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Medicina, Volume 58, Issue 7 (July 2022) – 138 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Biomarkers are necessary for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and for advancing clinical trials for AD. The United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) has provided guidance for the definition of biomarkers and their contexts of use in drug development, qualitification, and implementation in clinical practice. The Common Alzheimer’s Disease Research Ontology (CADRO) defines known disease processes that comprise therapeutic targets for AD therapies and establishes a framework for AD treatment and biomarker development. Advances in biomarker development promise to provide key foundational information for progress toward new treatments for patients with AD. View this paper
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12 pages, 1201 KiB  
Article
Orthopedic Surgeons’ Accuracy When Orienting an Acetabular Cup. A Comparison with Untrained Individuals
by Jesús Moreta, Óscar Gayoso, Daniel Donaire-Hoyas, Jorge Roces-García, Jesús Gómez-Vallejo, Esther Moya-Gómez, David Raya-Roldán, Alberto Albert-Ullibarri, Fernando Marqués-López and Jorge Albareda
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070973 - 21 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1696
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Previous studies demonstrated a huge variability among surgeons when it comes to reproducing the position of an acetabular cup in total hip arthroplasty. Our main objective is to determine if orthopedic surgeons can replicate a given orientation on a pelvic [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Previous studies demonstrated a huge variability among surgeons when it comes to reproducing the position of an acetabular cup in total hip arthroplasty. Our main objective is to determine if orthopedic surgeons can replicate a given orientation on a pelvic model better than untrained individuals. Our secondary objective is to determine if experience has any influence on their ability for this task. Materials and Methods: A group of specialist orthopedic hip surgeons and a group of volunteers with no medical training were asked to reproduce three given (randomly generated) acetabular cup orientations (inclination and anteversion) on a pelvic model. Error was measured by means of a hip navigation system and comparisons between groups were made using the appropriate statistical methods. Results: The study included 107 individuals, 36 orthopedic surgeons and 71 untrained volunteers. The mean error among surgeons was slightly greater as regards both inclination (7.84 ± 5.53 vs. 6.70 ± 4.03) and anteversion (5.85 ± 4.52 vs. 5.48 ± 3.44), although statistical significance was not reached (p = 0.226 and p = 0.639, respectively). Similarly, although surgeons with more than 100 procedures a year obtained better results than those with less surgical experience (8.01 vs. 7.67 degrees of error in inclination and 5.83 vs. 5.87 in anteversion), this difference was not statistically significant, either (p = 0.852 and p = 0.981). Conclusions: No differences were found in the average error made by orthopedic surgeons and untrained individuals. Furthermore, the surgeons’ cup orientation accuracy was not seen to improve significantly with experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Surgery)
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16 pages, 555 KiB  
Article
Uptake of COVID-19 Booster Dose among Saudi Arabian Population
by Najim Z. Alshahrani, Abdullah A. Alsabaani, Iman Ridda, Harunor Rashid, Faris Alzahrani, Talal Hamed Almutairi, Bader Ahmed S. Alzahrani and Abdulelah Saleh Saeed Albeshri
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070972 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2652
Abstract
Backgroundand objectives: Although several vaccines have been produced and administered around the world, new SARS-CoV-2 worsened the COVID-19 infection risk and impacted the initial vaccine dosage effectiveness. Based on studies indicating that the third and fourth COVID-19 vaccine doses significantly reduced [...] Read more.
