Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Circular and Green Polymer Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021) | Viewed by 57219

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Group Lsae, Quartz Research Laboratory, Supmeca-Paris, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, 93400 St Ouen, France
Interests: mechanical properties; finite element analysis; mechanical behavior of materials; mechanical engineering; fracture mechanics; materials engineering; composites; fracture; finite element method; welding; composite material; damage mechanics; aeronautical engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Interests: natural fibre composites; material selection; biobased packaging
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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1. School of Chemical and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
2. Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
Interests: polymer engineering; material engineering; natural fibres; nanocellulose; biopolymer; biodegradable polymer; biocomposites and nanocomposites
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bio and synthetic polymer-based materials including plastic and rubber materials possess unique properties such as resistance to corrosion and chemicals, good durability, low cost, and being easy to manufacture; all this results in their common application in a wide range of industrial branches. Consequently, the implementation of efficient waste management of plastic and rubber materials has become a huge environmental, social and economic problem. Recent advances and developments in polymeric materials based on recycling and bio-based components seem to be a promising solution to this pressing issue. The aims of this Special Issue on recycling polymeric materials in the journal Polymers are:

  • To disseminate critical reviews and research findings in the area of the recycling of bio and synthetic polymeric materials, focusing on processing, properties and applications;
  • To gather recent research outputs and review papers in the areas of bio and synthesis technology of polymeric material experts worldwide, by giving priority to researchers from technologically advanced countries;
  • To strategize for increases in the number of citations for the benefit of the contributors and publisher alike by inviting contributors mostly from technologically advanced countries in the area of bio and synthetic polymeric materials, through the publication of research and review papers.

This Special Issue presents a collection of original research and reviews focused on laboratory- and industrial-scale solutions to the sustainable development of novel and environmentally friendly polymeric materials. The scope of the Special Issue focuses on the recycling of bio and synthetic polymer-based materials: It includes, but is not limited to, the following areas:

  • Development of low-cost and pro-ecological recycled polymeric materials;
  • Current trends and limitations in the utilization of waste bio and synthetic polymers;
  • Management of waste bio and synthetic polymers via compatibilization, functionalization, and modification;
  • Structure–property relationships in environmentally friendly materials;
  • An investigation of polymer matrix–filler interactions and further improvement of the performance properties in the studied systems;
  • Characterization of recycled bio and synthetic polymer composites;
  • Properties of biofibre-reinforced recycled bio and synthetic polymer composites;
  • Rheological and thermal properties of recycled polymeric materials;
  • Fibre treatments in recycled composites;
  • Recycle polymers, sharp memory polymers, and polyamides;
  • Processing technology of recycled polymeric materials.

Prof. Dr. Emin Bayraktar
Prof. Dr. S. M. Sapuan
Dr. R. A. Ilyas
Guest Editors

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Recycling
  • Environmentally friendly materials
  • Recycle biopolymer
  • Recycle synthetic polymer
  • Recycle biocomposite
  • Recycle hybrid composite
  • Matrix–filler interactions
  • Compatibilization
  • Reactive processing

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 750 KiB  
Editorial
Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials
by R. A. Ilyas, S. M. Sapuan and Emin Bayraktar
Polymers 2022, 14(18), 3778; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14183778 - 9 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1661
Abstract
Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials is a newly opened Special Issue of Polymers, which aims to publish original and review papers on new scientific and applied research and make contributions to the findings and understanding of the reinforcing effects of [...] Read more.
Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials is a newly opened Special Issue of Polymers, which aims to publish original and review papers on new scientific and applied research and make contributions to the findings and understanding of the reinforcing effects of various bio and synthetic-based polymers on the performance of polymer composites [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials)

Research

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17 pages, 8172 KiB  
Article
Compression Behaviour of Bio-Inspired Honeycomb Reinforced Starfish Shape Structures Using 3D Printing Technology
by S. A. S. A. Saufi, M. Y. M. Zuhri, M. Lalegani Dezaki, S. M. Sapuan, R. A. Ilyas, A. As’arry, M. K. A. Ariffin and M. Bodaghi
Polymers 2021, 13(24), 4388; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13244388 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3082
Abstract
The bio-inspired structure (e.g., honeycomb) has been studied for its ability to absorb energy and its high strength. The cell size and wall thickness are the main elements that alter the structural ability to withstand load and pressure. Moreover, adding a secondary structure [...] Read more.
