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Medicina, Volume 60, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 160 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Medicina is an international, peer-reviewed, open access journal that covers all problems related to medicine. The journal is owned by the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences (LUHS) and is published monthly online by MDPI.
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11 pages, 3288 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study of Endoscopic versus Percutaneous Epidural Neuroplasty in Lower Back Pain: Outcomes at Six-Month Follow Up
by Jong Bum Choi, Jae Chul Koh, Daehyun Jo, Jae Hyung Kim, Won Sok Chang, Kang Taek Lim, Hyung Gon Lee, Ho Sik Moon, Eunsoo Kim, Sun Yeul Lee, Kibeom Park, Yi Hwa Choi, Sang Jun Park, Jinyoung Oh, Sook Young Lee, Bumhee Park, Eun Kyung Jun, Yeong Seung Ko, Ji Su Kim, Eunji Ha, Tae Kwang Kim, Gyu Bin Choi, Ra Yoon Cho and Na Eun Kimadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050839 - 20 May 2024
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Endoscopic epidural neuroplasty (EEN) facilitates adhesiolysis through direct epiduroscopic visualization, offering more precise neural decompression than that exhibited by percutaneous epidural neuroplasty (PEN). We aimed to compare the effects of EEN and PEN for 6 months after treatment with [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Endoscopic epidural neuroplasty (EEN) facilitates adhesiolysis through direct epiduroscopic visualization, offering more precise neural decompression than that exhibited by percutaneous epidural neuroplasty (PEN). We aimed to compare the effects of EEN and PEN for 6 months after treatment with lower back and radicular pain in patients. Methods: This retrospective study compared the visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores in patients with low back and radicular pain who underwent EEN or PEN with a steering catheter. The medical records of 107 patients were analyzed, with 73 and 34 undergoing EEN and PEN, respectively. Results: The VAS and ODI scores decreased at all time points after EEN and PEN. VAS and ODI scores decreased more in the EEN group than those in the PEN group at 1 day and 1- and 6-months post-procedure, indicating superior pain relief for both lower back and radicular pain through EEN. Conclusions: EEN is a superior treatment of pain control than PEN in lower back and radicular pain patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Intensive Care/ Anesthesiology)
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12 pages, 4988 KiB  
Case Report
A Clinical Approach for the Removal of a Large Antral Pseudocyst with Simultaneous Maxillary Sinus Augmentation: A Case Series
by Won-Bae Park, Jina Shin, Seungil Shin and Ji-Youn Hong
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050838 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 257
Abstract
For a large benign lesion within the maxillary sinus, such as an antral pseudocyst, maxillary sinus floor augmentation is more commonly performed using a two-stage approach. This involves first removing the lesion, and then, re-entry following several months of healing. In this case [...] Read more.
For a large benign lesion within the maxillary sinus, such as an antral pseudocyst, maxillary sinus floor augmentation is more commonly performed using a two-stage approach. This involves first removing the lesion, and then, re-entry following several months of healing. In this case series, we described the “one-bony-window” approach, which is a technical surgical modification of the previous one-stage approach, for simultaneous cyst removal and maxillary sinus floor augmentation. Four patients with large maxillary antral pseudocysts were included. The “one-bony-window” approach involves the preparation of a large window opening of approximately 15 mm × 20 mm at the lateral wall. A mesiodistally extended intentional perforation was made in the upper part of the exposed membrane to enhance the access for instrumentation. The antral pseudocyst was removed in its entirety without being deformed to prevent rupture or leakage of the cystic contents. Subsequent detachment and elevation of the Schneiderian membrane at the sinus floor significantly reduced the perforation site, and bone grafting with implant placement was performed simultaneously. This alleviated the need to surgically repair the perforation. The lateral opening was either uncovered or repositioned using bony window lids. Healing abutments were connected after six months, and the final prosthesis was placed after two months. At the 1-year follow-up, the antral pseudocysts had resolved with no specific recurrence, and the stability of the augmented sinus was maintained with excellent implant survival. Within the limitations of our findings, the “one-bony-window” technique can be suggested for the simultaneous removal of large antral pseudocysts and maxillary sinus floor augmentation with favorable clinical outcomes. Full article
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10 pages, 2267 KiB  
Case Report
Fournier’s Gangrene as an Adverse Event Following Treatment with Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors
by Ioana-Maria Suciu, Alin Greluș, Alina-Ramona Cozlac, Bogdan-Simion Suciu, Svetlana Stoica, Silvia Luca, Constantin-Tudor Luca and Dan-Ion Gaiță
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050837 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 178
Abstract
We present the case of a 51-year-old male with known congestive heart failure and acute myocarditis who presented to the emergency department (ED) with swollen testicles and urinary symptoms two weeks after the initiation of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor treatment. Abdominal [...] Read more.
We present the case of a 51-year-old male with known congestive heart failure and acute myocarditis who presented to the emergency department (ED) with swollen testicles and urinary symptoms two weeks after the initiation of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor treatment. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) scan was consistent with the diagnosis of Fournier’s gangrene (FG). Intravenous antibiotics were administered and surgical exploratory intervention and excision of necrotic tissue were performed, stopping the evolution of necrotizing fasciitis. FG, a reported adverse event, may rarely occur when SGLT2 inhibitors are administered in patients with diabetes. To our knowledge, there have been no reported cases of FG in Romania since SLGT2 inhibitors were approved. The distinguishing feature of this case is that the patient was not diabetic, which emphasizes that patients without diabetes who are treated for heart failure with SGLT2 inhibitors may also be at risk of developing genitourinary infections. The association of predisposing factors may have contributed to the development of FG in this case and even though the benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors outweigh the risks, serious adverse events need to be voluntarily reported in order to intervene promptly, verify the relationship, and minimize the risk of bias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Heart Failure)
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13 pages, 1613 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Plaque Characteristics by Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Stent Restenosis following Carotid Artery Stenting: A Retrospective Study
by Agnė Gimžauskaitė, Donatas Inčiūra, Gintautė Diringytė, Saulius Lukoševičius, Rytis Kaupas, Andrius Pranculis, Aistė Mačiulaitytė, Algidas Basevičius, Milda Kuprytė, Edgaras Stankevičius and Jurgita Plisienė
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 836; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050836 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 250
Abstract
Background and objective: carotid artery stenosis contributes significantly to ischemic strokes, with management options including carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) ischemic stroke risk can be reduced. Controversies persist regarding their efficacy and factors influencing complications, and understanding the relationship between [...] Read more.
