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Environ. Sci. Proc., 2023, ECWS-7 2023

The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences

Online | 15–30 March 2023

Volume Editor:
Athanasios Loukas, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Number of Papers: 103

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Cover Story (view full-size image): The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences (ECWS-7), after six editions having addressed a variety of important water-related issues, focused on adaptive water resources’ [...] Read more.
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1 pages, 157 KiB  
Editorial
Statement of Peer Review
by Athanasios Loukas
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023025103 - 01 Jun 2023
Viewed by 713
Abstract
In submitting conference proceedings to Environment Sciences Proceedings, the volume editors of the proceedings certify to the publisher that all papers published in this volume have been subjected to peer review administered by the volume editors [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)

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8 pages, 2656 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Rainfall-Runoff Modeling Using Artificial Neural Network—A Case Study of Purna Sub-Catchment of Upper Tapi Basin, India
by Usman Mohseni and Sai Bargav Muskula
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14232 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
The present study examines the rainfall-runoff-based model development by using artificial neural networks (ANNs) models in the Yerli sub-catchment of the upper Tapi basin for a period of 36 years, i.e., from 1981 to 2016. The created ANN models were capable of establishing [...] Read more.
The present study examines the rainfall-runoff-based model development by using artificial neural networks (ANNs) models in the Yerli sub-catchment of the upper Tapi basin for a period of 36 years, i.e., from 1981 to 2016. The created ANN models were capable of establishing the correlation between input and output data sets. The rainfall and runoff models that were built have been calibrated and validated. For predicting runoff, Feed-Forward Back Propagation Neural Network (FFBPNN) and Cascade Forward Back Propagation Neural Network (CFBPNN) models are used. To evaluate the efficacy of the model, various measures such as mean square error (MSE), root mean square error (RMSE), and coefficient of correlation (R) are employed. With MSE, RMSE, and R values of 0.4982, 0.7056, and 0.96213, respectively, FFBPNN outperforms two networks with model architectures of 6-4-1 and Transig transfer function. Additionally, in this study, the Levenberg–Marquardt (LM), Bayesian Regularization (BR), and Conjugate Gradient Scaled (CGS) algorithms are used to train the ANN rainfall-runoff models. The results show that LM creates the most accurate model. It performs better than BR and CGS. The best model is the LM-trained method with 30 neurons, which has MSE values of 0.7279, RMSE values of 0.8531, and R values of 0.95057. It is concluded that the constructed neural network model was capable of quite accurately predicting runoff for the Yerli sub-catchment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 1753 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Bivariate Analysis with Synthetic Hydrograph Shapes for Hydrological Dam Safety Assessment
by Daniel Carril-Rojas and Luis Mediero
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14175 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 633
Abstract
Hydrological dam safety analyses should assess the frequency curve of maximum reservoir water levels in flood events by routing a large set of inflow hydrographs. Therefore, stochastic bivariate analyses are used. Hydrograph shapes obtained by using hydrometeorological simulations are required for each flood [...] Read more.
Hydrological dam safety analyses should assess the frequency curve of maximum reservoir water levels in flood events by routing a large set of inflow hydrographs. Therefore, stochastic bivariate analyses are used. Hydrograph shapes obtained by using hydrometeorological simulations are required for each flood peak-hydrograph volume pair. Hydrograph shapes depend on hyetograph shapes. A sensitivity analysis is required to select the appropriate hyetograph shape, focusing on the influence of the hyetograph time step on the hydrograph shape. In this study, the Cuerda del Pozo Dam in central Spain is selected as a case study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 909 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Intervention Time of Porous Asphalt Mixture Evaluation to Prevent Clogging
by Emmanuelle Stefânia Holdefer Garcia and Liseane Padilha Thives
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14196 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Porous pavements are considered an alternative to increasing the city’s permeable surfaces and have great potential for rainwater harvesting. Over time, the surface layer clogs, limiting the application and use of porous pavement. This study aims to evaluate the maximum time for an [...] Read more.
Porous pavements are considered an alternative to increasing the city’s permeable surfaces and have great potential for rainwater harvesting. Over time, the surface layer clogs, limiting the application and use of porous pavement. This study aims to evaluate the maximum time for an intervention on a porous surface to recover its permeable properties before clogging. Through a constant load permeameter, rainwater runoff simulations were performed to measure the permeability coefficient of porous asphalt mixtures. Void content and interconnected voids were also evaluated. The parameter permeability showed a good indicator for determining when a surface layer will clog, and by taking regular measurements, the necessary intervention time to prevent it can be established. The designed porous mixture surface intervention should occur every year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 1417 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Ecosystem Services Evaluation from Sustainable Water Management in Agriculture: An Example from An Intensely Irrigated Area in Central Greece
by Yiannis Panagopoulos, Dimitrios Karpouzos, Pantazis Georgiou and Dimitrios Papamichail
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14250 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 642
Abstract
This study presents the provisional, regulating and cultural ecosystem services that can be delivered by the newly constructed multi-purpose reservoir of Lake Karla located in a water-scarce agricultural area in central Greece. The present short paper takes advantage of literature data and outputs [...] Read more.
This study presents the provisional, regulating and cultural ecosystem services that can be delivered by the newly constructed multi-purpose reservoir of Lake Karla located in a water-scarce agricultural area in central Greece. The present short paper takes advantage of literature data and outputs produced from a dynamic GIS hydrologic and management model of the study area with SWAT that simulated hydrology, reservoir operation, irrigation practices and crop production. The paper highlights the net provisional services that the local agricultural society can gain from the full operation of Karla and the additional benefits arising, such as flood control, biodiversity maintenance, aesthetic improvement and touristic opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 664 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Hydrodiplomacy and Climate Change: An Assessment of the Transboundary River Basins of Greece
by Charalampos Skoulikaris
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14182 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 839
Abstract
Hydrodiplomacy is the emerging framework where legal acts, based on technical data and information, aim to support commonly accepted solutions to water-related tensions among states with transboundary waters. In this research, hydrodiplomacy components in relation to (a) policy, (b) preventive, (c) cooperative, and [...] Read more.
Hydrodiplomacy is the emerging framework where legal acts, based on technical data and information, aim to support commonly accepted solutions to water-related tensions among states with transboundary waters. In this research, hydrodiplomacy components in relation to (a) policy, (b) preventive, (c) cooperative, and (d) technical aspects are considered together with climate change, which is bound to destabilize the core element of hydrodiplomacy, i.e., water. The study area is composed of the five transboundary river basins of Greece. The coupling of all these different nature elements is conducted with the use of the AHP multicriteria method, and the results of a normalized output that quantifies water transboundary cooperation in the climate crisis era are given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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11 pages, 5415 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Myanmar’s Planned Resettlement and Social Impact: An Empirical Case Study
by Aung Tun Lin and Kaiwen Yao
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14205 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1192
Abstract
This paper explores the planned resettlement process and the social impact induced by the Tha Htay Hydropower Project in Myanmar. Through the empirical case study, the status of direct impact on the resettled people, changes in their livelihood, policy orientation towards practical limitations, [...] Read more.
This paper explores the planned resettlement process and the social impact induced by the Tha Htay Hydropower Project in Myanmar. Through the empirical case study, the status of direct impact on the resettled people, changes in their livelihood, policy orientation towards practical limitations, practical consequences of resettlement, and inadequate preparation for resettlement implementation were studied as verifiable evidence. In this paper, the survey data were compiled from the responses of resettled people from three resettled villages: Maewa, Payit and Yegauk, which were interpreted as the real condition of the project-affected people because a higher degree of their dissatisfaction negatively affected the project, whereas a higher degree of satisfaction led to positive effects. In this paper, a quantitative method was used to analyze the planned resettlement and its social impact. As a survey descriptive design, a simple random sampling method was utilized to collect samples from the target population with a contribution of structured questionnaires. The collected data were presented by mean and standard deviation to decide the real situation of the resettlement project. The study found that details of social impact were considered to carry out when the construction of the hydropower project began. Then, the policy constraint in the resettlement process was verified, which led to the insufficient preparation and implementation of the resettlement. To meet the future development requirements of the planned resettlement process with fewer social impacts on hydropower development projects, practical contributions and policy recommendations are made for the compensation of farmland, where the people’s livelihoods are land-based, and additional livelihood packages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 2648 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Anthropization, Salinity and Oxidative Stress in Animals in the Coastal Zone
by Abhipsa Bal and Biswaranjan Paital
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14228 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 914
Abstract
In coastal and abiding zones, ground water continuously faces a very slight but alarmingly increasing trend in salinity due to several reasons such as the excess loss or use of it, with the constant dissolution of salts from the Earth’s surface and heat-trapping [...] Read more.
In coastal and abiding zones, ground water continuously faces a very slight but alarmingly increasing trend in salinity due to several reasons such as the excess loss or use of it, with the constant dissolution of salts from the Earth’s surface and heat-trapping pollution from human activities, rising sea levels and finally, high flooding. Many recent studies have indicated that even a slight elevation in ground water salinity may affect freshwater inhabitants, highlighting the importance of research on the effects of low salinity stress on coastal zone freshwater inhabitants. Along with abiotic factors such as salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and alkalinity, anthropogenic factors also cause a lot of stress on the inhabitants in coastal zones. Climatic factors also play an important role in influencing the life of coastal water inhabitants. For example, statistics such as those obtained by correlation and discriminant function analysis indicate that sublethal salinity acts as a strong modulator in the physiology of inhabiting fish in fresh as well as coastal water. Parameters such as increase in body weight, feed intake and irregularities in morphometry increase under higher salinities, which are confirmed by a decline in the growth of fishes. Similarly, blood physiology aspects, such as a significant loss in hemoglobin content, the RBC count and eosinophils, are coupled with amelioration in neutrophil count at the higher salinities of 6 and 9 ppt in few freshwater organisms. Normal histoarchitecture is also lost in most fish under high salinity conditions and higher anthropogenic loads. The generation of tissue damage in terms of oxidative stress is prominent under high fluctuations in abiotic factors including higher salinity or under high anthropogenic loads. Hence, a loss in compromised normal physiology due to the toxic effects of low- or high-salinity saline water or in fresh inhabitants including hardy fishes under changing climatic conditions are evident. This raises concerns about maintaining water quality in coastal and allied zones globally in the coming decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 1755 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Drought Propagation under Combined Influences of Reservoir Regulation and Irrigation over a Mediterranean Catchment
by Omar Cenobio-Cruz, Pere Quintana-Seguí and Luis Garrote
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14239 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 709
Abstract
Drought is a natural phenomenon that is controlled by different factors such as natural climate and catchment controls, and in many worldwide regions, it is now driven by human activities (i.e., reservoirs, irrigation, groundwater abstractions). Reservoirs initially ensure water availability and help cope [...] Read more.
Drought is a natural phenomenon that is controlled by different factors such as natural climate and catchment controls, and in many worldwide regions, it is now driven by human activities (i.e., reservoirs, irrigation, groundwater abstractions). Reservoirs initially ensure water availability and help cope with drought, especially in semi-arid regions; however, this human modification of the environment may lead to both positive and negative effects on the hydrological cycle, which need to be understood. This involves a better understanding of hydrological processes and incorporating human interactions within coupled human–natural systems to improve drought management. We focused on a strongly irrigated area located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, the northern part of the Canal of Aragon and Catalonia district supplied by the Barasona reservoir. We implemented a simple water management model to simulate the reservoir operation (human-influenced scenario) and examined the contribution of human activities, associated with irrigation, on the water budget and drought propagation. For this purpose, we used simulations performed by the hydrometeorological model SASER (SAFRAN-SURFEX-EauDyssée-RAPID), which provided a natural scenario (without human influence) to contrast with the human-influenced scenario. The model performance was evaluated through the Kling Gupta Efficiency (KGE) metric. The first results demonstrated satisfactory performance to simulate reservoir storage and outflows against observed data, with KGE values of 0.4 and 0.82, respectively. Then we explored the linkages between agricultural drought, associated with evapotranspiration, and hydrological drought. We applied standardized indices to identify different kinds of drought, compared them, and assessed changes induced by human activities. Human modifications modulate the hydrological response of the catchment, and alter the intensity of hydrological drought, while human activities reduce the intensity of agricultural droughts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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5 pages, 1953 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Estimation of Remotely Sensed Actual Evapotranspiration in Water-Limited Mediterranean Agroecosystems for Monitoring Crop (cotton) Water Requirements
by Marios Spiliotopoulos, Nicolas Alpanakis, Georgios A. Tziatzios, Ioannis Faraslis, Pantelis Sidiropoulos, Stavros Sakellariou, George Karoutsos, Nicolas R. Dalezios and Nicholas Dercas
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14200 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 627
Abstract
The role of effective irrigation management for optimal food production is well recognized and can be partially solved through the improvement of water use efficiency (WUE). To control the quantity of the water applied to actual crops, net irrigation water requirements (NIWR) are [...] Read more.
The role of effective irrigation management for optimal food production is well recognized and can be partially solved through the improvement of water use efficiency (WUE). To control the quantity of the water applied to actual crops, net irrigation water requirements (NIWR) are needed. The computation of NIWR is based on the estimation of crop water requirements (CWR) and soil water balance, where crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is the main component. Earth observation (EO) using remote sensing (RS) has already become an important tool for the quantification and the detection of spatial and temporal distributions and variability in several environmental variables at different scales. Remotely sensed models are currently considered to be suitable for crop water use estimation in the field and at regional scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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5 pages, 827 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Water Pollutants Removal by Coated Quartz Sand
by Vesna S. Cvetković, Nataša M. Petrović and Jovan N. Jovićević
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14188 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 560
Abstract
Presence of major environmental pollutants in water can cause a variety of harmful effects on living organisms in ecosystems. Very often, apart from the ubiquitous arsenic (As), organic compounds, iron, manganese, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and similar pollutants may reach dramatically high levels in [...] Read more.
Presence of major environmental pollutants in water can cause a variety of harmful effects on living organisms in ecosystems. Very often, apart from the ubiquitous arsenic (As), organic compounds, iron, manganese, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and similar pollutants may reach dramatically high levels in originally unpolluted waters due to various anthropogenic activities. These elevated levels have major negative effects on the environment and require action. The aim of this research was to propose a new approach to the development and production of cost-effective water pollutant removal media based on natural minerals. The synthesis process is based on chemical and subsequent thermal treatment of quartz sand with a magnesium carbonate water solution. The MgO-coated sand in a 5 min. interaction in column operation with 250 mL of synthetic water with 200 μgL−1 of As(V), 0.51 mgL−1 of Fe(III), and 1.41 mgL−1 of Mn(II) removed more than 90% of the As(V). The final concentrations of arsenic, iron, and manganese in treated waters were very close to zero after 10 min of contact with active materials. The removal process is based on redox and sorption processes on the surface and inside the pores of the active material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 1299 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Use of Hydrogels for Seawater Desalination Processes: A Patent Landscape Report
by Ahmed Fatimi
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14184 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
This patent landscape report encapsulates the state by introducing what has been invented concerning hydrogels for seawater desalination processes. As a result, 81 patent documents were found, and 62% of all patent documents have been published during the last three years. According to [...] Read more.
This patent landscape report encapsulates the state by introducing what has been invented concerning hydrogels for seawater desalination processes. As a result, 81 patent documents were found, and 62% of all patent documents have been published during the last three years. According to the findings, China was ranked as the first jurisdiction, and the most prolific patenting companies are from China and the United States, while William Marsh Rice University (United States) and Tianjin Polytechnic University (China) are the academic institutions leading the way. The patent classifications indicate that most inventions are intended for the treatment of seawater (e.g., desalination); processes specially adapted for manufacturing semi-permeable membranes for separation processes; and the treatment of water using ion-exchange sorbent compositions, dialysis, osmosis, or reverse osmosis. According to the knowledge clusters and expert driving factors in this patent landscape analysis, research and development are centered on methods and apparatus for desalination, which are the focus of the majority of patents, as well as macromolecular gels and synthetic macromolecular substances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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5 pages, 874 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Bridging the Gap between Science and Policy: A Prerequisite for Effective Water Governance
by Maria Karasani, Dionissis Latinopoulos, Nena Ioannidou, Mike Spiliotis and Ifigenia Kagalou
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14241 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 718
Abstract
Water governance in the EU is enshrined in the Water Framework Directive (WFD), with the engagement of stakeholders being one of the governance cornerstones. The inclusion of the interests of scientific and non-scientific groups in decision-making is crucial. Our objective is to examine [...] Read more.
Water governance in the EU is enshrined in the Water Framework Directive (WFD), with the engagement of stakeholders being one of the governance cornerstones. The inclusion of the interests of scientific and non-scientific groups in decision-making is crucial. Our objective is to examine the contribution of the participatory approach to the effectiveness of local water resource management. Within the Eye4water project, a participatory assessment was applied for the Lissos river basin, through joint identification and evaluation of the main water-related issues. Firstly, we identified the social system engaged to the basin through stakeholders’ mapping. Secondly, based on criteria selection, three stakeholders’ groups were invited to a workshop. Our preliminary results show that mutual learning should be encouraged at multiple levels. Well-recognized threats such as water pollution, flood risk, and groundwater lowering are present, while biodiversity issues are quite underrepresented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 2326 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Hydrological 2D Modelling of Lithaios River Flows (Greece) Using GIS and Geostatistics for Environmental and Agricultural Water Resources Administration
by Agathos Filintas, George Panoras and George Stamatis
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14201 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 735
Abstract
The goal of our investigation is the hydrological 2D modelling of Lithaios River’s (Central Greece) streamflow, using GIS and geostatistics for studying water velocity and discharge, stage elevation, and hydraulic features (streamflow depth, water flow area, wettable circumference, hydraulic radius and depth, n [...] Read more.
