Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering and Regeneration

A topical collection in Cells (ISSN 2073-4409). This collection belongs to the section "Stem Cells".

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Editor


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Collection Editor
Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa St. 7, 30-387 Krakow, Poland
Interests: stem cell biology; extracellular vesicle (EV) biology; medical biotechnology; regenerative medicine; experimental cardiology (including clinical studies).
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Stem cells (SCs) of various origin and types have been the subject of several worldwide studies and clinical applications targeting several human diseases and tissue injuries over the last several years. Although multiple therapeutic approaches have already been proposed based on identified SC biological properties and mechanisms of action, there remains a need for: (i) a better understanding of the processes underlying the pro-reparative activity of various SC populations in various tissues; (ii) their targeted use in various tissue injuries and patients; and (iii) an enhancement of the pro-regenerative capacity of these cells prior to transplantation in vivo. Thus, several novel approaches to SC-based tissue engineering and regeneration are currently being developed in order to take stem cell biology and SC use in tissue repair to the ‘4th generation of cell-based therapies’, such as: (i) ‘cell-free’ approaches relying on the secretomic activity of SCs, including extracellular vesicle (EV) release; (ii) combining SCs with novel biocompatible scaffolds and artificial sheets to enhance their properties and form innovative tissue/organ replacements; (iii) three-dimensional (3D) ex vivo propagation and pre-treatment of SCs in conditions mimicking a specific niche of a certain tissue; (iv) genetic modifications of SCs leading to the pro-reparative properties required for repair of a certain tissue; and (v) development of GMP protocols for standardized ex vivo preparation of advanced SC-based therapies and medicinal products for use in human patients. This Topical Collection aims to present pioneering research and innovative approaches in the fields of stem cell biology, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine.

I would like to warmly invite you to submit your unpublished original research as well as reviews that provide a comprehensive overview of a selected topic related to the fascinating subject of this Topical Collection of Cells.

Prof. Dr. Ewa Zuba-Surma
Collection Editor

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Keywords

  • stem cell therapy
  • mechanisms of tissue repair
  • paracrine activity
  • extracellular vesicles
  • stem cell differentiation
  • adult stem cells
  • pluripotent stem cells
  • tissue engineering
  • biomaterials
  • gene modification
  • preclinical in vivo models
  • GMP and advanced cell therapy medicinal products

Published Papers (29 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020

13 pages, 8746 KiB  
Communication
Transgene-Free Cynomolgus Monkey iPSCs Generated under Chemically Defined Conditions
by Yuliia Tereshchenko, Nesil Esiyok, Enrique Garea-Rodríguez, Daniele Repetto, Rüdiger Behr and Ignacio Rodríguez-Polo
Cells 2024, 13(6), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13060558 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 723
Abstract
Non-human primates (NHPs) are pivotal animal models for translating novel cell replacement therapies into clinical applications, including validating the safety and efficacy of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived products. Preclinical development and the testing of cell-based therapies ideally comprise xenogeneic (human stem cells [...] Read more.
Non-human primates (NHPs) are pivotal animal models for translating novel cell replacement therapies into clinical applications, including validating the safety and efficacy of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived products. Preclinical development and the testing of cell-based therapies ideally comprise xenogeneic (human stem cells into NHPs) and allogenic (NHP stem cells into NHPs) transplantation studies. For the allogeneic approach, it is necessary to generate NHP-iPSCs with generally equivalent quality to the human counterparts that will be used later on in patients. Here, we report the generation and characterization of transgene- and feeder-free cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) iPSCs (Cyno-iPSCs). These novel cell lines have been generated according to a previously developed protocol for the generation of rhesus macaque, baboon, and human iPSC lines. Beyond their generation, we demonstrate the potential of the novel Cyno-iPSCs to differentiate into two clinically relevant cell types, i.e., cardiomyocytes and neurons. Overall, we provide a resource of novel iPSCs from the most frequently used NHP species in the regulatory testing of biologics and classical pharmaceutics to expand our panel of iPSC lines from NHP species with high relevance in preclinical testing and translational research. Full article
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20 pages, 22693 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Hepatoprotective Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelet-Rich Plasma in a Rat Model of Bile Duct Ligation-Induced Liver Cirrhosis
by Shivaraju Shivaramu, Swapan Kumar Maiti, Shajahan Amitha Banu, Elangovan Kalaiselvan, Khan Sharun, Mamta Mishra, Divya Mohan, Sangeetha Palakkara, Sunil Kumar, Monalisa Sahoo and Jürgen Hescheler
Cells 2024, 13(5), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13050404 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 740
Abstract
Liver cirrhosis poses a global health challenge marked by significant prevalence and mortality. Current therapeutic options are limited by high costs and immune-mediated rejection, necessitating the exploration of innovative strategies to enhance hepatic self-rehabilitation, and counteract the underlying pathological mechanisms. We evaluated the [...] Read more.
Liver cirrhosis poses a global health challenge marked by significant prevalence and mortality. Current therapeutic options are limited by high costs and immune-mediated rejection, necessitating the exploration of innovative strategies to enhance hepatic self-rehabilitation, and counteract the underlying pathological mechanisms. We evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in combination with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and recombinant human hepatocyte growth factor (rh-HGF) on a rat model of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Treatment with PRP or rh-HGF alone did not yield significant hepatoprotection in the BDL-induced liver cirrhosis model. However, ADMSC transplantation alone exhibited the potential to alleviate impaired liver conditions. The combination of PRP and rh-HGF demonstrated superior ameliorative effects compared to either treatment alone. Notably, the combination of ADMSC + PRP or ADMSC + rh-HGF significantly enhanced hepatoprotective capacity compared to individual or combined PRP and rh-HGF therapies. Injection of ADMSC via the tail vein reduced inflammation, hepatocyte damage, and collagen deposition, improving overall liver function. This improvement was more pronounced when ADMSC was administered with PRP and rh-HGF versus monotherapy. Our study concludes that ADMSCs exert antifibrotic effects by inhibiting hepatic stellate cell proliferation, collagen synthesis, and inducing apoptosis. ADMSCs also demonstrate immune-modulatory effects and transdifferentiate into hepatic progenitor cells, secreting trophic factors, cytokines, and chemokines that promote impaired liver regeneration. The observed arrest in liver fibrosis progression highlights the potential therapeutic impact of these interventions. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021, 2020