Background and objective: carotid artery stenosis contributes significantly to ischemic strokes, with management options including carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) ischemic stroke risk can be reduced. Controversies persist regarding their efficacy and factors influencing complications, and understanding the relationship between atherosclerotic plaque characteristics and stent restenosis after CAS is crucial. Methods: we conducted a retrospective study involving 221 patients who underwent CAS for symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Comprehensive assessments of plaque morphology were performed using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) before CAS. Patient demographics, including smoking status and diabetes, were also recorded. Stent restenosis was diagnosed using various imaging modalities, including ultrasound, angiography, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Results: plaque analysis using CEUS revealed a significant association between plaque grade and restenosis incidence (p < 0.001), particularly with grade 0 (11.1%) and grade 2 plaques (66.7%). Smoking was notably associated with plaque vascularization and restenosis (p < 0.001), while diabetes did not significantly impact plaque characteristics or restenosis risk (p > 0.05). The mean duration of restenosis was 17.67 months. Stenting was the most frequent treatment modality for restenosis (70.6%). However, no significant relationship was found between restenosis type and plaque morphology (p = 0.268). Furthermore, while no clear relationship was observed between plaque morphology and the type of restenosis, our findings underscored the importance of plaque characterization in predicting post-CAS outcomes. Conclusions: this study highlights the utility of CEUS in predicting stent restenosis following CAS. There was a significant association between stent restenosis within 12–24 months after the carotid stenting procedure and an elevated grade of plaque vascularization. Moreover, one of the main factors possibly determining the grade of plaque vascularization was smoking. Further research is warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and refine risk stratification in this patient population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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10 pages, 1664 KiB  
Article
Osteocalcin: A Potential Marker of Peripheral Arterial Stiffness in Hypertensive Patients
by Yung-Hsuan Wang, Chien-Hao Hsiao, Ji-Hung Wang and Bang-Gee Hsu
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050835 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 288
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is an established independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. Osteocalcin (OC) is recognized to be associated with vascular function. The present study assessed the correlation between serum OC levels [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is an established independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. Osteocalcin (OC) is recognized to be associated with vascular function. The present study assessed the correlation between serum OC levels and peripheral arterial stiffness (PAS) measured through baPWV in hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods: Fasting blood samples were collected from 120 hypertensive participants. The serum total OC levels were measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, whereas the baPWV device was used to detect PAS. The PAS group had left or right baPWV > 18.0 m/s. Results: Among the hypertensive patients, 24 (20.0%) were classified into the PAS group. The PAS group exhibited a significantly older age (p = 0.011), higher prevalence of diabetes (p = 0.010), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.019), levels of serum fasting glucose (p = 0.003), blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.024), creatinine (p = 0.004), C-reactive protein (p = 0.007), OC (p = 0.002), and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.004) than the non-PAS group. Age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.076, 95% CI: 1.004–1.153, p = 0.037) and serum OC level (OR: 1.797, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.077–3.000, p = 0.025) were independent factors linked to PAS in hypertensive patients in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: Serum OC levels and older age are positively associated with PAS in hypertensive patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urology & Nephrology)
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12 pages, 718 KiB  
Article
Postoperative Complications of Flap Procedures in Chest Wall Defect Reconstruction: A Two-Center Experience
by David Breidung, Sarina Delavari, Sebastian Grimme, Götz Habild, Moritz Billner, Dietmar Kraus, Bert Reichert and Ioannis-Fivos Megas
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050834 - 19 May 2024
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Chest wall defect reconstruction is a complex procedure aimed at restoring thoracic structural integrity after trauma, tumor removal, or congenital issues. In this study, postoperative complications were investigated to improve the care of patients with these critical conditions. Materials [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Chest wall defect reconstruction is a complex procedure aimed at restoring thoracic structural integrity after trauma, tumor removal, or congenital issues. In this study, postoperative complications were investigated to improve the care of patients with these critical conditions. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of chest wall reconstructions from 2004 to 2023 was conducted at Klinikum Nürnberg and Evangelisches Waldkrankenhaus Spandau—Berlin. Data included patient demographics, comorbidities, defect etiology, surgery details, and complications using the Clavien–Dindo classification. Results: Among the 30 patients included in the study, a total of 35 complications occurred in 35 thoracic wall defect reconstructions. These complications were classified into 22 major and 13 minor cases. Major complications were more common in patients with cancer-related defects, and considerable variations were observed between free flap and pedicled flap surgeries. Notably, the use of the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap with vastus lateralis muscle demonstrated promise, exhibiting fewer complications in select cases. The reconstruction of chest wall defects is associated with substantial complications regardless of the etiology of the defect and the particular surgical procedure used. Interestingly, there was a lower complication rate with free flap surgery than with pedicled flaps. Conclusions: The ALT flap with vastus lateralis muscle deserves further research in this field of reconstruction. Multidisciplinary approaches and informed patient discussions are crucial in this complex surgical field, emphasizing the need for ongoing research and technique refinement. Full article
10 pages, 2458 KiB  
Article
The Efficacy and Safety of Endoscopic Balloon Dilatation in the Treatment of Functional Post-Sleeve-Gastrectomy Stenosis
by Mohamed A. Elsebaey, Mohamed Elsayed Enaba, Heba Elashry, Waleed Elrefaey, Rasha Youssef Hagag, Neveen A. Shalaby, Mohamed Sabry Aboelnasr, Mohamed Elsayed Sarhan, Omneya Mohamed Darrag, Assem Mohamed Elsokkary, Mohamed Abd Allah Alabd, Ahmed Mohamed El Nakib, Abdulrashid Onimisi Abdulrahim, Yousry Esam-Eldin Abo-Amer, Mohammad Shaaban Mahfouz, Amina Mahmoud Fouad, Raghda Samir Abd El latif, Khaled Asem Allam and Amro Abdelaziz Mohammed Ismail
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050833 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 199
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Functional gastric stenosis, a consequence of sleeve gastrectomy, is defined as a rotation of the gastric tube along its longitudinal axis. It is brought on by gastric twisting without the anatomical constriction of the gastric lumen. During endoscopic examination, [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Functional gastric stenosis, a consequence of sleeve gastrectomy, is defined as a rotation of the gastric tube along its longitudinal axis. It is brought on by gastric twisting without the anatomical constriction of the gastric lumen. During endoscopic examination, the staple line is deviated with a clockwise rotation, and the stenosis requires additional endoscopic manipulations for its transposition. Upper gastrointestinal series show the gastric twist with an upstream dilatation of the gastric tube in some patients. Data on its management have remained scarce. The objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of endoscopic balloon dilatation in the management of functional post-sleeve gastrectomy stenosis. Patients and Methods: Twenty-two patients with functional post-primary-sleeve-gastrectomy stenosis who had an endoscopic balloon dilatation between 2017 and 2023 were included in this retrospective study. Patients with alternative treatment plans and those undergoing endoscopic dilatation for other forms of gastric stenosis were excluded. The clinical outcomes were used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of balloon dilatation in the management of functional gastric stenosis. Results: A total of 45 dilatations were performed with a 30 mm balloon in 22 patients (100%), a 35 mm balloon in 18 patients (81.82%), and a 40 mm balloon in 5 patients (22.73%). The patients’ clinical responses after the first balloon dilatation were a complete clinical response (4 patients, 18.18%), a partial clinical response (12 patients, 54.55%), and a non-response (6 patients, 27.27%). Nineteen patients (86.36%) had achieved clinical success at six months. Three patients (13.64%) who remained symptomatic even after achieving the maximal balloon dilation of 40 mm were considered failure of endoscopic dilatation, and they were referred for surgical intervention. No significant adverse events were found during or following the balloon dilatation. Conclusions: Endoscopic balloon dilatation is an effective and safe minimally invasive procedure in the management of functional post-sleeve-gastrectomy stenosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatology)