The goal of our investigation is the hydrological 2D modelling of Lithaios River’s (Central Greece) streamflow, using GIS and geostatistics for studying water velocity and discharge, stage elevation, and hydraulic features (streamflow depth, water flow area, wettable circumference, hydraulic radius and depth, n Manning’s coefficient, Chow’s composite n, Froude number, etc.). Moreover, compilations and validations of rating curves (RC) were performed from a series of stage h(t)–discharge Q(t) couples metrics, aiming to use these as a river toolkit to aid environmental and agriculture surface water resources management and help environmental flows calculation, streamflow tracking, and irrigation programming in the regional basin range. The statistical results showed that the Froude number during the study period was Fr < 1 showing that Lithaios River’s streamflow is classified as subcritical. The models’ validation outcomes by using various statistics and geostatistical alternative methods, model simulations and statistics errors criterions, were correlated with the retrieved power models’ streamflow data matching for the RC curves and 2D GIS modelling and mapping of river velocity and discharge relationships and were highly satisfying since the stabilities of the deployed relationships were solid. The outcomes of the study results are recommended to provide a hydrological serving toolkit for environmental water resources administration and irrigation programming. This toolkit could assist water supply principalities to rapidly and precisely calculate streamflow volumes and features with a minimal cost rate and workload, and it could be engaged in water supply and agricultural watering administration, the calculation of environmental flows, flood protection, groundwater recharge, and other objectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 445 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Irrigation Practice Survey for Crops and Urban Greenspaces at Northwest and West Greece and Southeast Italy
by Ioannis L. Tsirogiannis
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14186 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 552
Abstract
An analytical survey regarding irrigation practice for both crops and greenspaces at the region of Western Greece and the region of Epirus in Northwest and West Greece, respectively, and the region of Apulia in Southeast Italy was performed. On-site interviews (about 500 per [...] Read more.
An analytical survey regarding irrigation practice for both crops and greenspaces at the region of Western Greece and the region of Epirus in Northwest and West Greece, respectively, and the region of Apulia in Southeast Italy was performed. On-site interviews (about 500 per region) regarded irrigation systems design, installation and management. Good practices, problems and challenges that concerned irrigation management are pointed out. The need for a frequent and organised survey of irrigation practice coordinated by relevant organisations is underlined, as it could constitute a valuable tool for planning relevant strategies and practical actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 3920 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Seawater Intrusion Vulnerability Assessment Using the GALDIT and the Modified GALDIT–AHP Methods: Application in the Coastal Almyros Aquifer, Thessaly, Greece
by Sibianka Lepuri, Athanasios Loukas and Aikaterini Lyra
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14174 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 732
Abstract
In the rural and coastal Almyros basin in Magnesia, Greece, the objective of the current study is the assessment of aquifer vulnerability to seawater intrusion using the GALDIT approach. The Almyros aquifer system’s quality and quantity have declined as a result of unsustainable [...] Read more.
In the rural and coastal Almyros basin in Magnesia, Greece, the objective of the current study is the assessment of aquifer vulnerability to seawater intrusion using the GALDIT approach. The Almyros aquifer system’s quality and quantity have declined as a result of unsustainable groundwater abstraction for irrigation. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) of Multicriteria Analysis has been used for the modification of the GALDIT index based on the statistics of experts’s responses to questionnaires on the influence of hydrological, hydrogeological, and other parameters. For all methodologies and time periods, the aquifer’s coastline section had high susceptibility levels, whereas the northeast and southeast had lower values. The most vulnerable area of the aquifer changes over the various time periods of analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 892 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Rainwater Harvesting during the COVID Outbreak: A Case Study in Brazil
by Igor Catão Martins Vaz and Enedir Ghisi
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14172 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 596
Abstract
This work assessed the potable water savings potential for different scenarios in a flat in Florianópolis, Brazil. An uncertainty analysis was also performed to understand which parameters most influenced the results. First, it was necessary to evaluate the water consumption and calculate the [...] Read more.
This work assessed the potable water savings potential for different scenarios in a flat in Florianópolis, Brazil. An uncertainty analysis was also performed to understand which parameters most influenced the results. First, it was necessary to evaluate the water consumption and calculate the water end-uses during a home-office period due to the coronavirus pandemic. The water end-uses were obtained by monitoring the users’ consumptions for sixteen days and comparing them with the water meter on a daily basis. The results were very close to those measured using the water meter, with an average absolute error of 5.6%. The base consumption was, on average, 249.2 litres per capita per day. With a home-office regime and an uninterrupted occupation, the coronavirus pandemic could be postulated to justify the more intense consumption patterns. Regarding the percentage of non-potable end-uses, an average of 25.8% was obtained. Potable water savings were simulated using the computer program Netuno, version 4. Seventy scenarios were evaluated, including different rainwater catchment areas and water and rainwater demands. The main results were that rainwater harvesting through a reduced area, 17.5% of the roof, obtained significant results, compared to the simulation with the whole roof, with a potable water savings potential of 16%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 4436 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Result-Based Management Tool for the Assessment of Existing Structural Flood Protection and Future Planning; Case Study in the Strymon River Basin, Greece
by Eleni Tzanou, Charalampos Skoulikaris and Antonios Chatzigiannis
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14204 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Flood occurrence consequences are inextricably linked to the loss of human life and material damage. The latter has a direct economic impact and requires financial resources for repair or reconstruction in order to continue to provide protection. In the study area of the [...] Read more.
Flood occurrence consequences are inextricably linked to the loss of human life and material damage. The latter has a direct economic impact and requires financial resources for repair or reconstruction in order to continue to provide protection. In the study area of the Strymon River in northern Greece, the implemented flood protection and hydraulic structural works combined with failure repeatability, their initial construction costs, and damage/repair costs were thoroughly assessed and correlated. This methodology provides a roadmap to support decision-making procedures to formulate flood protection action plans based on the valuation of current flooding results in established infrastructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 2693 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Prediction and Classification of Flood Susceptibility Based on Historic Record in a Large, Diverse, and Data Sparse Country
by Heather McGrath and Piper Nora Gohl
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14235 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1543
Abstract
The emergence of Machine learning (ML) algorithms has shown competency in a variety of fields and are growing in popularity in their application to geospatial science issues. Most recently, and notably, ML algorithms have been applied to flood susceptibility (FS) mapping. Leveraging high-power [...] Read more.
The emergence of Machine learning (ML) algorithms has shown competency in a variety of fields and are growing in popularity in their application to geospatial science issues. Most recently, and notably, ML algorithms have been applied to flood susceptibility (FS) mapping. Leveraging high-power computing systems and existing ML algorithms with national datasets of Canada, this project has explored methods to create a national FS layer across a geographically large and diverse country with limited training data. First, approaches were considered on how to generate a map of FS for Canada at two different levels, (i) national, which combined all training data into one model, and (ii) regional, where multiple models were created, based on regional similarities, and the results were mosaicked to generate a FS map. The second experiment explored the predictive capability of several ML algorithms across the geographically large and diverse landscape. Results indicate that the national approach provides a better prediction of FS, with 95.7% of the test points, 91.5% of the pixels in the training sites, and 89.6% of the pixels across the country correctly predicted as flooded, compared to 65.5%, 80.6% and 75.6%, respectively, in the regional approach. ML models applied across the country found that support vector machine (svmRadial) and Neural Network (nnet) performed poorly in areas away from the training sites, while random forest (parRF) and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (earth) performed better. A national ensemble model was ultimately selected as this blend of models compensated for the biases found in the individual models in geographic areas far removed from training sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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4 pages, 15395 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Insight into the Next-Generation Smart Membranes
by Mert Yildirim and Zeki Candan
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14256 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 881
Abstract
Membranes are used in desalination or water treatment to separate pollutants from water based on characteristics such as size or charge. Nanofiltration (NF), ultrafiltration (UF), microfiltration (MF), and reverse osmosis (RO) are typical membrane techniques. However, traditional membranes have a number of disadvantages, [...] Read more.
Membranes are used in desalination or water treatment to separate pollutants from water based on characteristics such as size or charge. Nanofiltration (NF), ultrafiltration (UF), microfiltration (MF), and reverse osmosis (RO) are typical membrane techniques. However, traditional membranes have a number of disadvantages, including fouling both on surfaces and in internal structures, uncontrollable pore size, and membrane features. Smart membranes, also known as stimuli-responsive membranes, have recently attracted attention due to their selectivity, tunable permeability, and tunable and/or reversible attributes. This new generation of smart membranes is created by integrating various stimuli-responsive materials into membrane substrates. These multi-functional smart membranes can self-adjust their physical and chemical features in response to environmental signals such as temperature, pH, light, and other stimuli. Thermo-responsive membranes, pH-responsive membranes, ion-responsive membranes, molecule-responsive membranes, UV-light-responsive membranes, glucose-responsive membranes, magnetic-responsive membranes, and redox-responsive membranes are the current kinds of smart membranes. Because of their smart structures, they have the potential to improve performance by providing high selectivity without reducing permeability, high mechanical stability, and high resistance against fouling, and can meet requirements such as molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), removal efficiencies, and wastewater quality. Smart membranes can show tunable features based on the condition of the stimulus or stimuli present internally or externally, resulting in improved and desirable controllability over the process of pollutant removal from water. Because of their physicochemical stability, repeatability, and long life, stimuli-responsive smart materials (mainly adsorbents and filtration membranes) have the potential to be key materials for membrane production, particularly in the field of water treatment. Smart membranes have a bright future, and it is important to investigate and encourage their use and advancement. This review provides a comprehensive overview of smart membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 266 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Crop Water Stress Detection Using Remote Sensing Techniques
by Muhammad Safdar, Muhammad Adnan Shahid, Abid Sarwar, Fahd Rasul, Muhammad Danish Majeed and Rehan Mehmood Sabir
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14198 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2964
Abstract
To meet the demand for increasing global food production while using limited water resources, crop water stress must be improved in agriculture. Remote-sensing-based plant stress indicators have the benefits of high spatial resolutions, a cheap cost, and short turnaround times. This study discusses [...] Read more.
To meet the demand for increasing global food production while using limited water resources, crop water stress must be improved in agriculture. Remote-sensing-based plant stress indicators have the benefits of high spatial resolutions, a cheap cost, and short turnaround times. This study discusses the current advancements in agricultural water stress monitoring and irrigation scheduling, some of the challenges that have been met, and the upcoming research needs. Remote sensing systems are prepared to handle the intricate and technical evaluations of agricultural productivity, security, and crop water stress quickly and effectively. We explore the use of remote-sensing systems in the evaluation of crop water stress by looking at the existing research, technologies, and data. This study examines the connection between relative water content (RWC), equivalent water thickness (EWT), and agricultural water stress. Using remote sensing, evapotranspiration, and sun-induced chlorophyll content are examined in connection to crop drought. Spectral indices, remote sensing satellites, and multi-spectral sensing systems, as well as systems that measure land surface temperature, are examined. This critical study focuses on cutting-edge techniques for assessing crop water stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
6 pages, 225 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Water Quality for Human Consumption from the Public Water Supply System
by Anita Ptiček Siročić, Kristina Ojdanić, Dragana Dogančić and Lucija Plantak
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14230 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 890
Abstract
Adequate, safe, and accessible water constitutes an essential resource for life and is an indispensable factor for the survival of humanity. In order to ensure uncontaminated water for water supplies, industry and agriculture, water quality is defined by microbiological, biological, chemical, and physical [...] Read more.
Adequate, safe, and accessible water constitutes an essential resource for life and is an indispensable factor for the survival of humanity. In order to ensure uncontaminated water for water supplies, industry and agriculture, water quality is defined by microbiological, biological, chemical, and physical indicators. Water monitoring is regulated with the aim to protect human health from the adverse effects of polluted water by monitoring indicator parameters. For the purpose of proving drinking water safety, water sampling was performed at ten different locations, which are part of the water supply network of the town of Virovitica, in Croatia, and its surroundings. The results showed that all the analyzed parameters were in accordance with the ordinance, i.e., that the quality of water for human consumption was satisfactory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
6 pages, 989 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
In IWRM, Should Scientific Modeller Perspectives Receive Priority over the Benefit Recipients?
by Rathnayake Mudiyanselage Manjula Pradeep and Nallaperuma Thanthirige Sohan Wijesekera
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14167 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 543
Abstract
Throughout history, discussions on IWRM have established the idea that the recipient stakeholders’ poor participation is obstructing sustainable decision making in urban flood management. However, we found that no in-depth study has been carried out to explore the status of stakeholder integrations in [...] Read more.
Throughout history, discussions on IWRM have established the idea that the recipient stakeholders’ poor participation is obstructing sustainable decision making in urban flood management. However, we found that no in-depth study has been carried out to explore the status of stakeholder integrations in such modelling. The present work explored the stakeholder integrations in the modelling through critical literature analysis and expert discussions. We found there are five main components in the modelling, and the recipient stakeholder requirements are satisfactorily integrated with the modelling approach. Nevertheless, we found that integrations of scientific modelling perspectives remain unsatisfactory. This paper urges water resource decision makers to prioritise scientific modellers’ perspectives when developing flood management models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 1641 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Water and Nitrogen Use and Agricultural Production Efficiency under Climate Change in a Mediterranean Coastal Watershed
by Aikaterini Lyra and Athanasios Loukas
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14180 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 504
Abstract
This study estimates the effect of climate change on water resource efficiency and crop/agronomic productivity at the Almyros basin in Greece. Groundwater resources are intensively used for irrigation, whereas their quantity and quality are highly downgraded. Climate change impacts have been assessed using [...] Read more.
This study estimates the effect of climate change on water resource efficiency and crop/agronomic productivity at the Almyros basin in Greece. Groundwater resources are intensively used for irrigation, whereas their quantity and quality are highly downgraded. Climate change impacts have been assessed using Med-CORDEX bias-corrected climatic projections for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Simulation of coastal water resources was carried out with an Integrated Modelling System (IMS) consisting of the modules of surface hydrology (UTHBAL), reservoir operation (UTHRL), groundwater hydrology (MODFLOW), nitrate leaching/crop growth (REPIC), nitrate pollution (MT3DMS), and salt wedge/salinization (SEAWAT). The indices of Standardized Chloride Hazard (SCHI), Crop Water (CWP) and Economic Water Productivity (EWP), Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE) have been employed to analyze water resource management and agronomic scenarios. The findings indicate the water resources’ capacity for adaptability and agronomic effectiveness under the influence of salinization and climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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5 pages, 1565 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Eco-Hydrological Modelling of a Highly Managed Mediterranean Basin Using the SWAT+ Model: A Preliminary Approach
by Giuseppe Pulighe and Flavio Lupia
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14179 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 778
Abstract
Highly managed Mediterranean river basins are facing considerable environmental management challenges. Water resource managers are increasingly concerned about the allocation of limited water resources, environmental quality concerns, and planning under present and future climatic change and uncertainty. We implemented a watershed-scale eco-hydrological model [...] Read more.
Highly managed Mediterranean river basins are facing considerable environmental management challenges. Water resource managers are increasingly concerned about the allocation of limited water resources, environmental quality concerns, and planning under present and future climatic change and uncertainty. We implemented a watershed-scale eco-hydrological model on the Cervaro river basin (southern Italy) using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT+) model at daily timesteps from 1990 to 2019. A high-precision land use map derived from the Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS)/Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS) was used to grasp detailed information regarding landscape patterns. This research is a preliminary approach for implementing and running the model with these highly detailed datasets. Future efforts should be oriented to fine-tune the baseline scenario considering agricultural management practices and to evaluate model performances for calibration and validation by assessing the goodness-of-fit objective function values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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5 pages, 895 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effects of Weed Removal Practices on Soil Organic Carbon in Apple Orchards Fields
by Dimitrios Malamataris, Vassilios Pisinaras, Konstantinos Babakos, Anna Chatzi, Evangelos Hatzigiannakis, Vasiliki Kinigopoulou, Ioannis Hatzispiroglou and Andreas Panagopoulos
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14185 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 866
Abstract
The accelerated climate crisis has exacerbated the existing water and soil management challenges in the Mediterranean region, which are usually attributed to the combination of both irrational irrigation and unsustainable farming practices. The current conditions and future projections indicate that water-related risks are [...] Read more.
The accelerated climate crisis has exacerbated the existing water and soil management challenges in the Mediterranean region, which are usually attributed to the combination of both irrational irrigation and unsustainable farming practices. The current conditions and future projections indicate that water-related risks are expected to intensify during the coming decades. Moreover, farmers often do not possess high environmental awareness; they adopt non-sustainable farming practices such as the extensive use of herbicides instead of mowing/mulching for the weeds, thus affecting soil hydraulic characteristics and fertility. To investigate the effects of different weed-management practices on soil organic carbon and thus on soil water holding capacity and infiltrability, an extensive soil-sampling campaign was performed in the semi-arid Mediterranean agricultural pilot basin of Agia—Greece. The pilot is located in the Pinios river basin, which constitutes the most highly productive agricultural plain in the country. The Agia basin was selected since it presents the uneven spatiotemporal distribution of groundwater resources and the wide application of herbicides, while an urgent need exists to sustain and improve agricultural production, with the main crops being apples and cherries. Moreover, the Agia basin constitutes a highly instrumented area where the Pinios Hydrologic Observatory belonging to the International Long Term Ecological Research network has been developed, and thus additional field measurements could contribute to the overall data-collection framework. Soil sampling was conducted in apple orchards in April 2022, just before the beginning of the growing season. Ninety six soil samples in total were collected from eight different fields; half of them applied systematic herbicides treatment, and others mulching. For the upper soil profile (0–10 cm depth), the results indicate that soil organic carbon in the fields applying mowing was found to be higher by more than 30% compared to the fields applying herbicides. The corresponding difference for soil depth of 10–30 cm was 7%, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of mulching in increasing soil organic carbon. The results of the current study could be upscaled at a larger scale in the context of adapting agricultural water-stressed regions to climate change, whilst contributing significantly to the production cost and the preservation of the ecosystemic values of the regional nexus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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5 pages, 1293 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Variation in Water Quality in an Impacted Coastal Lagoon over the Last Decade (Küçükçekmece Lagoon, Turkey)
by Latife Köker, Emine Gozde Ozbayram, Ayça Oğuz Çam, Reyhan Akçaalan and Meriç Albay
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14246 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Küçükçekmece Lagoon, located inside the Istanbul metropolitan area, is connected to the Marmara Sea by a small canal. Due to the construction of a dam on the Sazlıdere stream, which is the most important feeding source for the lagoon, there has been a [...] Read more.
