Topic Editors

Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy
Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering "Guglielmo Marconi", Campus Cesena, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy

Power Converters

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 September 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (30 November 2023)
Viewed by
52097

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, power converters are widely used in many applications, ranging from low-power to high-power electrical engineering. Researchers are very active in this broad field, where typically two research areas can be identified. First, new converter topologies and control strategies are proposed and investigated in order to improve the performance of power conversion. Second, since the switching frequencies of power converters are continuously increasing, typical issues concerning electromagnetic interferences are investigated.

Within the broad and interdisciplinary framework outlined above, this topic aims at collecting high-quality contributions and recent advances potentially covering the whole range of power converter analyses and applications.

Dr. Diego Bellan
Dr. Jelena Loncarski
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • Power conversion topologies, modulation, and control
  • High-power/voltage power conversion
  • Power converters for electric vehicles
  • Multilevel power converters
  • Bidirectional power converters
  • Power converters in renewable energy systems
  • Power converters in smart grid and utility applications
  • Automotive, aerospace, and transportation applications of power converters
  • Industrial, commercial, and residential applications of power converters
  • Low- and high-voltage DC power supplies
  • Uninterrupted power supplies
  • Power quality conditioners, HVDC converters and control
  • EMC/EMI and HF phenomena

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Electronics
electronics
2.9 4.7 2012 15.6 Days CHF 2400
World Electric Vehicle Journal
wevj
2.3 3.7 2007 14.1 Days CHF 1400
Electricity
electricity
- - 2020 20.3 Days CHF 1000

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Published Papers (23 papers)

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26 pages, 15997 KiB  
Article
Diagnosis of Multiple Open-Circuit Faults in Three-Phase Induction Machine Drive Systems Based on Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory Algorithm
by Badii Gmati, Amine Ben Rhouma, Houda Meddeb and Sejir Khojet El Khil
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15020053 - 05 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1001
Abstract
Availability and continuous operation under critical conditions are very important in electric machine drive systems. Such systems may suffer from several types of failures that affect the electric machine or the associated voltage source inverter. Therefore, fault diagnosis and fault tolerance are highly [...] Read more.
Availability and continuous operation under critical conditions are very important in electric machine drive systems. Such systems may suffer from several types of failures that affect the electric machine or the associated voltage source inverter. Therefore, fault diagnosis and fault tolerance are highly required. This paper presents a new robust deep learning-based approach to diagnose multiple open-circuit faults in three-phase, two-level voltage source inverters for induction-motor drive applications. The proposed approach uses fault-diagnosis variables obtained from the sigmoid transformation of the motor stator currents. The open-circuit fault-diagnosis variables are then introduced to a bidirectional long short-term memory algorithm to detect the faulty switch(es). Several simulation and experimental results are presented to show the proposed fault-diagnosis algorithm’s effectiveness and robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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23 pages, 10317 KiB  
Article
A Multiple-Sensor Fault-Tolerant Control of a Single-Phase Pulse-Width Modulated Rectifier Based on MRAS and GPI Observers
by M. Dardouri, M. Salman, S. Khojet El Khil, C. Boccaletti and K. Jelassi
Electronics 2024, 13(3), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13030502 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 640
Abstract
Due to their advantages in ensuring low harmonic distortion and high power factors, single-phase Pulse-Width Modulated (PWM) rectifiers are widely employed in several industrial applications. Generally, the conventional control loop of a single-phase PWM rectifier uses both voltage and current sensors. Hence, in [...] Read more.