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8 pages, 269 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Impact of Oral Isotretinoin on the Menstrual Cycle: A Prospective Study on Predictors of Menstrual Irregularities
by Diala Alshiyab, Haitham Bassam Marie, Raghad Alrawashdeh, Nour Alrawashdeh, Yaman B. Ahmed and Ausama Atwan
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050832 - 19 May 2024
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the association between the use of oral isotretinoin and menstrual irregularities in acne patients with previously regular menstrual cycles. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted on 58,599 female patients aged [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the association between the use of oral isotretinoin and menstrual irregularities in acne patients with previously regular menstrual cycles. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted on 58,599 female patients aged 14 to 36 at King Abdullah University Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The patients were followed for a period of 4.5 to 8 months during treatment and for 2 months post-treatment. Menstrual cycle changes were documented, and statistical analysis was performed to identify any significant associations. Results: A total of 111 (37.1%) patients, who were previously known to have regular menstrual cycles, complained of menstrual changes while using oral isotretinoin. Ninety-nine of those patients who complained of menstrual changes had their cycles back to normal post-treatment. There is a significant difference in the total accumulative dose between those with changes in menses and those without; p-value [0.008]. The most common change that occurred was amenorrhea (p < 0.001), followed by oligomenorrhea and menorrhagia (p < 0.001 and p = 0.050, respectively). The duration of treatment was a significant predictor of menstrual irregularities, with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.106 (95% CI: 1.371–19.020, p = 0.015), indicating a higher likelihood of menstrual changes with increased treatment duration. The total accumulative dose was also significantly associated with menstrual irregularities (OR = 0.964; 95% CI: 0.939–0.990; p = 0.006). Additionally, a family history of PCOS significantly increased the odds of menstrual irregularities (OR = 3.783; 95% CI: 1.314–10.892; p = 0.014). Conclusions: The study identified that 37.1% of the participants experienced changes in their menstrual cycles while undergoing isotretinoin therapy, with the vast majority (89.2%) returning to normal within two months post-treatment. Our logistic regression analysis pinpointed the duration of isotretinoin treatment, the total accumulative dose, and a family history of PCOS as significant predictors of menstrual irregularities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dermatology)
12 pages, 1159 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning-Based Mortality Prediction in Chronic Kidney Disease among Heart Failure Patients: Insights and Outcomes from the Jordanian Heart Failure Registry
by Mahmoud Izraiq, Raed Alawaisheh, Rasheed Ibdah, Aya Dabbas, Yaman B. Ahmed, Abdel-Latif Mughrabi Sabbagh, Ahmad Zuraik, Muhannad Ababneh, Ahmad A. Toubasi, Basel Al-Bkoor and Hadi Abu-hantash
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050831 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 245
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Heart failure (HF) is a prevalent and debilitating condition that imposes a significant burden on healthcare systems and adversely affects the quality of life of patients worldwide. Comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), arterial hypertension, and diabetes mellitus (DM) [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Heart failure (HF) is a prevalent and debilitating condition that imposes a significant burden on healthcare systems and adversely affects the quality of life of patients worldwide. Comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), arterial hypertension, and diabetes mellitus (DM) are common among HF patients, as they share similar risk factors. This study aimed to identify the prognostic significance of multiple factors and their correlation with disease prognosis and outcomes in a Jordanian cohort. Materials and Methods: Data from the Jordanian Heart Failure Registry (JoHFR) were analyzed, encompassing medical records from acute and chronic HF patients attending public and private cardiology clinics and hospitals across Jordan. An online form was utilized for data collection, focusing on three kidney function tests, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels, with the eGFR calculated using the Cockcroft–Gault formula. We also built six machine learning models to predict mortality in our cohort. Results: From the JoHFR, 2151 HF patients were included, with 644, 1799, and 1927 records analyzed for eGFR, BUN, and creatinine levels, respectively. Age negatively impacted all measures (p ≤ 0.001), while smokers surprisingly showed better results than non-smokers (p ≤ 0.001). Males had more normal eGFR levels compared to females (p = 0.002). Comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, arrhythmias, and implanted devices were inversely related to eGFR (all with p-values <0.05). Higher BUN levels were associated with chronic HF, dyslipidemia, and ASCVD (p ≤ 0.001). Higher creatinine levels were linked to hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, arrhythmias, and previous HF history (all with p-values <0.05). Low eGFR levels were associated with increased mechanical ventilation needs (p = 0.049) and mortality (p ≤ 0.001), while BUN levels did not significantly affect these outcomes. Machine learning analysis employing the Random Forest Classifier revealed that length of hospital stay and creatinine >115 were the most significant predictors of mortality. The classifier achieved an accuracy of 90.02% with an AUC of 80.51%, indicating its efficacy in predictive modeling. Conclusions: This study reveals the intricate relationship among kidney function tests, comorbidities, and clinical outcomes in HF patients in Jordan, highlighting the importance of kidney function as a predictive tool. Integrating machine learning models into clinical practice may enhance the predictive accuracy of patient outcomes, thereby supporting a more personalized approach to managing HF and related kidney dysfunction. Further research is necessary to validate these findings and to develop innovative treatment strategies for the CKD population within the HF cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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8 pages, 1808 KiB  
Case Report
Diabetic Nephropathy, Retinopathy, and Functional Hypogonadism in a Patient with MODY10: A Case Report
by Rossana Ruiz-Urbaez, Mariela Viviana Villagómez-Estrada, Carlos Reyes-Silva, Darlyng Quishpe-López, David Males-Maldonado, Jorge Salazar-Vega and Enrique Gea-Izquierdo
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050830 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 227
Abstract
(1) Background and objectives: Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a group of diabetes caused by gene defects related to insulin secretion. MODY1, MODY2, and MODY3 are the most common and account for approximately 80% of all cases. Other types are [...] Read more.
(1) Background and objectives: Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a group of diabetes caused by gene defects related to insulin secretion. MODY1, MODY2, and MODY3 are the most common and account for approximately 80% of all cases. Other types are relatively rare. This study describes the clinical, analytical, and genetic characteristics of a patient with MODY10, and diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, and functional hypogonadism diagnosis. (2) Materials and methods: A clinical case was analyzed and whole exome generation sequencing (WES) was used to detect mutations related to a monogenic variant. (3) Results: A seventeen-year-old male patient, who was diagnosed with apparent type 1 diabetes at the age of eight was started with insulin therapy. He came to the emergency room with glycemic decompensation, facial, and lower limb edema. During his evaluation, he had near-nephrotic range proteinuria of 2902 mg/24 h, a kidney ultrasound showing mild pyelocalyceal dilation, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and was also diagnosed with functional hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. These comorbidities improved with adequate glycemic control. WES showed missense variant c.94G>A (p.Gly32Ser) in the INS gene, according to Clinvar corresponding to MODY10. It was a “de novo” variant not reported in his parents. (4) Conclusions: Monogenic diabetes (MD) is rare and MODY10 is among the less frequent types. MODY should be suspected in patients with type 1 phenotype with negative autoimmunity even in the absence of a family history of diabetes. To the best of our knowledge, we present here the first patient with these phenotypic traits of MODY10 reported in Latin America. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology)
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16 pages, 2695 KiB  
Article
Healing of Periodontal Suprabony Defects following Treatment with Open Flap Debridement with or without Hyaluronic Acid (HA) Application
by Octavia Carolina Vela, Marius Boariu, Darian Rusu, Vincenzo Iorio-Siciliano, Luca Ramaglia, Simina Boia, Viorelia Radulescu, Ioana Ilyes and Stefan-Ioan Stratul