Backgroundand objectives: Although several vaccines have been produced and administered around the world, new SARS-CoV-2 worsened the COVID-19 infection risk and impacted the initial vaccine dosage effectiveness. Based on studies indicating that the third and fourth COVID-19 vaccine doses significantly reduced COVID-19 transmission, Saudi Arabia has been administering COVID-19 booster vaccine doses to its citizens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine booster in relation to the socio-demographic characteristics and other associated factors among the Saudi population. Materials and Methods: This study was an online analytical cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire. Pearson Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with the uptake of COVID-19 booster dose vaccines. Results: A total of 2332 responded to our study. Overall, 527 (22.6%) participants had received a booster dose. An age of 55 and above (aOR: 5.415; 95% CI: 2.719–10.783), Eastern region (aOR: 2.513; 95% CI: 1.566–4.033), history of influenza vaccination at annual intervals (aOR: 2.387; 95% CI: 1.730–3.293), the first dose of Moderna vaccine (aOR: 1.324; 95% CI: 1.160–1.510), and cancer (aOR: 2.161; 95% CI: 1.218–3.879) were independent factors most associated with a higher uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine booster dose. In contrast, the second dose of Moderna vaccine (aOR: 0.794; 95% CI: 0.683–0.922), AstraZeneca vaccine (aOR: 0.691; 95% CI: 0.509–0.939), strong symptoms from side effects after the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine (aOR: 0.615; 95% CI: 0.404–0.935) were independent factors most associated with a lower uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine booster dose. Conclusions: Our findings indicate low COVID-19 vaccine booster uptake. This necessitates the need for strategies to address discouraging factors of the COVID-19 vaccine booster dose uptake and engage the Saudi population to raise awareness about the importance of the booster dose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Autoimmunity and Vaccines)
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18 pages, 8909 KiB  
Tutorial
Mathematically Directed Single-Cut Osteotomy
by Stephen J. Wallace, Joseph T. Patterson and Sean E. Nork
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070971 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1987
Abstract
A mathematically directed osteotomy (MDO) is a surgical planning technique for correcting long bone deformities. Using a mathematically derived osteotomy plane, the single-cut correction simultaneously addresses angular deformity, axial malrotation, and minor shortening. This review describes an MDO’s indications for use, defines its [...] Read more.
A mathematically directed osteotomy (MDO) is a surgical planning technique for correcting long bone deformities. Using a mathematically derived osteotomy plane, the single-cut correction simultaneously addresses angular deformity, axial malrotation, and minor shortening. This review describes an MDO’s indications for use, defines its input and output variables, includes the required graphs for osteotomy planning, and provides intraoperative tips and tricks for successful execution. Finally, the authors present a digital MDO calculator to simplify the complex computations and allow for more precise planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malunion of Fractures of the Lower Extremity)
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20 pages, 619 KiB  
Article
Pathways of Adolescent Life Satisfaction Association with Family Support, Structure and Affluence: A Cross-National Comparative Analysis
by Apolinaras Zaborskis, Aistė Kavaliauskienė, Elitsa Dimitrova and Charli Eriksson
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070970 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2139
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Despite the importance of life satisfaction for health and well-being, there is a paucity of cross-national comparative studies in life satisfaction related to the family environment. The present research examined the pathways of life satisfaction association with perceived family [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Despite the importance of life satisfaction for health and well-being, there is a paucity of cross-national comparative studies in life satisfaction related to the family environment. The present research examined the pathways of life satisfaction association with perceived family support and other family environment variables among adolescents aged from 11 to 15 years in 45 countries. Materials and Methods: Samples from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey in 2017/2018 were analysed (n = 188,619). Path analysis was applied to evaluate the associations among the study variables. Results: A positive association between the life satisfaction score and high family support was identified in all 45 countries (standardized regression weight ranged from 0.067 to 0.420, p < 0.05). In majority of countries, living with both parents and higher levels of family affluence had a positive effect on adolescent life satisfaction both directly and indirectly through family support. In the described path model, the proportion of life satisfaction score variance that was accounted for by family support, family structure, family affluence, gender and age was up to 25.3%. The path models made it possible to group the participating countries into two clusters. In the first cluster (10 countries) the Eastern and Southern European countries dominated, while the second cluster (35 countries) united the countries of Western and Central Europe. Conclusions: There is evidence that countries with high level of adolescent life satisfaction differ in the high rate of intact family structure and the strong relation between family support and perceived life satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
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10 pages, 832 KiB  
Article
Impact of Alirocumab on Release Markers of Atherosclerotic Plaque Vulnerability in Patients with Mixed Hyperlipidemia and Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque
by Michał Kosowski, Marcin Basiak, Marcin Hachuła and Bogusław Okopień
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070969 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Atherosclerosis is a disease in the pathogenesis of which plasma factors apart from elevated cholesterol levels play a keyrole. Such factors include osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are factors that may be responsible for the stabilization [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Atherosclerosis is a disease in the pathogenesis of which plasma factors apart from elevated cholesterol levels play a keyrole. Such factors include osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are factors that may be responsible for the stabilization of atherosclerotic plaque. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of modern lipid-lowering therapy by using proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK-9) inhibitor on the concentrations of these factors. Materials and Methods: The study included people suffering from dyslipidemia who were eligible to start alirocumab therapy. In this group, the concentrations of OPN, OPG, and MMPs were assessed before the initiation of therapy and after three months of its duration. Results: In the study, we observed a statistically significant reduction in the concentrations of OPN, OPG (p < 0.001), and metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) (p < 0.05) after the applied therapy. Moreover, we noticed that in the group of patients soon to start alirocumab therapy, the concentrations of these factors were higher compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of our study show that therapy with alirocumab significantly reduces the concentration of factors that affect atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability, which may explain their important role in reducing cardiovascular risk in patients undergoing this therapy. Full article
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6 pages, 1201 KiB  
Case Report
Case Report of Neonatal Sotos Syndrome with a New Missense Mutation in the NSD1 Gene and Literature Analysis in the Chinese Han Population
by Hui-Ying Jin, Hai-Feng Li, Jia-Lu Xu, Wang Hui, Wen-Cong Ruan, Cheng-Cheng Lv, Ren-Ai Xu and Shu Qiang
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070968 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1814
Abstract
Currently, no consensus exists regarding Sotos syndrome in the Chinese population. Here, we present a case of neonatal Sotos syndrome, followed by a retrospective analysis of five cases of neonatal Sotos syndrome, reported in China. The study subject was a twin premature infant, [...] Read more.
