Additive Manufacturing of Bio and Synthetic Polymers

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Processing and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021) | Viewed by 81419

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School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Supmeca-Paris, 3 rue Fernand Hainaut, 93400 Saint Ouen, France
Interests: advanced manufacturing processes (sinter forging, thixoforming); damage mechanisms of materials (metallic, intermetallic, rubber and epoxy-based composites); design of new composites and damage characterization; design and manufacturing of recycled constituent composites
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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Interests: natural fibre composites; material selection; biobased packaging
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Co-Guest Editor
1. School of Chemical and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
2. Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
Interests: polymer engineering; material engineering; natural fibres; nanocellulose; biopolymer; biodegradable polymer; biocomposites and nanocomposites
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Additive (manufacturing) technology offers the ability to produce personalized products with lower development costs, shorter lead times, less energy consumed during manufacturing and less material waste. It can be used to manufacture complex parts, and enables manufacturers to reduce inventory, make products on-demand, create smaller localized manufacturing environments, and even reduce supply chains. Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as fabricating three-dimensional (3D) and four-dimensional (4D) components, refers to processes that allow for the direct fabrication of physical products from computer-aided design (CAD) models through the repetitious deposition of materials layers. Compared with traditional manufacturing processes, AM allows the production of customized parts from bio and synthetic polymers without the need for molds or machining typical for conventional formative and subtractive fabrication.

Today, AM offers numerous advantages, i.e., little assembly required, supply chain efficiencies, sustainability, geometric flexibility, low buy-to-fly ratio, shortened time-to-market, environmental, and in the production of single and multiple components, offering incomparable design independence with the facility to manufacture components from various bio and synthetic polymers. These advantages make AM a major player in the next polymer industrial revolution. Polymers and their composites are one of the most widely used materials in today’s industry and are of great interest in AM due to the vast potential for various applications, such as in the apparel, art and jewelry, electric and electronic, healthcare, biomedical, robotics, military defense, sensor and actuators,  construction, aerospace and automotive industries. Polymers that are utilized in AM include hydrogels, elastomers, thermosets, thermoplastics, functional polymers, polymer composites, polymer hybrid composites, polymer nanocomposites and polymer blends. Over the past 30 years, much research has been done on developing new polymeric materials for AM processes, such as material jetting (MJ), drop on demand (DOD), sand binder jetting, vat photopolymerization, fused deposition modeling (FDM), stereolithography (SLA), digital light processing (DLP), and selective laser sintering (SLS).

 In this Special Issue, we aim to capture the cutting-edge of the state-of-the-art in research pertaining to advancing additive manufacturing of polymeric materials. The topic themes include advanced polymeric materials development, processing parameter optimization, characterization techniques, structure–property relationships, process modelling, etc., specifically for AM.

Prof. Dr. Emin Bayraktar
Prof. Dr. S. M. Sapuan
Dr. R.A. Ilyas
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Additive manufacturing
  • 4D printin
  • 3D printing
  • Biopolymeric materials
  • Synthetic polymeric materials

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 3518 KiB  
Article
Effect of Silver Nanopowder on Mechanical, Thermal and Antimicrobial Properties of Kenaf/HDPE Composites
by Vikneswari Sanmuham, Mohamed Thariq Hameed Sultan, A. M. Radzi, Ahmad Adlie Shamsuri, Ain Umaira Md Shah, Syafiqah Nur Azrie Safri and Adi Azriff Basri
Polymers 2021, 13(22), 3928; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13223928 - 14 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2214
Abstract
This study aims to investigate the effect of AgNPs on the mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial activity of kenaf/HDPE composites. AgNP material was prepared at different contents, from 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 to 10 wt%, by an internal mixer and hot compression at [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the effect of AgNPs on the mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial activity of kenaf/HDPE composites. AgNP material was prepared at different contents, from 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 to 10 wt%, by an internal mixer and hot compression at a temperature of 150 °C. Mechanical (tensile, modulus and elongation at break), thermal (TGA and DSC) and antimicrobial tests were performed to analyze behavior and inhibitory effects. The obtained results indicate that the effect of AgNP content displays improved tensile and modulus properties, as well as thermal and antimicrobial properties. The highest tensile stress is 5.07 MPa and was obtained at 10wt, TGA showed 10 wt% and had improved thermal stability and DSC showed improved stability with increased AgNP content. The findings of this study show the potential of incorporating AgNP concentrations as a secondary substitute to improve the performance in terms of mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties without treatment. The addition of AgNP content in polymer composite can be used as a secondary filler to improve the properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Bio and Synthetic Polymers)
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20 pages, 5104 KiB  
Article
Effect of Chemically Treated Kenaf Fibre on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of PLA Composites Prepared through Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)
by Aida Haryati Jamadi, Nadlene Razali, Michal Petrů, Mastura Mohammad Taha, Noryani Muhammad and Rushdan Ahmad Ilyas
Polymers 2021, 13(19), 3299; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13193299 - 27 Sep 2021
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 3535
Abstract
Natural fibre as a reinforcing agent has been widely used in many industries in this era. However, the reinforcing agent devotes a better strength when embedded with a polymer matrix. Nevertheless, the characteristic of natural fibre and polymer matrix are in contrast, as [...] Read more.