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050829 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Background and Objectives: This randomized, double-arm, multicentric clinical trial aims to compare the clinical outcomes following the treatment of suprabony periodontal defects using open flap debridement (OFD) with or without the application of hyaluronic acid (HA). Materials and Methods: Sixty systemically healthy patients [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This randomized, double-arm, multicentric clinical trial aims to compare the clinical outcomes following the treatment of suprabony periodontal defects using open flap debridement (OFD) with or without the application of hyaluronic acid (HA). Materials and Methods: Sixty systemically healthy patients with at least two teeth presenting suprabony periodontal defects were randomly assigned with a 1:1 allocation ratio using computer-generated tables into a test (OFD + HA) or control group (OFD). The main outcome variable was clinical attachment level (CAL). The secondary outcome variables were changes in mean probing pocket depth (PPD), gingival recession (GR), full-mouth plaque score (FMPS), and full-mouth bleeding score (FMBS). All clinical measurements were carried out at baseline and 12 months. Results: Sixty patients, thirty in each group, were available for statistical analysis. The mean CAL gain was statistically significantly different (p < 0.001) in the test group compared with the control group (3.06 ± 1.13 mm vs. 1.44 ± 1.07 mm). PPD reduction of test group measurements (3.28 ± 1.14 mm) versus the control group measurements (2.61 ± 1.22 mm) were statistically significant (p = 0.032). GR changes were statistically significant only in the test group 0.74 ± 1.03 mm (p < 0.001). FMBS and FMPS revealed a statistically significant improvement mostly in the test group. Conclusions: Suprabony periodontal defects could benefit from the additional application of HA in conjunction with OFD in terms of improvement of the clinical parameters compared with OFD alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Clinical Periodontology)
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11 pages, 1490 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between the Ewing Test, Sudoscan Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy Score and Cardiovascular Risk Score Calculated with SCORE2-Diabetes
by Andra-Elena Nica, Emilia Rusu, Carmen Dobjanschi, Florin Rusu, Claudia Sivu, Oana Andreea Parlițeanu and Gabriela Radulian
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050828 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 367
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a severe complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) strongly linked to a nearly five-fold higher risk of cardiovascular mortality. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are a significant cohort in which these assessments have [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a severe complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) strongly linked to a nearly five-fold higher risk of cardiovascular mortality. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are a significant cohort in which these assessments have particular relevance to the increased cardiovascular risk inherent in the condition. Materials and Methods: This study aimed to explore the subtle correlation between the Ewing test, Sudoscan-cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy score, and cardiovascular risk calculated using SCORE 2 Diabetes in individuals with T2DM. The methodology involved detailed assessments including Sudoscan tests to evaluate sudomotor function and various cardiovascular reflex tests (CART). The cohort consisted of 211 patients diagnosed with T2DM with overweight or obesity without established ASCVD, aged between 40 to 69 years. Results: The prevalence of CAN in our group was 67.2%. In the study group, according SCORE2-Diabetes, four patients (1.9%) were classified with moderate cardiovascular risk, thirty-five (16.6%) with high risk, and one hundred seventy-two (81.5%) with very high cardiovascular risk. Conclusions: On multiple linear regression, the SCORE2-Diabetes algorithm remained significantly associated with Sudoscan CAN-score and Sudoscan Nephro-score and Ewing test score. Testing for the diagnosis of CAN in very high-risk patients should be performed because approximately 70% of them associate CAN. Increased cardiovascular risk is associated with sudomotor damage and that Sudoscan is an effective and non-invasive measure of identifying such risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Clinical Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolic Diseases)
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11 pages, 329 KiB  
Article
Factors Affecting Adherence to Social Distancing among Adults Aged 19–44 Years: Insights from a Nationwide Survey during COVID-19 Pandemic
by Eun Jung Kim and Mikyong Byun
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050827 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Before COVID-19 vaccinations became available, adhering to non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), like social distancing (SD), wearing masks, and hand hygiene, were crucial to mitigating viral spread. Many studies reported that younger individuals were more reluctant to follow these measures compared [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Before COVID-19 vaccinations became available, adhering to non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), like social distancing (SD), wearing masks, and hand hygiene, were crucial to mitigating viral spread. Many studies reported that younger individuals were more reluctant to follow these measures compared with older ones. We hypothesized that it would be worthwhile to find factors that influenced SD compliance among young people during the pre-vaccination phase of a pandemic. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data of adults aged 19–44 from the 2020 South Korean Community Health Survey and compared socio-demographic, health-related behavioral, and psychological factors between compliant and non-compliant cohorts. Results: A total of 59,943 participants were enrolled and we found that older age groups (30–39 and 40–44) and safety concerns (such as viral infection, virus-related death, economic damage, and transmitting virus to vulnerable people) were significantly associated with adherence to SD. Conversely, participants who were not living with a spouse, were unable to stay at home despite symptoms, smoked, drank, and had a negative attitude toward government policy statistically correlated with non-compliance. Conclusions: In times when NPIs were the primary defense against the pandemic, it is essential to identify factors that positively or negatively affect individual compliance with them, especially among young people. Using a large-scale, well-designed national survey, we could gain insights into the early recognition of risk factors for non-compliance and appropriate follow-up interventions (i.e., education campaigns, clear communication of public guidelines, and implementation of guidelines), which will help people to avoid suffering from other waves of future infectious diseases. Full article
12 pages, 443 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Maternal Socioeconomic Factors and Preterm Birth in Latvia
by Katrīne Kūkoja, Anita Villeruša and Irisa Zīle-Velika
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050826 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Worldwide, preterm birth (PTB) stands as the primary cause of mortality among children under 5 years old. Socioeconomic factors significantly impact pregnancy outcomes, influencing both maternal well-being and newborn health. Understanding and addressing these socioeconomic factors is essential for developing [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Worldwide, preterm birth (PTB) stands as the primary cause of mortality among children under 5 years old. Socioeconomic factors significantly impact pregnancy outcomes, influencing both maternal well-being and newborn health. Understanding and addressing these socioeconomic factors is essential for developing effective public health interventions and policies aimed at improving pregnancy outcomes. This study aims to analyse the relationship between socioeconomic factors (education level, marital status, place of residence and nationality) and PTB in Latvia, considering mother’s health habits, health status, and pregnancy process. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the Medical Birth Register (MBR) of Latvia about women with singleton pregnancies in 2022 (n = 15,431). Data analysis, involving crosstabs, chi-square tests, and multivariable binary logistic regression, was performed. Adjusted Odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Results: Lower maternal education was statistically significantly associated with increased odds of PTB. Mothers with education levels below secondary education had over two times higher odds of PTB (aOR = 2.07, p < 0.001, CI 1.58–2.70) and those with secondary or vocational secondary education had one and a half times higher odds (aOR = 1.58, p < 0.001, CI 1.33–1.87) after adjusting for other risk factors. Study results also showed the cumulative effect of socioeconomic risk factors on PTB. Additionally, mothers facing two or three socioeconomic risk factors in Latvia exhibited one and a half times higher odds of PTB (aOR = 1.59, p = 0.021). Conclusions: The study highlights the cumulative impact of socioeconomic risk factors on PTB, with higher maternal education demonstrating the highest protective effect against it. This underscores the importance of education in promoting optimal foetal development. Since the influence of socioeconomic factors on PTB is not a widely studied issue in Latvia, further research is needed to improve understanding of this complex topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
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9 pages, 2281 KiB  
Case Report
Uterine Leiomyomas with Specific Histology Features of Two Fumarate Hydratase/Succinate Dehydrogenase-Deficient Tumors: A Double Case Report
by Ljubiša Jovanović, Svetlana Milenković, Luka Andrić, Radomir Stefanović, Branislav Milošević, Jelena Micić, Igor Pilić, Aleksandra Beleslin, Olga Mihaljević and Milan Dokić
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050825 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 315