13 pages, 11883 KiB  
Article
Microfibre-Functionalised Silk Hydrogels
by Jirada Kaewchuchuen, Napaporn Roamcharern, Suttinee Phuagkhaopong, Luis M. Bimbo and F. Philipp Seib
Cells 2024, 13(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13010010 - 20 Dec 2023
Viewed by 951
Abstract
Silk hydrogels have shown potential for tissue engineering applications, but several gaps and challenges, such as a restricted ability to form hydrogels with tuned mechanics and structural features, still limit their utilisation. Here, Bombyx mori and Antheraea mylitta (Tasar) silk microfibres were embedded [...] Read more.
Silk hydrogels have shown potential for tissue engineering applications, but several gaps and challenges, such as a restricted ability to form hydrogels with tuned mechanics and structural features, still limit their utilisation. Here, Bombyx mori and Antheraea mylitta (Tasar) silk microfibres were embedded within self-assembling B. mori silk hydrogels to modify the bulk hydrogel mechanical properties. This approach is particularly attractive because it creates structured silk hydrogels. First, B. mori and Tasar microfibres were prepared with lengths between 250 and 500 μm. Secondary structure analyses showed high beta-sheet contents of 61% and 63% for B. mori and Tasar microfibres, respectively. Mixing either microfibre type, at either 2% or 10% (w/v) concentrations, into 3% (w/v) silk solutions during the solution–gel transition increased the initial stiffness of the resulting silk hydrogels, with the 10% (w/v) addition giving a greater increase. Microfibre addition also altered hydrogel stress relaxation, with the fastest stress relaxation observed with a rank order of 2% (w/v) > 10% (w/v) > unmodified hydrogels for either fibre type, although B. mori fibres showed a greater effect. The resulting data sets are interesting because they suggest that the presence of microfibres provided potential ‘flow points’ within these hydrogels. Assessment of the biological responses by monitoring cell attachment onto these two-dimensional hydrogel substrates revealed greater numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iPSC-MSCs) attached to the hydrogels containing 10% (w/v) B. mori microfibres as well as 2% (w/v) and 10% (w/v) Tasar microfibres at 24 h after seeding. Cytoskeleton staining revealed a more elongated and stretched morphology for the cells growing on hydrogels containing Tasar microfibres. Overall, these findings illustrate that hydrogel stiffness, stress relaxation and the iPSC-MSC responses towards silk hydrogels can be tuned using microfibres. Full article
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28 pages, 390 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Balaphas et al. Cell Therapy for Anal Sphincter Incontinence: Where Do We Stand? Cells 2021, 10, 2086
by Alexandre Balaphas, Jeremy Meyer, Raphael P. H. Meier, Emilie Liot, Nicolas C. Buchs, Bruno Roche, Christian Toso, Leo H. Bühler, Carmen Gonelle-Gispert and Frédéric Ris
Cells 2023, 12(24), 2857; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12242857 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 625
Abstract
The authors would like to add a new reference to the section “3 [...] Full article
20 pages, 3667 KiB  
Review
Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomal microRNAs in Cardiac Regeneration
by Meghana Bhaskara, Olufisayo Anjorin and Meijing Wang
Cells 2023, 12(24), 2815; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12242815 - 11 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1418
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is one of the most promising modalities for cardiac repair. Accumulated evidence suggests that the therapeutic value of MSCs is mainly attributable to exosomes. MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exos) replicate the beneficial effects of MSCs by regulating various cellular responses [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is one of the most promising modalities for cardiac repair. Accumulated evidence suggests that the therapeutic value of MSCs is mainly attributable to exosomes. MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exos) replicate the beneficial effects of MSCs by regulating various cellular responses and signaling pathways implicated in cardiac regeneration and repair. miRNAs constitute an important fraction of exosome content and are key contributors to the biological function of MSC-Exo. MSC-Exo carrying specific miRNAs provides anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, and angiogenic effects within the infarcted heart. Studying exosomal miRNAs will provide an important insight into the molecular mechanisms of MSC-Exo in cardiac regeneration and repair. This significant information can help optimize cell-free treatment and overcome the challenges associated with MSC-Exo therapeutic application. In this review, we summarize the characteristics and the potential mechanisms of MSC-derived exosomal miRNAs in cardiac repair and regeneration. Full article
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12 pages, 14611 KiB  
Article
The Potential of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell Therapy in Mustard Keratopathy: Discovering New Roads to Combat Cellular Senescence
by Mohammad Soleimani, Arash Mirzaei, Kasra Cheraqpour, Seyed Mahbod Baharnoori, Zohreh Arabpour, Mohammad Javad Ashraf, Mahmood Ghassemi and Ali R. Djalilian
Cells 2023, 12(23), 2744; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12232744 - 30 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 857
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are considered a valuable option to treat ocular surface disorders such as mustard keratopathy (MK). MK often leads to vision impairment due to corneal opacification and neovascularization and cellular senescence seems to have a role in its pathophysiology. Herein, [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are considered a valuable option to treat ocular surface disorders such as mustard keratopathy (MK). MK often leads to vision impairment due to corneal opacification and neovascularization and cellular senescence seems to have a role in its pathophysiology. Herein, we utilized intrastromal MSC injections to treat MK. Thirty-two mice were divided into four groups based on the exposure to 20 mM or 40 mM concentrations of mustard and receiving the treatment or not. Mice were clinically and histopathologically examined. Histopathological evaluations were completed after the euthanasia of mice after four months and included hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), CK12, and beta-galactosidase (β-gal) staining. The treatment group demonstrated reduced opacity compared to the control group. While corneal neovascularization did not display significant variations between the groups, the control group did register higher numerical values. Histopathologically, reduced CK12 staining was detected in the control group. Additionally, β-gal staining areas were notably lower in the treatment group. Although the treated groups showed lower severity of fibrosis compared to the control groups, statistical difference was not significant. In conclusion, it seems that delivery of MSCs in MK has exhibited promising therapeutic results, notably in reducing corneal opacity. Furthermore, the significant reduction in the β-galactosidase staining area may point towards the promising anti-senescence potential of MSCs. Full article
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12 pages, 2024 KiB  
Article
Quantification of the Culture Stability of Stem Cell Fractions from Oral-Derived, Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Preparations: A Significant Step toward the Clinical Translation of Cell Therapies
by Hitesh Chopra, Chen Cao, Celia Sommer, Alex Dahlkemper, James Sugai, James L. Sherley and Darnell Kaigler
Cells 2023, 12(23), 2703; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12232703 - 25 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1711
Abstract
A continuing limitation and major challenge in the development and utilization of predictable stem cell therapies (SCTs) is the determination of the optimal dosages of stem cells. Herein, we report the quantification of stem cell fractions (SCF) of human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) [...] Read more.