Natural fibre as a reinforcing agent has been widely used in many industries in this era. However, the reinforcing agent devotes a better strength when embedded with a polymer matrix. Nevertheless, the characteristic of natural fibre and polymer matrix are in contrast, as natural fibre is hydrophilic, while polymer is hydrophobic in nature. Natural fibre is highly hydrophilic due to the presence of a hydroxyl group (-OH), while polymer matrix has an inherent hydrophobic characteristic which repels water. This issue has been fixed by modifying the natural fibre’s surface using a chemical treatment combining an alkaline treatment and a silane coupling agent. This modifying process of natural fibre might reduce the attraction of water and moisture content and increase natural fibre surface roughness, which improves the interfacial bonding between these two phases. In this paper, the effect of alkaline and silane treatment has been proven by performing the mechanical test, Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR) to observe the surface structure. The chemical compositions and thermal properties of the composites have been obtained by performing Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) tests. 1.0% silane treatment displayed better strength performance as compared to other composites, which was proven by performing Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM). The assumption is that by enduring chemical treatment, kenaf fibre composites could develop high performance in industry applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Bio and Synthetic Polymers)
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10 pages, 4613 KiB  
Article
Determination of Fire Parameters of Polyamide 12 Powder for Additive Technologies
by Richard Kuracina, Zuzana Szabová, Eva Buranská, Alica Pastierová, Peter Gogola and Ivan Buranský
Polymers 2021, 13(17), 3014; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13173014 - 6 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
The use of additive technologies keeps growing. Increasingly, flammable powder materials are also used in additive technologies, and there is a risk of explosion or fire when using them. The current article deals with the determination of fire parameters of a powder sample [...] Read more.
The use of additive technologies keeps growing. Increasingly, flammable powder materials are also used in additive technologies, and there is a risk of explosion or fire when using them. The current article deals with the determination of fire parameters of a powder sample of polyamide Sinterit PA12 Smoth in accordance with the EN 14034 and EN ISO/IEC 80079-20-2 standards. For that purpose, a sample at a median size of 27.5 µm and a humidity of 0% wt. was used. The measurements showed that the maximum explosion pressure of the PA12 polyamide sample was 6.78 bar and the value of the explosion constant Kst was 112.2 bar·m·s−1. It was not possible to determine the MIT value of the settled dust, since the melting point of polyamide sample is low. The MIT of the dispersed dust was 450 °C. Based on the measured results, it can be stated that the powdered polyamide PA12 poses a risk in terms of explosions and fires. Therefore, when using polyamide PA12 in additive technologies, it is necessary to ensure an effective explosion prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Bio and Synthetic Polymers)
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11 pages, 1933 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of Flexible TPU-Based 3D Printed Lattice Structures: Role of Lattice Cut Direction and Architecture
by Victor Beloshenko, Yan Beygelzimer, Vyacheslav Chishko, Bogdan Savchenko, Nadiya Sova, Dmytro Verbylo, Andrei Voznyak and Iurii Vozniak
Polymers 2021, 13(17), 2986; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13172986 - 3 Sep 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 5720
Abstract
This study addresses the mechanical behavior of lattice materials based on flexible thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with honeycomb and gyroid architecture fabricated by 3D printing. Tensile, compression, and three-point bending tests were chosen as mechanical testing methods. The honeycomb architecture was found to provide [...] Read more.