Due to their advantages in ensuring low harmonic distortion and high power factors, single-phase Pulse-Width Modulated (PWM) rectifiers are widely employed in several industrial applications. Generally, the conventional control loop of a single-phase PWM rectifier uses both voltage and current sensors. Hence, in case of sensor fault, the performance and the availability of the converter can be seriously compromised. Therefore, diagnosis approaches and fault-tolerant control (FTC) strategies are mandatory to monitor these systems. Accordingly, this paper introduces a novel multiple-sensor FTC scheme for a single-phase PWM rectifier. The proposed fault diagnosis approach relies on joining several Generalized Proportional Integral (GPI) and Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) observers with a residual generation technique to detect and isolate sensor faults in a simple and reliable manner. While conventional sensor FTC methods dedicated to PWM rectifiers can only deal with single faults, the suggested approach guarantees a very good effectiveness level of sensor fault detection, isolation (FDI) and FTC of multiple-sensor fault occurrence scenarios. Consequently, the single-phase PWM rectifier can work with only the survivable single sensor with the guarantee of very good performance as in healthy operation mode. The effectiveness of the proposed sensor FDI approach and its control reconfiguration performance are demonstrated through both extensive simulation and experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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19 pages, 9711 KiB  
Article
Simple Design Scheme for a 300 kW Modular NPC Inverter Using Thermal RC Network Analysis
by Jae-Woon Lee, Ji-Won Kim, Chee-Woo Lee, Byoung-Gun Park and Jin-Kyu Lee
Energies 2024, 17(2), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17020393 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 439
Abstract
This paper proposes a simple design scheme for a modular NPC inverter using thermal RC network analysis. The proposed design process is an efficient and straightforward approach to designing the heatsink for a 300 kW modular neutral-point-clamped inverter. The heatsink design plays a [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a simple design scheme for a modular NPC inverter using thermal RC network analysis. The proposed design process is an efficient and straightforward approach to designing the heatsink for a 300 kW modular neutral-point-clamped inverter. The heatsink design plays a crucial role in achieving high power density of a power converter because the weight and size of the heatsink are primarily influenced by its type. The structure and dimensions of the heatsink are mainly determined based on the generated heat by losses of the power semiconductor switches. In this paper, a thermal RC network model was established using parameters from the power switch module and was applied to the simulation of the power converter. The thermal losses of the power semiconductor switches were calculated via this process, and the heatsink was designed according to the calculated thermal losses. The proposed design scheme was analyzed and compared with the thermal fluid dynamic model. To validate the feasibility of the proposed design process, The simulation results were compared with experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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28 pages, 8681 KiB  
Article
A New Single-Cell Hybrid Inductor-Capacitor DC-DC Converter for Ultra-High Voltage Gain in Renewable Energy Applications
by Ammar Falah Algamluoli and Xiaohua Wu
Electronics 2023, 12(14), 3101; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12143101 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1145
Abstract
In this paper, a new single-cell hybrid switched inductor DC-DC converter is proposed to demonstrate the verification of ultra-high voltage gain in renewable energy applications (REA). The modification involves adding a single cell of an inductor with a diode and double capacitor to [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new single-cell hybrid switched inductor DC-DC converter is proposed to demonstrate the verification of ultra-high voltage gain in renewable energy applications (REA). The modification involves adding a single cell of an inductor with a diode and double capacitor to increase voltage transfer gain. Additionally, this modification helps prevent the input current from becoming zero, pulsating at very low duty cycles. The single cell of the hybrid inductor is interleaved with the main switch to reduce current stress when the capacitor of the single-cell inductor charge becomes zero. Moreover, the addition of a modified hybrid switch inductor with a capacitor, operating in dual boosting mode with a single switch, allows the converter to achieve ultra-high voltage gain. The proposed converter offers several advantages, including ultra-high voltage gain, high efficiency, low voltage stress on power MOSFETs, diodes, inductors, and capacitors, as well as low switching and conduction losses. Furthermore, the proposed converter utilizes transformerless and non-coupled inductors. Mathematical equations have been derived for the discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) and continuous conduction mode (CCM) and implemented using Matlab Simulink software to validate the results. In addition, a dual PI controller is designed for the proposed converter to verify the fixed output voltage. Experimental results have also been obtained for a 200 W prototype, with the input voltage varying between 20 V and 40 V, and an output voltage of 200 V at an efficiency of 96.5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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31 pages, 4601 KiB  
Article
Experimental Design of an Adaptive LQG Controller for Battery Charger/Dischargers Featuring Low Computational Requirements
by Jhoan Alejandro Montenegro-Oviedo, Carlos Andres Ramos-Paja, Martha Lucia Orozco-Gutierrez, Edinson Franco-Mejía and Sergio Ignacio Serna-Garcés
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(6), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14060142 - 28 May 2023
Viewed by 1305
Abstract
The growing use of DC/DC power converters has resulted in the requirement that their complex controllers be cheaper and smaller, thus using cost-effective implementations. For this purpose, it is necessary to decrease the computational burden in controller implementation to minimize the hardware requirements. [...] Read more.