A continuing limitation and major challenge in the development and utilization of predictable stem cell therapies (SCTs) is the determination of the optimal dosages of stem cells. Herein, we report the quantification of stem cell fractions (SCF) of human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) preparations derived from oral tissues. A novel computational methodology, kinetic stem cell (KSC) counting, was used to quantify the SCF and specific cell culture kinetics of stem cells in oral alveolar bone-derived MSC (aBMSCs) from eight patients. These analyses established, for the first time, that the SCF within these heterogeneous, mixed-cell populations differs significantly among donors, ranging from 7% to 77% (ANOVA p < 0.0001). Both the initial SCF of aBMSC preparations and changes in the level of the SCF with serial culture over time showed a high degree of inter-donor variation. Hence, it was revealed that the stability of the SCF of human aBMSC preparations during serial cell culture shows inter-donor variation, with some patient preparations exhibiting sufficient stability to support the long-term net expansion of stem cells. These findings provide important insights for the clinical-scale expansion and biomanufacturing of MSCs, which can facilitate establishing more effective and predictable outcomes in clinical trials and treatments employing SCT. Full article
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15 pages, 4718 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Human Nasal Turbinate Stem Cells under Hypoxic Conditions
by Do Hyun Kim, Sun Hong Kim, Sang Hi Park, Mi Yeon Kwon, Chae-Yoon Lim, Sun Hwa Park, Kihak Gwon, Se Hwan Hwang and Sung Won Kim
Cells 2023, 12(19), 2360; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12192360 - 26 Sep 2023
Viewed by 894
Abstract
This study investigated the influence of hypoxic culture conditions on human nasal inferior turbinate-derived stem cells (hNTSCs), a subtype of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). It aimed to discern how hypoxia affected hNTSC characteristics, proliferation, and differentiation potential compared to hNTSCs cultured under normal [...] Read more.
This study investigated the influence of hypoxic culture conditions on human nasal inferior turbinate-derived stem cells (hNTSCs), a subtype of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). It aimed to discern how hypoxia affected hNTSC characteristics, proliferation, and differentiation potential compared to hNTSCs cultured under normal oxygen levels. After obtaining hNTSCs from five patients, the samples were divided into hypoxic and normoxic groups. The investigation utilized fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) for surface marker analysis, cell counting kit-8 assays for proliferation assessment, and multiplex immunoassays for cytokine secretion study. Differentiation potential—osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic—was evaluated via histological examination and gene expression analysis. Results indicated that hNTSCs under hypoxic conditions preserved their characteristic MSC phenotype, as confirmed by FACS analysis demonstrating the absence of hematopoietic markers and presence of MSC markers. Proliferation of hNTSCs remained unaffected by hypoxia. Cytokine expression showed similarity between hypoxic and normoxic groups throughout cultivation. Nevertheless, hypoxic conditions reduced the osteogenic and promoted adipogenic differentiation potential, while chondrogenic differentiation was relatively unchanged. These insights contribute to understanding hNTSC behavior in hypoxic environments, advancing the development of protocols for stem cell therapies and tissue engineering. Full article
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16 pages, 7207 KiB  
Communication
Efficacy of Rectal Systemic Administration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Injury Sites via the CXCL12/CXCR4 Axis to Promote Regeneration in a Rabbit Skeletal Muscle Injury Model
by Toru Ichiseki, Miyako Shimasaki, Shusuke Ueda, Hiroaki Hirata, Daisuke Souma, Norio Kawahara and Yoshimichi Ueda
Cells 2023, 12(13), 1729; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12131729 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1040
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been transplanted directly into lesions or injected intravenously. The administration of MSCs using these delivery methods requires specialized knowledge, techniques, and facilities. Here, we describe intrarectal systemic administration of MSCs, a simple, non-invasive route for homing to the [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been transplanted directly into lesions or injected intravenously. The administration of MSCs using these delivery methods requires specialized knowledge, techniques, and facilities. Here, we describe intrarectal systemic administration of MSCs, a simple, non-invasive route for homing to the injury sites to promote the regeneration of skeletal muscle injuries. Using a cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced rabbit skeletal muscle injury model, homing to the site of muscle injury was confirmed by intrarectal administration of MSCs; the time required for homing after intrarectal administration was approximately 5 days. In addition, the C-X-C chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12)/C-X-C chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) axis was found to be involved in the homing process. Histopathological examinations showed that skeletal muscle regeneration was promoted in the MSCs-administered group compared to the CTX-only group. Myosin heavy polypeptide 3 (Myh3) expression, an indicator of early muscle regeneration, was detected earlier in the intrarectal MSCs group compared to the CTX-only group. These findings indicate that intrarectal administration of MSCs is effective in homing to the injured area, where they promote injury repair. Since intrarectal administration is a simple and non-invasive delivery route, these findings may be valuable in future research on stem cell therapy. Full article
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16 pages, 2111 KiB  
Article
Microbiological Aspects of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing of Adipose-Derived Stem Cell-Based Medicinal Products
by Ilona Szabłowska-Gadomska, Monika Humięcka, Joanna Brzezicka, Anna Chróścicka, Joanna Płaczkowska, Tomasz Ołdak and Malgorzata Lewandowska-Szumiel
Cells 2023, 12(5), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12050680 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
Subcutaneous adipose tissue is an excellent source of mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs), which can be used in cell therapies as an active substance in advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs). Because of the short shelf-life of ATMPs and the time needed to obtain the [...] Read more.
Subcutaneous adipose tissue is an excellent source of mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs), which can be used in cell therapies as an active substance in advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs). Because of the short shelf-life of ATMPs and the time needed to obtain the results of microbiological analysis, the final product is often administered to the patient before sterility is confirmed. Because the tissue used for cell isolation is not sterilized to maintain cell viability, controlling and ensuring microbiological purity at all stages of production is crucial. This study presents the results of monitoring the contamination incidence during ADSC-based ATMP manufacturing over two years. It was found that more than 40% of lipoaspirates were contaminated with thirteen different microorganisms, which were identified as being physiological flora from human skin. Such contamination was successfully eliminated from the final ATMPs through the implementation of additional microbiological monitoring and decontamination steps at various stages of production. Environmental monitoring revealed incidental bacterial or fungal growth, which did not result in any product contamination and was reduced thanks to an effective quality assurance system. To conclude, the tissue used for ADSC-based ATMP manufacturing should be considered contaminated; therefore, good manufacturing practices specific to this type of product must be elaborated and implemented by the manufacturer and the clinic in order to obtain a sterile product. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2021, 2020