This study addresses the mechanical behavior of lattice materials based on flexible thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with honeycomb and gyroid architecture fabricated by 3D printing. Tensile, compression, and three-point bending tests were chosen as mechanical testing methods. The honeycomb architecture was found to provide higher values of rigidity (by 30%), strength (by 25%), plasticity (by 18%), and energy absorption (by 42%) of the flexible TPU lattice compared to the gyroid architecture. The strain recovery is better in the case of gyroid architecture (residual strain of 46% vs. 31%). TPUs with honeycomb architecture are characterized by anisotropy of mechanical properties in tensile and three-point bending tests. The obtained results are explained by the peculiarities of the lattice structure at meso- and macroscopic level and by the role of the pore space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Bio and Synthetic Polymers)
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23 pages, 11485 KiB  
Article
Effects of Printing Parameters on the Fatigue Behaviour of 3D-Printed ABS under Dynamic Thermo-Mechanical Loads
by Feiyang He and Muhammad Khan
Polymers 2021, 13(14), 2362; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13142362 - 19 Jul 2021
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 4701
Abstract
Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is the most widely used additive manufacturing process in customised and low-volume production industries due to its safe, fast, effective operation, freedom of customisation, and cost-effectiveness. Many different thermoplastic polymer materials are used in FDM. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) [...] Read more.
Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is the most widely used additive manufacturing process in customised and low-volume production industries due to its safe, fast, effective operation, freedom of customisation, and cost-effectiveness. Many different thermoplastic polymer materials are used in FDM. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is one of the most commonly used plastics owing to its low cost, high strength and temperature resistance. The fabricated FDM ABS parts commonly work under thermo-mechanical loads in actual practice. For producing FDM ABS components that show high fatigue performance, the 3D printing parameters must be effectively optimized. Hence, this study evaluated the bending fatigue performance for FDM ABS beams under different thermo-mechanical loading conditions with varying printing parameters, including building orientations, nozzle size, and layer thickness. The combination of three building orientations (0°, ±45°, and 90°), three nozzle sizes (0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 mm) and three-layer thicknesses (0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 mm) were tested at different environmental temperatures ranging from 50 to 70 °C. The study attempted to find the optimal combination of the printing parameters to achieve the best fatigue behaviour of the FDM ABS specimen. The experiential results showed that the specimen with 0° building orientation, 0.8 mm filament width, and 0.15 mm layer thickness vibrated for the longest time before the fracture at each temperature. Both a larger nozzle size and thicker layer height can increase the fatigue life. It was concluded that printing defects significantly decreased the fatigue life of the 3D-printed ABS beam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Bio and Synthetic Polymers)
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12 pages, 3822 KiB  
Article
Non Edible Oil-Based Epoxy Resins from Jatropha Oil and Their Shape Memory Behaviors
by Lu Lu Taung Mai, Min Min Aung, Sarah Anis Muhamad Saidi, Paik San H’ng, Marwah Rayung and Adila Mohamad Jaafar
Polymers 2021, 13(13), 2177; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13132177 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2318
Abstract
The use of bio-based polymers in place of conventional polymers gives positives effects in the sense of reduction of environmental impacts and the offsetting of petroleum consumption. As such, in this study, jatropha oil was used to prepare epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) by [...] Read more.