The growing use of DC/DC power converters has resulted in the requirement that their complex controllers be cheaper and smaller, thus using cost-effective implementations. For this purpose, it is necessary to decrease the computational burden in controller implementation to minimize the hardware requirements. This manuscript presents two methods for tuning an adaptive linear–quadratic–Gaussian voltage controller for a battery charger/discharger, implemented with a Sepic/Zeta converter, to work at any operating point. The first method is based on a lookup table to select, using the nearest method, both the state feedback vector and the observer gain vector, solving the Riccati’s differential equation offline for each practical operating point. The second method defines a polynomial function for each controller element that is based on the previous data corresponding to the system operating points. The adaptability of the two controllers to fixed voltage regulation and reference tracking was validated using simulations and experimental tests. The overshoot and settling time results were lower than 11% and 3.7 ms, which are in the same orders of magnitude of a control approach in which the equations are solved online. Likewise, three indices were evaluated: central processing unit capacity, cost, and performance. This evaluation confirms that the controller based on polynomial interpolation is the best option of the two examined methods due to the satisfactory balance between dynamic performance and cost. Despite the advantages of the controllers in being based on a lookup table and polynomial interpolation, the adaptive linear–quadratic–Gaussian has the benefit of not requiring an offline training campaign; however, the cost saving obtained with the lookup table controllers and polynomial interpolation controllers, due to the possible implementation on small-size microcontrollers with development tool simple and easy maintenance, will surely be desirable for a large number of deployed units, ensuring that those solutions are highly cost-effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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18 pages, 6748 KiB  
Article
Large- and Small-Signal Modeling and Control Strategy for Multi-Output Welding Power Supply
by Jingzhang Zhang, Shujun Chen, Yue Yu, Hongyan Zhao and Mingyu Liu
Electronics 2023, 12(8), 1800; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12081800 - 11 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1288
Abstract
Welding technology is a key aspect of the manufacturing industry. With the application of aluminum alloy expanding to more applications, the demand for advanced welding technology for aluminum alloy is constantly increasing. The aluminum alloy welding process requires a multi-output welding power supply [...] Read more.
Welding technology is a key aspect of the manufacturing industry. With the application of aluminum alloy expanding to more applications, the demand for advanced welding technology for aluminum alloy is constantly increasing. The aluminum alloy welding process requires a multi-output welding power supply to improve aluminum alloy welding quality. In this paper, we design a novel type of multi-output converter that outputs dual DC or single AC according to different welding process requirements and analyze its working principles in detail. Considering the influence of load current variation on the circuit’s performance, we established small-signal models of the DC and AC working modes and large-signal models of the system. Based on these models, we designed a control algorithm for the proposed multi-electrode arc welding power supply. Finally, we constructed an experimental prototype and demonstrated the feasibility of the control strategy. Based on the welding power supply designed in this paper, the welding process control of aluminum alloy can be more accurate, resulting in better welding quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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17 pages, 3717 KiB  
Article
Cascaded AC-DC Power Conversion Interface for Charging Battery
by Jinn-Chang Wu, Hurng-Liahng Jou, Fu-Zen Chen and Jung-Peng Li
Electronics 2023, 12(5), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12051192 - 01 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1347
Abstract
This paper develops a cascaded AC-DC power conversion interface (CADPCI) to convert AC power to charge the battery set. The proposed CADPCI is composed of a cascaded converter (CC) and a dual-input buck converter (DIBC). The CC is formed by connecting a full-bridge [...] Read more.
This paper develops a cascaded AC-DC power conversion interface (CADPCI) to convert AC power to charge the battery set. The proposed CADPCI is composed of a cascaded converter (CC) and a dual-input buck converter (DIBC). The CC is formed by connecting a full-bridge converter (FBC) and a bridgeless rectifier (BLR) in series. The CADPCI generates an 11-level input voltage and performs unity power factor correction. The switching loss is reduced because only the FBC with a lower DC port voltage is switched at a high frequency. The DIBC uses a buck converter and a selection switch set to generate a two-level DC voltage on the DC port of the BLR. By controlling the DC input voltage of the buck converter, the injected power of the BLR can match the input power of the utility. Therefore, the FBC does not require to handle the real power, saving an isolated converter for regulating the DC port voltage of the FBC, thus simplifying the power circuit of the CC. The buck converter also acts as a DC active filter to filter out low-frequency ripples of the charging current. A prototype is constructed to verify the performance of the proposed CADPCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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21 pages, 11618 KiB  
Article
A High-Efficiency QR Flyback DC–DC Converter with Reduced Switch Voltage Stress Realized by Applying a Self-Driven Active Snubber (SDAS)
by Jeong-Sang Yoo, Jong-Ok Baek and Tae-Young Ahn
Energies 2023, 16(3), 1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031068 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2946
Abstract
In this paper, a QR flyback converter using a self-driven active snubber (SDAS) was proposed to solve the problem of voltage surge in the switch of QR flyback converters. In the proposed converter, the SDAS consisting of a clamping capacitor and an active [...] Read more.