Currently, no consensus exists regarding Sotos syndrome in the Chinese population. Here, we present a case of neonatal Sotos syndrome, followed by a retrospective analysis of five cases of neonatal Sotos syndrome, reported in China. The study subject was a twin premature infant, heavier than gestational age, with characteristic facial features, limb shaking, and hypertonia. Transient hypoglycemia, abnormal cranial magnetic resonance imaging, multiple nodules in polycystic kidneys and liver, abnormal hearing, patent ductus arteriosus, and an atrial septal defect were also noted. The subject showed overgrowth and developmental retardation at 3 months of age. Sequencing revealed a novel missense mutation, c.5000C>A, in the nuclear receptor binding the SET domain protein 1 gene, resulting in an alanine-to-glutamate substitution. The bioinformatics analysis suggested high pathogenicity at this site. This study provides insights into diagnosis of neonatal Sotos syndrome based on specific phenotypes. Subsequent treatment and follow-up should focus on developmental retardation, epilepsy, and scoliosis. Full article
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8 pages, 5265 KiB  
Case Report
Extreme Interocular Asymmetry in an Atypical Case of a Hydroxychloroquine-Related Retinopathy
by Gabriel Hallali, Zari Seyed, Anne-Véronique Maillard, Karima Drine, Laurence Lamour, Céline Faure and Isabelle Audo
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070967 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1592
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Long-term hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) therapy can lead to retinal toxicity. Typically, it is characterized by a bull’s eye maculopathy. More recently, a “pericentral” form of HCQ retinopathy that predominantly affects patients of Asian descent has been described. To our knowledge, [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Long-term hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) therapy can lead to retinal toxicity. Typically, it is characterized by a bull’s eye maculopathy. More recently, a “pericentral” form of HCQ retinopathy that predominantly affects patients of Asian descent has been described. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case where such an asymmetry between the right and the left eye in the toxicity profile is observed. Case presentation: The patient presented with a 12-year exposure to HCQ at a daily dose of 4.35 mg/kg. She presented an inferior pericentral-only phenotype of HCQ toxicity on the right eye and a perifoveal-only toxicity on the left eye. Modest progression of toxicity was observed on both eyes over the seven years of follow-up, despite drug discontinuation. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first time that two different phenotypes of HCQ-related retinopathy are found in the same patient, challenging our understanding of the pathophysiology of HCQ retinal toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ophthalmology)
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19 pages, 880 KiB  
Review
Nutritional Interventions to Improve Cachexia Outcomes in Cancer—A Systematic Review
by Adina Braha, Alin Albai, Bogdan Timar, Șerban Negru, Săftescu Sorin, Deiana Roman and Dorel Popovici
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070966 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3982
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The prevalence of cachexia has increased across all of the cancer types and accounts for up to 20% of cancer-related deaths. This paper is a systematic review of nutritional interventions aiming to improve cachexia outcomes in cancer, focusing on [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The prevalence of cachexia has increased across all of the cancer types and accounts for up to 20% of cancer-related deaths. This paper is a systematic review of nutritional interventions aiming to improve cachexia outcomes in cancer, focusing on weight gain. Materials and Methods: A search in Medline and Elsevier databases for articles up until the 23 January 2022, was conducted. Results: Out of 5732 screened records, 26 publications were included in the final analysis. Four randomized clinical trials showed a significant body weight (BW) increase in patients treated with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), β-hydroxy-beta-methyl butyrate (β-HMB), arginine, and glutamine or marine phospholipids (MPL). An upward BW trend was observed in patients treated with L-carnitine, an Ethanwell/Ethanzyme (EE) regimen enriched with ω-3 fatty acids, micronutrients, probiotics, fish oil, a leucine-rich supplement, or total parental nutrition (TPN) with a high dose of a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA). Conclusions: Although clinical trials relating to large numbers of nutritional supplements present promising data, many trials provided negative results. Further studies investigating the underlying mechanisms of action of these nutritional supplements in cancer cachexia are needed. Early screening for cancer cachexia risk and nutritional intervention in cancer patients before aggravating weight loss may stabilize their weight, preventing cachexia syndrome. According to the GRADE methodology, no positive recommendation for these nutritional supplements may be expressed. Full article