The use of bio-based polymers in place of conventional polymers gives positives effects in the sense of reduction of environmental impacts and the offsetting of petroleum consumption. As such, in this study, jatropha oil was used to prepare epoxidized jatropha oil (EJO) by the epoxidation method. The EJO was used to prepare a shape memory polymer (SMP) by mixing it with the curing agent 4-methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHPA) and a tetraethylammonium bromide (TEAB) catalyst. The resulting bio-based polymer is slightly transparent and brown in color. It has soft and flexible properties resulting from the aliphatic chain in jatropha oil. The functionality of SMP was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. The thermal behavior of the SMP was measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and it showed that the samples were thermally stable up to 150 °C. Moreover, the glass transition temperature characteristic was obtained using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The shape memory recovery behavior was investigated. Overall, EJO/MHPA was prepared by a relatively simple method and showed good shape recovery properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Bio and Synthetic Polymers)
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17 pages, 6524 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Reaction Time on Non-Covalent Functionalisation of P3HT/MWCNT Nanocomposites
by N.M. Nurazzi, N. Abdullah, S.Z.N. Demon, N.A. Halim and I.S. Mohamad
Polymers 2021, 13(12), 1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13121916 - 9 Jun 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2863
Abstract
Non-covalent functionalisation of the carbon nanotube (CNT) sidewall through polymer wrapping is the key strategy for improving well-dispersed CNTs without persistent alteration of their electronic properties. In this work, the effect of reaction time on regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT)-wrapped hydroxylated multi-walled CNT (MWCNT-OH) [...] Read more.
Non-covalent functionalisation of the carbon nanotube (CNT) sidewall through polymer wrapping is the key strategy for improving well-dispersed CNTs without persistent alteration of their electronic properties. In this work, the effect of reaction time on regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT)-wrapped hydroxylated multi-walled CNT (MWCNT-OH) nanocomposites was investigated. Five different reaction times (24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h) were conducted at room temperature in order to clearly determine the factors that influenced the quality of wrapped MWCNT-OH. Morphological analysis using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopic (FESEM) and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) analysis showed that P3HT successfully wrapped the MWCNT-OH sidewall, evidenced by the changes in the mean diameter size of the nanocomposites. Results obtained from Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) as well as Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) showed a significant effect of the wrapped polymer on the CNT sidewall as the reaction time increased. Overall, the method used during the preparation of P3HT-wrapped MWCNT-OH and the presented results significantly provided a bottom-up approach to determine the effect of different reaction times on polymer wrapping to further expand this material for novel applications, especially chemical sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Bio and Synthetic Polymers)
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17 pages, 2726 KiB  
Article
High-Density Bio-PE and Pozzolan Based Composites: Formulation and Prototype Design for Control of Low Water Flow
by Nicola Schiavone, Vincent Verney and Haroutioun Askanian
Polymers 2021, 13(12), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13121908 - 8 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2119
Abstract
An eco-friendly solution to produce new material for the material extrusion process is to use quarry waste as filler for biopolymer composites. A quarry waste that is still studied little as a filler for polymer composites is pozzolan. In this study, the optimization [...] Read more.
An eco-friendly solution to produce new material for the material extrusion process is to use quarry waste as filler for biopolymer composites. A quarry waste that is still studied little as a filler for polymer composites is pozzolan. In this study, the optimization of the formulations and processing parameters of composites produced with pozzolan and bio-based polyethylene for 3D printing technology was performed. Furthermore, a precision irrigation system in the form of a drip watering cup was designed, printed, and characterized. The results showed that the presence of the pozzolan acted as a reinforcement for the composite material and improved the cohesion between the layers of the 3D printed objects. Furthermore, the optimization of the process conditions made it possible to print pieces of complex geometry and permeable parts for the control of the water flow rates with an order of magnitude in the range from mL/h to mL/day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Bio and Synthetic Polymers)
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18 pages, 4755 KiB  
Article
Optimization of FFF Process Parameters by Naked Mole-Rat Algorithms with Enhanced Exploration and Exploitation Capabilities
by Jasgurpreet Singh Chohan, Nitin Mittal, Raman Kumar, Sandeep Singh, Shubham Sharma, Shashi Prakash Dwivedi, Ambuj Saxena, Somnath Chattopadhyaya, Rushdan A. Ilyas, Chi Hieu Le and Szymon Wojciechowski
Polymers 2021, 13(11), 1702; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13111702 - 23 May 2021
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 2843
Abstract
Fused filament fabrication (FFF) has numerous process parameters that influence the mechanical strength of parts. Hence, many optimization studies are performed using conventional tools and algorithms. Although studies have also been performed using advanced algorithms, limited research has been reported in which variants [...] Read more.