In this paper, a QR flyback converter using a self-driven active snubber (SDAS) was proposed to solve the problem of voltage surge in the switch of QR flyback converters. In the proposed converter, the SDAS consisting of a clamping capacitor and an active switch can be configured in parallel with the main switch or transformer to reduce the voltage surge in the switch. To confirm the steady-state characteristics of the QR flyback converter to which the proposed SDAS is applied, equivalent circuits for each state were constructed, and the equations and characteristics for each state were determined. A 60 W class small AC–DC adapter was constructed to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed converter and the control circuit method, and the experimental results were analyzed. The size of the experimental AC–DC adapter was 74×29×23 mm, and it had a high power density of 20 W/in3 or more. The experimental circuit was limited to the high power conversion efficiency of up to 91.56%, and the maximum voltage surge in the switch was approximately 450 V. One of the reasons for such high efficiency is the SDAS circuit, which sufficiently reduces the voltage surge of the QR flyback switch, compared with the RCD clamp circuit, and does not consume power in principle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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17 pages, 5419 KiB  
Article
The Suppression of Modular Multi-Level Converter Circulation Based on the PIR Virtual Impedance Strategy
by Chun Wang, Wenxu Yan, Wenyuan Wang, Hongyu Ni and Jie Chu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14010017 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1533
Abstract
In recent years, with the rise of the electric vehicle industry, there has been significant research on charging and power supply vehicle technologies for electric vehicles. In terms of the corresponding converter usage, modular multi-level converters (MMCs) are also increasingly used in the [...] Read more.
In recent years, with the rise of the electric vehicle industry, there has been significant research on charging and power supply vehicle technologies for electric vehicles. In terms of the corresponding converter usage, modular multi-level converters (MMCs) are also increasingly used in the field of electric vehicle power supply research because of their unique advantages. However, the circulating current problem of MMCs has not been effectively addressed in existing domestic and international studies. In this paper, we propose a proportional-integral resonant (PIR) control method combined with virtual impedance for the optimal suppression of the MMC internal circulating current problem based on the comparison and generalization of the existing methods. Based on the analysis of the working principle of MMCs, this paper proposes and adopts the control strategy of combining virtual impedance and proportional-integral resonance to suppress the circulating current and builds a simulation model in MATLAB to verify that the control strategy proposed in this paper is feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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19 pages, 3782 KiB  
Article
Design Optimization of an Efficient Bicolor LED Driving System
by Fouzia Ferdous and A.B.M. Harun-ur Rashid
Electronics 2022, 11(23), 3984; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11233984 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1454
Abstract
There are some challenges involved in the design of a multicolor LED driver, such as the precise control of color consistency, i.e., maintaining the correlated color temperature (CCT) and luminous intensity. CCT deviation causes a color shift of composite light. This paper approaches [...] Read more.
There are some challenges involved in the design of a multicolor LED driver, such as the precise control of color consistency, i.e., maintaining the correlated color temperature (CCT) and luminous intensity. CCT deviation causes a color shift of composite light. This paper approaches the method of nonlinear optimization of the LED currents of two LED sources to achieve the desired CCT. A bicolor blended-shade white LED system is formed by using a warm color LED source of 1000 K CCT and a cool color LED source of 6500 K CCT. By using a nonlinear optimization methodology, the reduced deviation of the blended CCT and optimum LED currents are obtained. The optimized currents in the two LED strings are maintained by the control circuit of the single-ended primary inductor converter (SEPIC). The obtained reduced deviation of the CCT is 43 K, and the precision is 99.15%. Again, harmonics in the input current hamper power quality, i.e., reduce the power factor and increase power loss. This paper proposes the harmonic reduction technique to achieve the lowest value of total harmonic distortion (THD) through the nonlinear parametric optimization of the SEPIC. Measured THD = 4.37%; PF = 0.96; and efficiency = 92.8%. The system stability was determined and found to be satisfactory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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20 pages, 11687 KiB  
Article
Performance Analysis and Evaluation of Multiphase Split-Source Inverters
by Sherif M. Dabour, Ahmed A. Aboushady, I. A. Gowaid, Mohamed. A. Elgenedy and Mohamed E. Farrag
Energies 2022, 15(22), 8411; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15228411 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1481
Abstract
Due to their many advantages over their counterparts, such as Z-source inverters (ZSIs), split-source inverters (SSIs) have recently received much attention as single-stage boost inverters. This paper discusses a multiphase version of the SSI topology for the first time. Among multiphase systems undergoing [...] Read more.