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarate hydratase (FH) give rise to various familial cancer syndromes, with these alterations being characteristic of certain types of histomorphologically specific leiomyomas that hold significant predictive value. Materials and Methods: This study [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarate hydratase (FH) give rise to various familial cancer syndromes, with these alterations being characteristic of certain types of histomorphologically specific leiomyomas that hold significant predictive value. Materials and Methods: This study presents two cases of uterine leiomyomas exhibiting rare histomorphological and genetic characteristics, which are crucial for prognosis and further treatment. Results: Distinct histopathological features such as marked nuclear atypia, intracellular eosinophilic globules, and abnormal intratumoral vessels raise suspicion for specific leiomyoma subtypes, which carry predictive significance for additional hereditary cancer syndromes. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed FH/SDH deficiency in both patients, who underwent careful follow-up. Conclusions: This study describes two cases involving unusual leiomyomas, the histopathological characteristics of which may easily go unrecognized. These features hold predictive significance because their specific mutations point to additional hereditary cancer syndromes, highlighting the need for further examinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uterine Smooth-Muscle Tumors)
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12 pages, 286 KiB  
Article
Demographic and Socioeconomic Predictors of Prehypertension and Hypertension in the Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey
by Igor Dimitrijev, Snezana Radovanovic, Zoran Vesic, Goran Colakovic, Viktor Selakovic, Ana Lackovic, Slavica S. Djordjevic, Maja Pesic, Danijela Nesovic, Radomir Lazarevic, Ognjen Djordjevic, Olgica Mihaljevic, Aleksandra Obradovic, Verica Vukicevic, Nikoleta Janicijevic and Jovana Radovanovic
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050824 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Prehypertension and hypertension are the most common cardiovascular disorders worldwide and are increasingly considered one of the most serious public health problems, particularly in developing countries. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and demographic and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Prehypertension and hypertension are the most common cardiovascular disorders worldwide and are increasingly considered one of the most serious public health problems, particularly in developing countries. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and demographic and socioeconomic predictors of prehypertension and hypertension in the adults in Serbia, and to examine the relationship between prehypertension and hypertension and health behavior determinants (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity) and individual aspects of health (a health self-assessment, multimorbidity, BMI, depressive symptoms). Materials and Methods: The research is part of the fourth National Population Health Survey conducted in 2019, which was conducted by the Republic Institute of Statistics, in cooperation with the Institute of Public Health of Serbia and the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Serbia. As a research instrument, questionnaires were used in accordance with the methodology of the European Health Survey. For the purposes of this research, data on the adult population aged 20 and over were used. Results: Women are at a reduced risk for both prehypertension (OR  =  0.328) and hypertension (OR = 0.349) by nearly 70%. Similarly, those aged below 60 years have a lower risk for prehypertension and those younger than 40 years have a lower risk for hypertension (OR = 0.995), whereas people with a lower education have a 4.3 times higher risk of prehypertension (OR = 4.323) and a 1.6 times higher risk of hypertension (OR =  1.614). The poor have a 1.4 times higher risk of prehypertension (OR = 1.413) and a 1 times higher risk of hypertension (OR = 1.035). People with multimorbidity have a 1.2 times higher risk of both prehypertension (OR = 1.218) and a 4.8 times higher risk of hypertension (OR = 4.867). Conclusions: Male gender, lower education, poverty, age and the presence of multimorbidity are significant predictors of prehypertension and hypertension in the Serbian adult population, so preventive strategies should be aimed at these sensitive population groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Risk Factors, Prevention, and Inequalities)
29 pages, 3163 KiB  
Article
Colliding Challenges: An Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis versus SARS-CoV-2 Infection Alone
by Camil Mihuta, Adriana Socaci, Patricia Hogea, Emanuela Tudorache, Monica Simina Mihuta and Cristian Oancea
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050823 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 499
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The concurrent occurrence of tuberculosis and COVID-19 coinfection poses significant clinical complexities, warranting a nuanced approach to diagnosis, management, and patient care. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted on two groups: one comprising 32 patients [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The concurrent occurrence of tuberculosis and COVID-19 coinfection poses significant clinical complexities, warranting a nuanced approach to diagnosis, management, and patient care. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted on two groups: one comprising 32 patients with pulmonary TB (PTB) and COVID-19 co-infection, and one including 100 patients with COVID-19 alone. Data was collected from medical records, including patient history, clinical parameters, laboratory, imaging results, and patient outcome. Results: A lower BMI emerges as a significant marker suggesting underlying PTB in patients with SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk of death in PTB-SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. Co-infected patients show lymphocytopenia and higher neutrophil levels, CRP, transaminases, and D-dimer levels. Elevated CRP and ALT levels are linked to increased co-infection likelihood. Certain parameters like SpO2, CRP, ALT, AST, and D-dimer effectively differentiate between co-infected and COVID-19 patients. Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio is notably higher in co-infected individuals. Lesion severity on imaging is significantly associated with co-infection, highlighting imaging’s diagnostic importance. Longer hospital stays are linked to co-infection but not significantly to death risk. Conclusions: Certain clinical and biological factors may serve as potential indicators of PTB co-infection in patients with SARS-CoV-2. Full article
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10 pages, 1952 KiB  
Article
Laser Forced Dehydration of Benign Vascular Lesions of the Oral Cavity: A Valid Alternative to Surgical Techniques
by Margherita Gobbo and Luca Guarda-Nardini
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050822 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 261
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Low-flow vascular lesions are commonly encountered in the oral cavity and may require removal due to aesthetic concerns, repeated bleeding or a cluttering sensation. Laser devices represent an excellent aid due to their affinity with blood and to their [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Low-flow vascular lesions are commonly encountered in the oral cavity and may require removal due to aesthetic concerns, repeated bleeding or a cluttering sensation. Laser devices represent an excellent aid due to their affinity with blood and to their biostimulating properties and have been substituting traditional excision in selected cases. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 patients presenting with low-flow oral vascular lesions were included. The lesions were clinically evaluated as follows: lesion’s site, reason for treatment, lesion’s dimensions, confirmation of positive diascopy via compression with a glass slide and photograph. The lesions were treated with laser forced dehydration (LFD) and then followed-up after 3 weeks, 6 months and 1 year. The laser source was a K-Laser Blu Derma (Eltech, K-Laser S.r.l., Via Castagnole, 20/H, Treviso, Italy). In the case of incomplete healing, a further protocol was performed at the three-week follow-up, and a further follow-up was scheduled for three weeks after. The following aspects were evaluated at each appointment: pain, using a Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) from 0 to 10 (0 = no pain, 10 = worst pain ever); the need to take painkillers (day of intervention and during follow-up); bleeding (yes/no); scar formation. Results: Complete regression was obtained in all patients, with no side effects. Only one patient required a second LFD protocol. NRS was 0 for all patients for the whole duration of the follow-up. None of the patients took painkillers on the day of the intervention and during the follow-up. One patient declared slight bleeding the day of the intervention, which she easily managed at home. One patient showed a small non-retracting and non-painful scar at the three-week follow-up. No recurrences were found after six months and one year. Conclusions: LFD targets endogenous chromophores, minimizing damage to adjacent tissue and limiting side effects. LFD is effective and could be considered a conservative alternative to traditional excision in low-flow lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicine and Dentistry: New Methods and Clinical Approaches)
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10 pages, 310 KiB  
Article
Altered Arterial Stiffness, Ventricular–Arterial Coupling and Troponin Levels in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
by Nikolaos P. E. Kadoglou, Alexandriani Dimopoulou, Evangelia Gkougkoudi and Konstantinos Parperis
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050821 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Introduction: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), leading to elevated mortality rates among patients. We aimed to evaluate the levels of cardio–ankle vascular index (CAVI), global longitudinal strain (GLS), ventricular–arterial coupling [...] Read more.