16 pages, 3452 KiB  
Article
Defining the Skeletal Myogenic Lineage in Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Teratomas
by Matthew P. Pappas, Ning Xie, Jacqueline S. Penaloza and Sunny S. K. Chan
Cells 2022, 11(9), 1589; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11091589 - 09 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2324
Abstract
Skeletal muscle stem cells are essential to muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury, and have emerged as a promising cell source for treating skeletal disorders. An attractive approach to obtain these cells utilizes differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). We recently reported that [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle stem cells are essential to muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury, and have emerged as a promising cell source for treating skeletal disorders. An attractive approach to obtain these cells utilizes differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). We recently reported that teratomas derived from mouse PSCs are a rich source of skeletal muscle stem cells. Here, we showed that teratoma formation is also capable of producing skeletal myogenic progenitors from human PSCs. Using single-cell transcriptomics, we discovered several distinct skeletal myogenic subpopulations that represent progressive developmental stages of the skeletal myogenic lineage and recapitulate human embryonic skeletal myogenesis. We further discovered that ERBB3 and CD82 are effective surface markers for prospective isolation of the skeletal myogenic lineage in human PSC-derived teratomas. Therefore, teratoma formation provides an accessible model for obtaining human skeletal myogenic progenitors from PSCs. Full article
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26 pages, 4965 KiB  
Article
Activation of the Renin–Angiotensin System Disrupts the Cytoskeletal Architecture of Human Urine-Derived Podocytes
by Lars Erichsen, Chantelle Thimm, Martina Bohndorf, Md Shaifur Rahman, Wasco Wruck and James Adjaye
Cells 2022, 11(7), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11071095 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2736
Abstract
High blood pressure is one of the major public health problems that causes severe disorders in several tissues including the human kidney. One of the most important signaling pathways associated with the regulation of blood pressure is the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), with its [...] Read more.
High blood pressure is one of the major public health problems that causes severe disorders in several tissues including the human kidney. One of the most important signaling pathways associated with the regulation of blood pressure is the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), with its main mediator angiotensin II (ANGII). Elevated levels of circulating and intracellular ANGII and aldosterone lead to pro-fibrotic, -inflammatory, and -hypertrophic milieu that causes remodeling and dysfunction in cardiovascular and renal tissues. Furthermore, ANGII has been recognized as a major risk factor for the induction of apoptosis in podocytes, ultimately leading to chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the past, disease modeling of kidney-associated diseases was extremely difficult, as the derivation of kidney originated cells is very challenging. Here we describe a differentiation protocol for reproducible differentiation of sine oculis homeobox homolog 2 (SIX2)-positive urine-derived renal progenitor cells (UdRPCs) into podocytes bearing typical cellular processes. The UdRPCs-derived podocytes show the activation of the renin–angiotensin system by being responsive to ANGII stimulation. Our data reveal the ANGII-dependent downregulation of nephrin (NPHS1) and synaptopodin (SYNPO), resulting in the disruption of the podocyte cytoskeletal architecture, as shown by immunofluorescence-based detection of α-Actinin. Furthermore, we show that the cytoskeletal disruption is mainly mediated through angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1) signaling and can be rescued by AGTR1 inhibition with the selective, competitive angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonist, losartan. In the present manuscript we confirm and propose UdRPCs differentiated to podocytes as a unique cell type useful for studying nephrogenesis and associated diseases. Furthermore, the responsiveness of UdRPCs-derived podocytes to ANGII implies potential applications in nephrotoxicity studies and drug screening. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022, 2020