Due to their many advantages over their counterparts, such as Z-source inverters (ZSIs), split-source inverters (SSIs) have recently received much attention as single-stage boost inverters. This paper discusses a multiphase version of the SSI topology for the first time. Among multiphase systems undergoing a revolution in the research area, five-phase motor drives are a relatively practical selection in industrial applications. Therefore, this paper focuses on a five-phase SSI as an example. The topology, operating principles, modulation techniques, and performance analysis of the analyzed topology are introduced. A modified space-vector modulation (MSVM) scheme is developed to eliminate low-frequency ripples in the input current. There is also a detailed analysis and graphical evaluation of the output currents ripples using the space-vector approach. It is evident that multiphase SSI is suitable for motor drives, especially when a high-output voltage gain is required. In addition to having a nearly identical ripple in output current to a conventional VSI, it has the benefit of performing the boosting action in a single stage with fewer passive components and a low ripple in input current. Finally, the simulation and experimental results have been conducted to demonstrate the viability of the multiphase SSI studied in the theoretical study and analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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15 pages, 3339 KiB  
Article
Analysis, Design, and Experimental Results for a High-Frequency ZVZCS Galvanically Isolated PSFB DC-DC Converter over a Wide Operating Range Using GaN-HEMT
by Abdullah Eial Awwad
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(11), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13110206 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1921
Abstract
This paper investigates the potential of the emerging gallium nitride (GaN) high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT) power devices to meet certain power conversion challenges. The advantages of utilizing GaN HEMT transistors in a high-frequency, high-power isolated DC-DC topology are explored experimentally. Using the GaN [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the potential of the emerging gallium nitride (GaN) high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT) power devices to meet certain power conversion challenges. The advantages of utilizing GaN HEMT transistors in a high-frequency, high-power isolated DC-DC topology are explored experimentally. Using the GaN HEMT’s parasitic elements, e.g., output capacitance, and the leakage inductance of the transformer, a soft switching zero-voltage zero-current switching (ZVZCS) phase shift converter is proposed. Accordingly, the freewheeling current is terminated, and soft switching is realized for most of the primary and secondary active devices. Furthermore, without using any additional circuitry, the overshoot voltage across the bridges of active rectifier diodes is clamped at their voltage level. In addition, a high-frequency power transformer is optimized to minimize the overall transformer losses (e.g., winding and core losses). Combined the conductor types, e.g., litz wire and copper foil, shows good electrical and thermal performance by reducing the AC and DC resistance. Finally, a 5 kW, 100–250 kHz prototype is built and tested. The experimental results show a conversion efficiency of up to 98.18% for the whole converter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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23 pages, 5484 KiB  
Review
Review of Single-Phase Bidirectional Inverter Topologies for Renewable Energy Systems with DC Distribution
by Meshari Alshammari and Maeve Duffy
Energies 2022, 15(18), 6836; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15186836 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3098
Abstract
Recent developments in renewable energy installations in buildings have highlighted the potential improvement in energy efficiency provided by direct current (DC) distribution over traditional alternating current (AC) distribution. This is explained by the increase in DC load types and energy storage systems such [...] Read more.
Recent developments in renewable energy installations in buildings have highlighted the potential improvement in energy efficiency provided by direct current (DC) distribution over traditional alternating current (AC) distribution. This is explained by the increase in DC load types and energy storage systems such as batteries, while renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PVs) produce electricity in DC form. In order to connect a DC distribution system to the alternating current grid (e.g., for backup, delivering energy storage to the grid) there is a need for a bidirectional inverter, which needs to operate over a wide range of source and load conditions and is therefore critical to the overall system performance. However, DC distribution in buildings is relatively new, with much of the research focused on the control of the DC bus connection between sources and loads, rather than on the grid connection. Therefore, this review aims to explore recent developments in bidirectional inverter technologies and the associated challenges imposed on grid-connected DC distribution systems. The focus is on small-scale building applications powered by photovoltaic (PV) installations, which may include energy storage in the form of batteries. An evaluation of existing inverter topologies is presented, focusing on semiconductor technologies, control techniques, and efficiency under variable source and load conditions. Challenges are identified, as are optimal solutions based on available technologies. The work provides a basis for future developments to address current shortcomings so that the full benefits of DC distribution can be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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20 pages, 5479 KiB  
Article
DC-DC High-Step-Up Quasi-Resonant Converter to Drive Acoustic Transmitters
by Emad Roshandel, Amin Mahmoudi, Solmaz Kahourzade and Hamid Davazdah-Emami
Energies 2022, 15(15), 5745; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15155745 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1814
Abstract
This paper proposes a quasi-resonant step-up DC-DC converter to provide the DC-link voltage for piezoelectric transmitters (PZETs). The resonance not only provides a soft-switching condition for the converter switches, but also helps to decrease the converter element sizes for marine applications. Operation modes [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a quasi-resonant step-up DC-DC converter to provide the DC-link voltage for piezoelectric transmitters (PZETs). The resonance not only provides a soft-switching condition for the converter switches, but also helps to decrease the converter element sizes for marine applications. Operation modes of the proposed converter are discussed. The current and voltage of the converter components are derived analytically, and hence the converter gain is obtained. The performance of the proposed high-step-up, high-power density converter is examined through a comprehensive simulation study. The simulation results demonstrate the soft-switching operation and short transient time required for the converter to reach the reference output voltage. The converter output voltage remains unchanged when an inverter with a passive filter is placed at its output while supplying the PZET. The proposed DC-DC converter is prototyped to validate the converter gain and soft-switching operation experimentally. The converter gain and soft-switching results in simulation are well matched with those of the experimental tests. The converter efficiency in three different switching frequencies is obtained experimentally. The power density of the proposed topology is determined via the designing of a printed circuit board. The experimental results demonstrate the appropriate gain and efficiency of the converter in the tested power range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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26 pages, 9166 KiB  
Article
A Nonisolated Transformerless High-Gain DC–DC Converter for Renewable Energy Applications
by Mohammad Zaid, Ifham H. Malick, Imtiaz Ashraf, Mohd Tariq, Basem Alamri and Eduardo M. G. Rodrigues
Electronics 2022, 11(13), 2014; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11132014 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1979
Abstract
Dc–dc converters with a high gain, continuous input current, and common ground are usually employed in renewable energy applications to boost the generated output voltage of renewable energy sources. In this paper, a high-gain dc–dc converter comprising a voltage multiplier cell (VMC) and [...] Read more.