Küçükçekmece Lagoon, located inside the Istanbul metropolitan area, is connected to the Marmara Sea by a small canal. Due to the construction of a dam on the Sazlıdere stream, which is the most important feeding source for the lagoon, there has been a decrease in freshwater inflow, so the amount of salinity in the lagoon has started to increase. While salinity was around 11 ppt in the surface water of the lagoon in the 2010s, the level of salinity concentration exceeds 17 ppt today which also has an impact on the ecosystem. The aim of this study is to evaluate the water quality changes in Kucukcekmece Lagoon in a decade. The water quality revealed a high spatial and temporal variation in the lagoon and the bottom (ca 18 m) waters were rich in H2S, of which the highest concentration was measured as 215 mg/L. Overall, from the large dataset of water quality for more than ten years, there is an obvious effect of anthropogenic activities and the closure of freshwater inlets on the trophic conditions of the lagoon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 2448 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Optimal Water Quality Simulation of the Proposed Water Distribution System for the University of Kashmir Using EPANET 2.2 and Leakage Modelling of the Network Using EPANET Extension—WaterNetGen
by Mominah Ajaz and Danish Ahmad
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14251 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1035
Abstract
Water quality is the most important parameter of portable water. Therefore, water quality simulation is of the utmost importance, along with carrying out the hydraulic analysis of a water distribution network. In the current study, it has been attempted to carry out the [...] Read more.
Water quality is the most important parameter of portable water. Therefore, water quality simulation is of the utmost importance, along with carrying out the hydraulic analysis of a water distribution network. In the current study, it has been attempted to carry out the water quality simulation of the proposed distribution network for the University of Kashmir using EPANET 2.2 software. The study also aims to obtain the optimal performance of the designed network in terms of water quality parameters. Furthermore, the leakage modelling for the network has been carried out using the EPANET extension—WaterNetGen. It was found that important water quality parameters, like residual chlorine at nodes and water age, were within the standard ranges throughout the simulation period. The minimum concentration of chlorine up to the 11th hour of the simulation was 0.2 mg/L, and the maximum age of water in the storage tank was 12.5 h throughout the simulation period. The total leakage discharge obtained was negligible, equal to 0.1% and 0.15% of the design discharge for WDS part I and part II, respectively. The objective function of maximum efficiency of performance, with respect to water quality of the proposed network, was achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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5 pages, 1890 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Water Quality and Risk Assessment in Rainwater Harvesting Ponds
by Emine Gozde Ozbayram, Latife Köker, Ayça Oğuz Çam, Reyhan Akçaalan and Meriç Albay
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14245 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 720
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the water quality of rainwater harvesting ponds in Istanbul which are used for irrigation. For this purpose, samples were collected from 17 rainwater harvesting ponds during the summer of 2022 and selected physicochemical and biological [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the water quality of rainwater harvesting ponds in Istanbul which are used for irrigation. For this purpose, samples were collected from 17 rainwater harvesting ponds during the summer of 2022 and selected physicochemical and biological characterization of these samples was carried out. Cyanobacterial bloom was observed in 2 ponds out of 17 and the dominant species were potentially cyanotoxin producers (Microcystis, Aphanizomenon, Dolichospermum, Planktothrix, and Cuspidothrix). It is found that one of these ponds was not proper for irrigation purposes due to microcystin presence. To increase the water quality in these reservoirs, onsite management strategies should be taken into consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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9 pages, 3839 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Estimating the Potential Evapotranspiration of Egypt Using a Regional Climate Model and a High-Resolution Reanalysis Dataset
by Samy Ashraf Anwar and Irida Lazić
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14253 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1090
Abstract
Station observation is a good data source to monitor the potential evapotranspiration (PET) changes of a specific site particularly for the purpose of crop irrigation activities; however it represents only the site geographic characteristics and provides real-time/historical records. Hence, there was an urgent [...] Read more.
Station observation is a good data source to monitor the potential evapotranspiration (PET) changes of a specific site particularly for the purpose of crop irrigation activities; however it represents only the site geographic characteristics and provides real-time/historical records. Hence, there was an urgent need to find a promising tool and a simple empirical to predict/project the PET in locations where station observation is not feasible. The Hargreaves–Samani method (HS) is recommended after the Penman−Monteith equation. To address this issue, the Regional Climate Modeling version 4 (RegCM4) with spatial resolution 25 km was used to compute the PET using the HS for the period 1979–2017. Era-Interim reanalysis of 1.5 degrees (EIN15) and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis version 2 of 2.5 degrees (NNRP2) were used to examine the influence of the lateral boundary condition on the simulated PET. The two simulations were designated as EIN15-RegCM4 and NNRP2-RegCM4, respectively. To examine the possible influences on the simulated PET, a comparison was conducted between EIN15-RegCM4 and NNRP2-RegCM4. After that, a comparison was conducted between the original HS formula (HS) and its calibrated version (HSnew) with respect to the 0.1−degree ERA5-land derived reanalysis product (hereafter ERA5) using EIN15-RegCM4 (as an example). Results showed that switching between EIN15 and NNRP2 did not show a notable influence on the simulated PET. Further, calibrating the HS coefficients indicates a considerable improvement in estimating the PET (relative to the original equation) when it is compared with ERA5. Such improvement is confirmed by a significant low mean bias. Over the majority of locations, the RegCM4 shows a good performance using the calibrated HS equation. In conclusion, the RegCM4 can be used to estimate the PET using the calibrated HS either for making a daily forecast or for projecting the future PET under different global warming scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 1339 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Daily Streamflow Modelling Using ML Based on Discharge and Rainfall Time Series in the Besós River Basin, Spain
by Mohamed Hamitouche and Marc Ribalta
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14168 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Machine learning (ML)-based data-driven modelling is an efficient approach for good estimates of flow and maximum discharge at certain points within a basin. This paper is mainly aimed at evaluating the predictive capability of ML algorithms for daily streamflow modelling in the Besós [...] Read more.
Machine learning (ML)-based data-driven modelling is an efficient approach for good estimates of flow and maximum discharge at certain points within a basin. This paper is mainly aimed at evaluating the predictive capability of ML algorithms for daily streamflow modelling in the Besós River Basin (Spain), based on open source flow discharge and rainfall historical time series. In this sense, two modelling scenarios, without and with consideration of the antecedent hydrologic conditions, were evaluated, and three ML algorithms—support vector machines, random forest (RF) and gradient boosting (GB)—were compared to multiple linear regression (MLR), and were implemented. The prediction results revealed that the SVR model outperformed the other suggested models. Additionally, it was deduced that taking into account preceding hydrologic conditions clearly improves prediction results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 2589 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Global Change Explorer—A Web-Based Tool for Investigating the Complexities of Global Change
by Slobodan P. Simonovic
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14170 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Global Change Explorer (GCE) is an interactive web-based tool for investigating the complexities of global change. GCE uses the ANEMI simulation model developed at the University of Western Ontario, Canada. ANEMI simulates system dynamics to offer information on Earth’s dynamic processes and the [...] Read more.
Global Change Explorer (GCE) is an interactive web-based tool for investigating the complexities of global change. GCE uses the ANEMI simulation model developed at the University of Western Ontario, Canada. ANEMI simulates system dynamics to offer information on Earth’s dynamic processes and the behaviours that instigate change. The ANEMI model is an integrated assessment model of global change that emphasizes the role of water resources. The model sectors that comprise ANEMI3 (the current version of the model) are that of the climate system; carbon, nutrient, and hydrologic cycles; population dynamics; land use; food production; sea level rise; energy production; the global economy; persistent pollution; water demand; and water supply development. GCE is designed to allow the use of ANEMI to simulate various future scenarios related to five main themes: climate change; population dynamics; food production; water quality; and water quantity. The users are presented with the opportunity to ask different questions, select simulation runs, and evaluate model outputs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 847 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Multi-Objective Optimization Framework for Water Resources Allocation Considering Stakeholder Input
by Jorge Andres Garcia and Angelos Alamanos
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14227 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 894
Abstract
Water resources and water-related sectors are increasingly affected by multiple challenges such as climate change and extreme events, issues of ageing infrastructure, natural and qualitative water scarcity, recession, wars, population movements, increased energy and resource demand, etc. In an attempt to balance different [...] Read more.
Water resources and water-related sectors are increasingly affected by multiple challenges such as climate change and extreme events, issues of ageing infrastructure, natural and qualitative water scarcity, recession, wars, population movements, increased energy and resource demand, etc. In an attempt to balance different goals of water allocation under different constraints, we present a multi-objective optimization model. The model considers various water supply sources (groundwater, surface water, desalinated water, treated wastewater) and water uses (domestic, agricultural, industrial). Water demand, availability, quality parameters, costs, and stakeholder input for the prioritization of the different goals set are synthesized through Goal Programming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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8 pages, 556 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Systems Approach to Identifying Hazards in the Management of Vegetative Buffers for the Protection of Drinking Water Quality
by Hew Cameron Merrett and Jao Jia Horng
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14173 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 591
Abstract
Using ecosystem services provided by stream buffers has the potential to complement conventional engineering solutions, such as water treatment, and reduce public health risks to consumers. These buffers interrupt the movement of contaminants and sediments from non-point sources such as agricultural land to [...] Read more.
Using ecosystem services provided by stream buffers has the potential to complement conventional engineering solutions, such as water treatment, and reduce public health risks to consumers. These buffers interrupt the movement of contaminants and sediments from non-point sources such as agricultural land to surface waters. This study uses System Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) and Early Warning Signal Analysis based on STPA (EWaSAP) methodologies to systematically examine the sociotechnical structures involved in managing vegetated buffers in surface water catchments using a theoretical scenario representative of typical surface water supplies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 1489 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Clay-Based Sorbents for Environmental Protection from Inorganic Pollutants
by Iryna Kovalchuk
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14247 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 705
Abstract
Natural clay minerals are widely used in various environmental protection technologies as cheap, accessible, and effective sorbents. Considering the tasks and conditions for purification of polluted waters, the different methods of surface modification of clay minerals were used. The surface modification of the [...] Read more.
Natural clay minerals are widely used in various environmental protection technologies as cheap, accessible, and effective sorbents. Considering the tasks and conditions for purification of polluted waters, the different methods of surface modification of clay minerals were used. The surface modification of the montmorillonite by cationic surfactants (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide); the method of surface modification of montmorillonite by large-sized inorganic cations of Fe, Al, Zr, Ti; applying nanoscale zero-valent iron powder to the montmorillonite surface were used for increasing of efficiency of water purification from chromium (VI) and uranium (VI). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 2834 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Karla Aquifer (Central Greece), an Agricultural Region under Intensive Environmental Pressure Due to Agricultural Activities
by Georgios A. Tziatzios, Luca Doro, John Tzabiras, Nikitas Mylopoulos, Athanasios Loukas and Nicholas Danalatos
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14189 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 458
Abstract
The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model is used to study how different agricultural practices, such as fertilizing, irrigation, and tillage, would affect water quality and runoff in the Lake Karla watershed (Central Greece). The model was calibrated for the potential evapotranspiration with [...] Read more.
The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model is used to study how different agricultural practices, such as fertilizing, irrigation, and tillage, would affect water quality and runoff in the Lake Karla watershed (Central Greece). The model was calibrated for the potential evapotranspiration with satisfactory results for the period 1980–2008 and for the yields of the main crops grown in the region (cotton, maize, and wheat) from 1980–2015. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 1288 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Sustainable Water Management in Indus Basin and Vulnerability Due to Climate Change
by Syeda Mishal Zahra, Muhammad Adnan Shahid, Muhammad Aali Misaal, Muhammad Zaman, Muhammad Imran, Sidra Azam and Fazal Hussain
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14203 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1637
Abstract
Pakistan depends heavily on the Indus River Basin System (IRBS) which is essential for meeting the great majority of Pakistan’s agricultural and home consumption requirements. The Indus River is responsible for over 90% of Pakistan’s agricultural output and accounts for 25% of the [...] Read more.
Pakistan depends heavily on the Indus River Basin System (IRBS) which is essential for meeting the great majority of Pakistan’s agricultural and home consumption requirements. The Indus River is responsible for over 90% of Pakistan’s agricultural output and accounts for 25% of the country’s GDP. Because of the problems with the water supply, Pakistan may soon face serious food scarcity. By 2025, the water deficit is expected to reach 32%, according to the World Bank’s 2020–2021 study, leading to a food deficit of about 70 million tons. Recent predictions suggest that by 2025, the water storage capacity will have reduced by over 30% due to climate change. Extreme events, i.e., temperature and precipitation, occurred in Pakistan, and these affect human beings. Pakistan has a very low per capita water storage capacity, at about 150 m3. As a result of decreasing surface water supplies and rising groundwater abstraction, the viability of irrigated agriculture may soon be threatened. To maximize the potential for increased storage, Pakistan must enhance its water-use efficiency and implement sustainable strategies for managing its groundwater and surface water resources. The crucial aspects in keeping irrigated agriculture viable in the Indus Basin are developing the infrastructure and eliminating distrust among the provinces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 1451 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Comparative Analysis of SMAP-Derived Soil Moisture Modeling by Optimized Machine Learning Methods: A Case Study of the Quebec Province
by Mohammad Zeynoddin and Hossein Bonakdari
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14183 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 530
Abstract
Many hydrological responses rely on the water content of the soil (WCS). Therefore, in this study, the surface WCS products of the Google Earth Engine Soil Moisture Active Passive (GEE SMAP) were modeled by a support vector machine (SVM), and extreme learning machine [...] Read more.
Many hydrological responses rely on the water content of the soil (WCS). Therefore, in this study, the surface WCS products of the Google Earth Engine Soil Moisture Active Passive (GEE SMAP) were modeled by a support vector machine (SVM), and extreme learning machine (ELM) models optimized by the teacher learning (TLBO) algorithm for Quebec, Canada. The results showed that the ELM model is only able to forecast 23 steps with Correlation Coefficient (R) = 0.8313, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 6.1285, and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) = 5.0021. The SVM model could only estimate the future steps, one step ahead, with R = 0.8406, RMSE = 18.022, and MAE = 17.9941. Both models’ accuracy dropped significantly while forecasting longer periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 3252 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Forecasting of Banana Crop Productivity Using Geospatial Approach: A Case Study of Anand District
by Usha Pandya, Ashwini Mudaliar and Amol Gaikwad
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14248 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 888
Abstract
The banana is one of the main fruit crops in the world as it has gained importance in the global market for many industries due to its high source of nutrients and its fibre content. Owing to climate change and irregular precipitation, the [...] Read more.
The banana is one of the main fruit crops in the world as it has gained importance in the global market for many industries due to its high source of nutrients and its fibre content. Owing to climate change and irregular precipitation, the yield of banana crops is becoming very unpredictable and, thus, there is a need to understand the impact of climatic parameters on the yield. Mathematical models are crucial for strategic and forecasting applications; however, models related to the banana crop are less common, and reviews on previous modelling efforts are scarce, emphasizing the need for evidence-based studies on this topic. This study employs the geospatial approach to establish a relationship between climatic variables and the banana crop productivity of the Anand district of Gujarat, India. Sentinel data was utilized to derive various indices like Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Leaf Area Index (LAI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWI). Land Surface Temperature (LST) was also derived using a Landsat dataset. Evapotranspiration (ET) data was also considered while understanding the impact of these parameters on yield. Values were extracted based on the ground control points (GCP) of different agricultural fields of the study area. Derived data was analysed using different statistical tools to understand the relationship between different indices and the productivity of the banana crop. Results indicated that the banana yield is highly dependent on water availability and the ET of the study area, proving that these parameters can be utilized for generating predicting models of banana yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 2475 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Monthly Water Balance Model for Assessing Streamflow Uncertainty in Hydrologic Studies
by Lampros Vasiliades and Ioannis Mastraftsis
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14192 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 795
Abstract
The accurate assessment of streamflow is crucial for operational water resource management projects. The aim of this study was to estimate the uncertainties in the surface runoff simulated by a monthly water balance model in a mountainous watershed of the Portaikos river, a [...] Read more.
The accurate assessment of streamflow is crucial for operational water resource management projects. The aim of this study was to estimate the uncertainties in the surface runoff simulated by a monthly water balance model in a mountainous watershed of the Portaikos river, a tributary of the Pinios river, Thessaly, Greece. The University of Thessaly (UTHBAL) monthly water balance model was developed in the R statistical computing environment language, named ‘R-UTHBAL’, to estimate surface water balance in data-scarce watersheds. Two sources of uncertainties in hydrological modelling were considered: the uncertainties in input data estimation and in model parameters. The uncertainties were estimated with the use of the R-package ‘hydroPSO’, a global Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) algorithm for the calibration of environmental models. The R-UTHBAL was integrated with the hydroPSO algorithm and advanced sensitivity analyses, and user-friendly evaluation plots were estimated to facilitate the interpretation and assessment of the calibration results. Application of R-UTHBAL with the hydroPSO showed that the uncertainty in streamflow estimation should always be accounted for and evaluated in operational water resources management projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 1658 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Unified Hydrologic Framework for Flood Design Estimation in Ungauged Basins
by Lampros Vasiliades, George Papaioannou and Athanasios Loukas
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14194 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Design flood hydrograph estimation is a key problem in hydrology and is necessary for a variety of applications from the design of hydraulic structures to flood risk mapping processes. Furthermore, in large ungauged basins (>1000 km2), design flood estimation methods mainly [...] Read more.