The bio-inspired structure (e.g., honeycomb) has been studied for its ability to absorb energy and its high strength. The cell size and wall thickness are the main elements that alter the structural ability to withstand load and pressure. Moreover, adding a secondary structure can increase the compressive strength and energy absorption (EA) capability. In this study, the bio-inspired structures are fabricated by fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology using polylactic acid (PLA) material. Samples are printed in the shape of a honeycomb structure, and a starfish shape is used as its reinforcement. Hence, this study focuses on the compression strength and EA of different cell sizes of 20 and 30 mm with different wall thicknesses ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 mm. Subsequently, the deformation and failure of the structures are determined under the compression loading. It is found that the smaller cell size with smaller wall thickness offered a crush efficiency of 69% as compared to their larger cell size with thicker wall thickness counterparts. It is observed that for a 20 mm cell size, the EA and maximum peak load increase, respectively, when the wall thickness increases. It can be concluded that the compression strength and EA capability increase gradually as the cell size and wall thickness increase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials)
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21 pages, 3034 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Erosive Wear Behaviour of Epoxy, Polyester and Vinyl Esters Based Thermosetting Polymer Composites for Human Prosthetic Applications Using Taguchi Design
by Jeetendra Mohan Khare, Sanjeev Dahiya, Brijesh Gangil, Lalit Ranakoti, Shubham Sharma, Muhammad Roslim Muhammad Huzaifah, Rushdan Ahmad Ilyas, Shashi Prakash Dwivedi, Somnath Chattopadhyaya, Huseyin Cagan Kilinc and Changhe Li
Polymers 2021, 13(20), 3607; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13203607 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 2850
Abstract
In polymer composites, synthetic fibers are primarily used as a chief reinforcing material, with a wide range of applications, and are therefore essential to study. In the present work, we carried out the erosive wear of natural and synthetic fiber-based polymer composites. Glass [...] Read more.
In polymer composites, synthetic fibers are primarily used as a chief reinforcing material, with a wide range of applications, and are therefore essential to study. In the present work, we carried out the erosive wear of natural and synthetic fiber-based polymer composites. Glass fiber with jute and Grewia optiva fiber was reinforced in three different polymer resins: epoxy, vinyl ester and polyester. The hand lay-up method was used for the fabrication of composites. L16 orthogonal array of Taguchi method used to identify the most significant parameters (impact velocity, fiber content, and impingement angle) in the analysis of erosive wear. ANOVA analysis revealed that the most influential parameter was in the erosive wear analysis was impact velocity followed by fiber content and impingement angle. It was also observed that polyester-based composites exhibited the highest erosive wear followed by vinyl ester-based composites, and epoxy-based composites showed the lowest erosive wear. From the present study, it may be attributed that the low hardness of the polyester resulting in low resistance against the impact of erodent particles. The SEM analysis furthermore illustrates the mechanism took place during the wear examination of all three types of composites at highest fiber loading. A thorough assessment uncovers brittle fractures in certain regions, implying that a marginal amount of impact forces was also acting on the fabricated samples. The developed fiber-reinforced polymer sandwich composite materials possess excellent biocompatibility, desirable promising properties for prosthetic, orthopaedic, and bone-fracture implant uses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials)
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14 pages, 6076 KiB  
Article
Quasi-Static Compression Properties of Bamboo and PVC Tube Reinforced Polymer Foam Structures
by J. J. N. Amelia, M. Y. M. Zuhri, Z. Leman, N. I. Zahari, A. As’arry and R. A. Ilyas
Polymers 2021, 13(20), 3603; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13203603 - 19 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1765
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a growing interest for composite materials due to the superior capability to absorb energy and lightweight factor. These properties are compatible to be utilized in the development for transportation system as it can reduce the fuel consumption [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been a growing interest for composite materials due to the superior capability to absorb energy and lightweight factor. These properties are compatible to be utilized in the development for transportation system as it can reduce the fuel consumption and also minimize the effect of crash to the passenger. Therefore, the aim for this project is to study the compression strength and energy absorbing capability for Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and bamboo tubes reinforced with foam. Several parameters are being considered, these being the effect of single and multiple tube reinforced foam structure, foam density, diameter of the tube as well as effect of different crosshead speed. The results showed that increasing the relative foam density will led to an increase in the compression strength and specific energy absorption (SEA) values. Furthermore, a significant increase of compression strength can be seen when several tubes are introduced into the foam while SEA remained almost the same. Finally, the influence of crosshead below 20 mm/min did not vary significantly for both compression strength and SEA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials)
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18 pages, 4205 KiB  
Article
Development and Characterization of Cornstarch-Based Bioplastics Packaging Film Using a Combination of Different Plasticizers
by Walid Abotbina, S. M. Sapuan, M. T. H. Sultan, M. F. M. Alkbir and R. A. Ilyas
Polymers 2021, 13(20), 3487; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13203487 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 9244
Abstract
This work aims to develop cornstarch (CS) based films using fructose (F), glycerol (G), and their combination (FG) as plasticizers with different ratios for food packaging applications. The findings showed that F-plasticized film had the lowest moisture content, highest crystallinity among all films, [...] Read more.