Dc–dc converters with a high gain, continuous input current, and common ground are usually employed in renewable energy applications to boost the generated output voltage of renewable energy sources. In this paper, a high-gain dc–dc converter comprising a voltage multiplier cell (VMC) and a common ground with continuous input current and low-voltage stress across semiconductor devices is proposed. The converter produces a voltage gain of about ten times compared to the conventional boost converter at a duty ratio of 50% by utilizing switched capacitors and switched inductors. The simultaneous operation of both the switches with the same gate pulse offers easy and simple control of the proposed converter with a wide range of operations. The boundary operation of the converter is analyzed and presented in both modes, i.e., continuous conduction mode (CCM) and discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). Ideal and nonideal analysis of the converter is carried out by integrating real models of passive elements and semiconductor devices by using PLECS software. The simulation is also used to calculate the losses and hence the working efficiency of the converter. The performance of the converter analyzed in the steady state is compared with various similar converters based on the voltage boosting capability and switching stresses. A hardware prototype is also developed to confirm and validate the theoretical analysis and simulation of the proposed converter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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26 pages, 8491 KiB  
Article
Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation Full-Bridge Diode-Clamped Multilevel LLC Resonant Converter Using Multi-Neighboring Reference Vector Discontinuous PWM
by Min-Sup Song and Jae-Bum Lee
Energies 2022, 15(11), 4045; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15114045 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4527
Abstract
A full-bridge diode-clamped multilevel LLC resonant converter suitable for power conversion systems that use high input voltage, such as railway vehicles, is proposed in this paper. In order to eliminate the voltage deviations of the capacitors connected in series to the high voltage [...] Read more.
A full-bridge diode-clamped multilevel LLC resonant converter suitable for power conversion systems that use high input voltage, such as railway vehicles, is proposed in this paper. In order to eliminate the voltage deviations of the capacitors connected in series to the high voltage input DC link, a novel modulation strategy referred to as multi-neighboring reference vector discontinuous pulse-width modulation (MNRV DPWM) is proposed. Unlike the existing two-level resonant converter that varies the operating frequency to hold the output voltage constant, the proposed multilevel resonant converter modulates the amplitude of the fundamental wave input to a resonance tank while fixing the operating frequency at the resonance point. Therefore, the design of passive elements becomes easier, and stable operation is possible over a wide operating range with only one power conversion stage. In this paper, the control algorithm and operation characteristics of the newly proposed full-bridge diode-clamped four-level LLC resonant converter are analyzed in detail and design guidelines are presented. The feasibility of the proposed converter is verified through a simulation and an experiment with a prototype converter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
(This article belongs to the Section F3: Power Electronics)
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17 pages, 3862 KiB  
Article
Study of the Effects of Current Imbalance in a Multiphase Buck Converter for Electric Vehicles
by Iván Alfonso Reyes-Portillo, Abraham Claudio-Sanchéz, Jorge Alberto Morales-Saldaña, Jesús Darío Mina-Antonio, Edgardo Marvel Netzahuatl-Huerta, Luisana Claudio-Pachecano, Mario Ponce-Silva and Ericka Reyes-Sánchez
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(5), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13050088 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3175
Abstract
The excessive use of fossil fuels has caused great concern due to modern environmental problems, particularly air pollution. The above situation demands that different areas of research aim at a sustainable movement to reduce CO2 emissions caused by non-renewable organic fuels. A [...] Read more.