Design flood hydrograph estimation is a key problem in hydrology and is necessary for a variety of applications from the design of hydraulic structures to flood risk mapping processes. Furthermore, in large ungauged basins (>1000 km2), design flood estimation methods mainly rely on single-event theories using digital elevation models, land use/land cover and soil type data, and relevant meteorological information (temperature and rainfall data). The single event-based deterministic approach was adopted based on three modelling components: (i) a synthetic storm generator; (ii) a hydrological simulation model; and (iii) a hydrological routing model. In this study the 100-year design flood (which is assumed equal to 100-year extreme rainfall) was estimated for the Pinios River Basin, Thessaly, Greece, at Larissa outlet station (upstream of the area by about 6500 km2). The hydrological approach is based on semi-distributed modelling of the rainfall–run-off process (at the sub-basin scale) using HEC-HMS v.4.10 software and the SCS-CN method for estimating rainfall excess, as well as the unit hydrograph theory and the Muskingum hydrological flow routing method for propagating the surface run-off to the sub-basin outlets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 4015 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Utilization of a Telemetry Monitoring System for the Dynamics of Water Quantity and Quality in the Dadahup Swamp Irrigation Area
by Asril Zevri
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14191 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 683
Abstract
One of the technological developments supporting irrigation modernization is the installation of telemetry monitoring systems that are built based on three main elements of sensors, internet connections, and data centers. The Dadahup Swamp Irrigation Area is one of the development areas that has [...] Read more.
One of the technological developments supporting irrigation modernization is the installation of telemetry monitoring systems that are built based on three main elements of sensors, internet connections, and data centers. The Dadahup Swamp Irrigation Area is one of the development areas that has been supported by the installation of a telemetry monitoring system at three points located on the upstream and midstream sides of the irrigation area. The water management system of the Dadahup Swamp Irrigation Area has not been working optimally in regulating the water level, which has resulted in the irrigated land not receiving good water quality for rice plant growth. The research objective is to describe the condition of the water quantity and quality profile based on the telemetry monitoring system. The research method was carried out by observing the water level elevation, rainfall, and pH, during the rainy and dry seasons in the upstream, midstream, and downstream parts. The results showed that the dynamics of the water quantity greatly affected the water quality in both the rainy and dry seasons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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8 pages, 1149 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparison of the Performance of CMIP5 and CMIP6 in the Prediction of Rainfall Trends, Case Study Quebec City
by Amirhossein Salimi, Tadros Ghobrial and Hossein Bonakdari
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14243 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 839
Abstract
Climate change affects many meteorological parameters that could result in spatiotemporal variations of the hydrological cycle. These variations can affect local rainfall intensities or design storms; therefore, it is necessary to assess the local effects of climate change in different areas. Therefore, the [...] Read more.
Climate change affects many meteorological parameters that could result in spatiotemporal variations of the hydrological cycle. These variations can affect local rainfall intensities or design storms; therefore, it is necessary to assess the local effects of climate change in different areas. Therefore, the current research aims at evaluating the accuracy of the precipitation data of the most recent Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phases 5 and 6 (CanESM2 from CMIP5 and CanESM5 from CMIP6 models), over a historical period from 1953 to 2010, as well as the predicted data for the future between 2010 and 2050 for the Quebec City rain gauge Station (Jean Lesage Intl). In this regard, precipitation data were analyzed using a statistical index to find the most accurate model for the study area. The results of this evaluation showed that CanESM5 is more accurate than CanESM2 for most of the evaluation indices. However, both of these models did not perform well since the precipitation prediction for CanESM5 (as the accurate model) R index was 0.48 for the monthly and was 0.75 in the seasonal scale. In addition, the Bias index revealed that both models underestimated rainfall prediction with negative index values for both scales and models. The trend of future precipitation under socio–economic scenarios (4.5 (pessimistic) and 8.5 (optimistic)) shows that the changes in future precipitation are not significant. In addition, for scenario 4.5, the trend of precipitation decreases for almost half of the year, while for scenario 8.5, the magnitude of the decrease and the number of months with a decreasing trend of precipitation are significantly reduced when compared to scenario 4.5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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5 pages, 200 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Role of Climate Change on Water Resources Management in the Southern Caucasus in the Post-Conflict Period
by Firuz Suleymanov
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14165 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1214
Abstract
Climate-change-induced environmental impacts has an especially strong influence on water resources. Declining water availability not only results in droughts, but is also responsible for decreasing the quality of water in water-scarce regions, such as the South Caucasus. Armed conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan [...] Read more.
Climate-change-induced environmental impacts has an especially strong influence on water resources. Declining water availability not only results in droughts, but is also responsible for decreasing the quality of water in water-scarce regions, such as the South Caucasus. Armed conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan in 2020 occurred during the recent major war in the South Caucasus. In this paper, I ask how will intensifying climate change in the region affect the current political situation? Is there any chance of multilateral cooperation for water management? Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
7 pages, 2733 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Vulnerability of Small Rivers Coastal Part Due to Floods: The Case Study of Lesvos North—West Coast
by Stamatia Papasarafianou, Aliki Gkaifyllia, Anna-Eirini Iosifidi, Stavros Sahtouris, Nathalie Wulf, Alexandra Culibrk, Maria-Danai Stamataki, Theodoros Chatzivasileiou, Ilias Siarkos, Celia Rouvenaz, Eleni-Ioanna Koutsovili, Thomas Hasiotis and Ourania Tzoraki
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14257 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 628
Abstract
This study presents the development of a vulnerability assessment methodology combining both hydraulic and oceanographic values to evaluate the fragility of the island’s coast, subject to floods. The study area covers the coastal part Petra - Molyvos in North-West Lesvos Island, Greece. Petra [...] Read more.
This study presents the development of a vulnerability assessment methodology combining both hydraulic and oceanographic values to evaluate the fragility of the island’s coast, subject to floods. The study area covers the coastal part Petra - Molyvos in North-West Lesvos Island, Greece. Petra stream drains a catchment area of 8.06 km2. The flooded sections of the river’s coastal part are analyzed by the HEC-RAS model, while the coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was calculated by the InVEST model. The scenario of habitats’ role in beach protection showed 53% of coastal protection and the CVI moderate exposure to sandy beaches. A change in the geomorphology of the estuary was observed during the summer period, due to the river sediment dredging and small delta reclamation processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 3275 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Groundwater Quality Analysis in Mygdonia Basin, Greece
by Kyriaki Devlioti, Christos Mattas, Triantafyllos Kaklis and Konstantinos Voudouris
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14231 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 569
Abstract
The objective of this research is the groundwater quality analysis in the Mygdonia basin (North Greece), where intensive agricultural activities take place. Groundwater sampling was carried out in May (17 samples) and in September (26 samples) for the years from 2013 to 2015. [...] Read more.
The objective of this research is the groundwater quality analysis in the Mygdonia basin (North Greece), where intensive agricultural activities take place. Groundwater sampling was carried out in May (17 samples) and in September (26 samples) for the years from 2013 to 2015. In situ physicochemical parameters (pH, EC, and T) were tested, whereas major ions (Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, K+, NO3, SO42−, Cl, and HCO3) were analyzed in the laboratory. Conventional statistical methods were applied for the classification of the groundwater hydrochemical type and the identification of the prevailing hydrogeological processes. Finally, some recommendations are presented for the protection of groundwater quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 2286 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Towards More Efficient Hydraulic Modeling of Water Distribution Networks Using the EPANET Software Engine
by Athanasios V. Serafeim, Anastasios Perdios, Nikolaos Th. Fourniotis and Andreas Langousis
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14166 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 759
Abstract
Hydraulic modeling of water distribution networks (WDNs) is a vital step for all water-related professionals towards the development of management practices and strategies that aim for the reduction of water losses and the associated financial cost and environmental footprint. In the current work, [...] Read more.
Hydraulic modeling of water distribution networks (WDNs) is a vital step for all water-related professionals towards the development of management practices and strategies that aim for the reduction of water losses and the associated financial cost and environmental footprint. In the current work, we develop an easy-to-implement methodology for the effective modeling of WDNs, which seeks to minimize the computational load without undermining the analysis’s accuracy, using the open access EPANET (Environmental Protection Agency Network Evaluation Tool) software package. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is tested via a large-scale, real-world application for the city of Patras. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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9 pages, 1843 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Detection of Organophosphorus Esters (OPEs) in Groundwater
by Lucija Plantak, Anita Ptiček Siročić, Ivana Grčić and Ranko Biondić
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14169 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 551
Abstract
Organophosphate esters (OPEs), are used as flame retardants and plasticizers to protect or enhance the properties of plastics, textiles, and many other materials. Sampling was carried out in groundwater from the karst aquifer Bokanjac–Poličnik near the city of Zadar, Croatia. To determine their [...] Read more.
Organophosphate esters (OPEs), are used as flame retardants and plasticizers to protect or enhance the properties of plastics, textiles, and many other materials. Sampling was carried out in groundwater from the karst aquifer Bokanjac–Poličnik near the city of Zadar, Croatia. To determine their continuous presence, samples were taken once during each season for one year. In the collected samples, nine OPEs were identified: tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate-TBEP, tricresyl phosphate-TCP, triphenyl phosphate-TPPA, tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate-TCPP, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate-TCEP, tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate-TDCPP, diethyl phthalate-DEP, tri-n-butyl phosphate-TBP, and di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate-DEHA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 1715 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Quality of Surface and Ground Water in Three States of Nigeria: Assessment of Physicochemical Characteristics and Selected Contamination Patterns
by Francis Olawale Abulude, Akinyinka Akinnusotu, Ebenezer Alaba Adeoya, Samson Olatunde Mabayoje, Samuel Dare Oluwagbayide, Kikelomo Mabinuola Arifalo and Ademola Adamu
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14258 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1336
Abstract
The study of water quality is crucial given the amount of industrial, agricultural, and other human activities at the sampling sites. The aim of the study was to assess the physicochemical characteristics and selected contamination patterns of water samples in Nigeria. This study [...] Read more.
The study of water quality is crucial given the amount of industrial, agricultural, and other human activities at the sampling sites. The aim of the study was to assess the physicochemical characteristics and selected contamination patterns of water samples in Nigeria. This study used conventional analytical techniques to analyze the physicochemical parameters in water samples from 33 sampling sites (dug wells, boreholes, rivers, and rainwater) in three different states (Ekiti, Osun, and Ondo) of Nigeria. These parameters included pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), temperature, relative humidity (RH), and four elemental parameters (Ca, Na, Fe, and Cu). The enrichment factor (EF), contamination factor (CF), and metal index (MI) were used to characterize the data. Temperature (28.17 °C), TDS (130.2 mg/L), EC (260.0 μS/cm), pH (6.88), Na (14.47 ppm), Ca (25.74 ppm), Fe (0.49 ppm), and Cu (0.08 ppm) were the average values from the results. Na and Ca had a direct relationship with one another. The levels of heavy metals were below those recommended by the Nigerian Industrial Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NISDQW) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The metal levels in the water samples were over 1.5, which is the threshold value indicated by the EF classifications. In particular, EFs were moderate to significantly enriched. All element CFs were below the Level 1 pollution threshold. The water samples are pure based on the MI’s rating of water quality. Human and natural activities may represent a risk to the local public health; hence, it is highly advisable that all stakeholders adopt rapid and long-lasting collective action to limit pollution levels as part of the water quality governance system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 846 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparative Analysis of Photodegradation of Ibuprofen and Clotrimazole Water Pollutant Using UVC Rays in Presence and Absence of ZnO Photocatalyst
by Shania Pesik, Eric Jobiliong and Eden Steven
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14176 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 882
Abstract
The recent surge in pharmaceutical micro-pollutants in water bodies calls for an efficient method to neutralize wastewater to sustain the ecosystem. One of the ways to degrade drug molecules is through photocatalytic degradation using UV rays. ZnO is known to be a common [...] Read more.
The recent surge in pharmaceutical micro-pollutants in water bodies calls for an efficient method to neutralize wastewater to sustain the ecosystem. One of the ways to degrade drug molecules is through photocatalytic degradation using UV rays. ZnO is known to be a common catalyst in the degradation of contaminants found in wastewater. However, due to its toxicity to the environment, there is a need to objectively re-evaluate its necessity and alternatives. In addition, most studies have focused on the utilization of UVA/UVB rays for the photocatalytic degradation process, as such, there are currently limited studies evaluating the efficacy of UVC for such purpose. In this work, we provide a comparative analysis of the photodegradation of drug molecules using UVC rays with and without the ZnO catalyst. Ibuprofen (IBP) and clotrimazole were used for analysis. We found that the use of a ZnO catalyst did not always produce better results. In some cases, we found that IBP was degraded more without ZnO (up to 94.4%) than with the ZnO (1 g/L) (up to 86.6%) in 60 min. However, without ZnO, we observed secondary metabolite by-products of IBP that required a longer treatment period to fully degrade. The inferior degradation strength for treatment with ZnO could be explained by increasing turbidity from adding greater concentrations of ZnO, which decreased the UV transmission to the IBP solution. To support the results, an investigation of the photocatalytic degradation of clotrimazole (an antifungal) with varying concentrations of ZnO as a catalyst was also carried out. The optimum ZnO concentration was determined to be ~1000 ppm, above or under which the efficiency of the degradation suffered. Thus, the use of a ZnO catalyst requires strict dosage control. Such tight regulation is not required for the system using just UVC rays, but it requires a longer treatment time to completely degrade the drug molecules and their by-products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 1096 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Short-Term Precipitation Forecasting Based on the Improved Extreme Learning Machine Technique
by Isa Ebtehaj, Hossein Bonakdari, Bahram Gharabaghi and Mohamed Khelifi
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14237 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 608
Abstract
In this study, an improved version of the Extreme Learning Machine, namely the Improved Weighted Regularization ELM (IWRELM), is proposed for hourly precipitation forecasting that is multi-steps ahead. After finding the optimal values of the proposed method, including the number of hidden neurons, [...] Read more.
In this study, an improved version of the Extreme Learning Machine, namely the Improved Weighted Regularization ELM (IWRELM), is proposed for hourly precipitation forecasting that is multi-steps ahead. After finding the optimal values of the proposed method, including the number of hidden neurons, the activation function, the weight function, the regularization parameter, and the effect of orthogonality, the IWRELM model was calibrated and validated. Thereafter, the calibrated IWRELM model was used to estimate precipitation up to ten hours ahead. The results indicated that the proposed IWRELM (R = 0.9996; NSE = 0.9993; RMSE = 0.015; MAE = 0.0005) has acceptable accuracy in short-term hourly precipitation forecasting up to ten hours ahead. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 1052 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Time-Series-Based Air Temperature Forecasting Based on the Outlier Robust Extreme Learning Machine
by Isa Ebtehaj, Hossein Bonakdari, Bahram Gharabaghi and Mohamed Khelifi
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14236 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 760
Abstract
In this study, an improved version of the outlier robust extreme learning machine (IORELM) is introduced as a new method for multi-step-ahead hourly air temperature forecasting. The proposed method was calibrated and used to estimate the hourly air temperature for one to ten [...] Read more.
In this study, an improved version of the outlier robust extreme learning machine (IORELM) is introduced as a new method for multi-step-ahead hourly air temperature forecasting. The proposed method was calibrated and used to estimate the hourly air temperature for one to ten hours in advance after finding its most optimum values (i.e., orthogonality effect, activation function, regularization parameter, and the number of hidden neurons). The results showed that the proposed IORELM has an acceptable degree of accuracy in predicting hourly temperatures ten hours in advance (R = 0.95; NSE = 0.89; RMSE = 3.74; MAE = 1.92). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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4 pages, 978 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Large-Scale Mapping of Inland Waters with Google Earth Engine Using Remote Sensing
by Mervegul Aykanat Atay and Gordana Kaplan
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14171 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1281
Abstract
Water resources are becoming scarce due to climate change and anthropogenic activities, necessitating immediate action. The first step in conserving our water supplies is to manage them mindfully and sustainably. To achieve this, water sources must be monitored, mapped, and evaluated regularly. Updating [...] Read more.
Water resources are becoming scarce due to climate change and anthropogenic activities, necessitating immediate action. The first step in conserving our water supplies is to manage them mindfully and sustainably. To achieve this, water sources must be monitored, mapped, and evaluated regularly. Updating national water maps using conventional methods can be a challenging task. Most of the obstacles have been addressed due to recent breakthroughs in the remote sensing field. In this study, we employed remote sensing data integrated into Google Earth Engine (GEE) to develop an application for mapping Turkey’s national inland water bodies. To achieve this aim, we explored the recently developed Multi-Band Water Index (MBWI) in GEE using Sentinel-2 satellite imagery and then applied it throughout the research area. The results showed that GEE is a promising application for handling large amounts of satellite data and can accurately extract water bodies on a national scale. The results of this study could be helpful for various administrative applications that require up-to-date water information. The developed application can be used for different study areas and for spatiotemporal analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 1269 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Artificial Neural Networks and Regression Modeling for Water Resources Management in the Upper Indus Basin
by Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Danish Majeed, Muhammad Zaman, Muhammad Adnan Shahid, Danrong Zhang, Syeda Mishal Zahra, Rehan Mehmood Sabir, Muhammad Safdar and Zahid Maqbool
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14199 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 933
Abstract
A flood is a natural disaster. Heavy rainfall and overflow frequently cause enclosed land areas to fill with water, resulting in considerable loss of human life and property, including damage to buildings, bridges, electric supply networks, and transportation, and economic concern. This work [...] Read more.