This work aims to develop cornstarch (CS) based films using fructose (F), glycerol (G), and their combination (FG) as plasticizers with different ratios for food packaging applications. The findings showed that F-plasticized film had the lowest moisture content, highest crystallinity among all films, and exhibited the highest tensile strength and thermostability. In contrast, G-plasticized films showed the lowest density and water absorption with less crystallinity compared to the control and the other plasticized film. In addition, SEM results indicated that FG-plasticized films had a relatively smoother and more coherent surface among the tested films. The findings have also shown that varying the concentration of the plasticizers significantly affected the different properties of the plasticized films. Therefore, the selection of a suitable plasticizer at an appropriate concentration may significantly optimize film properties to promote the utilization of CS films for food packaging applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials)
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14 pages, 2632 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Mechanical Properties and Thermal Properties of Longitudinal Basalt/Woven Glass Fiber Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Hybrid Composites
by Nur Izzah Nabilah Haris, R. A. Ilyas, Mohamad Zaki Hassan, S. M. Sapuan, Atiqah Afdzaluddin, Khairur Rijal Jamaludin, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki and Faizir Ramlie
Polymers 2021, 13(19), 3343; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13193343 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3330
Abstract
This study investigates the mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties of basalt/woven glass fiber reinforced polymer (BGRP) hybrid polyester composites. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to explore the chemical aspect, whereas the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermomechanical analysis (TMA) were [...] Read more.
This study investigates the mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties of basalt/woven glass fiber reinforced polymer (BGRP) hybrid polyester composites. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to explore the chemical aspect, whereas the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermomechanical analysis (TMA) were performed to determine the mechanical and thermal properties. The dynamic mechanical properties were evaluated in terms of the storage modulus, loss modulus, and damping factor. The FTIR results showed that incorporating single and hybrid fibers in the matrix did not change the chemical properties. The DMA findings revealed that the B7.5/G22.5 composite with 7.5 wt% of basalt fiber (B) and 22.5 wt% of glass fiber (G) exhibited the highest elastic and viscous properties, as it exhibited the higher storage modulus (8.04 × 109 MPa) and loss modulus (1.32 × 109 MPa) compared to the other samples. All the reinforced composites had better damping behavior than the neat matrix, but no further enhancement was obtained upon hybridization. The analysis also revealed that the B22.5/G7.5 composite with 22.5 wt% of basalt fiber and 7.5 wt% of glass fiber had the highest Tg at 70.80 °C, and increased by 15 °C compared to the neat matrix. TMA data suggested that the reinforced composites had relatively low dimensional stabilities than the neat matrix, particularly between 50 to 80 °C. Overall, the hybridization of basalt and glass fibers in unsaturated polyester formed composites with higher mechanical and thermal properties than single reinforced composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials)
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16 pages, 8524 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Dimensional Stability, Biodegradability, and Fracture Energy of Bio-Composites Reinforced with Novel Pine Cone
by Kanishka Jha, Yogesh K. Tyagi, Rajeev Kumar, Shubham Sharma, Muhammad Roslim Muhammad Huzaifah, Changhe Li, Rushdan Ahmad Ilyas, Shashi Prakash Dwivedi, Ambuj Saxena and Alokesh Pramanik
Polymers 2021, 13(19), 3260; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13193260 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 2012
Abstract
In this investigation, biodegradable composites were fabricated with polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix reinforced with pine cone powder (15%, 30%, and 45% by weight) and compatibilized with graphite powder (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% by weight) in polycaprolactone matrix by compression molding technique. The samples [...] Read more.
