Fiber Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanocomposite Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 26395

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor Assistant
Centre for Defence Foundation Studies, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM), Kem Perdana Sungai Besi, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
Interests: polymer technology and processing; polymer chemistry and structure; materials engineering; material characterization; composite materials; natural fibre composites; bio products; hybrid composites; nanocomposite; carbon nanotubes; sensor

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Guest Editor Assistant
Research Centre for Chemical Defence, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM), Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
Interests: biomaterials; composites; nanotechnology; nanocellulose; biorefinery

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The continuous development and appearance on the market of new high-performance reinforcing nanomaterials in polymer composites has constituted a strong challenge for researchers to design and adapt new functional composites for numerous applications. Of these, fiber reinforced polymer nanocomposites have been the subject of investigation in recent years. The aim of this Special Issue is to gain deep insights into the reinforcing effects of various nanofillers on the mechanical and physical properties of polymer nanocomposites.

Nanofillers can be classified into natural and synthetic-based. Nanocellulose, nanoclay, graphene and MXene, carbon nanofibers and nanotubes, silica nanoparticles, and ZnO quantum dots are examples of common nanofillers used in polymer composites. Most have several interesting features, such as large specific surface area, renewability, high crystallinity, and surface functionalization capability.

Interestingly, the research in the field of fiber reinforced polymer nanocomposites has generated many findings which have positively contributed in terms of their many applications, such in packaging, biomedical science, automotives, electronics, structural materials, aerospace, textile, the military, and more. Despite the great achievements, the overall performance of fiber reinforced polymer composites is sometimes insufficient for emerging industrial applications. Thus, more studies on properties such as their electrical, thermal, fire-resistant, and electromagnetic shielding properties are urgently needed.

In this Special Issue, recent advances on the three basic aspects of processing, characterization and properties will be covered. Submissions describing both synthetic and natural nanofiller-based composites are welcome. Moreover, several important aspects, such as the production of nanofillers, characterization of surface and interfacial properties, as well as economic feasibility and future perspectives are welcomed.

Considering the great importance of this fascinating area of research, the goal of this Special Issue is to present a selection of reference papers, reviews, or communications representing the latest results in the field of polymer nanocomposites, which will enrich current and future literature data.

Dr. R.A. Ilyas
Guest Editor

Dr. N. M. Nurazzi
Dr. M. N. F. Norrrahim
Guest Editor Assistants

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Keywords

  • nanofillers
  • natural nanofillers
  • synthetic nanofillers
  • polymer composites
  • nanocomposite characterization
  • performance evaluation
  • nanofiller production
  • nanocomposite applications
  • economy feasibility
  • challenges and future perspectives

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 1042 KiB  
Editorial
Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(17), 3045; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12173045 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1374
Abstract
“Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites” is a newly open Special Issue of Nanomaterials, which aims to publish original and review papers on new scientific and applied research and make boundless contributions to the finding and understanding of the reinforcing effects of various nanomaterials on [...] Read more.
“Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites” is a newly open Special Issue of Nanomaterials, which aims to publish original and review papers on new scientific and applied research and make boundless contributions to the finding and understanding of the reinforcing effects of various nanomaterials on the performance of polymer nanocomposites [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites)
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Research