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7 pages, 457 KiB  
Article
Neonatal Pneumothorax Outcome in Preterm and Term Newborns
by Miljana Z. Jovandaric, Svetlana J. Milenkovic, Jelena Dotlic, Ivana R. Babovic, Zorica Jestrovic, Branislav Milosevic, Miljan Culjic and Sandra Babic
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070965 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4040
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Pneumothorax implies the presence of air in the pleural space between the visceral and parietal pleura. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors, therapy and perinatal outcome in neonates with pneumothorax in a [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Pneumothorax implies the presence of air in the pleural space between the visceral and parietal pleura. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors, therapy and perinatal outcome in neonates with pneumothorax in a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study based on a five-year data sample of neonates with pneumothorax was conducted in a Maternity Hospital with a tertiary NICU from 2015 to 2020. We included all neonates with pneumothorax born in our hospital and compared demographic characteristics, perinatal risk factors, anthropometric parameters, comorbidities, clinical course and method of chest drainage between term (≥37 GW) and preterm (<37 GW) neonates. Results: The study included 74 newborns with pneumothorax, of which 67.6% were male and 32.5% were female. The majority of women (59.5%) had no complications during pregnancy. Delivery was mainly performed via CS (68.9%). Delivery occurred on average in 34.62 ± 4.03 GW. Significantly more (p = 0.001) children with pneumothorax were born prematurely (n = 53; 71.6%) than at term (n = 21; 28.4%). Most of the neonates had to be treated with ATD (63.5%) and nCPAP (39.2%), but less often they were treated with surfactant (40.5%) and corticosteroids (35.1%). O2 therapy lasted an average of 8.89 ± 4.57 days. Significantly more (p = 0.001) neonates with pneumothorax had additional complications, pneumonia, sepsis, convulsions and intraventricular hemorrhage (68.9%). However, most children had a good outcome (83.8%) and were discharged from the clinic. Fatal outcomes occurred in six cases, while another six neonates had to be transferred to referral neonatal centers for further treatment and care. Conclusion: Significantly more children with pneumothorax were born prematurely than at term. With adequate therapy, even premature newborns can successfully recover from pneumothorax. Full article
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9 pages, 584 KiB  
Article
Coronary CT Value in Quantitative Assessment of Intermediate Stenosis
by Laura Zajančkauskienė, Laura Radionovaitė, Antanas Jankauskas, Audra Banišauskaitė and Gintarė Šakalytė
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070964 - 20 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1602
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is an excellent non-invasive imaging tool to evaluate coronary arteries and exclude coronary artery disease (CAD). Managing intermediate coronary artery stenosis with negative or inconclusive functional tests is still a challenge. A regular stenosis [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is an excellent non-invasive imaging tool to evaluate coronary arteries and exclude coronary artery disease (CAD). Managing intermediate coronary artery stenosis with negative or inconclusive functional tests is still a challenge. A regular stenosis evaluation together with high-risk plaque features, using semi-automated programs, are becoming promising tools. This case–control study was designed to evaluate the intermediate lesion features’ impact on CAD outcomes, using a semi-automated CCTA atherosclerotic plaque analysis program. Materials and Methods: We performed a single-center, prospective cohort study. A total of 133 patients with low to intermediate risk of CAD, older than 18 years with no previous history of CAD and good quality CCTA images were included in the study, and 194 intermediate stenosis (CAD-RADS 3) were analyzed. For more detailed morphological analysis, we used semi-automated CCTA-dedicated software. Enrolled patients were prospectively followed-up for 2 years. Results: Agatston score was significantly higher in the major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) group (p = 0.025). Obstruction site analysis showed a significantly lower coronary artery remodeling index (RI) among patients with MACE (p = 0.037); nonetheless RI was negative in both groups. Plaque consistency analysis showed significantly bigger necrotic core area in the MACE group (p = 0.049). In addition, unadjusted multivariate analysis confirmed Agatston score and RI as significant MACE predictors. Conclusions: The Agatston score showes the total area of calcium deposits and higher values are linked to MACE. Higher plaque content of necrotic component is also associated with MACE. Additionally, negatively remodeled plaques are linked to MACE and could be a sign of advanced CAD. The Agatston score and RI are significant in risk stratification for the development of MACE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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13 pages, 1552 KiB  
Systematic Review