Introduction: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), leading to elevated mortality rates among patients. We aimed to evaluate the levels of cardio–ankle vascular index (CAVI), global longitudinal strain (GLS), ventricular–arterial coupling (VAC), and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hsTnI) in SLE patients and to explore their relationship with clinical parameters. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 82 SLE patients without evident cardiac or kidney impairment and 41 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We comparatively evaluated CAVI, GLS, VAC, and hsTnI between SLE patients and controls, and we assessed their association among SLE patients with disease activity based on the SELENA–SLEDAI Activity Index. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of CAVI and hsTnI within the SLE cohort. Results: In comparison to healthy controls, SLE patients presented with significantly higher CAVI, GLS, and hsTnI levels, while VAC was significantly reduced (p < 0.001). Furthermore, SLE patients with active disease (SELENA–SLEDAI ≥ 4) exhibited higher levels of CAVI and troponin than those with inactive disease (p < 0.001). SLEDAI was an independent predictor of CAVI, while VAC and SLEDAI were independent determinants of hsTnI in the SLE cohort. Conclusions: SLE patients displayed abnormal levels of CAVI, VAC, GLS, and troponin compared to healthy individuals. Our findings implicate the potential of those CV novel CVD risk factors to refine screening and therapeutic strategies for this specific population. Full article
7 pages, 2212 KiB  
Case Report
Penoscrotal Edema as a Rare Complication of Acute Pancreatitis: A Case Report
by Ivana Jukic, Visnja Kokic Males, Antonija Zanic and Ivan Zaja
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050820 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 242
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Scrotal swelling or hydrocele is a rare complication of acute pancreatitis described in the literature. We present a case of penoscrotal swelling caused by the first attack of acute interstitial edematous alcohol-induced pancreatitis in a young male patient. Case [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Scrotal swelling or hydrocele is a rare complication of acute pancreatitis described in the literature. We present a case of penoscrotal swelling caused by the first attack of acute interstitial edematous alcohol-induced pancreatitis in a young male patient. Case report: A 22-year-old man was admitted to the emergency unit due to diarrhea and vomiting since morning which was followed by severe abdominal pain. Urgent abdominal multislice CT scan showed steatosis, pancreatic swelling and acute peripancreatic fluid collection (interstitial edematous pancreatitis). Also, scan showed fluid between small bowel loops and along the anterior renal fascia, while there was minimal amount of fluid in the Douglas space. There was no sign of penoscrotal swelling. On the second day of admission, the patient developed left scrotal swelling and mild pain without erythema. On the fourth day, a control CT scan showed progression to moderately severe pancreatitis (CT severity index 4). Dilated scrotal veins of the pampiniform venous plexus with an increased caliber of the testicular veins were present on both sides, from the scrotum to the level of the inguinal canal. Penoscrotal swelling was significantly reduced on discharge. Conclusions: Penoscrotal swelling is a rare complication or manifestation of acute inflammation of the pancreas. It is important to identify scrotal swelling caused by pancreatitis because in severe cases it can be related to possible infertility in the future. Full article
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13 pages, 820 KiB  
Review
Contemporary Advances in Cardiac Remote Monitoring: A Comprehensive, Updated Mini-Review
by Alberto Preda, Raffaele Falco, Chiara Tognola, Marco Carbonaro, Sara Vargiu, Michela Gallazzi, Matteo Baroni, Lorenzo Gigli, Marisa Varrenti, Giulia Colombo, Gabriele Zanotto, Cristina Giannattasio, Patrizio Mazzone and Fabrizio Guarracini
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050819 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Over the past decade, remote monitoring (RM) has become an increasingly popular way to improve healthcare and health outcomes. Modern cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are capable of recording an increasing amount of data related to CIED function, arrhythmias, physiological status and hemodynamic [...] Read more.
Over the past decade, remote monitoring (RM) has become an increasingly popular way to improve healthcare and health outcomes. Modern cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are capable of recording an increasing amount of data related to CIED function, arrhythmias, physiological status and hemodynamic parameters, providing in-depth and updated information on patient cardiovascular function. The extensive use of RM for patients with CIED allows for early diagnosis and rapid assessment of relevant issues, both clinical and technical, as well as replacing outpatient follow-up improving overall management without compromise safety. This approach is recommended by current guidelines for all eligible patients affected by different chronic cardiac conditions including either brady- and tachy-arrhythmias and heart failure. Beyond to clinical advantages, RM has demonstrated cost-effectiveness and is associated with elevated levels of patient satisfaction. Future perspectives include improving security, interoperability and diagnostic power as well as to engage patients with digital health technology. This review aims to update existing data concerning clinical outcomes in patients managed with RM in the wide spectrum of cardiac arrhythmias and Hear Failure (HF), disclosing also about safety, effectiveness, patient satisfaction and cost-saving. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Advances in Catheter Ablation)
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12 pages, 1531 KiB  
Article
Clinicopathologic Analysis and Prognostic Factors for Survival in Patients with Operable Ampullary Carcinoma: A Multi-Institutional Retrospective Experience
by Nebi Serkan Demirci, Eyyup Cavdar, Nuriye Yildirim Ozdemir, Sinemis Yuksel, Yakup Iriagac, Gokmen Umut Erdem, Hatice Odabas, Ilhan Hacibekiroglu, Mustafa Karaagac, Mahmut Ucar, Banu Ozturk and Yakup Bozkaya
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050818 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 321
Abstract
Background and Objectives: In ampullary cancer, 5-year survival rates are 30–50%, even with optimal resection and perioperative systemic therapies. We sought to determine the important clinicopathological features and adjuvant treatments in terms of the prognosis of patients with operable-stage ampullary carcinomas. Materials and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: In ampullary cancer, 5-year survival rates are 30–50%, even with optimal resection and perioperative systemic therapies. We sought to determine the important clinicopathological features and adjuvant treatments in terms of the prognosis of patients with operable-stage ampullary carcinomas. Materials and Methods: We included 197 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy to treat ampullary carcinomas between December 2003 and May 2019. Demographics, clinical features, treatments, and outcomes/survival were analyzed. Results: The median disease-free survival (mDFS) and median overall survival (mOS) were 40.9 vs. 63.4 months, respectively. The mDFS was significantly lower in patients with lymphovascular invasion (p < 0.001) and lymph node involvement (p = 0.027). Potential predictors of decreased OS on univariate analysis included age ≥ 50 years (p = 0.045), poor performance status (p = 0.048), weight loss (p = 0.045), T3–T4 tumors (p = 0.018), surgical margin positivity (p = 0.01), lymph node involvement (p = 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (p < 0.001), perineural invasion (p = 0.007), and poor histological grade (p = 0.042). For the multivariate analysis, only nodal status (hazard ratio [HR]1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08–3.65; p = 0.027) and surgical margin status (HR 2.61; 95% CI, 1.09–6.24; p = 0.03) were associated with OS. Conclusions: Nodal status and a positive surgical margin were independent predictors of a poor mOS for patients with ampullary carcinomas. Additional studies are required to explore the role of adjuvant therapy in patients with ampullary carcinomas. Full article
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13 pages, 1183 KiB  
Review
Recurrences after Pulsed Field Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation: Incidence, Mechanisms, Predictors, and Comparison with Thermal Energy
by Riccardo Vio, Enrico Forlin and Paolo China
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050817 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 337
Abstract
Pulsed Field Ablation (PFA) is the latest and most intriguing technology for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation, due to its capability to generate irreversible and cardiomyocytes-selective electroporation of cell membranes by delivering microsecond-lasting high-voltage electrical fields, leading to high expectations. The first trials [...] Read more.