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10 pages, 2758 KiB  
Article
Aramid Nanofiber/XNBR Nanocomposite with High Mechanical, Thermal, and Electrical Performance
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(2), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13020335 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1306
Abstract
Aramid nanofibers (ANFs) were successfully produced by deprotonation of Kevlar fiber followed by grafting epichlorohydrin in dimethyl sulfoxide solution. The ANFs were then incorporated into carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR) by means of latex blending, followed by vulcanization. The interaction between ANFs and [...] Read more.
Aramid nanofibers (ANFs) were successfully produced by deprotonation of Kevlar fiber followed by grafting epichlorohydrin in dimethyl sulfoxide solution. The ANFs were then incorporated into carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR) by means of latex blending, followed by vulcanization. The interaction between ANFs and XNBR, and the effects of ANFs on the mechanical strength, dielectric properties, and thermal stability of ANF/XNBR nanocomposites were investigated. The results revealed that hydrogen bonding and covalent bonding interactions existed between ANFs and the XNBR matrix and played a critical role in the reinforcement of ANFs to XNBR nanocomposites. After adding 5 phr (parts per hundred rubber) of ANFs, the XNBR nanocomposite exhibited a significant improvement in mechanical properties, namely a 182% increase in tensile strength and a 101% increase in tear strength. In addition, the dielectric constant and thermal properties of ANF/XNBR also increased dramatically. ANFs may thus make an ideal candidate for high-performance rubber materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites)
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25 pages, 6093 KiB  
Article
Surface-Oxidised Carbon Nanofibre-Based Nanofluids: Structural, Morphological, Stability and Thermal Properties
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(21), 3922; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12213922 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1374
Abstract
The reputation of nanofluids as a convenient heat transfer media has grown in recent years. The synthesis of nanofluids is often challenging, particularly carbon-based nanofluids, due to the rapid agglomeration of the nanoparticles and the instability of the nanofluids. In this regard, surface [...] Read more.
The reputation of nanofluids as a convenient heat transfer media has grown in recent years. The synthesis of nanofluids is often challenging, particularly carbon-based nanofluids, due to the rapid agglomeration of the nanoparticles and the instability of the nanofluids. In this regard, surface modification and surfactant addition are potential approaches to improve the physical and thermal properties of carbon-based nanofluids that have been studied and the structural, morphological, and thermal characteristics of surface-oxidised carbon nanofibre (CNF)-based nanofluids has been characterised. Commercial CNF was first subjected to three different acid treatments to introduce surface oxygen functional groups on the CNF surface. Following the physical and thermal characterisation of the three surface-oxidised CNFs (CNF-MA, CNF-MB, and CNF-MC), including Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), the CNF-MB was selected as the best method to synthesise the surface-oxidised CNF-based nanofluid. A total of 40 mL of ultrapure water was used as a pure base fluid and mixed with the surface-oxidised CNF at a concentration range of 0.1–1.0 wt.%, with a fixed of 10 wt.% amount of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The thermal conductivity of CNF-based nanofluid was then characterised at different temperatures (6, 25, and 40 °C). Based on the results, surface oxidation via Method B significantly affected the extent of surface defects and effectively enhanced the group functionality on the CNF surface. Aside from the partially defective and rough surface of CNF-MB surfaces from the FESEM analysis, the presence of surface oxygen functional groups on the CNF wall was confirmed via the Raman analysis, TGA curve, and FTIR analysis. The visual sedimentation observation also showed that the surface-oxidised CNF particles remained dispersed in the nanofluid due to the weakened van der Waals interaction. The dispersion of CNF particles was improved by the presence of PVP, which further stabilised the CNF-based nanofluids. Ultimately, the thermal conductivity of the surface-oxidised CNF-based nanofluid with PVP was significantly improved with the highest enhancement percentage of 18.50, 16.84, and 19.83% at 6, 25, and 40 °C, respectively, at an optimum CNF concentration of 0.7 wt.%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites)
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26 pages, 6860 KiB  
Article
Characterizations of MWCNTs Nanofluids on the Effect of Surface Oxidative Treatments