Digging into the Role of Inflammatory Biomarkers in Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss Diagnosis and Prognosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Andrea Frosolini, Leonardo Franz, Antonio Daloiso, Andrea Lovato, Cosimo de Filippis and Gino Marioni
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070963 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1892
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSNHL) is a quite common clinical finding in otolaryngology. Most cases are classified as idiopathic and there is a dearth of information on factors able to predict the response to treatment and hearing recovery. The [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSNHL) is a quite common clinical finding in otolaryngology. Most cases are classified as idiopathic and there is a dearth of information on factors able to predict the response to treatment and hearing recovery. The main aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess and critically discuss the role of circulating inflammatory biomarkers in SSNHL. Materials and Methods: A search was conducted of the English literature published between 1 January 2009 and 7 July 2022 on Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane following PRISMA guidelines. Results: A total of 256 titles were retrieved from the search. After full-text screening and application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, 13 articles were included. Twelve out of thirteen studies reported significant differences in biomarkers values in SSNHL patients, of which Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) and C-reactive Protein (CRP) were the most analyzed. Our meta-analysis for CRP’s mean values in SSNHL groups vs. controls showed significantly higher CRP levels with a pooled overall difference of 1.07; confidence interval (CI) at 95%: 0.03; 2.11. For TNF-α, discordant results were found: three studies showed significantly higher levels in SSNHL patients vs. controls, whereas other three investigations showed lower levels in the SSNHL groups (overall pooled difference 1.97; 95% CI: −0.90; 4.84). A high between-study heterogeneity was found. Conclusions: This systematic review pointed out that, although there exists a growing literature in the field of circulatory biomarkers identification in SSNHL, there is a high heterogeneity of results and low quality of evidence. CRP resulted to be higher in SSNHL patients than in controls, while TNF-α showed more heterogeneous behavior. The data reported herein needs to be confirmed in well-designed prospective multicenter randomized studies, with the objective of improving SSNHL treatment and outcome and thereby reducing the social burden of hearing loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurology)
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9 pages, 635 KiB  
Article
Maladaptive Personality Traits in a Group of Patients with Substance Use Disorder and ADHD
by Alexandra Mariana Buică, Diana Monica Preda, Lucia Emanuela Andrei, Mihaela Stancu, Nicolae Gică and Florina Rad
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070962 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2167
Abstract
Background and Objectives: the comorbidity of personality disorders in patients who use psychoactive substances is common in psychiatric practice. The epidemiology of disharmonious personality traits in patients with ADHD and addictions in adulthood is still insufficiently researched. The study investigated the typology [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: the comorbidity of personality disorders in patients who use psychoactive substances is common in psychiatric practice. The epidemiology of disharmonious personality traits in patients with ADHD and addictions in adulthood is still insufficiently researched. The study investigated the typology of personality traits in a group of adult patients consuming psychoactive substances, in whom symptoms of ADHD were identified. Materials and Methods: the study evaluates a group of 104 patients with chronic psychoactive substances abuse, in whom symptoms of ADHD were identified in early adulthood, in terms of comorbid personality traits. Results: statistically significant data have been obtained regarding the presence of clinical traits characteristic for cluster B personality disorders, the patients presenting lower levels of self-control, self-image instability, difficulties in the areas of social relationships and own identity integration. Conclusions: ADHD symptomatology precedes the clinical traits of personality disorders in patients with addictions, negatively influencing chronic evolution and quality of life. Full article
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7 pages, 925 KiB  
Case Report
Superficial Femoral Artery Recanalization Using Fiber Optic RealShape Technology
by Jurre Klaassen, Joost A. van Herwaarden, Martin Teraa and Constantijn E. V. B. Hazenberg
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070961 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2834
Abstract
Purpose: Report of a successful case of endovascular recanalization of an occluded superficial femoral artery (SFA) using Fiber Optic RealShape (FORS) technology. Case Report: A 79-year-old male was referred for evaluation of multiple ischemic pretibial ulcers of the right lower extremity. Computed tomography–angiography [...] Read more.