A flood is a natural disaster. Heavy rainfall and overflow frequently cause enclosed land areas to fill with water, resulting in considerable loss of human life and property, including damage to buildings, bridges, electric supply networks, and transportation, and economic concern. This work was carried out in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). We developed an artificial intelligence model for forecasting the flood events in this study. Long-short term memory (LSTM) and seasonal auto-regressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) were used in this study to forecast flood events. This study used a dataset from 1971–2009 and divided it into training, testing, and forecasting from 1971–2004, 2005–2009, and 2010–2014, respectively. The best statistical analysis result was observed with the LSTM model, which documented the value of root mean squared error (RMSE) at 22.79 and 35.05 for training and testing, respectively. Hence, the results of the study highlight that the LSTM model was the most suitable among the artificial neural networks for flood event forecasts. This current study will help in the forecasting of high storms for effective water resources management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 5443 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Modeling Soil Erodibility by Water (Rainfall/Irrigation) on Tillage and No-Tillage Plots of a Helianthus Field Utilizing Soil Analysis, Precision Agriculture, GIS, and Kriging Geostatistics
by Agathos Filintas, Nikolaos Gougoulias and Eleni Hatzichristou
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14254 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
The aim of our study is the modeling at the field level of the soil erodibility (K factor) by water (rainfall and irrigation) on traditional tillage (CoTl) and no-tillage (NoTl) plots cultivated with Helianthus annuus utilizing plot observations, soil sampling laboratory analyses, [...] Read more.
The aim of our study is the modeling at the field level of the soil erodibility (K factor) by water (rainfall and irrigation) on traditional tillage (CoTl) and no-tillage (NoTl) plots cultivated with Helianthus annuus utilizing plot observations, soil sampling laboratory analyses, GIS, precision agriculture (PA), and Kriging geostatistical modeling. A split-plot layout consisting of four handlings × three replicates of trial blocks (with a southeast facing 7.5% slope) was used. Grid template surface soil core (0.0–5.0 cm) samples were taken to characterize the textures (sandy, silty, clayey, very fine sandy, and gravelly), organic matter concentrations, and the soil’s microstructure and water permeability categories. One GPS satellite tracker system was utilized to define the sampled positions, and 40 soil cores were air-dried and sieved with a 2 mm sieve to identify the soil’s mechanical microtexture using the Bouyoucos methodology. The organic matter was extracted by chemical oxidation with 1 mol L−1 K2Cr2O7 and titration of the remaining reagent with 0.5 mol L−1 FeSO4. The soil microstructure and permeability categories were defined following the USDA classification system. The soil erodibility by water modeling of K (Mg·ha·h·ha−1·MJ−1·mm−1) was derived according to the Wischmeier nomographic method by incorporating it into a developed GIS geospatial model using Kriging geostatistics. The statistical results of the ANOVA test (p = 0.05) among the soil erodibility datasets showed significant differences between the two tillage systems, as well as between the four management treatments. Moreover, it was found that the no-tillage (NoTl) plots and the treatment of no tillage plus vegetative coverage were the best tillage and agricultural practices for hillslope farm fields and can be considered environmentally friendly farming methods to curb soil erodibility by water, reduce runoff hazard, and maintain the soil’s environment and its beneficial nutrients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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10 pages, 3260 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Integrated Water Resource Management Using Water Evaluation and Planning Model: A Case Study of Lower Bari Doab Canal, Pakistan
by Hira Khanam, Sikandar Ali, Muhammad Zaman, Muhammad Adnan Shahid, Hafsa Muzammal, Muhammad Zeeshan Khan, Muhammad Safdar and Muhammad Danish Majeed
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14202 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1429
Abstract
Freshwater scarcity is a global concern and is caused by the overuse of water, exceeding the sustainable level. In Pakistan, overpopulation, climate change alleviation, and economic development influence the asset of water. For water management, development, and conservation, policymakers need to formulate the [...] Read more.
Freshwater scarcity is a global concern and is caused by the overuse of water, exceeding the sustainable level. In Pakistan, overpopulation, climate change alleviation, and economic development influence the asset of water. For water management, development, and conservation, policymakers need to formulate the right plans and projects. For this purpose, they need to evaluate the impact of different projects and plans and evaluate considerable data and information. Different tools are being adopted for integrated water resource management. Among them, WEAP is user-friendly, reliable, and efficient, and is used widely across the globe. It will aid the policymakers to develop suitable projects and plans. This study was carried out by using WEAP, in the Lower Bari Doab Canal command area (LBDC), Punjab, Pakistan. This study sheds light on the current water allocation situation and simulated scenarios of population growth rates and economic growth to evaluate the future water demand situation. The results of the current account year (2015) show that the domestic water demand of Okara (101.51 MCM) and the agricultural water demand (1713 MCM) of Sahiwal was seen to be the maximum among the four districts. Unmet demand was found to be maximum for the districts laying in the tail end (Sahiwal and Khanewal). The results of the scenarios show that, if the current water consumption, population growth, and economic development continue, unmet demand will increase in the future, and if the population grows at a higher rate and economic development increases, it will result in higher unmet water demand in the coming years. WEAP was found to be a user-friendly and efficient model to better understand water demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 1089 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Economic Feasibility of Rainwater Harvesting in Houses in Blumenau, Brazil
by Anthony Midori Fugi, Jéssica Kuntz Maykot, Enedir Ghisi and Liseane Padilha Thives
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14163 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 662
Abstract
This paper aims to analyse the economic feasibility of using rainwater for non-potable purposes in single-family houses in Blumenau, Brazil. A house was used as a case study to estimate the water end-uses and water consumption. Then, the daily water consumption and water [...] Read more.
This paper aims to analyse the economic feasibility of using rainwater for non-potable purposes in single-family houses in Blumenau, Brazil. A house was used as a case study to estimate the water end-uses and water consumption. Then, the daily water consumption and water end-uses for non-potable purposes were estimated. Different roof areas, number of residents, daily per capita water consumption and rainwater demand were also considered. The rainwater tank capacities and the potential for potable water savings were estimated using computer simulations. Finally, an economic feasibility analysis was carried out. The potential for potable water savings ranged from 18.76% to 58.06%, and the rainwater harvesting system was found to be economically feasible for most scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 1395 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Spatial-Temporal Mapping and Delineating of Agulu Lake Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Science for Sustainable Development
by Mfoniso Asuquo Enoh, Chukwudi Andy Okereke and Needam Yiinu Narinua
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14259 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Water is a crucial component of ecosystems and a critical resource that cannot be replaced for social progress or human life. In this study, Agulu Lake, an inland water body located in Anambra, southeast Nigeria, was mapped, classified, and delineated with remotely sensed [...] Read more.
Water is a crucial component of ecosystems and a critical resource that cannot be replaced for social progress or human life. In this study, Agulu Lake, an inland water body located in Anambra, southeast Nigeria, was mapped, classified, and delineated with remotely sensed data so as to monitor the spatial-temporal changes that occurred in the lake’s surface water every 15 years, in 1985, 2000, and 2015, in order to achieve sustainable development by 2030. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations emphasize the need to manage the marine environment. Some of the goals of the SDGs have some connection to open surface water, but goal 6a and indicator 6.6.1 are significant to this study. The study adopted Landsat 5 TM (1985), ETM+ (2000), Landsat 8 OLI (2015), ArcGIS 10.5 software, and the maximum likelihood classifier to create various classification maps. The Google Earth image (2015) was also used to show the general overview of Agulu Lake and its environs. The findings demonstrate that during the study period, the land surface class grew while the water surface class (Agulu Lake) shrank. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 209 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluating Methods to Enhance the Taste and Health Benefits of Alternative Potable Waters
by D.L. Marrin
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14300 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 689
Abstract
As conventional sources of freshwater continue to be impacted, the use of alternatively produced drinking waters, such as desalinated seawater or condensed atmospheric water, are being increasingly consumed. Lacking the minerals and other natural properties of surface and ground waters, alternative waters are [...] Read more.
As conventional sources of freshwater continue to be impacted, the use of alternatively produced drinking waters, such as desalinated seawater or condensed atmospheric water, are being increasingly consumed. Lacking the minerals and other natural properties of surface and ground waters, alternative waters are often modified or amended to address taste and health issues. This presentation explores some of those treatments in terms of the proposed taste and health benefits, the water quality issues addressed, and the pertinent research on bottled or specialty waters that could assist in identifying how alternative waters might be best amended or modified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
7 pages, 2622 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparison of Geomorphological Parameters Detected Using MERIT and FABDEM Products
by Ankini Borgohain, Varun Khajuria, Vaibhav Garg, Shiva Reddy Koti and Ashutosh Bhardwaj
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14298 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 722
Abstract
A morphometric analysis and its comparison was carried out using two multi-resolution DEMs-MERIT and FABDEM for a region in North Eastern Himalayas. The study area includes districts of Kamrup Rural, Kamrup Metropolitan, Dhubri, Bongaigaon, Nalbari, Kokrajhar, and Goalpara, which are located in the [...] Read more.
A morphometric analysis and its comparison was carried out using two multi-resolution DEMs-MERIT and FABDEM for a region in North Eastern Himalayas. The study area includes districts of Kamrup Rural, Kamrup Metropolitan, Dhubri, Bongaigaon, Nalbari, Kokrajhar, and Goalpara, which are located in the state of Assam. The area was selected as it is highly prone to flood every year and was also recently affected by flood in the year 2022. The MERIT DEM developed by Dr. Yamazaki, University of Tokyo by removing multiple error components from existing spaceborne DEMs (SRTM and AW3D) represents the terrain elevations at a 3 sec resolution (~90 m at the equator), whereas the FABDEM is a global elevation map that removes building and tree height biases from Copernicus GLO 30 DEM with 30 m resolution. In this study, watershed delineation and morphometric parameters were computed and analyzed using Archydro tools and HecGeoHMS in Arcmap (v 10.5). The parameters classified as basic, linear, shape and relief aspects were derived and calculated by using standard methods. Some important parameters such as stream length, stream order, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, etc., derived from both the DEMs were compared. From this study, it was observed that MERIT DEM performed better in terms of the drainage delineation and morphometric analysis of the basin for our study area compared to FABDEM, thereby suggesting that MERIT DEM worked well for the study area chosen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 918 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Sustainable Concept for Recovering Industrial Wastewater Using Adjustable Green Resources
by Abdeljalil Adam, Nabil Saffaj and Rachid Mamouni
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14302 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 651
Abstract
In arid environments, specifically in Africa, inadequate water sources have resulted in poor-quality water use in business and agricultural industries. This can also negatively impact the ecosystem, along with the industry’s water management. In solar power generation facilities, evaporating basins are usually used [...] Read more.
In arid environments, specifically in Africa, inadequate water sources have resulted in poor-quality water use in business and agricultural industries. This can also negatively impact the ecosystem, along with the industry’s water management. In solar power generation facilities, evaporating basins are usually used to release and store industrial contaminated wastewater. An examination of the environmental implications and concerns of this experience suggests such a form of wastewater discharge to reduce industrial effluents’ direct release into the environment. Unfortunately, this strategy could have far-reaching global environmental consequences and issues. In this research, we examined the evolution of the effluent’s physicochemical characteristics over a long period using a methodological approach for a power station located in Morocco; the findings of this practical study show a significant increase in the physicochemical characteristics of the wastewater released in the evaporating basins, which might be interpreted by an increase in water pollution. The primary objective of this study is to examine wastewater recycling and the generation of treated water in a solar still, utilizing renewable energy to minimize the environmental and ecological problems associated with wastewater discharged into evaporating basins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 1970 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Numerical Estimation of the Black Sea Circulation near the Continental Slope Using SKIRON and ERA5 Atmospheric Forcing
by Olga Dymova and Natalia Markova
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14305 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 573
Abstract
Assessments of the state of sea waters and complex studies of the marine environment in various ocean basins are often based on hydrophysical fields (currents, temperature, salinity, etc.) obtained through the use of numerical modeling. The regular fields of currents are of particular [...] Read more.
Assessments of the state of sea waters and complex studies of the marine environment in various ocean basins are often based on hydrophysical fields (currents, temperature, salinity, etc.) obtained through the use of numerical modeling. The regular fields of currents are of particular importance for assessing the transport of impurities in sea waters at different depths, including pollutants of various origins. The results of hydrophysical field modeling, in turn, depend on the conditions set at the boundaries of the basin. Therefore, the correct setting of rapidly changing atmospheric conditions is extremely important for the reconstruction of marine dynamics. This paper presents model estimates of the Black Sea circulation obtained using two different datasets, SKIRON and ERA5, as atmospheric forcing. Numerical experiments for 2016 are carried out based on the eddy-resolving MHI-model. ARGO floats and R/V Cruises data are used to validate the simulation results. It was discovered that temperature and salinity RMSE between the model and measurement data are decreased under ERA5 forcing. Near the northeastern continental slope, a change in the direction of the alongshore subpycnocline current, which is detected in the ARGO float trajectory, is modeled using ERA5 rather than SKIRON. Therefore, for a more accurate reconstruction of the Black Sea circulation, ERA5 atmospheric forcing is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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10 pages, 2202 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A GIS-Based Fuzzy Hierarchical Modeling for Flood Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study in Ontario, Eastern Canada
by Amir Noori and Hossein Bonakdari
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14242 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 914
Abstract
Natural disasters such as floods have severely destroyed the natural environment and infrastructure because of their destructive effects and caused socio-economic losses. In the present study, the authors attempt to present a flood hazard susceptibility map of an eastern region in Ontario, Canada [...] Read more.
Natural disasters such as floods have severely destroyed the natural environment and infrastructure because of their destructive effects and caused socio-economic losses. In the present study, the authors attempt to present a flood hazard susceptibility map of an eastern region in Ontario, Canada to facilitate flood prevention and mitigation. To this purpose, a combination of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) model and Geographic Information System (GIS) has been considered. Herein, an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) model is applied based on Triangular Fuzzy Numbers (TFNs) in a GIS environment. A total of eight quantitative criteria including elevation, land use/land cover, geology, rainfall, drainage density, slope, soil-type, and distance from river have been used for the flood modeling. Fuzzified pairwise comparison matrices of values have determined the Importance Weights (IWs) of these criteria in Saaty’s scale. By calculating IWs, the impact of each effective criterion on flood risk was investigated using the fuzzy AHP method. The consistency Index of each pairwise comparison of criteria has been checked. Based on the calculated IWs result of each criterion, the precipitation, slope, and soil criteria play significant roles as the most eminent flood occurrence criteria. In addition, the obtained results demonstrate percentages of flooded areas and the flood hazard index of the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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9 pages, 2756 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Impacts of Climate Change on Monsoon Flood Situations in Pakistan
by Hafsa Muzammil, Muhammad Zaman, Muhammad Adnan Shahid, Muhammad Safdar, Muhammad Danish Majeed and Rehan Mehmood Sabir
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14255 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1178
Abstract
In this study, we present a comprehensive and detailed analysis to identify and quantify spatial patterns of heavy, very heavy, and extremely heavy rainfall, as well as the trends that have developed over the past seven decades (1951 to 2020) of the monsoon [...] Read more.
In this study, we present a comprehensive and detailed analysis to identify and quantify spatial patterns of heavy, very heavy, and extremely heavy rainfall, as well as the trends that have developed over the past seven decades (1951 to 2020) of the monsoon months (June to September) under a warming scenario. We also project these extreme rainfall counts during the near (2036–2060) and late 21st century (2075–2099) for comparison to the historical period (1990–2014). The 5-day maximum rainfall over the provinces of Sindh and Baluchistan is currently about 75% more intense than it would have been without the climate warming by 1.2 °C, and the 60-day rainfall across the basin is currently about 50% more intense. This means that heavy rainfall is now more likely to occur. Due to the high-level of rainfall variability in the area, there is significant uncertainty regarding these estimations, and the causes of the observed changes are not just limited to climate change. However, most of the models and observations we have analyzed for the 5-day rainfall extreme indicate that severe rainfall has been heavier than Pakistan has warmed. According to some of these models, the intensity of the rainfall might have increased by 50% due to climate change under the 5-day event threshold. The model predicts that rainfall intensity will greatly rise in the future for the 5-day event in a climate that is 2 °C warmer than it was in pre-industrial times, while the uncertainty is still quite high for the 60-day monsoon rainfall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 9569 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Groundwater Quality Assessment and Evaluation of Scaling and Corrosiveness Potential of Drinking Water Samples
by Aftab Alam and Saurabh Kumar
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14316 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 727
Abstract
This research was to examine water stability and to evaluate the drinking water quality. Groundwater samples from 16 borewells in Aurangabad, Bihar, were taken from the shallow unconfined aquifer and tested for a wide range of physicochemical characteristics. The pH, temperature, TDS, and [...] Read more.