In this investigation, biodegradable composites were fabricated with polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix reinforced with pine cone powder (15%, 30%, and 45% by weight) and compatibilized with graphite powder (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% by weight) in polycaprolactone matrix by compression molding technique. The samples were prepared as per ASTM standard and tested for dimensional stability, biodegradability, and fracture energy with scanning electron micrographs. Water-absorption and thickness-swelling were performed to examine the dimensional stability and tests were performed at 23 °C and 50% humidity. Results revealed that the composites with 15 wt % of pine cone powder (PCP) have shown higher dimensional stability as compared to other composites. Bio-composites containing 15–45 wt % of PCP with low graphite content have shown higher disintegration rate than neat PCL. Fracture energy for crack initiation in bio-composites was increased by 68% with 30% PCP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the composites have shown evenly-distributed PCP particles throughout PCL-matrix at significantly high-degrees or quantities of reinforcing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials)
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18 pages, 3094 KiB  
Article
Thermal Stability and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Benzoylation Treated Sugar Palm/Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Hybrid Composites
by S. Mohd Izwan, S.M. Sapuan, M.Y.M. Zuhri and A.R. Mohamed
Polymers 2021, 13(17), 2961; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13172961 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3334
Abstract
This research was performed to evaluate the mechanical and thermal properties of sugar palm fiber (SPF)- and kenaf fiber (KF)-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. Sugar palm/kenaf was successfully treated by benzoylation treatment. The hybridized bio-composites (PP/SPF/KF) were fabricated with overall 10 weight percentage (wt%) [...] Read more.
This research was performed to evaluate the mechanical and thermal properties of sugar palm fiber (SPF)- and kenaf fiber (KF)-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. Sugar palm/kenaf was successfully treated by benzoylation treatment. The hybridized bio-composites (PP/SPF/KF) were fabricated with overall 10 weight percentage (wt%) relatively with three different fibers ratios between sugar palm-treated and kenaf-treated (7:3, 5:5, 3:7) and vice versa. The investigations of thermal stability were then carried out by using diffraction scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The result of a flammability test showed that the treated hybrid composite (PP/SPF/KF) was the specimen that exhibited the best flammability properties, having the lowest average burning rate of 28 mm/min. The stiffness storage modulus (E’), loss modulus (E”), and damping factor (Tan δ) were examined by using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The hybrid composite with the best ratio (PP/SPF/KF), T-SP5K5, showed a loss modulus (E”) of 86.2 MPa and a damping factor of 0.058. In addition, thermomechanical analysis (TMA) of the studies of the dimension coefficient (µm) against temperature were successfully recorded, with T-SP5K5 achieving the highest dimensional coefficient of 30.11 µm at 105 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials)
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18 pages, 8190 KiB  
Article
Kenaf Fiber/Pet Yarn Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Polymer Composites: Morphological, Tensile, and Flammability Properties
by M. J. Suriani, Hasliana Asyikin Zainudin, R. A. Ilyas, Michal Petrů, S. M. Sapuan, C. M. Ruzaidi and Rohani Mustapha
Polymers 2021, 13(9), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13091532 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 4241
Abstract
The application of natural fibers is rapidly growing in many sectors, such as construction, automobile, and furniture. Kenaf fiber (KF) is a natural fiber that is in demand owing to its eco-friendly and renewable nature. Nowadays, there are various new applications for kenaf, [...] Read more.
The application of natural fibers is rapidly growing in many sectors, such as construction, automobile, and furniture. Kenaf fiber (KF) is a natural fiber that is in demand owing to its eco-friendly and renewable nature. Nowadays, there are various new applications for kenaf, such as in absorbents and building materials. It also has commercial applications, such as in the automotive industry. Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) is used as a fire retardant as it is low in cost and has good flame retardancy, while polyester yarn (PET) has high tensile strength. The aim of this study was to determine the horizontal burning rate, tensile strength, and surface morphology of kenaf fiber/PET yarn reinforced epoxy fire retardant composites. The composites were prepared by hybridized epoxy and Mg(OH)2 PET with different amounts of KF content (0%, 20%, 35%, and 50%) using the cold press method. The specimen with 35% KF (epoxy/PET/KF-35) displayed better flammability properties and had the lowest average burning rate of 14.55 mm/min, while epoxy/PET/KF-50 with 50% KF had the highest tensile strength of all the samples. This was due to fewer defects being detected on the surface morphology of epoxy/PET/KF-35 compared to the other samples, which influenced the mechanical properties of the composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials)
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Review

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27 pages, 3066 KiB  
Review
Wheat Biocomposite Extraction, Structure, Properties and Characterization: A Review
by Abdulrahman A. B. A. Mohammed, Abdoulhdi A. Borhana Omran, Zaimah Hasan, R. A. Ilyas and S. M. Sapuan
Polymers 2021, 13(21), 3624; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13213624 - 21 Oct 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 6314
Abstract
Biocomposite materials create a huge opportunity for a healthy and safe environment by replacing artificial plastic and materials with natural ingredients in a variety of applications. Furniture, construction materials, insulation, and packaging, as well as medical devices, can all benefit from biocomposite materials. [...] Read more.