Purpose: Report of a successful case of endovascular recanalization of an occluded superficial femoral artery (SFA) using Fiber Optic RealShape (FORS) technology. Case Report: A 79-year-old male was referred for evaluation of multiple ischemic pretibial ulcers of the right lower extremity. Computed tomography–angiography (CTA) imaging confirmed significant stenosis of the right common femoral artery (CFA) and an occlusion of the SFA from its origin to the Hunter’s canal. The patient was treated with a hybrid surgical procedure: an endarterectomy of the CFA and SFA origin was performed combined with an endovascular recanalization of the occluded SFA using FORS technology. During recanalization, the FORS guidewire slowly twisted subintimally around the occluded lumen of the SFA, maintaining the created corkscrew shape after pre-dilation with the percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) balloon and subsequent stenting. Conclusions: FORS technology can be successfully used during recanalization of an occluded SFA without the use of fluoroscopy. The corkscrew shape formed during recanalization in this case was retained during PTA balloon pre-dilation and stenting; this potentially improves hemodynamics and thereby reduces the risk of in-stent restenosis. However, expanding patient series and longer follow-up data are needed to increase the understanding of the feasibility and effectiveness of using FORS in the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Endovascular Therapy for Peripheral Arterial Disease)
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13 pages, 11681 KiB  
Article
Online Learning versus Hands-On Learning of Basic Ocular Ultrasound Skills: A Randomized Controlled Non-Inferiority Trial
by Soo-Yeon Kang, Jonghoon Yoo, Sookyung Park, Ik-Joon Jo, Seonwoo Kim, Hyun Cho, Guntak Lee, Jong-Eun Park, Taerim Kim, Se-Uk Lee, Sung-Yeon Hwang, Won-Chul Cha, Tae-Gun Shin and Hee Yoon
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070960 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1981
Abstract
Background and objectives: Ocular ultrasound is a core application of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) to assist physicians in promptly identifying various ocular diseases at the bedside; however, hands-on POCUS training is challenging during a pandemic. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial was [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Ocular ultrasound is a core application of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) to assist physicians in promptly identifying various ocular diseases at the bedside; however, hands-on POCUS training is challenging during a pandemic. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial was conducted in an academic emergency department from October 2020 to April 2021. Thirty-two participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Group H (hands-on learning group) participated individually in a hands-on session with a standardized patient for 30 min, whereas Group O (online learning group) learned training materials and video clips for 20 min. They scanned four eyeballs of two standardized patients sequentially following the ocular POCUS scan protocol. Repeated POCUS scans were performed 2 weeks later to assess skill maintenance. Both groups completed the pre- and post-surveys and knowledge tests. Two emergency medicine faculty members blindly evaluated the data and assigned a score of 0–25. The primary endpoint was the initial total score of scan quality evaluated using non-inferiority analysis (generalized estimating equation). The secondary endpoints were total scores for scan quality after 2 weeks, scan time, and knowledge test scores. Results: The least squares means of the total scores were 21.7 (0.35) for Group O and 21.3 (0.25) for Group H, and the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) was greater than the non-inferiority margin of minus 2 (95% CI: −0.48–1.17). The second scan scores were not significantly different from those of the first scan. The groups did not differ in scanning time or knowledge test results; however, Group H showed higher subjective satisfaction with the training method (p < 0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that basic online ocular ultrasound education was not inferior to hands-on education, suggesting that it could be a useful educational approach in the pandemic era. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Emergency Medicine)
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8 pages, 638 KiB  
Article
Effect of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on HbA1C Level in Children with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
by Ashwag Asiri, Faris Alzahrani, Hashim Alghamdi and Zainab Alamri
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070959 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1539
Abstract