This research was to examine water stability and to evaluate the drinking water quality. Groundwater samples from 16 borewells in Aurangabad, Bihar, were taken from the shallow unconfined aquifer and tested for a wide range of physicochemical characteristics. The pH, temperature, TDS, and EC were measured at the sites. Ca2+, Mg2+, F, Cl, NO3, SO42−, alkalinity, and hardness concentrations were examined in the laboratory. The groundwater’s stability was measured using Corrosiveness Indices including the Langeliar saturation index (LSI), Ryznar stability index (RSI), Puckorius scaling index (PSI), Larson-Skold index (Ls), and Aggressivity index (AI). The data showed that typical values for LSI, RSI, PSI, and LS and AI were −0.92 (±0.47), 9.09 (±0.67), 9.50 (±0.73), 1.73 (±0.78), and 11.05 (±0.48), respectively. Groundwater WQI calculations revealed that 25% of the samples were excellent, 50% were good, 19% were poor, and 6% were extremely poor. All of the water samples tested positively for corrosiveness according to the LSI and PSI indices. Water samples show a strong corrosive potential (87.50% according to RSI) or a low corrosive tendency (12.50% according to RSI). 75% of the water samples have a strong corrosive tendency, 18.50% have a corrosive tendency, and 6.25% have a scaling tendency, according to Ls. According to AI, 93.75% of the water samples had a moderately corrosive tendency, whereas 6.25% were extremely corrosive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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8 pages, 6742 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of GPM IMERG Performance Over the Lake Titicaca Basin at Different Time Scales
by Luis Alberto Quispe, Eduardo Paxi and Efrain Lujano
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14324 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1258
Abstract
Accurate precipitation measurements are very important as an input for water resources management and various hydrometeorological applications. The Integrated Multi-Satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) (IMERG) satellite precipitation product (SPP) has been widely used to complement rain gauge measurements. However, it must [...] Read more.
Accurate precipitation measurements are very important as an input for water resources management and various hydrometeorological applications. The Integrated Multi-Satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) (IMERG) satellite precipitation product (SPP) has been widely used to complement rain gauge measurements. However, it must be evaluated before use and also its application is still lacking in the lake Titicaca basin (LTB). In this research, the evaluation of the performance of GPM IMERG on the LTB at different time scales (daily, monthly and annual) was carried out. The evaluation was performed using rain gauge observations for the period 2003–2016 and three IMERGs, namely early (IMERG-E), late (IMERG-L), and final (IMERG-F). Accordingly, three performance metrics were used that evaluated the accuracy (correlation coefficient, CC), error (root mean square error, RMSE), and bias (percent bias, PBIAS) of the satellite estimates. In general, the monthly IMERG SPP correlated best with the rain gauge measurements. In all the evaluations performed (daily, monthly, and annual), the IMERG-F was in better agreement with the rain gauge measurements at the LTB, with small differences with IMERG-E and IMERG-L. The IMERG SPPs show potential for use in various hydrometeorological applications in the LTB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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5 pages, 592 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
In Situ Biogeochemical Barriers for Contaminated Groundwater Treatment near Uranium Sludge Storages
by Anatoly Boguslavsky, Alexey Safonov and Olga Shvartseva
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14244 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 519
Abstract
The contamination of groundwater by uranium, nitrate, ammonium, and sulfate near uranium sludge storage sites due to the degradation of engineering safety barriers is an urgent problem during their long-term operation. The purification of such multicomponent contaminants is a complex task and one [...] Read more.
The contamination of groundwater by uranium, nitrate, ammonium, and sulfate near uranium sludge storage sites due to the degradation of engineering safety barriers is an urgent problem during their long-term operation. The purification of such multicomponent contaminants is a complex task and one of the promising methods for this purpose is in situ bioremediation using the metabolic potential of aborigenic microflora. The work focused on the geochemical, geological, and microbiological parameters of groundwater with multi-component contamination near the uranium sludge storage sites of four chemical plants. In conditions of extreme nitrate contamination (up to 15 g/L), denitrifying bacteria were found to be the dominant group of microorganisms. In conditions of nitrate–ammonium contamination, bacteria responsible for the Anammox process were found. In laboratory, optimal conditions were selected to stimulate microflora to promote nitrate removal. For this purpose, sources of carbon (acetate, whey) were added to the water samples in concentrations necessary for the complete removal of nitrate by microbial denitrification. The experiment was carried out at ambient temperature in hermetically sealed vials. Uranyl nitrate was added to the samples at a concentration of 5 mg/L for uranium. It was found that nitrate removal contributes to the cycle of anaerobic processes of authigenic sedimentation because of sulfate and iron reduction processes, which provide the formation of a mineral geochemical barrier for uranium immobilization. As a result of the experiment, after 3–6 months, depending on the concentration of nitrate in the groundwater sample, the uranium content in the liquid phase decreased by 92–98%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 1876 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Enhancement of Atmospheric Water Harvesting via Salt-Infused Sponges and Peltier Devices
by Jaewoong Lee, Eric Jobiliong, Timothy Bastiaan, Darren Johanes Manua, Ezekhiel Taniara and Eden Steven
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14177 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 999
Abstract
Despite the demand for clean water, it is commonly deficient. In the past two decades, there has been renewed interest in the development of clean water generation processes from atmospheric moisture. Atmospheric water generation is a two-stage process; in the first stage, the [...] Read more.
Despite the demand for clean water, it is commonly deficient. In the past two decades, there has been renewed interest in the development of clean water generation processes from atmospheric moisture. Atmospheric water generation is a two-stage process; in the first stage, the moisture is accumulated in an absorber material, and in the second stage, the absorbed moisture is recovered to a vessel by thermal and/or mechanical processes. One of the keys to achieving high efficiency in such processes is the moisture-absorbing agent, which works passively without electricity. Several materials are currently undergoing research, such as metal–organic frameworks (MOF) and hygroscopic salts. However, most approaches would likely be challenging to scale up from technical and economic perspectives. This work aims to develop a commonly accessible, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and highly effective moisture absorber. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) was chosen as the main salt of interest due to its deliquescence; however, it is known to suffer from agglomeration upon repeated absorption–desorption trials, which decreases efficacy. To overcome this problem, a simple infusion of the salt into the sponges significantly reduced the agglomeration problem of the salt while also improving its absorption rate and maximum water uptake by ~30% at 27 °C and 80% relative humidity (RH) compared to a sample without the cellulose sponge. To elucidate the science behind this synergistic interaction, time-dependent water uptake measurements at controlled conditions were carried out using a microbalance in an environmental chamber. Then, the data were analyzed using a double exponential equation. A physical model of the moisture absorption mechanism in the salt/sponge system was proposed. Finally, a complete atmospheric water generation device prototype was demonstrated by incorporating the salt/sponge absorber into a custom-designed Peltier-based distillation chamber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 1554 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessment of Cyanobacterial Chlorophyll A as an Indicator of Water Quality in Two Wetlands Using Multi-Temporal Sentinel-2 Images
by Ashwini Mudaliar and Usha Pandya
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14252 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 951
Abstract
Cyanobacteria can have a dramatic effect on the quality of water used for human activities, as reported by the World Health Organization. Remote sensing is an appropriate tool for continuous monitoring of the entire water body, given the current state of the lake. [...] Read more.
Cyanobacteria can have a dramatic effect on the quality of water used for human activities, as reported by the World Health Organization. Remote sensing is an appropriate tool for continuous monitoring of the entire water body, given the current state of the lake. In the present study, surface water quality was evaluated using multi-temporal sentinel-2 images based on cyanobacteria’s concentration of chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and the water’s dissolved oxygen content. Chl-a was used as an indicator of cyanobacterial blooms, and dissolved oxygen was used as an indicator of water quality. Dissolved oxygen was generated using Sentinel 2 dataset. For the present study, two wetlands, Wadhwana and Timbi, in Vadodara City, Gujarat, India, were assessed from 2018 to 2022. Analysis showed that dissolved oxygen is an important environmental factor that influences cyanobacteria abundance. It was seen that the increased concentration of chlorophyll a was associated with a reduction in dissolved oxygen and hence deteriorated the water quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 1127 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Danio rerio: A Sustainable Model for Monitoring Pollutants in Aquatic Environments
by Hakan Çelebi, Tolga Bahadır, İsmail Şimşek and Şevket Tulun
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14310 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 884
Abstract
Since the beginning of humanity, many sectors have produced different chemicals. These chemicals are the main causes of environmental pollution and have become a global problem with irreversible effects in terms of health. Because of this, countries have set a target of “a [...] Read more.
Since the beginning of humanity, many sectors have produced different chemicals. These chemicals are the main causes of environmental pollution and have become a global problem with irreversible effects in terms of health. Because of this, countries have set a target of “a pollution-free planet”. We need to determine target-specific strategies to both eliminate pollution and protect health. To date, traditional methods of monitoring in receiving aquatic environments have been used; however, they do not provide information on toxic levels of pollutants. For this reason, researchers have focused on “bio-indicator” or “bio-monitor” organisms. Since these organisms are in equilibrium with the aquatic environment, they can also be considered an integrated sampling tool and may indicate potential contamination. Danio rerio (zebrafish) is considered a promising model organism for single health studies in terms of its biological structure. This review aims to present Danio rerio’s characteristics, susceptibility to environmental pollutants, and risks associated with pollutants in the aquatic environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 1040 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Fuzzy Analytical Solution for the Case of a Semi-Infinite Unconfined Aquifer
by Christos Tzimopoulos, Nikiforos Samarinas, Kyriakos Papadopoulos and Christos Evangelides
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14303 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 614
Abstract
The solution to the second-order fuzzy unsteady nonlinear partial differential one-dimensional Boussinesq equation is examined. The physical problem concerns unsteady flow in a semi-infinite, unconfined aquifer bordering a lake. There is a sudden rise and subsequent stabilization in the water level of the [...] Read more.
The solution to the second-order fuzzy unsteady nonlinear partial differential one-dimensional Boussinesq equation is examined. The physical problem concerns unsteady flow in a semi-infinite, unconfined aquifer bordering a lake. There is a sudden rise and subsequent stabilization in the water level of the lake; thus, the aquifer is recharging from the lake. The fuzzy solution is presented by a simple algebraic equation transformed in a fourth-degree polynomial approximation for the head profiles. In order to solve this equation, the initial and boundary conditions, as well as the numerous soil properties, must be known. A fuzzy approach is used to solve the problem since the aforementioned auxiliary conditions are vulnerable to various types of uncertainty resulting from human and machine errors. The physical problem described by a partial differential equation and the generalized Hukuhara derivative and the application of this theory for the partial derivatives were chosen as solving methods. In order to evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of the suggested fuzzy analytical method, this study compares the findings of fuzzy analysis to those obtained using the Runge–Kutta method. This comparison attests to the accuracy of the former. Additionally, this results in a fuzzy number for water level profiles as well as for the water volume variation, whose α-cuts, provide according to Possibility Theory, the water levels and the water volume confidence intervals with probability p = 1 − α. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 612 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Water Footprint Score: A Practical Method for Wider Communication and Assessment of Water Footprint Performance
by Konstantina Fotia and Ioannis Tsirogiannis
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14311 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 610
Abstract
In the present study, we propose a simple and practical method for assessing and communicating Water Footprint (WF) performance of a crop. We introduce the concept of “Water Footprint Score” (WFS), a comprehensive and comparable indicator of farmers’ water resources management performance, which [...] Read more.
In the present study, we propose a simple and practical method for assessing and communicating Water Footprint (WF) performance of a crop. We introduce the concept of “Water Footprint Score” (WFS), a comprehensive and comparable indicator of farmers’ water resources management performance, which can be incorporated into agricultural products’ labels. WFS as the outcome of the comparison with a water footprint annual reference level, and is a spatiotemporally comparable metric that reflects the convergence to best cultivation practices and can be easily perceived by both farmers and consumers. Examples of water footprint score for two different crops, kiwifruits and table olives, are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 2277 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Integration of Microalgae-Microbial Fuel Cell with Microbial Electrolysis Cell for Wastewater Treatment and Energy Production
by Basil Mansoor, Sumreen Ashraf, Umar Rehman, Zia Ullah and Zeshan Sheikh
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14306 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1805
Abstract
The microalgae-microbial fuel cell (mMFC) enables us to perform secondary and tertiary treatment of domestic wastewater while simultaneously producing green electricity. In this work, the treatment of wastewater and producing electricity using a dual-chambered mMFC were demonstrated. Furthermore, the electricity produced by the [...] Read more.
The microalgae-microbial fuel cell (mMFC) enables us to perform secondary and tertiary treatment of domestic wastewater while simultaneously producing green electricity. In this work, the treatment of wastewater and producing electricity using a dual-chambered mMFC were demonstrated. Furthermore, the electricity produced by the mMFC was utilized to drive microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) for hydrogen synthesis. Primary domestic wastewater was treated in the anodic compartment of mMFC. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 67.2 and 54% was achieved in the anodic compartment of batch and continuous mode, respectively. Wetland-treated water was filled in the cathodic compartment, and Scenedesmus sp. was used as a catholyte. The overall voltage of 1.85 V was used to run a 1-L MEC. Industrial wastewater was treated with a COD removal of 73% in the MEC and biohydrogen was produced at a rate of 9.8 ± 0.2 mL L−1 d−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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8 pages, 2667 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Flood Vulnerability Mapping Using MaxEnt Machine Learning and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) of Kamrup Metropolitan District, Assam
by Akshayasimha Channarayapatna Harshasimha and Chandra Mohan Bhatt
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14301 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
Addressing a natural hazard’s complexity is essential in preventing human fatalities and conserving natural ecosystems as natural hazards are varied and unbalanced in both time and place. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to present a flood vulnerability hazard map and [...] Read more.
Addressing a natural hazard’s complexity is essential in preventing human fatalities and conserving natural ecosystems as natural hazards are varied and unbalanced in both time and place. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to present a flood vulnerability hazard map and its evaluation for hazard management and land use planning. The flood inventory map is generated for different flood locations using multiple official reports. To generate the vulnerability maps, a total of nine geo-environmental parameters are chosen as predictors form Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) machine learning and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Accuracy assessment of the outputs from MaxEnt is performed using the area under the curve. Similarly, for AHP outputs, the accuracy is tested using the generated inventory map and the AUC. It is observed that topographical wetness index, elevation, and slope are significant for the assessment of flooded areas. Finally, flood hazard maps are generated and a comparative analysis is performed for both methods. According to the study’s findings, The AUC of the flood map generated by MaxEntis 0.83, whereas the AUC of the flood map generated by AHP is 0.76, which means that the flood map generated by MaxEnt is better. From this study, it can be concluded that hazard maps could be a useful tool for local authorities to identify places that are vulnerable to hazards on a large scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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10 pages, 5921 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigation of Groundwater Resources Quality for Drinking Purposes Using GWQI and GIS: A Case Study of Ottawa City, Ontario, Canada
by Amir Noori, Farzad Ranjbari and Hossein Bonakdari
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14314 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 951
Abstract
Evaluating groundwater quality for certain purposes requires accurate quantitative and qualitative management, accessibility to the study area, and knowledge of the governing environmental processes. Groundwater resources are used to supply drinking water consumption alongside surface water in most countries. This study aims to [...] Read more.
Evaluating groundwater quality for certain purposes requires accurate quantitative and qualitative management, accessibility to the study area, and knowledge of the governing environmental processes. Groundwater resources are used to supply drinking water consumption alongside surface water in most countries. This study aims to investigate the quality of groundwater resources in the city of Ottawa, located in Ontario, Canada, using the Schoeller diagram and the Canadian Groundwater Quality Index (GWQI) in a fuzzy environment. To determine the water quality, the qualitative groundwater parameters including Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, SO4, HCO3, NO3, F, pH, TDS, TH, K, EC, and Alkalinity were considered in the Schoeller diagram and GWQI. Each parameter’s interpolated water quality map layer was prepared using the Kriging method in a GIS environment. The results of Schoeller’s diagram indicated that the range of drinking water quality was non-potable to inappropriate in more than 22% of the investigated groundwater resources. Moreover, the obtained results of the groundwater quality interpolation map layer based on the GWQI revealed that more than 70% of the groundwater resources were examined in the good and excellent range for drinking purposes. Finally, the obtained interpolated map layers of the Schoeller diagram and GWQI were integrated using GIS. Accordingly, the results indicate that the interpolation values of an integrated layer in the study area are well within the permissible limits, and the quality of the groundwater is suitable for drinking and other consumption purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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5 pages, 14838 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Advances in the Knowledge of Las Loras UNESCO Global Geopark in the Framework of the UNESCO IGCP-730 Project
by África de la Hera-Portillo, Manuela Chamizo-Borreguero, Marwan Ghanem, Julio López-Gutiérrez, Luis Moreno-Merino, Jose Ángel Sánchez-Fabián, Karmah Salman, Nour-Eddine Laftouhi, Rod Fensham, Alsharifa Hind Mohammad, Elena Galindo Rodríguez, Mª Mar Corral Lledó, Badia Choulli and Fagr Kh. Abdel-Gawad
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14313 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 647
Abstract
The Las Loras UNESCO Global Geopark is a recent geopark (2017) with a high wealth of manifestations of interaction between the landscape and the water cycle. It is being studied under the umbrella of the International Geosciences Programme Project-730. In this work we [...] Read more.
The Las Loras UNESCO Global Geopark is a recent geopark (2017) with a high wealth of manifestations of interaction between the landscape and the water cycle. It is being studied under the umbrella of the International Geosciences Programme Project-730. In this work we present the main results obtained, related to geology, geomorphology, hydrogeology, structure and relationship between structure and hydrogeology. The components of the geodiversity are identified and each one of them open a new line of research which will be object of study in new projects in an early future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 2505 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessing the Economic Damage of Potential Flooding Zones by Combining Cadaster and Land Use Data in the Larnaca Region, Cyprus
by Alexandra Ćulibrk and Ourania Tzoraki
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14323 - 12 Apr 2023
Viewed by 867
Abstract
Precipitation changes caused by climate change are a phenomenon that may have far more serious consequences in urban areas than previously thought. Preventing the flood extent in rural and urban areas is crucial for the protection of human well-being and private and public [...] Read more.