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(7), 1071; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12071071 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2355
Abstract
In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were chemically modified using three acid treatment methods to introduce the surface oxygen functional group (SOFG). The presence of SOFG on the MWCNTs has been characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Morphology, structural and thermal [...] Read more.
In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were chemically modified using three acid treatment methods to introduce the surface oxygen functional group (SOFG). The presence of SOFG on the MWCNTs has been characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Morphology, structural and thermal properties were performed using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Raman spectroscopy, and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The result shows that the modification with acid treatment significantly affects the degree of defects and surface group functionality of surface oxidized MWCNTs from method B. The preparation of nanofluids using MWCNTs produced from method B (MWCNT-MB) was prepared using two different parameters: with and without polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as surfactant. The experiment was conducted by setting variable carbon particle concentration from 0.1 wt.% to 1.0 wt.%, and the amount of PVP is 10% of carbon particles at different temperatures (6 °C, 25 °C, 40 °C). Based on visual observation, the dispersion of carbon particles was enhanced by the presence of PVP as the stabilizing agent. The thermal conductivity performance of nanofluids revealed that the surface oxidized MWCNTs with PVP show enhanced thermal conductivity compared to the nanofluid containing MWCNTs without PVP. The improvement contributes to this in terms of stability and homogenization of nanoparticles. Hence the improved distribution of MWCNTs in water-based media improves thermal conductivity. These promising properties of MWCNTs in water-based fluids would enable the nanofluids to be used in heat transfer fluid and cooling applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites)
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19 pages, 5626 KiB  
Article
Improvement in Tensile Quasi-Static and Fatigue Properties of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Laminates with Matrices Modified by Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Nanoplatelets Hybrid Nanofillers
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(12), 3459; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123459 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2804
Abstract
The monotonic and cyclic properties of carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy (CFEP) laminate specimens with matrices modified by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were experimentally studied. The laminate specimens were fabricated by the hand lay-up procedure and six MWCNT:GNP weight ratios, i.e., [...] Read more.
The monotonic and cyclic properties of carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy (CFEP) laminate specimens with matrices modified by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were experimentally studied. The laminate specimens were fabricated by the hand lay-up procedure and six MWCNT:GNP weight ratios, i.e., 0:0, 10:0, 0:10, 5:5, 9:1, and 1:9, were considered to prepare the nanoparticle-modified epoxy resin by using an ultrasonic homogenizer and a planetary centrifugal mixer. Then, these laminate specimens with their matrices modified under various nanofiller ratios were employed to investigate the influence of the number of nanofiller types and hybrid nanofiller ratios on the quasi-static strength, fatigue strength, and mode I fracture toughness. The experimental results show that adding individual types of nanoparticles has a slight influence on the quasi-static and fatigue strengths of the CFEP laminates. However, the remarkable synergistic effect of MWCNTs and GNPs on the studied mechanical properties of the CFEP laminates with matrices reinforced by hybrid nanoparticles has been observed. Examining the evolution of stiffness-based degradation indicates that adding hybrid nanoparticles to the matrix can reduce the degradation effectively. The high experimental data of the mode I fracture toughness of hybrid nano-CFEP laminates demonstrate that embedding hybrid nanoparticles in the matrix is beneficial to the interlaminar properties, further improving the fatigue strength. The pushout mechanism of the MWCNTs and the crack deflection effect of the GNPs suppress the growth and linkage of microcracks in the matrix. Furthermore, the bridging effect of the nanoparticles at the fiber/matrix interface retards the interfacial debonding, further improving the resistance to delamination propagation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites)
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Review