Biocomposite materials create a huge opportunity for a healthy and safe environment by replacing artificial plastic and materials with natural ingredients in a variety of applications. Furniture, construction materials, insulation, and packaging, as well as medical devices, can all benefit from biocomposite materials. Wheat is one of the world’s most widely cultivated crops. Due to its mechanical and physical properties, wheat starch, gluten, and fiber are vital in the biopolymer industry. Glycerol as a plasticizer considerably increased the elongation and water vapor permeability of wheat films. Wheat fiber developed mechanical and thermal properties as a result of various matrices; wheat gluten is water insoluble, elastic, non-toxic, and biodegradable, making it useful in biocomposite materials. This study looked at the feasibility of using wheat plant components such as wheat, gluten, and fiber in the biocomposite material industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials)
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43 pages, 78363 KiB  
Review
Critical Review of Natural Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Composites: Processing, Properties, Applications and Cost
by M. J. Suriani, R. A. Ilyas, M. Y. M. Zuhri, A. Khalina, M. T. H. Sultan, S. M. Sapuan, C. M. Ruzaidi, F. Nik Wan, F. Zulkifli, M. M. Harussani, M. A. Azman, F. S. M. Radzi and Shubham Sharma
Polymers 2021, 13(20), 3514; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13203514 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 98 | Viewed by 8559
Abstract
Increasing scientific interest has occurred concerning the utilization of natural fiber-enhanced hybrid composites that incorporate one or more types of natural enhancement. Annual natural fiber production is estimated to be 1,783,965 × 103 tons/year. Extensive studies have been conducted in the [...] Read more.
Increasing scientific interest has occurred concerning the utilization of natural fiber-enhanced hybrid composites that incorporate one or more types of natural enhancement. Annual natural fiber production is estimated to be 1,783,965 × 103 tons/year. Extensive studies have been conducted in the domains of natural/synthetic as well as natural/natural hybrid composites. As synthetic fibers have better rigidity and strength than natural fibers, natural/synthetic hybrid composites have superior qualities via hybridization compared to natural composites in fibers. In general, natural fiber compounds have lower characteristics, limiting the use of natural composites reinforced by fiber. Significant effort was spent in enhancing the mechanical characteristics of this group of materials to increase their strengths and applications, especially via the hybridization process, by manipulating the characteristics of fiber-reinforced composite materials. Current studies concentrate on enhancing the understanding of natural fiber-matrix adhesion, enhancing processing methods, and natural fiber compatibility. The optimal and resilient conceptions have also been addressed due to the inherently more significant variabilities. Moreover, much research has tackled natural fiber reinforced hybrid composite costs. In addition, this review article aims to offer a review of the variables that lead to the mechanical and structural failure of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites, as well as an overview of the details and costings of the composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials)
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47 pages, 6620 KiB  
Review
Use of Industrial Wastes as Sustainable Nutrient Sources for Bacterial Cellulose (BC) Production: Mechanism, Advances, and Future Perspectives
by Abudukeremu Kadier, R. A. Ilyas, M. R. M. Huzaifah, Nani Harihastuti, S. M. Sapuan, M. M. Harussani, M. N. M. Azlin, Rustiana Yuliasni, R. Ibrahim, M. S. N. Atikah, Junying Wang, K. Chandrasekhar, M Amirul Islam, Shubham Sharma, Sneh Punia, Aruliah Rajasekar, M. R. M. Asyraf and M. R. Ishak
Polymers 2021, 13(19), 3365; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13193365 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 73 | Viewed by 6698
Abstract
A novel nanomaterial, bacterial cellulose (BC), has become noteworthy recently due to its better physicochemical properties and biodegradability, which are desirable for various applications. Since cost is a significant limitation in the production of cellulose, current efforts are focused on the use of [...] Read more.
