Rubber Reinforced Polymer Composites

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2024) | Viewed by 9071

Special Issue Editors


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School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Supmeca-Paris, 3 rue Fernand Hainaut, 93400 Saint Ouen, France
Interests: advanced manufacturing processes (sinter forging, thixoforming); damage mechanisms of materials (metallic, intermetallic, rubber and epoxy-based composites); design of new composites and damage characterization; design and manufacturing of recycled constituent composites
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Guest Editor
Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering School, Atilim University, Ankara, Turkey
Interests: strength, recycled constituent composites (Rubber, Epoxy, Al, Ti), plastic forming, finite element and finite volume methods, fatigue; computational engineering; novel hybrid composites

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Prof Özgür ASLAN and myself, we organize a new special issue titled “Rubber Reinforced Polymer Composites” under the Polymer journal.

As well known, rubber materials possess unique properties such as resistance to corrosion and chemicals, good durability, low cost, and being easy to recycle and manufacture for the new recycled constituents composites is a wide range of industrial divisions. Therefore, implementation of efficient waste management of rubber materials has become a huge environmental, social and economic problem. Recent advances and developments of rubber based and rubber modified composites on recycling and seem to be a hopeful solution of this present issue.

In this special issue, we aim to create the state-of-the-art in research relating to manufacturing of recycled rubber modified (reinforced) polymer composites. The topic themes include, processing parameter optimization, computational mechanics, characterization techniques, structure-property relationships, process modelling, etc., specifically for rubber based and rubber reinforced polymer composites.

Since you are working in this interesting area, it is our pleasure to invite you to contribute a research and review paper. As a researchers in this field, your contribution will be a worthy addition to this special issue. We very consider that your experience in the particular area will provide high impact especially to the other scientists and groups. Your contribution may be in the form of your latest research or a review article related to the content of this special issue. 

Prof. Dr. Emin Bayraktar
Prof. Dr. Özgür Aslan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • recycled constituent composites (Rubber, Epoxy,Polymer)
  • comutational mechanics in Recycled constituent composites
  • environmentally friendly materials
  • recycle rubber based composites
  • recycle rubber reinforced polymers
  • recycled rubber modified hybrid composite
  • matrix–filler interactions