18 pages, 1569 KiB  
Review
Stem Cell Secretome for Spinal Cord Repair: Is It More than Just a Random Baseline Set of Factors?
by Krisztián Pajer, Tamás Bellák and Antal Nógrádi
Cells 2021, 10(11), 3214; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10113214 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3181
Abstract
Hundreds of thousands of people suffer spinal cord injuries each year. The experimental application of stem cells following spinal cord injury has opened a new era to promote neuroprotection and neuroregeneration of damaged tissue. Currently, there is great interest in the intravenous administration [...] Read more.
Hundreds of thousands of people suffer spinal cord injuries each year. The experimental application of stem cells following spinal cord injury has opened a new era to promote neuroprotection and neuroregeneration of damaged tissue. Currently, there is great interest in the intravenous administration of the secretome produced by mesenchymal stem cells in acute or subacute spinal cord injuries. However, it is important to highlight that undifferentiated neural stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are able to adapt to the damaged environment and produce the so-called lesion-induced secretome. This review article focuses on current research related to the secretome and the lesion-induced secretome and their roles in modulating spinal cord injury symptoms and functional recovery, emphasizing different compositions of the lesion-induced secretome in various models of spinal cord injury. Full article
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19 pages, 2875 KiB  
Article
Adult Neural Stem Cells from Midbrain Periventricular Regions Show Limited Neurogenic Potential after Transplantation into the Hippocampal Neurogenic Niche
by Mareike Fauser, Kai F Loewenbrück, Johannes Rangnick, Moritz D Brandt, Andreas Hermann and Alexander Storch
Cells 2021, 10(11), 3021; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10113021 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2101
Abstract
The regulation of adult neural stem or progenitor cell (aNSC) proliferation and differentiation as an interplay of cell-intrinsic and local environmental cues remains in part unclear, impeding their role in putative regenerative therapies. aNSCs with all major properties of NSCs in vitro have [...] Read more.
The regulation of adult neural stem or progenitor cell (aNSC) proliferation and differentiation as an interplay of cell-intrinsic and local environmental cues remains in part unclear, impeding their role in putative regenerative therapies. aNSCs with all major properties of NSCs in vitro have been identified in a variety of brain regions beyond the classic neurogenic niches, including the caudal periventricular regions (PVRs) of the midbrain, though active neurogenesis is either limited or merely absent in these regions. To elucidate cell-intrinsic properties of aNSCs from various PVRs, we here examined the proliferation and early differentiation capacity of murine aNSCs from non-neurogenic midbrain PVRs (PVRMB) compared to aNSCs from the neurogenic ventricular-subventricular zone (PVRV-SVZ) 7 days after transplantation into the permissive pro-neurogenic niche of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus in mice. An initial in vitro characterization of the transplants displayed very similar characteristics of both aNSC grafts after in vitro expansion with equal capacities of terminal differentiation into astrocytes and Tuj1+ neurons. Upon the allogenic transplantation of the respective aNSCs into the DG, PVRMB grafts showed a significantly lower graft survival and proliferative capacity compared to PVRV-SVZ transplants, whereby the latter are exclusively capable of generating new neurons. Although these differences might be—in part—related to the transplantation procedure and the short-term study design, our data strongly imply important cell-intrinsic differences between aNSCs from neurogenic compared to non-neurogenic PVRs with respect to their neurogenic potential and/or their sensitivity to neurogenic cues. Full article
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17 pages, 4096 KiB  
Article
Myelin-Independent Therapeutic Potential of Canine Glial-Restricted Progenitors Transplanted in Mouse Model of Dysmyelinating Disease
by Luiza Stanaszek, Malgorzata Majchrzak, Katarzyna Drela, Piotr Rogujski, Joanna Sanford, Michal Fiedorowicz, Magdalena Gewartowska, Malgorzata Frontczak-Baniewicz, Piotr Walczak, Barbara Lukomska and Miroslaw Janowski
Cells 2021, 10(11), 2968; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10112968 - 01 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2026
Abstract
Background: Dysfunction of glia contributes to the deterioration of the central nervous system in a wide array of neurological disorders, thus global replacement of glia is very attractive. Human glial-restricted precursors (hGRPs) transplanted intraventricularly into neonatal mice extensively migrated and rescued the lifespan [...] Read more.
Background: Dysfunction of glia contributes to the deterioration of the central nervous system in a wide array of neurological disorders, thus global replacement of glia is very attractive. Human glial-restricted precursors (hGRPs) transplanted intraventricularly into neonatal mice extensively migrated and rescued the lifespan in half of the studied mice, whereas mouse GRPs (mGRPs) presented no therapeutic benefit. We studied in the same experimental setting canine GRPs (cGRP) to determine whether their therapeutic potential falls between hGRPs and mGRPs. Additional motivation for the selection of cGRPs was a potential for use in veterinary medicine. Methods: cGRPs were extracted from the brain of dog fetuses. The cells were transplanted into the anterior or posterior aspect of the lateral ventricle (LV) of neonatal, immunodeficient, dysmyelinated mice (Mbpshi, Rag2 KO; shiv/rag2). Outcome measures included early cell biodistribution, animal survival and myelination assessed with MRI, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Results: Grafting of cGRP into posterior LV significantly extended animal survival, whereas no benefit was observed after anterior LV transplantation. In contrast, myelination of the corpus callosum was more prominent in anteriorly transplanted animals. Conclusions: The extended survival of animals after transplantation of cGRPs could be explained by the vicinity of the transplant near the brain stem. Full article
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18 pages, 1034 KiB  
Review
Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of COVID-19, a Promising Future
by Daniela Gois Beghini, Samuel Iwao Horita and Andrea Henriques-Pons
Cells 2021, 10(10), 2588; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10102588 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5074
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells present in virtually all tissues; they have a potent self-renewal capacity and can differentiate into multiple cell types. They also affect the ambient tissue by the paracrine secretion of numerous factors in vivo, including [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells present in virtually all tissues; they have a potent self-renewal capacity and can differentiate into multiple cell types. They also affect the ambient tissue by the paracrine secretion of numerous factors in vivo, including the induction of other stem cells’ differentiation. In vitro, the culture media supernatant is named secretome and contains soluble molecules and extracellular vesicles that retain potent biological function in tissue regeneration. MSCs are considered safe for human treatment; their use does not involve ethical issues, as embryonic stem cells do not require genetic manipulation as induced pluripotent stem cells, and after intravenous injection, they are mainly found in the lugs. Therefore, these cells are currently being tested in various preclinical and clinical trials for several diseases, including COVID-19. Several affected COVID-19 patients develop induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with an uncontrolled inflammatory response. This condition causes extensive damage to the lungs and may leave serious post-COVID-19 sequelae. As the disease may cause systemic alterations, such as thromboembolism and compromised renal and cardiac function, the intravenous injection of MSCs may be a therapeutic alternative against multiple pathological manifestations. In this work, we reviewed the literature about MSCs biology, focusing on their function in pulmonary regeneration and their use in COVID-19 treatment. Full article
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25 pages, 4760 KiB  
Article
Intracoronary Delivery of Porcine Cardiac Progenitor Cells Overexpressing IGF-1 and HGF in a Pig Model of Sub-Acute Myocardial Infarction
by Cristina Prat-Vidal, Verónica Crisóstomo, Isabel Moscoso, Claudia Báez-Díaz, Virginia Blanco-Blázquez, Guadalupe Gómez-Mauricio, Guillermo Albericio, Susana Aguilar, María-Eugenia Fernández-Santos, Francisco Fernández-Avilés, Francisco M. Sánchez-Margallo, Antoni Bayes-Genis and Antonio Bernad
Cells 2021, 10(10), 2571; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10102571 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2469
Abstract
Human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPC) are considered a good candidate in cell therapy for ischemic heart disease, demonstrating capacity to improve functional recovery after myocardial infarction (MI), both in small and large preclinical animal models. However, improvements are required in terms of cell [...] Read more.
Human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPC) are considered a good candidate in cell therapy for ischemic heart disease, demonstrating capacity to improve functional recovery after myocardial infarction (MI), both in small and large preclinical animal models. However, improvements are required in terms of cell engraftment and efficacy. Based on previously published reports, insulin-growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) have demonstrated substantial cardioprotective, repair and regeneration activities, so they are good candidates to be evaluated in large animal model of MI. We have validated porcine cardiac progenitor cells (pCPC) and lentiviral vectors to overexpress IGF-1 (co-expressing eGFP) and HGF (co-expressing mCherry). pCPC were transduced and IGF1-eGFPpos and HGF-mCherrypos populations were purified by cell sorting and further expanded. Overexpression of IGF-1 has a limited impact on pCPC expression profile, whereas results indicated that pCPC-HGF-mCherry cultures could be counter selecting high expresser cells. In addition, pCPC-IGF1-eGFP showed a higher cardiogenic response, evaluated in co-cultures with decellularized extracellular matrix, compared with native pCPC or pCPC-HGF-mCherry. In vivo intracoronary co-administration of pCPC-IGF1-eGFP and pCPC-HFG-mCherry (1:1; 40 × 106/animal), one week after the induction of an MI model in swine, revealed no significant improvement in cardiac function. Full article
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23 pages, 2476 KiB  
Review