A novel nanomaterial, bacterial cellulose (BC), has become noteworthy recently due to its better physicochemical properties and biodegradability, which are desirable for various applications. Since cost is a significant limitation in the production of cellulose, current efforts are focused on the use of industrial waste as a cost-effective substrate for the synthesis of BC or microbial cellulose. The utilization of industrial wastes and byproduct streams as fermentation media could improve the cost-competitiveness of BC production. This paper examines the feasibility of using typical wastes generated by industry sectors as sources of nutrients (carbon and nitrogen) for the commercial-scale production of BC. Numerous preliminary findings in the literature data have revealed the potential to yield a high concentration of BC from various industrial wastes. These findings indicated the need to optimize culture conditions, aiming for improved large-scale production of BC from waste streams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials)
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28 pages, 6608 KiB  
Review
Emerging Developments Regarding Nanocellulose-Based Membrane Filtration Material against Microbes
by Mohd Nor Faiz Norrrahim, Noor Azilah Mohd Kasim, Victor Feizal Knight, Keat Khim Ong, Siti Aminah Mohd Noor, Norhana Abdul Halim, Noor Aisyah Ahmad Shah, Siti Hasnawati Jamal, Nurjahirah Janudin, Muhammad Syukri Mohamad Misenan, Muhammad Zamharir Ahmad, Mohd Hanif Yaacob and Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus
Polymers 2021, 13(19), 3249; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13193249 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 5672
Abstract
The wide availability and diversity of dangerous microbes poses a considerable problem for health professionals and in the development of new healthcare products. Numerous studies have been conducted to develop membrane filters that have antibacterial properties to solve this problem. Without proper protective [...] Read more.
The wide availability and diversity of dangerous microbes poses a considerable problem for health professionals and in the development of new healthcare products. Numerous studies have been conducted to develop membrane filters that have antibacterial properties to solve this problem. Without proper protective filter equipment, healthcare providers, essential workers, and the general public are exposed to the risk of infection. A combination of nanotechnology and biosorption is expected to offer a new and greener approach to improve the usefulness of polysaccharides as an advanced membrane filtration material. Nanocellulose is among the emerging materials of this century and several studies have proven its use in filtering microbes. Its high specific surface area enables the adsorption of various microbial species, and its innate porosity can separate various molecules and retain microbial objects. Besides this, the presence of an abundant OH groups in nanocellulose grants its unique surface modification, which can increase its filtration efficiency through the formation of affinity interactions toward microbes. In this review, an update of the most relevant uses of nanocellulose as a new class of membrane filters against microbes is outlined. Key advancements in surface modifications of nanocellulose to enhance its rejection mechanism are also critically discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review focusing on the development of nanocellulose as a membrane filter against microbes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials)
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23 pages, 6575 KiB  
Review
Greener Pretreatment Approaches for the Valorisation of Natural Fibre Biomass into Bioproducts
by Mohd Nor Faiz Norrrahim, Muhammad Roslim Muhammad Huzaifah, Mohammed Abdillah Ahmad Farid, Siti Shazra Shazleen, Muhammad Syukri Mohamad Misenan, Tengku Arisyah Tengku Yasim-Anuar, Jesuarockiam Naveen, Norizan Mohd Nurazzi, Mohd Saiful Asmal Rani, Mohd Idham Hakimi, Rushdan Ahmad Ilyas and Mohd Azwan Jenol
Polymers 2021, 13(17), 2971; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13172971 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 4727
Abstract
The utilization of lignocellulosic biomass in various applications has a promising potential as advanced technology progresses due to its renowned advantages as cheap and abundant feedstock. The main drawback in the utilization of this type of biomass is the essential requirement for the [...] Read more.