Pulsed Field Ablation (PFA) is the latest and most intriguing technology for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation, due to its capability to generate irreversible and cardiomyocytes-selective electroporation of cell membranes by delivering microsecond-lasting high-voltage electrical fields, leading to high expectations. The first trials to assess the clinical success of PFA, reported an arrhythmia-free survival at 1-year of 78.5%, while other trials showed less enthusiastic results: 66.2% in paroxysmal and 55.1% in persistent AF. Nevertheless, real world data are encouraging. The isolation of pulmonary veins with PFA is easily achieved with 100% acute success. Systematic invasive remapping showed a high prevalence of durable pulmonary vein isolation at 75 and 90 days (range 84–96%), which were significatively lower in redo procedures (64.3%). The advent of PFA is prompting a reconsideration of the role of the autonomic nervous system in AF ablation, as PFA-related sparing of the ganglionated plexi could lead to the still undetermined effect on late arrhythmias’ recurrences. Moreover, a new concept of a blanking period could be formulated with PFA, according to its different mechanism of myocardial injury, with less inflammation and less chronic fibrosis. Finally, in this review, we also compare PFA with thermal energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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11 pages, 1180 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Neuromuscular Morphometry of the Vaginal Wall Using Protein Gene Product 9.5 (Pgp 9.5) and Smooth Muscle α-Actin (Sma) in Patients with Posterior Vaginal Wall Prolapse
by Mustafa Çetin, Güven Güney, Özer Birge, Emine Arslan, Burcu Timur and Hakan Timur
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050816 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 319
Abstract
Background and Objectives: This study aims to compare the neuromuscular structure of the vagina in women with posterior vaginal wall prolapse with the neuromuscular structure of the vagina in women without prolapse, to determine the difference, and to demonstrate the role of [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This study aims to compare the neuromuscular structure of the vagina in women with posterior vaginal wall prolapse with the neuromuscular structure of the vagina in women without prolapse, to determine the difference, and to demonstrate the role of neuromuscular structure in the physiopathology of prolapse. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, women aged between 40 and 75 years who had not undergone any vaginal surgery and had not undergone any abdominal prolapse surgery were included. Thirty-one women diagnosed with rectocele on examination were included in the study group. Thirty-one patients who underwent vaginal intervention and hysterectomy for reasons other than rectocele (colposcopy, conization, etc.) without anterior or posterior wall prolapse were included in the control group. Biopsy material was obtained from the epithelium of the posterior wall of the vagina, including the fascia that fits the Ap point. Immunohistochemical staining with Protein Gene Product 9.5 and smooth muscle α-actin was performed in the pathology laboratory. The epithelial thickness measurement and smooth muscle density parameters obtained with these immunohistochemical stainings were compared between the two groups. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS 23 package program. p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: In the control group, muscle thickness and the number of nerves per mm2 of fascia were statistically significantly higher than in the study group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: We found that smooth muscle tissue and the number of nerves per mm2 of fascia were decreased in posterior vaginal wall prolapse compared to the general population. Based on the correlation coefficients, age was the parameter that most affected the degree of prolapse, followed by parity, number of live births, and number of vaginal deliveries. Full article
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14 pages, 365 KiB  
Review
Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis—Associated Genes, Cytokines, and Human Leukocyte Antigens
by Marek Zalesak, Lubos Danisovic and Stefan Harsanyi
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050815 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 387
Abstract
In recent years, research has intensified in exploring the genetic basis of psoriasis (PsO) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Genome-wide association studies (GWASs), including tools like ImmunoChip, have significantly deepened our understanding of disease mechanisms by pinpointing risk-associated genetic loci. These efforts have elucidated [...] Read more.
In recent years, research has intensified in exploring the genetic basis of psoriasis (PsO) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Genome-wide association studies (GWASs), including tools like ImmunoChip, have significantly deepened our understanding of disease mechanisms by pinpointing risk-associated genetic loci. These efforts have elucidated biological pathways involved in PsO pathogenesis, particularly those related to the innate immune system, antigen presentation, and adaptive immune responses. Specific genetic loci, such as TRAF3IP2, REL, and FBXL19, have been identified as having a significant impact on disease development. Interestingly, different genetic variants at the same locus can predispose individuals to either PsO or PsA (e.g., IL23R and deletion of LCE3B and LCE3C), with some variants being uniquely linked to PsA (like HLA B27 on chromosome 6). This article aims to summarize known and new data on the genetics of PsO and PsA, their associated genes, and the involvement of the HLA system and cytokines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring Novel Biomarkers of Musculoskeletal Diseases)
13 pages, 322 KiB  
Article
Major Bleeding Events in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Observational Study
by Andrea Poloni, Giacomo Casalini, Giacomo Pozza, Andrea Giacomelli, Marta Colaneri, Giorgia Carrozzo, Beatrice Caloni, Cosmin Lucian Ciubotariu, Martina Zacheo, Andrea Rabbione, Margherita Pieruzzi, Federico Barone, Matteo Passerini, Anna Lisa Ridolfo, Giuliano Rizzardini, Andrea Gori and Spinello Antinori
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050814 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 328
Abstract
Thromboprophylaxis/anticoagulation treatment is often required in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of major bleeding events in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This was a retrospective observational study including all COVID-19 hospitalized patients ≥18 years of age at one reference center in [...] Read more.