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs)—Roles in Regenerative Therapies, Disease Modelling and Drug Screening
by Mourad A. M. Aboul-Soud, Alhusain J. Alzahrani and Amer Mahmoud
Cells 2021, 10(9), 2319; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10092319 - 05 Sep 2021
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 11231
Abstract
The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has made an invaluable contribution to the field of regenerative medicine, paving way for identifying the true potential of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Since the controversy around ethicality of ESCs continue to be debated, [...] Read more.
The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has made an invaluable contribution to the field of regenerative medicine, paving way for identifying the true potential of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Since the controversy around ethicality of ESCs continue to be debated, iPSCs have been used to circumvent the process around destruction of the human embryo. The use of iPSCs have transformed biological research, wherein increasing number of studies are documenting nuclear reprogramming strategies to make them beneficial models for drug screening as well as disease modelling. The flexibility around the use of iPSCs include compatibility to non-invasive harvesting, and ability to source from patients with rare diseases. iPSCs have been widely used in cardiac disease modelling, studying inherited arrhythmias, neural disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, liver disease, and spinal cord injury. Extensive research around identifying factors that are involved in maintaining the identity of ESCs during induction of pluripotency in somatic cells is undertaken. The focus of the current review is to detail all the clinical translation research around iPSCs and the strength of its ever-growing potential in the clinical space. Full article
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30 pages, 4874 KiB  
Review
Corneal Epithelial Stem Cells–Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Options
by Yue Ruan, Subao Jiang, Aytan Musayeva, Norbert Pfeiffer and Adrian Gericke
Cells 2021, 10(9), 2302; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10092302 - 03 Sep 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 6367
Abstract
In the human cornea, regeneration of the epithelium is regulated by the stem cell reservoir of the limbus, which is the marginal region of the cornea representing the anatomical and functional border between the corneal and conjunctival epithelium. In support of this concept, [...] Read more.
In the human cornea, regeneration of the epithelium is regulated by the stem cell reservoir of the limbus, which is the marginal region of the cornea representing the anatomical and functional border between the corneal and conjunctival epithelium. In support of this concept, extensive limbal damage, e.g., by chemical or thermal injury, inflammation, or surgery, may induce limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) leading to vascularization and opacification of the cornea and eventually vision loss. These acquired forms of limbal stem cell deficiency may occur uni- or bilaterally, which is important for the choice of treatment. Moreover, a variety of inherited diseases, such as congenital aniridia or dyskeratosis congenita, are characterized by LSCD typically occurring bilaterally. Several techniques of autologous and allogenic stem cell transplantation have been established. The limbus can be restored by transplantation of whole limbal grafts, small limbal biopsies or by ex vivo-expanded limbal cells. In this review, the physiology of the corneal epithelium, the pathophysiology of LSCD, and the therapeutic options will be presented. Full article
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19 pages, 891 KiB  
Review
Stem Cells and Exosomes: New Therapies for Intervertebral Disc Degeneration
by Zoe Krut, Gadi Pelled, Dan Gazit and Zulma Gazit
Cells 2021, 10(9), 2241; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10092241 - 29 Aug 2021
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 7632
Abstract
Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) occurs as a result of an imbalance of the anabolic and catabolic processes in the intervertebral disc, leading to an alteration in the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM), loss of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, excessive oxidative stress and [...] Read more.
Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) occurs as a result of an imbalance of the anabolic and catabolic processes in the intervertebral disc, leading to an alteration in the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM), loss of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, excessive oxidative stress and inflammation. Degeneration of the IVD occurs naturally with age, but mechanical trauma, lifestyle factors and certain genetic abnormalities can increase the likelihood of symptomatic disease progression. IVDD, often referred to as degenerative disc disease (DDD), poses an increasingly substantial financial burden due to the aging population and increasing incidence of obesity in the United States. Current treatments for IVDD include pharmacological and surgical interventions, but these lack the ability to stop the progression of disease and restore the functionality of the IVD. Biological therapies have been evaluated but show varying degrees of efficacy in reversing disc degeneration long-term. Stem cell-based therapies have shown promising results in the regeneration of the IVD, but face both biological and ethical limitations. Exosomes play an important role in intercellular communication, and stem cell-derived exosomes have been shown to maintain the therapeutic benefit of their origin cells without the associated risks. This review highlights the current state of research on the use of stem-cell derived exosomes in the treatment of IVDD. Full article
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22 pages, 1211 KiB  
Review
Cell Therapy for Anal Sphincter Incontinence: Where Do We Stand?
by Alexandre Balaphas, Jeremy Meyer, Raphael P. H. Meier, Emilie Liot, Nicolas C. Buchs, Bruno Roche, Christian Toso, Leo H. Bühler, Carmen Gonelle-Gispert and Frédéric Ris
Cells 2021, 10(8), 2086; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10082086 - 13 Aug 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5165 | Correction
Abstract
Anal sphincter incontinence is a chronic disease, which dramatically impairs quality of life and induces high costs for the society. Surgery, considered as the best curative option, shows a disappointing success rate. Stem/progenitor cell therapy is pledging, for anal sphincter incontinence, a substitute [...] Read more.
Anal sphincter incontinence is a chronic disease, which dramatically impairs quality of life and induces high costs for the society. Surgery, considered as the best curative option, shows a disappointing success rate. Stem/progenitor cell therapy is pledging, for anal sphincter incontinence, a substitute to surgery with higher efficacy. However, the published literature is disparate. Our aim was to perform a review on the development of cell therapy for anal sphincter incontinence with critical analyses of its pitfalls. Animal models for anal sphincter incontinence were varied and tried to reproduce distinct clinical situations (acute injury or healed injury with or without surgical reconstruction) but were limited by anatomical considerations. Cell preparations used for treatment, originated, in order of frequency, from skeletal muscle, bone marrow or fat tissue. The characterization of these preparations was often incomplete and stemness not always addressed. Despite a lack of understanding of sphincter healing processes and the exact mechanism of action of cell preparations, this treatment was evaluated in 83 incontinent patients, reporting encouraging results. However, further development is necessary to establish the correct indications, to determine the most-suited cell type, to standardize the cell preparation method and to validate the route and number of cell delivery. Full article
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26 pages, 870 KiB  
Review
Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Bioactive Factors, and Scaffolds in Bone Repair: From Research Perspectives to Clinical Practice
by Sandra Stamnitz and Aleksandra Klimczak
Cells 2021, 10(8), 1925; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10081925 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 5300
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapies are promising tools for bone tissue regeneration. However, tracking cells and maintaining them in the site of injury is difficult. A potential solution is to seed the cells onto a biocompatible scaffold. Construct development in bone tissue engineering is [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapies are promising tools for bone tissue regeneration. However, tracking cells and maintaining them in the site of injury is difficult. A potential solution is to seed the cells onto a biocompatible scaffold. Construct development in bone tissue engineering is a complex step-by-step process with many variables to be optimized, such as stem cell source, osteogenic molecular factors, scaffold design, and an appropriate in vivo animal model. In this review, an MSC-based tissue engineering approach for bone repair is reported. Firstly, MSC role in bone formation and regeneration is detailed. Secondly, MSC-based bone tissue biomaterial design is analyzed from a research perspective. Finally, examples of animal preclinical and human clinical trials involving MSCs and scaffolds in bone repair are presented. Full article
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22 pages, 5094 KiB  
Article
Processing and Ex Vivo Expansion of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells for the Development of an Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product for use in Humans
by Anna Labedz-Maslowska, Agnieszka Szkaradek, Tomasz Mierzwinski, Zbigniew Madeja and Ewa Zuba-Surma
Cells 2021, 10(8), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10081908 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3240
Abstract
Adipose tissue (AT) represents a commonly used source of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) whose proregenerative potential has been widely investigated in multiple clinical trials worldwide. However, the standardization of the manufacturing process of MSC-based cell therapy medicinal products in compliance with the requirements [...] Read more.