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 4112 KiB  
Article
Multi-Layered Composites of Natural Rubber (NR) and Bismuth Oxide (Bi2O3) with Enhanced X-ray Shielding and Mechanical Properties
by Donruedee Toyen, Ekachai Wimolmala and Kiadtisak Saenboonruang
Polymers 2023, 15(12), 2717; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15122717 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1232
Abstract
Due to rapid increases in the utilization of radiation and nuclear technologies, effective and suitable radiation-shielding materials have become one of the most sought-after options to protect users and the public from excessive exposure to the radiation. However, most radiation-shielding materials have greatly [...] Read more.
Due to rapid increases in the utilization of radiation and nuclear technologies, effective and suitable radiation-shielding materials have become one of the most sought-after options to protect users and the public from excessive exposure to the radiation. However, most radiation-shielding materials have greatly reduced mechanical properties after the addition of fillers, resulting in their limited useability and shortened lifetime. Therefore, this work aimed to alleviate such drawbacks/limitations by exploring a possible method to simultaneously enhance both the X-ray shielding and mechanical properties of bismuth oxide (Bi2O3)/natural rubber (NR) composites through multi-layered structures, with varying (1–5) layers and a total combined thickness of 10 mm. To correctly determine the effects of the multi-layered structures on the properties of NR composites, the formulation and layer configuration for all multi-layered samples were tailored such that their theoretical X-ray shielding properties were equal to those of a single-layered sample that contained 200 phr Bi2O3. The results indicated that the multi-layered Bi2O3/NR composites with neat NR sheets on both outer layers (sample-D, sample-F, sample-H, and sample-I) had noticeably higher tensile strength and elongation at break than those of the other designs. Furthermore, all multi-layered samples (sample-B to sample-I), regardless of the layer structure, had enhanced X-ray shielding properties compared to those with a single layer (sample-A), as shown by their higher values of the linear attenuation coefficient (µ) and lead equivalence (Pbeq) and the lower value of the half-value layer (HVL) in the former. This work also determined the effects of thermal aging on relevant properties for all samples, with the results revealing that all the thermal-aged composites had higher values for the tensile modulus but lower values for the swelling percentage, tensile strength, and elongation at break, compared with the non-aged composites. Hence, based on the overall outcomes from this work, it could be concluded that the worrisome decreases in mechanical properties of the common single-layered NR composites after the addition of Bi2O3 could be prevented/reduced by introducing appropriate multi-layered structures, which would not only widen potential applications but also prolong the lifetime of the composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rubber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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18 pages, 3471 KiB  
Article
Elastocaloric Waste/Natural Rubber Materials with Various Crosslink Densities
by Nicolas Candau, Adele Zimny, Eduard Vives and Maria Lluïsa Maspoch
Polymers 2023, 15(11), 2566; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15112566 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
The characterization of the mechanical behavior of elastocaloric materials is essential to identify their viability in heating/cooling devices. Natural rubber (NR) is a promising elastocaloric (eC) polymer as it requires low external stress to induce a wide temperature span, ΔT. Nonetheless, solutions are [...] Read more.
The characterization of the mechanical behavior of elastocaloric materials is essential to identify their viability in heating/cooling devices. Natural rubber (NR) is a promising elastocaloric (eC) polymer as it requires low external stress to induce a wide temperature span, ΔT. Nonetheless, solutions are needed to further improve DT, especially when targeting cooling applications. To this aim, we designed NR-based materials and optimized the specimen thickness, the density of their chemical crosslinks, and the quantity of ground tire rubber (GTR) used as reinforcing fillers. The eC properties under a single and cyclic loading conditions of the resulting vulcanized rubber composites were investigated via the measure of the heat exchange at the specimen surface using infrared thermography. The highest eC performance was found with the specimen geometry with the lowest thickness (0.6 mm) and a GTR content of 30 wt.%. The maximum temperature span under single interrupted cycle and multiple continuous cycles were equal to 12 °C and 4 °C, respectively. These results were assumed to be related to more homogeneous curing in these materials and to a higher crosslink density and GTR content which both act as nucleating elements for the strain-induced crystallization at the origin of the eC effect. This investigation would be of interest for the design of eC rubber-based composites in eco-friendly heating/cooling devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rubber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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16 pages, 6406 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Response and Molecular Chain Modifications Associated with Degradation during Mixing of Silica-Reinforced Natural Rubber Compounds
by Ammarin Kraibut, Sitisaiyidah Saiwari, Wisut Kaewsakul, Jacques W. M. Noordermeer, Kannika Sahakaro and Wilma K. Dierkes
Polymers 2023, 15(1), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15010160 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1657
Abstract
Mixing silica-reinforced rubber for tire tread compounds involves high shear forces and temperatures to obtain a sufficient degree of silanization. Natural Rubber (NR) is sensitive to mastication and chemical reactions, and thus, silica–NR mixing encounters both mechanical and thermal degradation. The present work [...] Read more.
Mixing silica-reinforced rubber for tire tread compounds involves high shear forces and temperatures to obtain a sufficient degree of silanization. Natural Rubber (NR) is sensitive to mastication and chemical reactions, and thus, silica–NR mixing encounters both mechanical and thermal degradation. The present work investigates the degradation phenomena during the mixing of silica-reinforced NR compounds in-depth. The Mooney stress relaxation rates, the dynamic properties with frequency sweep, a novel characterization of branch formation on NR using Δδ values acc. Booij and van Gurp-Palmen plots, together, indicate two major competitive reactions taking place: chain scission or degradation and preliminary cross-linking or branch formation. For masticated pure NR and gum compounds, the viscous responses increase, and the changes in all parameters indicate the dominance of chain scission with increasing dump temperature. It causes molecular weight decrease, broader molecular weight distribution, and branched structures. Different behavior is observed for silica-filled NR compounds in which both physical and chemical cross-links are promoted by silanization and coupling reactions. At high dump temperatures above 150 °C, the results indicate a significant increase in branching due to preliminary cross-linking. These molecular chain modifications that cause network heterogeneity deteriorate the mechanical properties of resulting vulcanizates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rubber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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15 pages, 5494 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Recycling of Waste from Nitrile Gloves: Prolonging the Life Span by Designing Proper Curing Systems
by Nabil Hayeemasae, Abdulhakim Masa, Hazwani Syaza Ahmad, Raa Khimi Shuib, Hanafi Ismail and Indra Surya
Polymers 2022, 14(22), 4896; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14224896 - 13 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3657
Abstract
A massive demand for rubber-based goods, particularly gloves, was sparked by the emergence of the COVID-19 epidemic worldwide. This resulted in thousands of tons of gloves being scrapped due to the constant demand for the items, endangering our environment in a grave way. [...] Read more.
A massive demand for rubber-based goods, particularly gloves, was sparked by the emergence of the COVID-19 epidemic worldwide. This resulted in thousands of tons of gloves being scrapped due to the constant demand for the items, endangering our environment in a grave way. In this work, we aimed to focus on the utilization of waste nitrile gloves (r-NBR) as a component blended with natural rubber (NR). The life span and other related properties of the blend can be improved by proper control of the chemical recipe. This study assessed three types of crosslinking systems, namely sulfur (S), peroxide (DCP), and mixed sulfur/peroxide (S/DCP) systems. The results indicate that choosing S/DCP strongly affected the tensile strength of the blend, especially at relatively high contents of r-NBR, improving the strength by 40–60% for cases with 25–35 phr of r-NBR. The improvement depended on the crosslink types induced in the blends. It is interesting to highlight that the thermal resistance of the blends was significantly improved by using the S/DCP system. This indicates that the life span of this blend can be prolonged by using a proper curing system. Overall, the S/DCP showed the best results, superior to those with S and DCP crosslinking systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rubber Reinforced Polymer Composites)
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