The excessive use of fossil fuels has caused great concern due to modern environmental problems, particularly air pollution. The above situation demands that different areas of research aim at a sustainable movement to reduce CO2 emissions caused by non-renewable organic fuels. A solution to this problem is the use of Electric Vehicles (EV) for mass transportation of people. However, these systems require high-power DC/DC converters capable of handling high current levels and should feature high efficiencies to charge their batteries. For this application, a single-stage converter is not viable for these applications due to the high current stress in a switch, the low power density, and its low efficiency due to higher switching losses. One solution to this problem is Multiphase Converters, which offer high efficiency, high power density, and low current ripple on the battery side. However, these characteristics are affected by the current imbalance in the phases. This paper is focused on the study of the effects of the current imbalance in a Multiphase Buck Converter, used as an intermediate cover between a power supply and the battery of an EV. Analyzing the efficiency and thermal stress parameters in different scenarios of current balance and current imbalance in each phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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20 pages, 7159 KiB  
Article
Rapid Evaluation Method for Modular Converter Topologies
by Damiano Lanzarotto, Florent Morel, Pierre-Baptiste Steckler and Konstantin Vershinin
Energies 2022, 15(10), 3492; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15103492 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2072
Abstract
The success of modular multilevel converters (MMCs) in high-voltage direct current (HVDC) applications has fueled the research on modular converter topologies. New modular converter topologies are often proposed, discussed, and sometimes applied in HVDC, as well as other industrial application such as STATCOMs, [...] Read more.
The success of modular multilevel converters (MMCs) in high-voltage direct current (HVDC) applications has fueled the research on modular converter topologies. New modular converter topologies are often proposed, discussed, and sometimes applied in HVDC, as well as other industrial application such as STATCOMs, DC/DC HVDC, medium-voltage direct current (MVDC), etc. The performance evaluation of new modular converter topologies is a complex and time-consuming process that typically involves dynamic simulations and the design of a control system for the new converter topology. Sadly, many topologies do not progress to the implementation stage. This paper proposes a set of key performance indicators (KPIs) related to the cost and footprint of the converter and a procedure designed to rapidly evaluate these indicators for new converter topologies. The proposed methodology eliminates the need for dynamic simulations and control-system design, and is capable of identifying whether a particular converter is worth considering or not for further studies of a specific application, depending on the operating requirements. Thanks to the method outlined in this work and via the key parameters quantifying the “relevance” of the analyzed converters, promising topologies were easily identified, while the others could be rapidly discarded, resulting in saving valuable time in the study of the solutions that have a real potential. The proposed method is first described from a general point of view and then applied to a case study of the new converter topology—Open-Delta CLSC—and its application in two use cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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14 pages, 9763 KiB  
Article
High-Frequency Oscillation of the Active-Bridge-Transformer-Based DC/DC Converter
by Shusheng Wei and Wusong Wen
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3311; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093311 - 02 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2460
Abstract
The dual-active-bridge converter (DAB) has attracted tremendous attention in recent years. However, its EMI issues, especially the high-frequency oscillation (HFO) induced by the dv/dt and parasitic elements of the transformer, are significant challenges. The multi-active-bridge converter (MAB) based on the [...] Read more.
The dual-active-bridge converter (DAB) has attracted tremendous attention in recent years. However, its EMI issues, especially the high-frequency oscillation (HFO) induced by the dv/dt and parasitic elements of the transformer, are significant challenges. The multi-active-bridge converter (MAB) based on the multi-winding transformer also faces similar problems, which are even more complicated. This article investigates the HFO of active-bridge-transformer-based DC/DC converters including DAB and MAB. Firstly, the general HFO model is studied using the analysis of the AC equivalent circuit considering the asymmetrical parameters. Ignoring the AC resistance in the circuit, the high-order model of the voltage oscillation could be reduced to a second-order system. Based on the simplified model, the oscillation voltage generated by an active bridge is analyzed in the time domain. Then, a universal active voltage-oscillation-suppression method-selected harmonic-elimination phase-shift (SHE PS) modulation method is proposed. The impacts of the system parameters on the method are also revealed. The experimental results show the excellent performance of the proposed active suppression method, with voltage spike amplitude (VSA) reductions of 92.1% and 77.8% for the DAB and MAB prototypes, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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33 pages, 8412 KiB  
Review
Power Converter Solutions for Industrial PV Applications—A Review
by Ievgen Verbytskyi, Mykola Lukianov, Kawsar Nassereddine, Bohdan Pakhaliuk, Oleksandr Husev and Ryszard Michał Strzelecki
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3295; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093295 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3871
Abstract
As the use of photovoltaics becomes more widespread, new technologies for more efficient energy generation, transmission, and distribution based on power electronics converters are being developed. The most common applications are grid-on, energy storage, hybrid, and high voltage gain applications. These applications impose [...] Read more.