Adipose tissue (AT) represents a commonly used source of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) whose proregenerative potential has been widely investigated in multiple clinical trials worldwide. However, the standardization of the manufacturing process of MSC-based cell therapy medicinal products in compliance with the requirements of the local authorities is obligatory and will allow us to obtain the necessary permits for product administration according to its intended use. Within the research phase (RD), we optimized the protocols used for the processing and ex vivo expansion of AT-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs) for the development of an Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product (ATMP) for use in humans. Critical process parameters (including, e.g., the concentration of enzyme used for AT digestion, cell culture conditions) were identified and examined to ensure the high quality of the final product containing AT-MSCs. We confirmed the identity of isolated AT-MSCs as MSCs and their trilineage differentiation potential according to the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) recommendations. Based on the conducted experiments, in-process quality control (QC) parameters and acceptance criteria were defined for the manufacturing of hospital exemption ATMP (HE-ATMP). Finally, we conducted a validation of the manufacturing process in a GMP facility. In the current study, we presented a process approach leading to the optimization of processing and the ex vivo expansion of AT-MSCs for the development of ATMP for use in humans. Full article
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40 pages, 7880 KiB  
Review
Therapy Development by Genome Editing of Hematopoietic Stem Cells
by Lola Koniali, Carsten W. Lederer and Marina Kleanthous
Cells 2021, 10(6), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10061492 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 6178
Abstract
Accessibility of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for the manipulation and repopulation of the blood and immune systems has placed them at the forefront of cell and gene therapy development. Recent advances in genome-editing tools, in particular for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats [...] Read more.
Accessibility of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for the manipulation and repopulation of the blood and immune systems has placed them at the forefront of cell and gene therapy development. Recent advances in genome-editing tools, in particular for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) and CRISPR/Cas-derived editing systems, have transformed the gene therapy landscape. Their versatility and the ability to edit genomic sequences and facilitate gene disruption, correction or insertion, have broadened the spectrum of potential gene therapy targets and accelerated the development of potential curative therapies for many rare diseases treatable by transplantation or modification of HSCs. Ongoing developments seek to address efficiency and precision of HSC modification, tolerability of treatment and the distribution and affordability of corresponding therapies. Here, we give an overview of recent progress in the field of HSC genome editing as treatment for inherited disorders and summarize the most significant findings from corresponding preclinical and clinical studies. With emphasis on HSC-based therapies, we also discuss technical hurdles that need to be overcome en route to clinical translation of genome editing and indicate advances that may facilitate routine application beyond the most common disorders. Full article
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22 pages, 7050 KiB  
Review
Extracellular Vesicles from Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Potential Treatments for Osteoarthritis
by Nur Azira Mohd Noor, Asma Abdullah Nurul, Muhammad Rajaei Ahmad Mohd Zain, Wan Khairunnisaa Wan Nor Aduni and Maryam Azlan
Cells 2021, 10(6), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10061287 - 22 May 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4571
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disorder of the joint and its prevalence and severity is increasing owing to ageing of the population. Osteoarthritis is characterized by the degradation of articular cartilage and remodeling of the underlying bone. There is little understanding of [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disorder of the joint and its prevalence and severity is increasing owing to ageing of the population. Osteoarthritis is characterized by the degradation of articular cartilage and remodeling of the underlying bone. There is little understanding of the cellular and molecular processes involved in pathophysiology of OA. Currently the treatment for OA is limited to painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs, which only treat the symptoms. Some patients may also undergo surgical procedures to replace the damaged joints. Extracellular vesicles (EV) play an important role in intercellular communications and their concentration is elevated in the joints of OA patients, although their mechanism is unclear. Extracellular vesicles are naturally released by cells and they carry their origin cell information to be delivered to target cells. On the other hand, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are highly proliferative and have a great potential in cartilage regeneration. In this review, we provide an overview of the current OA treatments and their limitations. We also discuss the role of EV in OA pathophysiology. Finally, we highlight the therapeutic potential of MSC-derived EV in OA and their challenges. Full article
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28 pages, 2437 KiB  
Review
The Potential of FGF-2 in Craniofacial Bone Tissue Engineering: A Review
by Anita Novais, Eirini Chatzopoulou, Catherine Chaussain and Caroline Gorin
Cells 2021, 10(4), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10040932 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3535
Abstract
Bone is a hard-vascularized tissue, which renews itself continuously to adapt to the mechanical and metabolic demands of the body. The craniofacial area is prone to trauma and pathologies that often result in large bone damage, these leading to both aesthetic and functional [...] Read more.
Bone is a hard-vascularized tissue, which renews itself continuously to adapt to the mechanical and metabolic demands of the body. The craniofacial area is prone to trauma and pathologies that often result in large bone damage, these leading to both aesthetic and functional complications for patients. The “gold standard” for treating these large defects is autologous bone grafting, which has some drawbacks including the requirement for a second surgical site with quantity of bone limitations, pain and other surgical complications. Indeed, tissue engineering combining a biomaterial with the appropriate cells and molecules of interest would allow a new therapeutic approach to treat large bone defects while avoiding complications associated with a second surgical site. This review first outlines the current knowledge of bone remodeling and the different signaling pathways involved seeking to improve our understanding of the roles of each to be able to stimulate or inhibit them. Secondly, it highlights the interesting characteristics of one growth factor in particular, FGF-2, and its role in bone homeostasis, before then analyzing its potential usefulness in craniofacial bone tissue engineering because of its proliferative, pro-angiogenic and pro-osteogenic effects depending on its spatial-temporal use, dose and mode of administration. Full article
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11 pages, 1658 KiB  
Article
TNFAIP8 Regulates Intestinal Epithelial Cell Differentiation and May Alter Terminal Differentiation of Secretory Progenitors
by Ryan Hood, Youhai H. Chen and Jason R. Goldsmith
Cells 2021, 10(4), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10040871 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3105
Abstract
The intestine is a highly proliferative dynamic environment that relies on constant self-renewal of the intestinal epithelium to maintain homeostasis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8 or TIPE0) is a regulator of PI3K-mediated signaling. By binding to PIP2 and PIP3, TIPE family members [...] Read more.
The intestine is a highly proliferative dynamic environment that relies on constant self-renewal of the intestinal epithelium to maintain homeostasis. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8 or TIPE0) is a regulator of PI3K-mediated signaling. By binding to PIP2 and PIP3, TIPE family members locally activate PI3K activity while globally inhibiting PI3K activity through sequestration of membranous PIP2. Single-cell RNA sequencing survey of Tipe0−/− small intestine was used to investigate the role of TIPE0 in intestinal differentiation. Tipe0−/− intestinal cells were shown to shift towards an undifferentiated state, with the notable exception of goblet cells. Additionally, three possible novel regulators of terminal cell fate decisions in the secretory lineage were identified: Nupr1, Kdm4a, and Gatad1. We propose that these novel regulators drive changes involved in goblet cell (Nupr1) or tuft cell (Kdm4a and Gatad1) fate commitment and that TIPE0 may play a role in orchestrating terminal differentiation. Full article
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13 pages, 3312 KiB  
Article
Beneficial Roles of Cellulose Patch-Mediated Cell Therapy in Myocardial Infarction: A Preclinical Study
by Rossana B. Simeoni, Bassam F. Mogharbel, Julio C. Francisco, Nelson I. Miyague, Ana C. Irioda, Carolina M. C. O. Souza, Daiany Souza, Priscila E. Ferreira Stricker, Nádia Nascimento da Rosa, Clayton F. Souza, Celia R. Cavichiolo Franco, Maria-Rita Sierakowski, Eltyeb Abdelwahid, Luiz C. Guarita-Souza and Katherine A.T. Carvalho
Cells 2021, 10(2), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020424 - 17 Feb 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2628
Abstract
Biological scaffolds have become an attractive approach for repairing the infarcted myocardium and have been shown to facilitate constructive remodeling in injured tissues. This study aimed to investigate the possible utilization of bacterial cellulose (BC) membrane patches containing cocultured cells to limit myocardial [...] Read more.
Biological scaffolds have become an attractive approach for repairing the infarcted myocardium and have been shown to facilitate constructive remodeling in injured tissues. This study aimed to investigate the possible utilization of bacterial cellulose (BC) membrane patches containing cocultured cells to limit myocardial postinfarction pathology. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery in 45 Wistar rats, and patches with or without cells were attached to the hearts. After one week, the animals underwent echocardiography to assess for ejection fraction and left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes. Following patch formation, the cocultured cells retained viability of >90% over 14 days in culture. The patch was applied to the myocardial surface of the infarcted area after staying 14 days in culture. Interestingly, the BC membrane without cellular treatment showed higher preservation of cardiac dimensions; however, we did not observe improvement in the left ventricular ejection fraction of this group compared to coculture-treated membranes. Our results demonstrated an important role for BC in supporting cells known to produce cardioprotective soluble factors and may thus provide effective future therapeutic outcomes for patients suffering from ischemic heart disease. Full article
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2020