Fused filament fabrication (FFF) has numerous process parameters that influence the mechanical strength of parts. Hence, many optimization studies are performed using conventional tools and algorithms. Although studies have also been performed using advanced algorithms, limited research has been reported in which variants of the naked mole-rat algorithm (NMRA) are implemented for solving the optimization issues of manufacturing processes. This study was performed to scrutinize optimum parameters and their levels to attain maximum impact strength, flexural strength and tensile strength based on five different FFF process parameters. The algorithm yielded better results than other studies and successfully achieved a maximum response, which may be helpful to enhance the mechanical strength of FFF parts. The study opens a plethora of research prospects for implementing NMRA in manufacturing. Moreover, the findings may help identify critical parametric levels for the fabrication of customized products at the commercial level and help to attain the objectives of Industry 4.0. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Bio and Synthetic Polymers)
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14 pages, 2523 KiB  
Article
Manufacturing Pitch and Polyethylene Blends-Based Fibres as Potential Carbon Fibre Precursors
by Salem Mohammed Aldosari, Muhammad A. Khan and Sameer Rahatekar
Polymers 2021, 13(9), 1445; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13091445 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3118
Abstract
The advantage of mesophase pitch-based carbon fibres is their high modulus, but pitch-based carbon fibres and precursors are very brittle. This paper reports the development of a unique manufacturing method using a blend of pitch and linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) from which it [...] Read more.
The advantage of mesophase pitch-based carbon fibres is their high modulus, but pitch-based carbon fibres and precursors are very brittle. This paper reports the development of a unique manufacturing method using a blend of pitch and linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) from which it is possible to obtain precursors that are less brittle than neat pitch fibres. This study reports on the structure and properties of pitch and LLDPE blend precursors with LLDPE content ranging from 5 wt% to 20 wt%. Fibre microstructure was determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed a two-phase region having distinct pitch fibre and LLDPE regions. Tensile testing of neat pitch fibres showed low strain to failure (brittle), but as the percentage of LLDPE was increased, the strain to failure and tensile strength both increased by a factor of more than 7. DSC characterisation of the melting/crystallization behaviour of LLDPE showed melting occurred around 120 °C to 124 °C, with crystallization between 99 °C and 103 °C. TGA measurements showed that for 5 wt%, 10 wt% LLDPE thermal stability was excellent to 800 °C. Blend pitch/LLDPE carbon fibres showed reduced brittleness combined with excellent thermal stability, and thus are a candidate as a potential precursor for pitch-based carbon fibre manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Bio and Synthetic Polymers)
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Review

Jump to: Research

65 pages, 19388 KiB  
Review
Critical Review of Biodegradable and Bioactive Polymer Composites for Bone Tissue Engineering and Drug Delivery Applications
by Shubham Sharma, P. Sudhakara, Jujhar Singh, R. A. Ilyas, M. R. M. Asyraf and M. R. Razman
Polymers 2021, 13(16), 2623; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13162623 - 6 Aug 2021
Cited by 113 | Viewed by 7889
Abstract
In the determination of the bioavailability of drugs administered orally, the drugs’ solubility and permeability play a crucial role. For absorption of drug molecules and production of a pharmacological response, solubility is an important parameter that defines the concentration of the drug in [...] Read more.