Precipitation changes caused by climate change are a phenomenon that may have far more serious consequences in urban areas than previously thought. Preventing the flood extent in rural and urban areas is crucial for the protection of human well-being and private and public land, and for the prevention of human casualties. Modeling potential floods and studying historic ones are key parameters to prevent damages from this natural disaster. European Union Directive 2007/60/EK obligated Member States to compile flood risk maps, showing the potential flood’s extent and depth. Using Cyprus river flood risk maps of the region of Larnaca, Corine land cover data, and open-access cadaster data, this study attempts to assess the economic damage. Cadaster data of buildings such as floor number and basement existence are incorporated in the damage functions used for flood recurrence intervals of 20, 100, and 500 years return periods. The study found that in the 500 year return flood period, 562 buildings would be potentially affected. The flood risk areas in the region of Larnaca consist of mainly urban (48%) and cultivation zones (50%), both economically important. The results suggest that economic damage assessment based on the applied data, combined with flood risk maps, can provide valuable information to disaster responders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 1686 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Activated Carbon, CNTs and GO Based Polymeric Nanocomposites Membranes for Textile Wastewater Treatment: Preparation, Performance, and Fouling Control
by Imran A. Khan and Nasir M. Ahmad
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14307 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 789
Abstract
Textile wastewater is a challenging area for treatment by membrane separation technology due to its complex structure and the presence of reactive components. Therefore, most of the conventional technologies appear incapable of offering satisfactory treatment for the effluents. This paper studies the application [...] Read more.
Textile wastewater is a challenging area for treatment by membrane separation technology due to its complex structure and the presence of reactive components. Therefore, most of the conventional technologies appear incapable of offering satisfactory treatment for the effluents. This paper studies the application of activated carbon, carbon nanotubes, and graphene oxide base polymeric nanofiltration membranes (NF) in the textile industry, which usually produces large volumes of wastewater containing complex contaminants from its daily operation. Hence, it is accepted that NF membranes offer solutions to the problem. The primary performances of NF membranes have been examined in terms of dye rejection, salt rejection, permeate flux, and COD rejection. Some of the NF membranes achieved maximum separation of dye and salts while some attained higher flux. This is due to the large variability of the parameters of textile wastewater and the NF membranes selected. However, for all these attempts, the general issue of (bio)fouling represents a key barrier to full-scale industrial implementation. The low fouling tendency of NF membranes has lately gained substantial attention since they are an exciting addition to conventional technologies (i.e., adsorption, biological degradation, coagulation, and ultrafiltration). Polymers membrane blended with oxidized activated carbon, carbon nanotubes, and graphene oxide increased hydrophilicity, textile dyes, slat rejection, BSA rejection, antibacterial activity, and water flux enhancement from 60% to 100%. We present some nanocomposite membrane developments and demonstrate how they can be used to reduce textile dyes. In addition, the process of membrane fouling and the various approaches for preventing and controlling fouling are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 5640 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Flood Disaster Mapping Using Geospatial Techniques: A Case Study of the 2022 Pakistan Floods
by Asif Sajjad, Jianzhong Lu, Rana Waqar Aslam and Muhammad Ahmad
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14312 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1705
Abstract
Remote sensing images are an essential tool for mapping the amount of flood inundation after flood events. For early flood estimation, flood mapping is a crucial component. This study used an integration of geospatial techniques to evaluate the flood extent in District Dera [...] Read more.
Remote sensing images are an essential tool for mapping the amount of flood inundation after flood events. For early flood estimation, flood mapping is a crucial component. This study used an integration of geospatial techniques to evaluate the flood extent in District Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan. The modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI) was utilized to estimate the flood extent using Landsat data. For a thorough flood investigation, pre-flood, during, and post-flood images were obtained. The analysis enabled us to delineate flood extent as well as flood duration. The result showed that the flood continued for nearly 5 weeks in the study area. This proposed geospatial technique provides a framework for the identification of inundated areas, which allows emergency responses to be focused on newly flooded areas. Hence, the current study offers a novel perspective on flood mapping and significantly contributes to flood monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 1327 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Automatic and Non-Invasive Monitoring of Water Stress in Vineyards
by Pietro Brach del Prever, Gabriele Balducci, Alice Ballestra, Carlo Ghiglione, Laura Mascheretti, Margherita Molinari, Giuseppe Nicoletti, Valter Carvelli, Chiara Corbari, Stefano Invernizzi and Stefano Mariani
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14164 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 800
Abstract
In this study, a non-invasive system is proposed for monitoring the health of vine plants by measuring their water stress, with the goal of mitigating frequent extreme meteorological events such as droughts. The envisioned system measures the spatial distribution of the Crop Water [...] Read more.
In this study, a non-invasive system is proposed for monitoring the health of vine plants by measuring their water stress, with the goal of mitigating frequent extreme meteorological events such as droughts. The envisioned system measures the spatial distribution of the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) on the crop field and provides the farmers with precise control over their vine’s health and, therefore, on the final quality of their product. To ensure the accurate acquisition of the parameters needed to compute the CWSI, data are collected by field sensors on the ground and by exploiting satellite data. Data fusion then allows us to obtain an associated georeferenced heatmap of the vineyard. The solution has been tested via a prototype, which allowed the collection of information in a vineyard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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4 pages, 2176 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Hydrochemical Characteristics of Drinking Water in Central Settlements of Sukhbaatar Province, Eastern Mongolia
by Odsuren Batdelger, Enkhjargal Togtokh, Oyun-Erdene Boldsaikhan, Renchinbud Badrakh and Gan-Erdene Enkhbold
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14304 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 644
Abstract
A focus of this study was to investigate water quality in the central settlement area of Sukhbaatar province, which is characterized by semi-arid climate. In total, 47 water samples were collected from 13 soums in 2021, and major ions and trace elements were [...] Read more.
A focus of this study was to investigate water quality in the central settlement area of Sukhbaatar province, which is characterized by semi-arid climate. In total, 47 water samples were collected from 13 soums in 2021, and major ions and trace elements were analyzed to evaluate the suitability of groundwater for drinking purposes. The dominant hydro-chemical facies of groundwater were the Na-HCO3 type, which represents 46.8% of the total analyzed samples. The water supply wells of Baruun-Urt soum, Asgat, Khalzan, and Erdenetsagaan soums do not meet the requirements of drinking water standards due to the content of magnesium, fluoride, and uranium ions. Additionally, the fluoride ion content in most wells exceeds the drinking water standard, while the fluoride content of Dariganga soum water was less than the drinking water standard; however, the Munkhkhaan soum was suitable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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8 pages, 1124 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Open SolWat System with Cooling of the Secondary Wastewater Effluent from a WWTP on the Front Surface of the Photovoltaic Module for efficient Energy Generation and Reclaimed Water Production
by Julia Torres López, Marta Vivar García, Manuel Fuentes Conde and Ana María Palacios Villa
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14321 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 845
Abstract
Energy consumption in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is a critical part of their operation and maintenance costs, with tertiary treatments being one of the most energy demanding stages, although as they are not required by law, they are not usually included in the [...] Read more.
Energy consumption in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is a critical part of their operation and maintenance costs, with tertiary treatments being one of the most energy demanding stages, although as they are not required by law, they are not usually included in the wastewater treatment line. In this research, a photochemical–photovoltaic hybrid system was developed and studied: Open SolWat, which allows solar disinfection of the water while cooling the temperatures on the front surface of the photovoltaic module by means of a thin layer of water flowing from the top, thanks to a pumping system. In comparison to the SolWat technologies studied so far, the improved system allowed better quality reclaimed water (RD1620/2007, R(EU)2020/741) to be obtained from the secondary effluent of a WWTP, with the simultaneous generation of energy. However, this time it also productively improved its energy efficiency (15–21%). The tests were carried out under a 4 h SODIS treatment with real sunlight. Therefore, the possible implementation of the system as a tertiary treatment of a WWTP is considered, as it could improve environmental sustainability and reduce energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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5 pages, 203 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Challenges of Estimation Precision of Irrigation Water Management Parameters Based on Data from Reference Agrometeorological Stations
by Chris Koliopanos, Ioannis Tsirogiannis and Nikolaos Malamos
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14319 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 593
Abstract
In this study, operational decision support systems (DSSs) for irrigation water management that utilize data from weather stations (W/S) or weather data services are presented. The challenges and the ways in which various systems address them are summarized based on a review of [...] Read more.
In this study, operational decision support systems (DSSs) for irrigation water management that utilize data from weather stations (W/S) or weather data services are presented. The challenges and the ways in which various systems address them are summarized based on a review of the relevant scientific literature and information provided on the websites of the systems under consideration. The selected systems that are presented are categorized into those that utilize W/S data (IRMA_SYS, CIMIS, BlueLeaf, CoAgMet) as well as those that employ remote sensing data (Manna irrigation, Irrisat, Sencrop). Remote sensing DSSs are included in this study because their functionality is closely related to that of W/S-based systems, as it is explained in the study. Additionally, Foreca and OpenET are also examined as they provide data to DSSs for irrigation management. The discussion about the challenges encountered in the use of DSSs based on W/S data aims to stimulate further research and development in this field by the scientific community and system developers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
11 pages, 2548 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Application of EPANET 2.2 Software and Jal-Tantra Web System for Optimal Hydraulic Design of Water Distribution System for University of Kashmir
by Mominah Ajaz and Danish Ahmad
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14234 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1687
Abstract
The availability of portable water in sufficient quantity and standard quality is one of the basic requirements of a civilization. The study area of this present work is the University of Kashmir, where the existing WDS has served its function for more than [...] Read more.
The availability of portable water in sufficient quantity and standard quality is one of the basic requirements of a civilization. The study area of this present work is the University of Kashmir, where the existing WDS has served its function for more than 60 years. The UOK is a growing campus, and the existing WDS is unable to meet the demands of a growing population and suffers from excessive leakage losses and an insufficient pressure head at the nodes. In this work, we attempt to replace the existing WDS with an optimally designed WDS for the University of Kashmir so that the objective functions of maximum efficiency of performance and minimum capital cost in terms of pipe diameters are met. From the literature available, EPANET has been found to perform the hydraulic and water quality modelling with a fair degree of accuracy, ease of use, and no cost. Therefore, for our hydraulic analysis, EPANET 2.2 (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA) was used. To augment the assessment of the efficiency of the performance of the WDS, the TPIs (technical performance indices) for pressure and velocity at the hour of peak demand were evaluated. Finally, the cost-optimality of the network in terms of the pipe diameters was validated by using the Jal-Tantra web system developed by IIT Bombay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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10 pages, 2445 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Different Water Stress on Growth Index and Yield of Semi-Late Rice
by Yixin Zhang, Xinyu Zhao, Fangping Liu, Lvdan Zhu and Honglei Yu
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14318 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
The aim of this research is to find out the effects of different degrees of drought stress on the growth index and yield of semi-late rice. In this experiment, a pot experiment was conducted with hybrid Tian-you-hua-zhan rice as material. Intermittent irrigation was [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to find out the effects of different degrees of drought stress on the growth index and yield of semi-late rice. In this experiment, a pot experiment was conducted with hybrid Tian-you-hua-zhan rice as material. Intermittent irrigation was used as control (CK) at the tillering stage, booting stage, heading stage, and milk stage. Three water stress gradients of light drought (70% saturated moisture content), medium drought (60% saturated moisture content), and severe drought (50% saturated moisture content) were set to monitor the soil moisture content. The plant height, number of tillers, leaf area, and chlorophyll content under different water gradients at different growth stages were measured, and the effects of different water stress treatments at different growth stages on rice growth index, yield, and its components were analyzed. The results showed that the inhibition of the plant height at the jointing and booting stages was the most significant; moreover, the number of tillers and leaf area decreased most significantly at the tillering stage, and the heading and flowering stages had the greatest effect on chlorophyll synthesis. As far as yield is concerned, the most sensitive stages are the heading and flowering stages. Different stress treatments reduced the effective panicle number, 1000-grain weight, and seed setting rate of rice, and reduced the yield by 27.57%, 44.23%, and 46.32% respectively, compared with the normal control. The correlation analysis showed that the correlation degree of affecting yield from large to small was 1000-grain weight, seed setting rate, and effective panicle. Therefore, ensuring water supply at the heading and flowering stage can effectively improve the 1000-grain weight, effective panicle, and seed setting rate, and increase the rice yield and water use efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 2315 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Applying a Flexible Fuzzy Adaptive Regression to Runoff Estimation
by Mike Spiliotis and Luis Garrote
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14308 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 485
Abstract
A smart, flexible, fuzzy-based regression is proposed in order to describe non-constant behavior of runoff as a function of precipitation. Hence, for high precipitation, beyond a fuzzy threshold, a conventional linear (precise) relation between precipitation and runoff is established, while for low precipitation, [...] Read more.
A smart, flexible, fuzzy-based regression is proposed in order to describe non-constant behavior of runoff as a function of precipitation. Hence, for high precipitation, beyond a fuzzy threshold, a conventional linear (precise) relation between precipitation and runoff is established, while for low precipitation, a curve with different behavior is activated. Between these curves and for a runoff range, each curve holds to some degree. Hence, a simplified Sugeno architecture scheme is established on few logical rules. Alternatively, the model can be enhanced by using a combination between the fuzzy linear regression of Tanaka and the aforementioned simplified Sugeno architecture. The training process is achieved based on the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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8 pages, 2372 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Determining the Critical Points of a Basin from the Point of View of Water Productivity and Water Consumption Using the WaPOR Database
by Iman Hajirad, Sanaz Mohammadi and Hossein Dehghanisanij
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14322 - 14 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1160
Abstract
Actual evapotranspiration is one of the major components of the soil water balance equation. Several methods have been presented for estimating actual evapotranspiration, but the older methods are not practical because of their spatial and temporal dependence. Recently, the Food and Agriculture Organization [...] Read more.
Actual evapotranspiration is one of the major components of the soil water balance equation. Several methods have been presented for estimating actual evapotranspiration, but the older methods are not practical because of their spatial and temporal dependence. Recently, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) created the WaPOR open-access system on water productivity with the aim of covering countries experiencing water crises in Africa and the Middle East, and the estimation of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is one of its main products. This portal makes it possible to determine water consumption and water productivity on a large scale with minimal time and cost, so it can be used to manage the agricultural sector. The Google Earth Engine System (GEE), introduced by Google in 2010, is an effective remote sensing instrument for gathering important data from satellite imagery. In this study, the actual evapotranspiration maps of the Maroon-Jarahi basin for 2017 were extracted using the methodology introduced by the FAO and provided in the WaPOR database, and the coding was performed in the GEE system. The results showed that the actual evapotranspiration during this period was highest in July and decreased with the onset of the fall season. Limited water resources are a major obstacle to ensuring food security. Considering that the agricultural sector consumes most of the water in Iran and worldwide, water management in the agricultural sector is of great importance. Water productivity is a key indicator in studying and improving agricultural water management as well as one of the Sustainable Development Goals. In this study, the actual evapotranspiration (AET), net primary production (NPP), and water productivity (WP) for the basin were estimated using the WaPOR portal and Google Earth Engine over a 10-day period with a spatial resolution of 250 m (decadal data). Based on the obtained results, areas with low water productivity were identified. By studying the existing cropping patterns, the type of irrigation system used, and the water and soil conditions in these areas, it was possible to investigate the reason for the low water productivity and propose solutions to improve it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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10 pages, 18204 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
GIS-Based Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Flash Flood Hazard and Risk Assessment: A Case Study of the Eastern Minya Watershed, Egypt
by Kamal Darwish
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14315 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
Flash floods are considered one of the most devastating and frequent extreme climatological natural hazards in the world. El Minya is one of the most vulnerable areas in Egypt for flash flood problems. It was affected by several hazardous historical flash flood events. [...] Read more.
Flash floods are considered one of the most devastating and frequent extreme climatological natural hazards in the world. El Minya is one of the most vulnerable areas in Egypt for flash flood problems. It was affected by several hazardous historical flash flood events. These events could lead to both catastrophic losses of life and severe damage to the infrastructures of the study area. The study area is located in the middle of Egypt, about 240 km south of Cairo. It is situated along the Limestone Plateau facing El Minia governorate. The main objective of this study is to assess the risk of flash flood hazard on the human activities in the study area. Integration of remote sensing; geographic information systems, analytical hierarchy process, and the multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques were applied in this study. Eight different significant effective factors collected from multisource geospatial data, including lithology, hydrology, topography, soil type, land cover, and rainfall data, were selected to evaluate the flood risk map. Remote sensing imagery was used for land use/cover mapping to detect the vulnerable human activities. ArcGIS-based weighted overlay modeling was used to combine the criteria to calculate the final decision map. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 2853 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Correlation between Land Transformation and Climate Change with Flooding Vulnerability: Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) Applied in the Mar Menor Mediterranean Watershed
by Salvador García-Ayllón
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14240 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 534
Abstract
The combination formed by the intense transformation of the territory and climate change in the Spanish Mediterranean basins has configured an explosive cocktail from the point of view of the risk of flooding in these areas. Climate change is making new, intense-type cold-drop [...] Read more.
The combination formed by the intense transformation of the territory and climate change in the Spanish Mediterranean basins has configured an explosive cocktail from the point of view of the risk of flooding in these areas. Climate change is making new, intense-type cold-drop rains called DANA a more frequent phenomenon in Mediterranean basins. The vulnerability of the coastal territory in these areas because of the DANA phenomenon now requires the authorities to implement new strategies and policies that reduce the significant economic damage and loss of human life suffered in recent years. However, correlating these two phenomena with the increased risk of flooding is a difficult problem to diagnose, and even more difficult to solve. For this reason, a structured GIS methodology is proposed based on a geostatistical indicators analysis that correlates the transformation of the territory with the increase in vulnerability due to floods. This methodology is evaluated and put into practice in a case study of the basin area of a coastal lagoon in Spain. The impacts originating from the last three cold-drop phenomena developed in recent years are evaluated. The analysis carried out allows us to observe how the phenomenon of diffuse territorial anthropization in the territory has increased the damage caused by floods due to the loss of the natural hydrographic structure of the basin. Based on the results obtained in this analysis, risk mitigation actions will be proposed through the improvement of land management by using nature-based solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 1035 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Estimation of Water Turbidity in Drinking Water Treatment Plants Using Machine Learning Based on Water and Meteorological Data
by Vanessa Fernandez Alvarez, Daniela Granada Salazar, Cristhian Figueroa, Juan Carlos Corrales and Juan Fernando Casanova
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14326 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1086
Abstract
In rural areas, water treatment plants use rudimentary techniques to evaluate turbidity. However, the incorrect measurement of turbidity can result in poor water quality and, as a result, health issues for its users because it is a crucial indicator to determine the application [...] Read more.