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29 pages, 34112 KiB  
Article
Qualifying Osteogenic Potency Assay Metrics for Human Multipotent Stromal Cells: TGF-β2 a Telling Eligible Biomarker
by Augustin M. Ofiteru, Diana F. Becheru, Sami Gharbia, Cornel Balta, Hildegard Herman, Bianca Mladin, Mariana Ionita, Anca Hermenean and Jorge S. Burns
Cells 2020, 9(12), 2559; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9122559 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3104
Abstract
Potency assays are critical for regenerative medicine, addressing the known challenge of functional heterogeneity among human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC). Necessary laboratory cell expansion allows analysis before implantation in the patient. Levels of induction of five signature gene biomarkers, ALPL, COL1A2, [...] Read more.
Potency assays are critical for regenerative medicine, addressing the known challenge of functional heterogeneity among human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC). Necessary laboratory cell expansion allows analysis before implantation in the patient. Levels of induction of five signature gene biomarkers, ALPL, COL1A2, DCN, ELN and RUNX2, constituted a previously reported proof-of-principle osteogenic potency assay. We tested assay modification to enhance reproducibility using six consistent bone marrow derived hBM-MSC and explored applicability to three adipose tissue derived hAT-MSC. Using a potent proprietary osteogenic induction factor, the GUSB/YWAHZ reference gene pair provided real time PCR consistency. The novel assay conditions supported the concept that genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins one week after osteogenic induction were informative. Nonetheless, relatively low induction of COL1A2 and ELN encouraged search for additional biomarkers. TGFB2 mRNA induction, important for osteogenic commitment, was readily quantifiable in both hBM-MSC and hAT-MSC. Combined with DCN, TGFB2 mRNA induction data provided discriminatory power for resolving donor-specific heterogeneity. Histomorphometric decorin and TGF-β2 protein expression patterns in eight-week heterotopic bone implants also discriminated the two non-bone-forming hMSC. We highlight progress towards prompt osteogenic potency assays, needed by current clinical trials to accelerate improved intervention with enhanced stem cell therapy for serious bone fractures. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Heterogeneity of glial cells is ideal therapeutic targets for future clinical strategies
Authors: Vyacheslav Dyachuk; et al.
Affiliation: Karolinska Institutetdisabled, Stockholm, Sweden

Title: Secretome from mesenchymal stem cells as therapy to treat age-related diseases
Authors: Juan Antonio Fafián-Labora; et al.
Affiliation: Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

Title: In situ Activation of Endogenous Stem Cells: Ultrasound-mediated Drug Delivery for Tissue Regeneration
Authors: Gadi Pelled; Dan Gazit; et al.
Affiliation: Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA

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