In the determination of the bioavailability of drugs administered orally, the drugs’ solubility and permeability play a crucial role. For absorption of drug molecules and production of a pharmacological response, solubility is an important parameter that defines the concentration of the drug in systemic circulation. It is a challenging task to improve the oral bioavailability of drugs that have poor water solubility. Most drug molecules are either poorly soluble or insoluble in aqueous environments. Polymer nanocomposites are combinations of two or more different materials that possess unique characteristics and are fused together with sufficient energy in such a manner that the resultant material will have the best properties of both materials. These polymeric materials (biodegradable and other naturally bioactive polymers) are comprised of nanosized particles in a composition of other materials. A systematic search was carried out on Web of Science and SCOPUS using different keywords, and 485 records were found. After the screening and eligibility process, 88 journal articles were found to be eligible, and hence selected to be reviewed and analyzed. Biocompatible and biodegradable materials have emerged in the manufacture of therapeutic and pharmacologic devices, such as impermanent implantation and 3D scaffolds for tissue regeneration and biomedical applications. Substantial effort has been made in the usage of bio-based polymers for potential pharmacologic and biomedical purposes, including targeted deliveries and drug carriers for regulated drug release. These implementations necessitate unique physicochemical and pharmacokinetic, microbiological, metabolic, and degradation characteristics of the materials in order to provide prolific therapeutic treatments. As a result, a broadly diverse spectrum of natural or artificially synthesized polymers capable of enzymatic hydrolysis, hydrolyzing, or enzyme decomposition are being explored for biomedical purposes. This summary examines the contemporary status of biodegradable naturally and synthetically derived polymers for biomedical fields, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, bioengineering, targeted drug discovery and delivery, implantation, and wound repair and healing. This review presents an insight into a number of the commonly used tissue engineering applications, including drug delivery carrier systems, demonstrated in the recent findings. Due to the inherent remarkable properties of biodegradable and bioactive polymers, such as their antimicrobial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, certain materials have gained significant interest in recent years. These systems are also actively being researched to improve therapeutic activity and mitigate adverse consequences. In this article, we also present the main drug delivery systems reported in the literature and the main methods available to impregnate the polymeric scaffolds with drugs, their properties, and their respective benefits for tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Bio and Synthetic Polymers)
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24 pages, 8772 KiB  
Review
Natural Fiber Reinforced Composite Material for Product Design: A Short Review
by M. A. Azman, M. R. M. Asyraf, A. Khalina, Michal Petrů, C. M. Ruzaidi, S. M. Sapuan, W. B. Wan Nik, M. R. Ishak, R. A. Ilyas and M. J. Suriani
Polymers 2021, 13(12), 1917; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13121917 - 9 Jun 2021
Cited by 105 | Viewed by 7714
Abstract
Natural fibers have attracted great attention from industrial players and researchers for the exploitation of polymer composites because of their “greener” nature and contribution to sustainable practice. Various industries have shifted toward sustainable technology in order to improve the balance between the environment [...] Read more.
Natural fibers have attracted great attention from industrial players and researchers for the exploitation of polymer composites because of their “greener” nature and contribution to sustainable practice. Various industries have shifted toward sustainable technology in order to improve the balance between the environment and social and economic concerns. This manuscript aims to provide a brief review of the development of the foremost natural fiber-reinforced polymer composite (NFRPC) product designs and their applications. The first part of the manuscript presents a summary of the background of various natural fibers and their composites in the context of engineering applications. The behaviors of NFPCs vary with fiber type, source, and structure. Several drawbacks of NFPCs, e.g., higher water absorption rate, inferior fire resistance, and lower mechanical properties, have limited their applications. This has necessitated the development of good practice in systematic engineering design in order to attain optimized NRPC products. Product design and manufacturing engineering need to move in a mutually considerate manner in order to produce successful natural fiber-based composite material products. The design process involves concept design, material selection, and finally, the manufacturing of the design. Numerous products have been commercialized using natural fibers, e.g., sports equipment, musical instruments, and electronic products. In the end, this review provides a guideline for the product design process based on natural fibers, which subsequently leads to a sustainable design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Bio and Synthetic Polymers)
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19 pages, 1135 KiB  
Review
Embracing Additive Manufacturing Technology through Fused Filament Fabrication for Antimicrobial with Enhanced Formulated Materials
by Waleed Ahmed, Sidra Siraj and Ali H. Al-Marzouqi