In rural areas, water treatment plants use rudimentary techniques to evaluate turbidity. However, the incorrect measurement of turbidity can result in poor water quality and, as a result, health issues for its users because it is a crucial indicator to determine the application of adequate treatment to the water. Aquarisc was a project financed with royalties that sought to strengthen the mechanisms and tools for decision-making of the authorities and territorial institutions related to water supply for human consumption. This project installed sensors to assess turbidity in some plants in rural areas of the department of Cauca, Colombia. However, when the project ended, these sensors were removed. Therefore, it became necessary to create machine learning models to predict turbidity values without sensors, considering only pH, temperature, vapor pressure, and precipitation data captured manually by plant operators. In this study, the Linear Regression, Random Forest Regressor, k-Neighbors Regressor, and Extra Trees Regressor algorithms were trained with data provided by the Aquarisc project and the Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology, and Environment Studies of Colombia (IDEAM). As a result, we selected the Random Forest Regressor since it had the best RMSE among all the models and was also the one that best matched the situation of the studied treatment plants. Furthermore, this model did not consider outliers, resulting in an RMSE of 20.98 and 3.49 for the training and test dataset, respectively. Finally, we determined that this algorithm was able to estimate the water’s turbidity acceptably and supports the operators in making decisions for the application of adequate treatment to drinking water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 682 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Water Security and Environmental Impact Assessment: A Study for Developing Economies
by Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Usman, Mehwish Nadeem and Syyed Adnan Raheel Shah
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14325 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1234
Abstract
Both ecosystems and human societies acknowledge the importance of water. The impact of human activities on both land and water has become more apparent due to various global changes. These include climate change, urbanization, socioeconomic development, and population growth. Although it is widely [...] Read more.
Both ecosystems and human societies acknowledge the importance of water. The impact of human activities on both land and water has become more apparent due to various global changes. These include climate change, urbanization, socioeconomic development, and population growth. Although it is widely believed that water security is the key to sustainable development, studies on its evolution and various environmental factors are still in the early stages of development. This study aims to provide an overview of the concept. This concept aims to provide all people with safe water. It goes beyond merely providing adequate supplies to every person in the world, and it also aims to ensure healthy and productive lives. Despite the technological advancements being made in the water resource management industry, the lackadaisical approach to addressing the various challenges associated with water security continues to be a major issue globally. This study will provide an overview of the various facets of the water security concept and its evolution in developing countries due to the environmental changes that have occurred. It also explores the multiple sustainable methods that can be used to address these issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 5392 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Prediction of Flooding Area in Batang Sinamar River Basin Based on Design Return Period Simulation by Using Rainfall Runoff Inundation Model
by Angga Putra Arlis, Mohammad Farid, Ahmad Nur Wahid, Yadi Suryadi and Arno Adi Kuntoro
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14320 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 713
Abstract
Lima Puluh Kota Regency in West Sumatera Province is one of the regencies in Indonesia that has had a flood problem every year in the last decade. In the case of such large-scale flooding, it is important to classify the hazard zone for [...] Read more.
Lima Puluh Kota Regency in West Sumatera Province is one of the regencies in Indonesia that has had a flood problem every year in the last decade. In the case of such large-scale flooding, it is important to classify the hazard zone for efficiency of the flood mitigation. In this paper, the Rainfall-Runoff-Inundation (RRI) model is applied to the Batang Sinamar River Basin in order to predict the widespread inundation, where both rainfall-runoff from surrounding mountain and rainfall on flood plain contributes to the flood event. Flood simulation was conducted by using a nationally available dataset, high resolution digital surface model, and rainfall ground station data. The simulation was calibrated with discharge observation data in Batang Sinamar, and provides a good result with the Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency index and correlation value of 0.768 and 0.908, respectively. The result of the simulation using 10-year and 25-year return, showed the increasing discharge by 15.72% from 406.77 m3/s to 470.74 m3/s. Furthermore, the average peak of inundation water level increased from less than 1.5 m to more than 1.5 m. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the model can predict the potential inundation area in the Batang Sinamar River Basin in Lima Puluh Kota Regency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 2236 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Flood Wave Dynamics in the Transboundary Dniester River Floodplain under Reservoirs Impact
by Ana Jeleapov
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14193 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 551
Abstract
The present research aims to evaluate the impact of stream reservoirs on the Dniester river floods wave dynamics. The main approach consisted in the evaluation of the changes that occur in the flood parameters for three periods: natural flow, flow regulated by Dubasary [...] Read more.
The present research aims to evaluate the impact of stream reservoirs on the Dniester river floods wave dynamics. The main approach consisted in the evaluation of the changes that occur in the flood parameters for three periods: natural flow, flow regulated by Dubasary reservoir, flow regulated by the Dniester hydropower complex and Dubasary reservoir. Using the hydrological time series from the stations situated upstream and downstream of the reservoirs, the following were calculated and compared: flood characteristics, peaks of 10, 5, 1, 0.5, and 0.1% probability, and environment flow components such as high-flow pulses, small floods, large floods. The results show that high flood protection is specific to the Dniester hydropower complex, while through the Dubasary reservoir the flood wave passes mainly in transit. Due to the flow regulating impact, small floods as well as their average peaks and duration were reduced toward the reservoirs’ downstream part. High-flow pulses increased in number after the Dniester hydropower complex construction due to hydropeaking effect; however, their reduction is observed downstream of the Dubasary reservoir. Large floods increase in number in the upper part but are transformed into small floods toward the downstream, thus increasing the flood protection capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 574 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Hesitant Intuitionistic Fuzzy Approach in Optimal Irrigation Planning in India
by Sangita V. Pawar, Premlal Lal Patel and Ashwini B. Mirajkar
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14190 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 454
Abstract
The hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy optimization method optimizes multi-objective optimization problems under uncertainty and hesitation, and reflects the practical aspects of better decision-making. Hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy optimization (HIFO), a new optimization technique, has been suggested in the current study to find the best cropping [...] Read more.
The hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy optimization method optimizes multi-objective optimization problems under uncertainty and hesitation, and reflects the practical aspects of better decision-making. Hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy optimization (HIFO), a new optimization technique, has been suggested in the current study to find the best cropping pattern in the Kakrapar Right Bank Main Canal (KRBMC) command area of Ukai-Kakrapar Water Resources Project in India. The HIFO multi-objective fuzzy linear programming (HIFO MOFLP) result includes three objectives: maximization of net irrigation benefits (NIB), maximization of employment generation (EG), and minimization of cost of cultivation (CC), along with the appropriate constraints set. The performance of the aforesaid model is evaluated based on irrigation intensity, degree of acceptance (αr), and degree of rejection (βr) for inflows corresponding to 75% exceedance probability. The irrigation intensity from the study HIFO MOFLP model has been found to be 82.05%, while NIB, EG, and CC from the proposed model are 5572.31 million Rs, 14,287.27 thousand-man days, and 3429.99 million Rs, respectively. The proposed HIFO MOFLP model has been compared with the IFO MOFLP approach for the same command area and found to give improved results in the form of the irrigation intensity of the command area and objective function values. The current study demonstrates how hesitant fuzzy membership functions and non-membership functions can be applied to deal with uncertainty and hesitation in a real-world problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 380 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Oasification and Desertification under the Framework of Land Degradation Neutrality
by Jaime Martínez-Valderrama, Dongwei Gui and Zeeshan Ahmed
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14238 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 717
Abstract
To meet population growth, the excessive abstraction of water resources for irrigating water-intensive crops has become an increasing crisis in arid regions of Northwest China. This contains the perennial contradiction between development and desertification, typical of drylands, which we also find within the [...] Read more.
To meet population growth, the excessive abstraction of water resources for irrigating water-intensive crops has become an increasing crisis in arid regions of Northwest China. This contains the perennial contradiction between development and desertification, typical of drylands, which we also find within the United Nations Convention to combat Desertification (UNCCD), where some interpret it as a developmentalist convention and others as a conservationist one. The Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) concept has been set up as the main tool to combat desertification by the UNCCD and is included in SDG 15.3. LDN refers to a state of zero net land degradation, where “the amount and quality of land resources necessary to support ecosystem functions and services and enhance food security remain stable or increase within specified temporal and spatial scales and ecosystems”. Under the LDN framework, we apply two of its main pillars, prevention and land planning. The aim is to understand the underlying biophysical and socio-economic mechanisms of oasis expansion in NW China, a phenomenon known as oasification. The objective is to detect under what conditions oasification tackles desertification and when it triggers land and economic degradation. From this knowledge, it will be possible to propose guidelines of action to balance land use and comply with LDN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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4 pages, 1272 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analyses of Maximum Precipitation in Brazil and the Variability of Diurnal Cycle
by Aléxia Monteiro Valentim, Cláudio Moisés Santos e Silva, Daniele Tôrres Rodrigues and Paula Andressa Alves de Araújo
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14229 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 575
Abstract
According to recent works, the diurnal cycle is more geographically pronounced in places such as South America; and this analysis aims to observe how climate variability is associated with meteorological phenomena at different scales. For this, a set of hourly data from rain [...] Read more.
According to recent works, the diurnal cycle is more geographically pronounced in places such as South America; and this analysis aims to observe how climate variability is associated with meteorological phenomena at different scales. For this, a set of hourly data from rain gauges throughout Brazil was collected, and through 411 automatic rain gauges, the data were selected between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2020. Clustered multivariate statistics were performed for regional characterization of the data, with sets of 4, 5, and 6 groups. The identification of the occurrence of different daily cycles on the sub-daily scale demonstrates intense rainfall associated with different meteorological phenomena and spatial variations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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7 pages, 2554 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Advance Ensemble Flood Warning System: A Case Study for Nullah Lai
by Muhammad Aamir Siddiqui, Mudasser Muneer Khan, Rabia Khan and Syyed Adnan Raheel Shah
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14197 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 656
Abstract
River flow forecasting is an essential tool to manage floods in the current era, especially for flash flooding scenarios in urban areas. This study focuses the flash flooding scenario in the Nullah Lai basin, which comprises the twin cities Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Steep [...] Read more.
River flow forecasting is an essential tool to manage floods in the current era, especially for flash flooding scenarios in urban areas. This study focuses the flash flooding scenario in the Nullah Lai basin, which comprises the twin cities Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Steep slopes in the Margalla hills and Islamabad create high numbers of flash floods in the lower reaches of Rawalpindi, which are densely populated. When high-intensity rainfall occurs in the steep slopes of Margalla and Islamabad, high-volume floods with high velocity pour down, which instantaneously reaches the less-sloped Rawalpindi regions, which causes the raising of the water level in the stream, and flooding occurs. The section of the Nullah Lai Rawalpindi starting from the Qatarian bridge to the Gawalmandi bridge has always faced flash flooding over time. In the period of few hours, the water level reaches several fts in the nullah, which is why it is not possible to alert the people living on the banks in a timely manner, a problem that illuminates the need for a forecasting system at Nullah Lai. In the current research, the China Metrological Agency forecast center (CMA)’s ensemble forecast data have been utilized to achieve forecasts in the Nullah Lai. For this purpose, two initial objectives were set to achieve which basic needs are required process the data available in grib format from data centers. A digital model of the Nullah Lai was made using hydrology tools available in ArcGIS 10.3. A digital equation was obtained from gene expression modeling (GEP), which was later used to generate the ensemble stage forecast against the ensemble rainfall forecast. The results obtained show that the flash flooding phenomenon in Nullah Lai can, with some uncertainty, be predicted well in time. Using 3-days-ahead forecast data from CMA, the same floods were predicted 3 days before the event. This research also provides the procedure to use the ensemble forecast data in developing an automated model to generate the ensemble stage forecast for coming events. This study will help the administrative authorities better manage the upcoming floods and save lives and capital costs lost in the flash flooding phenomena which continuously happen in the basin of the Nullah Lai. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 2454 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis of Extreme Rainfall Events on a Sub-Daily Scale in Northeast
by Paula Andressa Alves de Araújo, Cláudio Moisés Santos e Silva, Daniele Tôrres Rodrigues and Aléxia Monteiro Valentim
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14299 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Given the complex climate of the Brazilian Northeast, its variable rainfall regime in spatial and temporal scales due to multiple geographic factors and the action of various atmospheric systems, as well as intense precipitation events becoming increasingly present and strong, are incipient the [...] Read more.
Given the complex climate of the Brazilian Northeast, its variable rainfall regime in spatial and temporal scales due to multiple geographic factors and the action of various atmospheric systems, as well as intense precipitation events becoming increasingly present and strong, are incipient the initiatives to analyze extreme rainfall on a sub-daily scale. Thus, characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of IPESS on the NEB, analyzing the seasonality of the number of events for each location, and the influence of interannual variability in the occurrence of these events became the objective of that work. For this, hourly precipitation observations were collected from 119 automatic surface weather stations spread across the NEB between 2009 and 2018. The night period presented the highest amounts of IPESS. The meteorological stations Ibimirim/PE and Ilhéus/BA had the highest and lowest number of occurrences, respectively. The amplitude of the values of Q presented the thresholds of the stations with the values of 3.4 mm as a minimum, and 28.6 mm as a maximum, referring to the stations of Petrolina/PE and São Luís/MA, respectively. Among the capitals, Teresina/PI had the highest number of EPIES, as well as João Pessoa/PB had the lowest, not only among the capitals but also the second with the lowest number in general. It was observed that during 2009 the events were more frequent, while 2012 presented the smallest amounts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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6 pages, 1634 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Batch Adsorption Studies Incorporating Response Surface Methodology for the Elimination of Acephate
by R. Shiny Raj and K. Anoop Krishnan
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14309 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 702
Abstract
Banned pesticides are continuously preferred by the planters of the Idukki District irrespective of their toxicity. Among the banned pesticides, acephate is preferred because of its high solubility in water and persistent character. Unfortunately, it detriments the biota, leading to neurogenic, carcinogenic, and [...] Read more.
Banned pesticides are continuously preferred by the planters of the Idukki District irrespective of their toxicity. Among the banned pesticides, acephate is preferred because of its high solubility in water and persistent character. Unfortunately, it detriments the biota, leading to neurogenic, carcinogenic, and physiological disorders in fish. The plantation near the Periyar River basin is contaminated with residues of pesticides, which eventually drain into the river. There is an urgent need for the removal of acephate. Therefore, we have focused on the removal of acephate into the lab scale. Batch adsorption studies were carried out for the removal of acephate. We selected a material Fe-MMT (Fe3O4-montmorillonite), which is benign and possesses a high adsorption capacity towards acephate. Adsorbent properties were examined by various analytical tools XRD, SEM, FTIR, and a Surface area analyzer. Adsorption followed Langmuir with first-order kinetic. Kinetic plots exhibited multistage adsorption, indicating film diffusion and pore diffusion during the adsorption or the mechanism of adsorption is chemisorption, physisorption, and Lewis’s acid-base interaction. Response surface methodology involving CCD (central composite design) was extracted to maximize the adsorption of acephate onto Fe-MMT. Dosage and concentration seem to be the major parameters that influenced the adsorption. Adsorption achieved a peak (83.18%) at optimum conditions corresponding to pH 6, initial acephate concentration of 2 mg/L, and adsorbent dosage corresponding to 0.5 g/L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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12 pages, 2979 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Green Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles Using Waste Natural Materials and Its Application for Wastewater Treatment
by Hussein M. Ahmed, Mohamed A. El-khateeb, Neama A. Sobhy, Mohamed M. Hefny and Fatehy M. Abdel-Haleem
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 25(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/ECWS-7-14181 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2210
Abstract
In this study, a simple, environment-friendly, and cost-effective method is developed to synthesize metallic nanoparticles (NPs) from natural waste residues, such as onion, potato, tea, and moringa, and the effect of extract residues on efficiency, yield, size, shape, and morphology of the magnetite [...] Read more.
In this study, a simple, environment-friendly, and cost-effective method is developed to synthesize metallic nanoparticles (NPs) from natural waste residues, such as onion, potato, tea, and moringa, and the effect of extract residues on efficiency, yield, size, shape, and morphology of the magnetite nanoparticle is discussed. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). The promising applications of nanotechnology are their efficiency in wastewater treatment, including the removal of chemical and physical parameters. The study proposes that magnetite NPs can be synthesized using onion, potato, tea, and moringa residues’ extract as the reducing agent. The results of the XRD pattern confirmed the synthesized magnetite NPs using onion, potato, tea, and moringa as the crystalline phase of α-Fe2O3. EDX spectroscopy showed the presence of elemental iron and oxygen, indicating that the nanoparticles were essentially present in oxide form. UV absorption in the range of 190–340 nm confirmed the formation of Fe/NP, and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) indicated the formation of iron oxide crystalline NPs in which reducing and capping agents, such as flavones, and the intensity of the absorption peak in the FT-IR spectrum depends on the type of extract. The synthesized Fe/NPs were tested for treatment of wastewater under different conditions such as contact time (0–60) min and dose (0.1–0.5) g; the results indicate that magnetite NPs of moringa and onion are more effective in degradation and adsorption processes at optimum dose (0.4 g, and time 45 min). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences)
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