As the use of photovoltaics becomes more widespread, new technologies for more efficient energy generation, transmission, and distribution based on power electronics converters are being developed. The most common applications are grid-on, energy storage, hybrid, and high voltage gain applications. These applications impose several additional requirements in the design of power converters associated with the solar battery’s maximum power tracking and operation in a wide range of input currents and voltages. The practical realization of such solutions can be implemented on the basis of various topologies, which requires a preliminary application of criteria for assessing their effectiveness. The paper conducts a comparison of different topologies on power converters based on two parameters that describe their cost and power loss for various PV applications. For a straightforward study, these parameters are represented using the gain factor, which allows for an accurate comparison of the efficiency of various types of converters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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26 pages, 3705 KiB  
Review
Technical Review of Traction Drive Systems for Light Railways
by Nursaid Polater and Pietro Tricoli
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3187; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093187 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3821
Abstract
Due to environmental concerns, governments around the world are taking measures to decarbonise railway transport by replacing diesel traction systems with cleaner alternatives. While the electrification of railway systems is spreading rapidly, it is unlikely that all routes will be electrified as the [...] Read more.
Due to environmental concerns, governments around the world are taking measures to decarbonise railway transport by replacing diesel traction systems with cleaner alternatives. While the electrification of railway systems is spreading rapidly, it is unlikely that all routes will be electrified as the volume of passengers will not justify the high infrastructure costs. Therefore, it is expected that, for several lines, a combination of hydrogen and electric traction will be used, with the latter partly provided by fixed infrastructure and partly by batteries. Railway traction drives will then need to change to accommodate these new types of power supply. A detailed review of the available traction motors and drives is provided with this review, given application to the new hybrid-electric systems. In particular, permanent magnet synchronous motors with multiphase windings are evaluated in comparison with traditional three-phase machines. Additionally, low and medium-voltage multisource power converters have been reviewed, taking into account the introduction of wide band-gap semiconductor devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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27 pages, 7991 KiB  
Review
A Review on Integrated Battery Chargers for Electric Vehicles
by Tiago J. C. Sousa, Delfim Pedrosa, Vitor Monteiro and Joao L. Afonso
Energies 2022, 15(8), 2756; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15082756 - 08 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2718
Abstract
Electric vehicles (EVs) contain two main power electronics systems, namely, the traction system and the battery charging system, which are not used simultaneously since traction occurs when the EV is travelling and battery charging when the EV is parked. By taking advantage of [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles (EVs) contain two main power electronics systems, namely, the traction system and the battery charging system, which are not used simultaneously since traction occurs when the EV is travelling and battery charging when the EV is parked. By taking advantage of this interchangeability, a single set of power converters that can perform the functions of both traction and battery charging can be assembled, classified in the literature as integrated battery chargers (IBCs). Several IBC topologies have been proposed in the literature, and the aim of this paper is to present a literature review of IBCs for EVs. In order to better organize the information presented in this paper, the analyzed topologies are divided into classical IBCs, IBCs for switched reluctance machines (SRMs), IBCs with galvanic isolation, IBCs based on multiple traction converters and IBCs based on multiphase machines. A comparison between all these IBCs is subsequently presented, based on both requirements and possible functionalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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16 pages, 7879 KiB  
Article
Dual Voltage Forward Topology for High Efficiency at Universal Mains
by Noam Ezra, Toine Werner and Teng Long
Electronics 2022, 11(7), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11071009 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2035
Abstract
This paper introduces a forward converter aimed at the universal mains voltages, i.e., 220–230 Vac and 115 Vac, named the ‘dual voltage forward converter’. The suggested converter has a narrow dynamic range at the universal mains voltages, which results in lower stress on [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a forward converter aimed at the universal mains voltages, i.e., 220–230 Vac and 115 Vac, named the ‘dual voltage forward converter’. The suggested converter has a narrow dynamic range at the universal mains voltages, which results in lower stress on devices, optimal duty cycles, and better overall efficiency. The topology comprises two primary power loops reconfigurable by additional two-state switches and a passive diode, which allows the converter to run in parallel or in series modes and increase the performance over the full universal mains range of 90–265 Vac. The utilization of the devices is better, as they experience lower voltage and current stress by supporting two optimized working points. A converter operating at 100 kHz with an output power of 75 W and output voltage of 12 Vdc was designed and tested. The results were compared with a conventional forward converter with the identical specification. The results at the low mains were similar between the converters; however, at the high mains, the efficiency improvement was between 5% and 23%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Power Converters)
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