partially de-epithelialized free gingival grafts for the modification of soft tissue phenotypes in the maxillary anterior region. Full article
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9 pages, 305 KiB  
Brief Report
Supplement Consumption and Periodontal Health: An Exploratory Survey Using the BigMouth Repository
by Muhammad H. A. Saleh, Ann Decker, Mustafa Tattan, Omar Tattan, Joseph Decker, Abdusalam Alrmali and Hom-Lay Wang
Medicina 2023, 59(5), 919; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59050919 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1628
Abstract
Background: Dietary supplements have been investigated for their impact on the periodontal apparatus (alveolar bone, mucosa, periodontal ligament, and cementum) and their hypothetical protective role against periodontitis. There remains a gap in the field in this area. Thus, the present study aims to [...] Read more.
Background: Dietary supplements have been investigated for their impact on the periodontal apparatus (alveolar bone, mucosa, periodontal ligament, and cementum) and their hypothetical protective role against periodontitis. There remains a gap in the field in this area. Thus, the present study aims to examine the correlation between populations who report taking different dietary supplements and their relative periodontal health. Methods: The BigMouth dental data repository derived from the dental Electronic Health Records (EHRs) of the University of Michigan school of dentistry was used to extract data relating to all patients who fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The prevalence of periodontitis compared to periodontal health as related to supplement consumption was assessed. Results: A total of 118,426 individuals (55,459 males and 62,967 females) with self-reported consumption of the dietary supplements of interest were identified in the University of Michigan database via the BigMouth repository. Associations with the following vitamins were investigated, Vitamin B, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Multivitamins, Fish oil, Calcium, Omega 3, Saw palmetto, Zinc, Sildenafil, Flax seed, Folic acid, Garlic pills, Ginger pills, Ginko, Ginseng, Glucosamine, Iron, and Magnesium. Out of these supplements, only multivitamins and iron were found to significantly favor periodontal health, while folic acid and vitamin E significantly favored periodontitis. Conclusions: This study found a minimal association between the consumption of dietary supplements with periodontal health. Full article
23 pages, 2518 KiB  
Systematic Review
Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma Therapy in Oral Lichen Planus: A Systematic Review
by Shyamkumar Sriram, Shamimul Hasan, Abdullah Alqarni, Tanveer Alam, Sultan Mohammed Kaleem, Shahid Aziz, Humayoun Khan Durrani, Muhammed Ajmal, Ali Azhar Dawasaz and Shazina Saeed
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040746 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2930
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an autoimmune, mucocutaneous, oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD), which characteristically manifests with chronic, recalcitrant lesions, with frequent flare-ups and remissions. The precise etiopathogenesis of OLP is still debatable, although it is believed to be [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an autoimmune, mucocutaneous, oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD), which characteristically manifests with chronic, recalcitrant lesions, with frequent flare-ups and remissions. The precise etiopathogenesis of OLP is still debatable, although it is believed to be a T-cell-mediated disorder of an unidentified antigen. Despite the availability of various treatments, no cure for OLP exists due to its recalcitrant nature and idiopathic etiology. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties, in addition to its regulatory action on keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation. These salient properties substantiate the possible role of PRP in the treatment of OLP. Our systematic review focuses on assessing the therapeutic potential of PRP as a treatment modality in OLP. Materials and Methods: We conducted a detailed literature search for studies assessing PRP as a therapeutic regimen in OLP, using the Google Scholar and PubMed/MEDLINE search engines. The search was limited to studies published from January 2000 to January 2023 and included a combination of Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms. ROBVIS analysis was carried out for the assessment of publication bias. Descriptive statistics were performed using Microsoft Excel. Results: This systematic review included five articles that met the inclusion criteria. Most of the included studies demonstrated that PRP treatment considerably ameliorated both objective and subjective symptoms in OLP subjects, with comparable efficacy to the standard corticosteroid treatment. Further, PRP therapy offers the added benefit of minimal adverse effects and recurrences. Conclusion: This systematic review suggests that PRP has significant therapeutic potential for treating OLP. However, further research with larger sample sizes is imperative to corroborate these findings. Full article
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8 pages, 2181 KiB  
Case Report
Periodontal Phenotype Modification Using Subepithelial Connective Tissue Graft and Bone Graft in the Mandibular Anterior Teeth with Mucogingival Problems Following Orthodontic Treatment
by Won-Bae Park, Wonhee Park, Seung-Weon Lim and Ji-Young Han
Medicina 2023, 59(3), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59030584 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2280
Abstract
Among the complications of orthodontic treatment, mucogingival problems with gingival recession in the mandibular anterior teeth are challenging for clinicians. Mucogingival problems can lead to esthetic deficits, thermal hypersensitivity, tooth brushing pain, and complicated plaque control. Herein, we present a case of a [...] Read more.
Among the complications of orthodontic treatment, mucogingival problems with gingival recession in the mandibular anterior teeth are challenging for clinicians. Mucogingival problems can lead to esthetic deficits, thermal hypersensitivity, tooth brushing pain, and complicated plaque control. Herein, we present a case of a 16-year-old female with gingival recession in the left mandibular central incisor after orthodontic treatment. The preoperative clinical findings showed a thin soft tissue biotype with root prominence in the mandibular anterior area. The interdental area was relatively depressed. After reflection of the full-thickness flap, root coverage using a bone graft substitute and subepithelial connective tissue graft obtained from the palatal mucosa was performed. The 6-month and 5-year postoperative clinical findings showed improved soft tissue phenotype. The cross-sectional CBCT scans 5 years after surgery showed a well-maintained labial bone plate in the mandibular incisors. Within the limitations of this case report, for patients with gingival recession in the mandibular incisors after orthodontic treatment, a successful biotype modification can be achieved with a combined procedure using subepithelial connective tissue graft with bone graft substitutes. Full article
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