The utilization of lignocellulosic biomass in various applications has a promising potential as advanced technology progresses due to its renowned advantages as cheap and abundant feedstock. The main drawback in the utilization of this type of biomass is the essential requirement for the pretreatment process. The most common pretreatment process applied is chemical pretreatment. However, it is a non-eco-friendly process. Therefore, this review aims to bring into light several greener pretreatment processes as an alternative approach for the current chemical pretreatment. The main processes for each physical and biological pretreatment process are reviewed and highlighted. Additionally, recent advances in the effect of different non-chemical pretreatment approaches for the natural fibres are also critically discussed with a focus on bioproducts conversion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials)
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31 pages, 27031 KiB  
Review
Recent Trends and Developments in Conducting Polymer Nanocomposites for Multifunctional Applications
by Shubham Sharma, P. Sudhakara, Abdoulhdi A. Borhana Omran, Jujhar Singh and R. A. Ilyas
Polymers 2021, 13(17), 2898; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13172898 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 123 | Viewed by 8774
Abstract
Electrically-conducting polymers (CPs) were first developed as a revolutionary class of organic compounds that possess optical and electrical properties comparable to that of metals as well as inorganic semiconductors and display the commendable properties correlated with traditional polymers, like the ease of manufacture [...] Read more.
Electrically-conducting polymers (CPs) were first developed as a revolutionary class of organic compounds that possess optical and electrical properties comparable to that of metals as well as inorganic semiconductors and display the commendable properties correlated with traditional polymers, like the ease of manufacture along with resilience in processing. Polymer nanocomposites are designed and manufactured to ensure excellent promising properties for anti-static (electrically conducting), anti-corrosion, actuators, sensors, shape memory alloys, biomedical, flexible electronics, solar cells, fuel cells, supercapacitors, LEDs, and adhesive applications with desired-appealing and cost-effective, functional surface coatings. The distinctive properties of nanocomposite materials involve significantly improved mechanical characteristics, barrier-properties, weight-reduction, and increased, long-lasting performance in terms of heat, wear, and scratch-resistant. Constraint in availability of power due to continuous depletion in the reservoirs of fossil fuels has affected the performance and functioning of electronic and energy storage appliances. For such reasons, efforts to modify the performance of such appliances are under way through blending design engineering with organic electronics. Unlike conventional inorganic semiconductors, organic electronic materials are developed from conducting polymers (CPs), dyes and charge transfer complexes. However, the conductive polymers are perhaps more bio-compatible rather than conventional metals or semi-conductive materials. Such characteristics make it more fascinating for bio-engineering investigators to conduct research on polymers possessing antistatic properties for various applications. An extensive overview of different techniques of synthesis and the applications of polymer bio-nanocomposites in various fields of sensors, actuators, shape memory polymers, flexible electronics, optical limiting, electrical properties (batteries, solar cells, fuel cells, supercapacitors, LEDs), corrosion-protection and biomedical application are well-summarized from the findings all across the world in more than 150 references, exclusively from the past four years. This paper also presents recent advancements in composites of rare-earth oxides based on conducting polymer composites. Across a variety of biological and medical applications, the fact that numerous tissues were receptive to electric fields and stimuli made CPs more enticing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials)
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21 pages, 2745 KiB  
Review
Polymer Composites Filled with Metal Derivatives: A Review of Flame Retardants
by R. A. Ilyas, S. M. Sapuan, M. R. M. Asyraf, D. A. Z. N. Dayana, J. J. N. Amelia, M. S. A. Rani, Mohd Nor Faiz Norrrahim, N. M. Nurazzi, H. A. Aisyah, Shubham Sharma, M. R. Ishak, M. Rafidah and M. R. Razman
Polymers 2021, 13(11), 1701; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13111701 - 23 May 2021
Cited by 100 | Viewed by 6930
Abstract
Polymer composites filled with metal derivatives have been widely used in recent years, particularly as flame retardants, due to their superior characteristics, including high thermal behavior, low environmental degradation, and good fire resistance. The hybridization of metal and polymer composites produces various favorable [...] Read more.
Polymer composites filled with metal derivatives have been widely used in recent years, particularly as flame retardants, due to their superior characteristics, including high thermal behavior, low environmental degradation, and good fire resistance. The hybridization of metal and polymer composites produces various favorable properties, making them ideal materials for various advanced applications. The fire resistance performance of polymer composites can be enhanced by increasing the combustion capability of composite materials through the inclusion of metallic fireproof materials to protect the composites. The final properties of the metal-filled thermoplastic composites depend on several factors, including pore shape and distribution and morphology of metal particles. For example, fire safety equipment uses polyester thermoplastic and antimony sources with halogenated additives. The use of metals as additives in composites has captured the attention of researchers worldwide due to safety concern in consideration of people’s life and public properties. This review establishes the state-of-art flame resistance properties of metals/polymer composites for numerous industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio and Synthetic Based Polymer Composite Materials)
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