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29 pages, 3803 KiB  
Review
Carbon and Cellulose-Based Nanoparticle-Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites: A Critical Review
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1803; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111803 - 05 Jun 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1829
Abstract
Nanomaterials are currently used for different applications in several fields. Bringing the measurements of a material down to nanoscale size makes vital contributions to the improvement of the characteristics of materials. The polymer composites acquire various properties when added to nanoparticles, increasing characteristics [...] Read more.
Nanomaterials are currently used for different applications in several fields. Bringing the measurements of a material down to nanoscale size makes vital contributions to the improvement of the characteristics of materials. The polymer composites acquire various properties when added to nanoparticles, increasing characteristics such as bonding strength, physical property, fire retardance, energy storage capacity, etc. The objective of this review was to validate the major functionality of the carbon and cellulose-based nanoparticle-filled polymer nanocomposites (PNC), which include fabricating procedures, fundamental structural properties, characterization, morphological properties, and their applications. Subsequently, this review includes arrangement of nanoparticles, their influence, and the factors necessary to attain the required size, shape, and properties of the PNCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites)
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51 pages, 5897 KiB  
Review
Nanocellulose-Based Nanocomposites for Sustainable Applications: A Review
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(19), 3483; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12193483 - 05 Oct 2022
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 3792
Abstract
Nanocellulose has emerged in recent years as one of the most notable green materials available due to its numerous appealing factors, including its non-toxic nature, biodegradability, high aspect ratio, superior mechanical capabilities, remarkable optical properties, anisotropic shape, high mechanical strength, excellent biocompatibility and [...] Read more.
Nanocellulose has emerged in recent years as one of the most notable green materials available due to its numerous appealing factors, including its non-toxic nature, biodegradability, high aspect ratio, superior mechanical capabilities, remarkable optical properties, anisotropic shape, high mechanical strength, excellent biocompatibility and tailorable surface chemistry. It is proving to be a promising material in a range of applications pertinent to the material engineering to biomedical applications. In this review, recent advances in the preparation, modification, and emerging application of nanocellulose, especially cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), are described and discussed based on the analysis of the latest investigations. This review presents an overview of general concepts in nanocellulose-based nanocomposites for sustainable applications. Beginning with a brief introduction of cellulose, nanocellulose sources, structural characteristics and the extraction process for those new to the area, we go on to more in-depth content. Following that, the research on techniques used to modify the surface properties of nanocellulose by functionalizing surface hydroxyl groups to impart desirable hydrophilic–hydrophobic balance, as well as their characteristics and functionalization strategies, were explained. The usage of nanocellulose in nanocomposites in versatile fields, as well as novel and foreseen markets of nanocellulose products, are also discussed. Finally, the difficulties, challenges and prospects of materials based on nanocellulose are then discussed in the last section for readers searching for future high-end eco-friendly functional materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites)
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37 pages, 4870 KiB  
Review
Heterojunctions of rGO/Metal Oxide Nanocomposites as Promising Gas-Sensing Materials—A Review
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(13), 2278; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12132278 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2780
Abstract
Monitoring environmental hazards and pollution control is vital for the detection of harmful toxic gases from industrial activities and natural processes in the environment, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen (H2), hydrogen sulfide (H2 [...] Read more.
Monitoring environmental hazards and pollution control is vital for the detection of harmful toxic gases from industrial activities and natural processes in the environment, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen (H2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). This is to ensure the preservation of public health and promote workplace safety. Graphene and its derivatives, especially reduced graphene oxide (rGO), have been designated as ideal materials in gas-sensing devices as their electronic properties highly influence the potential to adsorb specified toxic gas molecules. Despite its exceptional sensitivity at low gas concentrations, the sensor selectivity of pristine graphene is relatively weak, which limits its utility in many practical gas sensor applications. In view of this, the hybridization technique through heterojunction configurations of rGO with metal oxides has been explored, which showed promising improvement and a synergistic effect on the gas-sensing capacity, particularly at room temperature sensitivity and selectivity, even at low concentrations of the target gas. The unique features of graphene as a preferential gas sensor material are first highlighted, followed by a brief discussion on the basic working mechanism, fabrication, and performance of hybridized rGO/metal oxide-based gas sensors for various toxic gases, including NO2, NH3, H2, H2S, CO2, and SO2. The challenges and prospects of the graphene/metal oxide-based based gas sensors are presented at the end of the review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites)
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18 pages, 2890 KiB  
Review
Rejection Mechanism of Ionic Solute Removal by Nanofiltration Membranes: An Overview
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(3), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030437 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 58 | Viewed by 7095
Abstract
The toxicity of heavy metals can cause water pollution and has harmful effects on human health and the environment. Various methods are used to overcome this pressing issue and each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. Membrane filtration technology such as nanofiltration [...] Read more.
The toxicity of heavy metals can cause water pollution and has harmful effects on human health and the environment. Various methods are used to overcome this pressing issue and each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. Membrane filtration technology such as nanofiltration (NF) produces high quality water and has a very small footprint, which results in lower energy usage. Nanofiltration is a membrane-based separation technique based on the reverse osmosis separation process developed in the 1980s. NF membranes have a pore size of 1 nm and molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of 300 to 500 Da. The properties of NF membranes are unique since the surface charge of the membranes is dependent on the functional groups of the membrane. The rejection mechanism of NF membrane is unique as it is a combination of various rejection mechanisms such as steric hindrance, electric exclusion, dielectric effect, and hydration mechanism. However, these mechanisms have not been studied in-depth due to their complexity. There are also many factors contributing to the rejection of NF membrane. Many junior researchers would face difficulty in studying NF membrane. Therefore, this paper is designed for researchers new to the field, and will briefly review the rejection mechanisms of NF membrane by both sieving and non-sieving separation processes. This mini-review aims to provide new researchers with a general understanding of the concept of the separation process of charged membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites)
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