Polymers 2021, 13(9), 1523; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13091523 - 9 May 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3420
Abstract
Antimicrobial materials produced by 3D Printing technology are very beneficial, especially for biomedical applications. Antimicrobial surfaces specifically with enhanced antibacterial property have been prepared using several quaternary salt-based agents, such as quaternary ammonium salts and metallic nanoparticles (NPs), such as copper and zinc, [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial materials produced by 3D Printing technology are very beneficial, especially for biomedical applications. Antimicrobial surfaces specifically with enhanced antibacterial property have been prepared using several quaternary salt-based agents, such as quaternary ammonium salts and metallic nanoparticles (NPs), such as copper and zinc, which are incorporated into a polymeric matrix mainly through copolymerization grafting and ionic exchange. This review compared different materials for their effectiveness in providing antimicrobial properties on surfaces. This study will help researchers choose the most suitable method of developing antimicrobial surfaces with the highest efficiency, which can be applied to develop products compatible with 3D Printing Technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Bio and Synthetic Polymers)
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20 pages, 3561 KiB  
Review
Physical Properties of Thermoplastic Starch Derived from Natural Resources and Its Blends: A Review
by Z. N. Diyana, R. Jumaidin, Mohd Zulkefli Selamat, Ihwan Ghazali, Norliza Julmohammad, Nurul Huda and R. A. Ilyas
Polymers 2021, 13(9), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13091396 - 26 Apr 2021
Cited by 128 | Viewed by 9422
Abstract
Thermoplastic starch composites have attracted significant attention due to the rise of environmental pollutions induced by the use of synthetic petroleum-based polymer materials. The degradation of traditional plastics requires an unusually long time, which may lead to high cost and secondary pollution. To [...] Read more.
Thermoplastic starch composites have attracted significant attention due to the rise of environmental pollutions induced by the use of synthetic petroleum-based polymer materials. The degradation of traditional plastics requires an unusually long time, which may lead to high cost and secondary pollution. To solve these difficulties, more petroleum-based plastics should be substituted with sustainable bio-based plastics. Renewable and natural materials that are abundant in nature are potential candidates for a wide range of polymers, which can be used to replace their synthetic counterparts. This paper focuses on some aspects of biopolymers and their classes, providing a description of starch as a main component of biopolymers, composites, and potential applications of thermoplastics starch-based in packaging application. Currently, biopolymer composites blended with other components have exhibited several enhanced qualities. The same behavior is also observed when natural fibre is incorporated with biopolymers. However, it should be noted that the degree of compatibility between starch and other biopolymers extensively varies depending on the specific biopolymer. Although their efficacy is yet to reach the level of their fossil fuel counterparts, biopolymers have made a distinguishing mark, which will continue to inspire the creation of novel substances for many years to come. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Bio and Synthetic Polymers)
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34 pages, 4747 KiB  
Review
Polylactic Acid (PLA) Biocomposite: Processing, Additive Manufacturing and Advanced Applications
by R.A. Ilyas, S.M. Sapuan, M.M. Harussani, M.Y.A.Y. Hakimi, M.Z.M. Haziq, M.S.N. Atikah, M.R.M. Asyraf, M.R. Ishak, M.R. Razman, N.M. Nurazzi, M.N.F. Norrrahim, Hairul Abral and Mochamad Asrofi
Polymers 2021, 13(8), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13081326 - 18 Apr 2021
Cited by 241 | Viewed by 19250
Abstract
Over recent years, enthusiasm towards the manufacturing of biopolymers has attracted considerable attention due to the rising concern about depleting resources and worsening pollution. Among the biopolymers available in the world, polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the highest biopolymers produced globally and [...] Read more.
Over recent years, enthusiasm towards the manufacturing of biopolymers has attracted considerable attention due to the rising concern about depleting resources and worsening pollution. Among the biopolymers available in the world, polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the highest biopolymers produced globally and thus, making it suitable for product commercialisation. Therefore, the effectiveness of natural fibre reinforced PLA composite as an alternative material to substitute the non-renewable petroleum-based materials has been examined by researchers. The type of fibre used in fibre/matrix adhesion is very important because it influences the biocomposites’ mechanical properties. Besides that, an outline of the present circumstance of natural fibre-reinforced PLA 3D printing, as well as its functions in 4D printing for applications of stimuli-responsive polymers were also discussed. This research paper aims to present the development and conducted studies on PLA-based natural fibre bio-composites over the last decade. This work reviews recent PLA-derived bio-composite research related to PLA synthesis and biodegradation, its properties, processes, challenges and prospects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Bio and Synthetic Polymers)
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