Thromboprophylaxis/anticoagulation treatment is often required in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of major bleeding events in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This was a retrospective observational study including all COVID-19 hospitalized patients ≥18 years of age at one reference center in northern Italy. The crude prevalence (between February 2020–2022) of major bleeding events was estimated as the number of major bleeding episodes divided by patients at risk. Uni- and multivariable Cox models were built to assess factors potentially associated with major bleeding events. Twenty-nine (0.98%) out of 2,945 COVID-19 patients experienced a major bleeding event [prevalence of 0.55% (95%CI 0.37–0.79)], of which five were fatal. Patients who experienced a major bleeding event were older [78 years (72–84 IQR) vs. 67 years (55–78 IQR), p-value < 0.001] and more frequently exposed to anti-aggregating therapy (44.8% vs. 20.0%, p-value 0.002) when compared to those who did not. In the multivariable Cox model, age [per 1 year more AHR 1.05 (CI95% 1.02–1.09)] was independently associated with an increased risk of major bleeding events. A strict monitoring of older hospitalized COVID-19 patients is warranted due to the risk of major bleeding events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease)
14 pages, 1019 KiB  
Article
High ADMA Is Associated with Worse Health Profile in Heart Failure Patients Hospitalized for Episodes of Acute Decompensation
by Anamaria Vîlcea, Simona Maria Borta, Romana Olivia Popețiu, Rus Larisa Alexandra, Luminița Pilat, Dragoș Vasile Nica and Maria Pușchiță
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050813 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 186
Abstract
Background and Objectives: episodes of acute decompensation in chronic heart failure (ADHF), a common health problem for the growing elderly population, pose a significant socio-economic burden on the public health systems. Limited knowledge is available on both the endothelial function in and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: episodes of acute decompensation in chronic heart failure (ADHF), a common health problem for the growing elderly population, pose a significant socio-economic burden on the public health systems. Limited knowledge is available on both the endothelial function in and the cardio-metabolic health profile of old adults hospitalized due to ADHF. This study aimed to investigate the connection between asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)—a potent inhibitor of nitric oxide—and key health biomarkers in this category of high-risk patients. Materials and Methods: this pilot study included 83 individuals with a known ADHF history who were admitted to the ICU due to acute cardiac decompensation. Selected cardiovascular, metabolic, haemogram, renal, and liver parameters were measured at admission to the ICU. Key renal function indicators (serum creatinine, sodium, and potassium) were determined again at discharge. These parameters were compared between patients stratified by median ADMA (114 ng/mL). Results: high ADMA patients showed a significantly higher incidence of ischemic cardiomyopathy and longer length of hospital stay compared to those with low ADMA subjects. These individuals exhibited significantly higher urea at admission and creatinine at discharge, indicating poorer renal function. Moreover, their lipid profile was less favorable, with significantly elevated levels of total cholesterol and HDL. However, no significant inter-group differences were observed for the other parameters measured. Conclusions: the present findings disclose multidimensional, adverse ADMA-related changes in the health risk profile of patients with chronic heart failure hospitalized due to recurrent decompensation episodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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11 pages, 629 KiB  
Article
Pharmaceutical Management of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism and the Role of Surgery: A 5-Year Retrospective Study
by Christina Sevva, Dimitrios Divanis, Ariti Tsinari, Petros Grammenos, Styliani Laskou, Stylianos Mantalobas, Eleni Paschou, Vasiliki Magra, Periklis Kopsidas, Isaak Kesisoglou, Vassilios Liakopoulos and Konstantinos Sapalidis
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050812 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 275
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) poses a common condition among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to the chronic stimulation of the parathyroid glands as a result of persistently low calcium levels. As a first option for medical treatment, vitamin D [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) poses a common condition among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to the chronic stimulation of the parathyroid glands as a result of persistently low calcium levels. As a first option for medical treatment, vitamin D receptor analogs (VDRAs) and calcimimetic agents are generally used. Apart from cinacalcet, which is orally taken, in recent years, another calcimimetic agent, etelcalcetide, is being administered intravenously during dialysis. Materials and Methods: In a 5-year retrospective study between 2018 and 2023, 52 patients undergoing dialysis were studied. The aim of this study is to highlight the possible effects and/or benefits that intravenously administered calcimimetic agents have on CKD patients. A total of 34 patients (65.4%) received cinacalcet and etelcalcetide while parathormone (PTH) and calcium serum levels were monitored on a monthly basis. Results: A total of 29 out of 33 patients (87.9%) that received treatment with etelcalcetide showed a significant decrease in PTH levels, which rose up to 57% compared to the initial values. None of the included patients needed to undergo parathyroidectomy (PTx) due to either extremely high and persistent PTH levels or severe side effects of the medications. It is generally strongly advised that parathyroidectomies should be performed by an expert surgical team. In recent years, a significant decrease in parathyroidectomies has been recorded globally, a fact that is mainly linked to the constantly wider use of new calcimimetic agents. This decrease in parathyroidectomies has resulted in an important decrease in complications occurring in cervical surgeries (e.g., perioperative hemorrhage and nerve damage). Conslusions: Despite the fact that these surgical complications cannot be easily compared to the pharmaceutical side effects, the recorded decrease in parathyroidectomies is considered to be notable, especially in cases of relapse where a difficult reoperation would be considered based on previously published guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Surgery)
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16 pages, 1189 KiB  
Article
Effects of Rehabilitation Robot Training on Physical Function, Functional Recovery, and Daily Living Activities in Patients with Sub-Acute Stroke
by Se-Young Kim, Mi-Young Lee and Byoung-Hee Lee
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050811 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 217
Abstract
Stroke often results in sensory deficits, muscular weakness, and diminished postural control, thereby restricting mobility and functional capabilities. It is important to promote neuroplasticity by implementing task-oriented exercises that induce changes in patients. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of rehabilitation [...] Read more.
Stroke often results in sensory deficits, muscular weakness, and diminished postural control, thereby restricting mobility and functional capabilities. It is important to promote neuroplasticity by implementing task-oriented exercises that induce changes in patients. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of rehabilitation robot training on physical function, functional recovery, and activities of daily living (ADLs) in patients with subacute stroke. The study participants were patients with subacute stroke receiving treatment at Hospitals A and B. They were selected as research subjects based on selection and exclusion criteria. The experimental group received rehabilitation robot training in sessions of 30 min, five times weekly, for a total of 20 sessions over four weeks. Conversely, the control group underwent standard rehabilitation equipment training with an identical frequency, duration, and number of sessions. Measurements were taken before and after the training period to assess changes in physical function, functional recovery, and activities of daily living using tools such as the MMT, BBS, FBG, FAC, FIM, and MBI. The results were as follows: in the within-group comparison, the rehabilitation robot training group showed significant differences in MMT, BBS, FBG, FAC, FIM, and MBI (p < 0.05), while the control group showed significant differences in FIM (p < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were observed in the time, group, and time × group interaction effects among the MMT, static seated FBG, dynamic seated FBG, FIM, and MBI (p < 0.05). Based on these results, rehabilitation robotic training resulted in significant improvements in physical function, functional recovery, and activities of daily living in patients with subacute stroke. Based on these findings, providing a basic protocol for a rehabilitation program that applies rehabilitation robot training to patients with subacute stroke may offer more effective treatment and outcomes in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic New Advances in Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy)
14 pages, 8016 KiB  
Article
Circulating Anti-Endothelial Cell Antibodies in Patients with Geographic Atrophy Related to Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration
by Katarzyna Żuber-Łaskawiec, Joanna Wilańska, Izabella Karska-Basta, Weronika Pociej-Marciak, Bożena Romanowska-Dixon, Marek Sanak and Agnieszka Kubicka-Trząska
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050810 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 249
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of central vision loss among elderly patients, and its dry form accounts for the majority of cases. Although several causes and mechanisms for the development and progression of AMD [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of central vision loss among elderly patients, and its dry form accounts for the majority of cases. Although several causes and mechanisms for the development and progression of AMD have previously been identified, the pathogenesis of this complex disease is still not entirely understood. As inflammation and immune system involvement are strongly suggested to play a central role in promoting the degenerative process and stimulating the onset of complications, we aimed to analyze the frequency of serum anti-retinal (ARAs) and anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECAs) in patients with dry AMD and to determine their relationship with the clinical features of the disease, notably the area of geographic atrophy (GA). Materials and Methods: This study included 41 patients with advanced-stage dry AMD and 50 healthy controls without AMD, matched for gender and age. ARAs were detected by indirect immunofluorescence using monkey retina as an antigen substrate, and the presence of AECAs was determined using cultivated human umbilical vein endothelial cells and primate skeletal muscle. Results: ARAs were detected in 36 (87.8%) AMD patients (titers ranged from 1:20 to 1:320) and in 16 (39.0%) (titers ranged from 1:10 to 1:40) controls (p = 0.0000). Twenty of the forty-one patients (48.8%) were positive for AECAs, while in the control group, AECAs were present only in five sera (10.0%). The titers of AECAs in AMD patients ranged from 1:100 to 1:1000, and in the control group, the AECA titers were 1:100 (p = 0.0001). There were no significant correlations between the presence of AECAs and disease activity. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a higher prevalence of circulating AECAs in patients with dry AMD; however, no correlation was found between the serum levels of these autoantibodies and the area of GA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ophthalmology)
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