Background and Objectives: A third of the American adult population is currently pre-diabetic/morbidly obese and is, therefore, at an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Unfortunately, such a condition does not spare children from also developing morbid obesity, where incidence rates [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: A third of the American adult population is currently pre-diabetic/morbidly obese and is, therefore, at an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Unfortunately, such a condition does not spare children from also developing morbid obesity, where incidence rates of childhood obesity—coupled with type 2 diabetes—are markedly elevated. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is gradually becoming the novel benchmark in bariatric surgery for the treatment of morbid obesity and associated co-morbidities, also within pediatric cases. However, no comprehensive study has been conducted in children that emphasizes the effect of LSG on HbA1C levels within such a patient population suffering from type 2 diabetes. Aim: Since HbA1C is a major biomarker for type 2 diabetes progression, this study aimed to identify any dysregulated serum levels for this key molecular player (together with other parameters), for post-surgical monitoring of the beneficial metabolic effects of LSG surgery on type 2 diabetes amelioration/remission within pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 64 pediatric patients, ranging in age from 5 to 14 years old, were enrolled in this retrospective study. Multiple laboratory-based analyses datasets were also collected from individual study participants, including HbA1C and random blood sugar (RBS). All participating patients were designated for undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, as per standardized surgical protocols and each participant was followed-up for two years post-surgery. Laboratory investigations were re-performed in order to identify any major variations in clinical parameters. Results: HbA1c was significantly reduced among children, from 6.0 ± 0.8 (pre-LSG) to 5.4 ± 0.4 post-surgery, with a reduction rate of 10.9% (p = 0.001). Furthermore, RBS significantly decreased from 102.9 ± 34.0 (pre-LSG) to 87.1 ± 17.3 post- surgery, with a reduction rate of 15.4% (p = 0.036). Conclusions: This study provides further concrete evidence for the beneficial metabolic influence provided by LSG surgery on morbidly obese, childhood-aged patient populations, with effectiveness in reducing co-morbidity progress, in the form of type 2 diabetes, through the reduction in HbA1c levels within such patients post-surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology)
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7 pages, 2163 KiB  
Case Report
Coffin-Lowry Syndrome Induced by RPS6KA3 Gene Variation in China: A Case Report in Twins
by Huiying Jin, Haifeng Li and Shu Qiang
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070958 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2314
Abstract
Background and objectives: Coffin-Lowry Syndrome (CLS), a rare neurodegenerative disorder, is mainly diagnosed based on clinical manifestations and molecular analyses. In total, about 20 cases of CLS have been reported in China. Here, we report two cases of CLS in identical twin brothers [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Coffin-Lowry Syndrome (CLS), a rare neurodegenerative disorder, is mainly diagnosed based on clinical manifestations and molecular analyses. In total, about 20 cases of CLS have been reported in China. Here, we report two cases of CLS in identical twin brothers and examine their potential causative mutations. Methods: The Trio mode was used in this analysis, i.e., DNA from the proband and his parents was sequenced. Furthermore, DNA from the proband’s twin brother was used for confirmation. Results: A hemizygous variation was detected in the 11th exon of the RPS6KA3 gene, c.898C>T (p.R300*) of the proband, and the same site variation was detected in his identical twin brother; however, the mutation was not detected in his parents. Conclusions: The RPS6KA3 gene mutation c.898C>T (p.R300*) is the causative factor of familial CLS. The variant detected was reported for the first time in the Chinese population. Additionally, by analyzing the previous literature, we were able to summarize the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of GLS in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatrics)
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11 pages, 2514 KiB  
Article
Periostin Contributes to Fibrocartilage Layer Growth of the Patella Tendon Tibial Insertion in Mice
by Hirotaka Mutsuzaki, Yuta Yoshida and Hiromi Nakajima
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070957 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1394
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The influence of periostin on the growth of the patella tendon (PT) tibial insertion is unknown. The research described here aimed to reveal the contribution of periostin to the growth of fibrocartilage layers of the PT tibial insertion using periostin [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The influence of periostin on the growth of the patella tendon (PT) tibial insertion is unknown. The research described here aimed to reveal the contribution of periostin to the growth of fibrocartilage layers of the PT tibial insertion using periostin knockout mice. Materials and Methods: In both the wild-type (WD; C57BL/6N, periostin +/+; n = 54) and periostin knockout (KO; periostin −/−; n = 54) groups, six mice were euthanized on day 1 and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks of age. Chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis, number of chondrocytes, safranin O-stained glycosaminoglycan (GAG) area, staining area of type II collagen, and length of the tidemark were investigated. Results: Chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis in KO were lower than those in WD on day 1 and at 1, 4, and 8 weeks and on day 1 and at 4, 6, and 12 weeks, respectively. Although the number of chondrocytes in both groups gradually decreased, it was lower in KO than in WD on day 1 and at 8 and 12 weeks. In the extracellular matrix, the GAG-stained area in KO was smaller than that in WD on day 1 and at 1, 4, 8, 10, and 12 weeks. The staining area of type II collagen in KO was smaller than that in WD at 8 weeks. The length of the tidemark in KO was shorter than that in WD at 4 and 6 weeks. Conclusion: Loss of periostin led to decreased chondrocyte proliferation, chondrocyte apoptosis, and the number of chondrocytes in the growth process of the PT tibial insertion. Moreover, periostin decreased and delayed GAG and type II collagen production and delayed tidemark formation in the growth process of the PT tibial insertion. Periostin can, therefore, contribute to the growth of fibrocartilage layers in the PT tibial insertion. Periostin deficiency may result in incomplete growth of the PT tibial insertion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Medicine and Sports Traumatology)
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3 pages, 240 KiB  
Editorial
General Anesthesia as a Multimodal Individualized Clinical Concept
by Alexandru Florin Rogobete and Dorel Sandesc
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070956 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2153
Abstract
In the last decades, several new and modern techniques have been developed for the continuous monitoring of vitals for patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia. These complex methods are meant to come as an adjunct to classical monitoring protocols used in general anesthesia [...] Read more.
In the last decades, several new and modern techniques have been developed for the continuous monitoring of vitals for patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia. These complex methods are meant to come as an adjunct to classical monitoring protocols used in general anesthesia to increase patient safety. The main objectives of multimodal monitoring are avoiding the over- or underdosing of anesthetic drugs, adapting the concentration for the substances in use, reducing post-anesthetic complications, and increasing patient comfort. Recent studies have shown a series of benefits with significant clinical impact such as a reduced incidence of nausea and vomiting, shorter reversal times, a reduction in opioid consumption, shorter hospital stays, and an increase in patient satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue General Anesthesia as a Multimodal Individualized Clinical Concept)
12 pages, 807 KiB  
Article
Iron Status in Pregnant Women in Latvia: An Epidemiological, Cross-Sectional, Multicenter Study According to WHO and UK Criteria
by Roberta Rezgale, Iveta Pudule, Vinita Cauce, Kristine Klaramunta Antila, Violeta Bule, Gunta Lazdane, Dace Rezeberga and Laila Meija
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070955 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1868
Abstract
Background and Objectives: During pregnancy, iron deficiency anaemia is a common problem associated with health risks for both the mother and her foetus/infant. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anaemia, and related dietary patterns in pregnant [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: During pregnancy, iron deficiency anaemia is a common problem associated with health risks for both the mother and her foetus/infant. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anaemia, and related dietary patterns in pregnant women in Latvia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, multicentre study included pregnancy data from 974 women. The sample selection was based on the stratification principle (population of women of childbearing age in regions of Latvia). Maternal demographic details, anthropometric measurements, iron status, dietary patterns, and supplementation information were obtained from maternal files and during interviews held in eight outpatient departments of medical institutions and maternity departments. The prevalence was assessed. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to identify associations between iron deficiency and sociodemographic characteristics, dietary patterns, and iron supplement intake during pregnancy. The criterion used for the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia is a Hb level <110 g/L in the 1st and 3rd trimesters and <105 g/L during the 2nd trimester as recommended by the WHO. However, the UK guideline was used for borderline iron deficiency, which is an SF level <30 μg/L in all trimesters. Results: The observed prevalence of anaemia was 2.8% in the first trimester, 7.9% in the second trimester, and 27.0% in the third trimester. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 46.7% in the first trimester, 78.1% in the second trimester, and 91.7% in the third trimester. No associations with dietary patterns were found. Single women had 1.85 times the odds (95% CI 1.07 to 3.18) of being anaemic than married women. Conclusions: Iron deficiency affects a large proportion of pregnant women in Latvia in all trimesters, with iron deficiency anaemia affecting pregnant women in the third trimester. Monitoring and intervention should be performed in a timely and more targeted manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
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14 pages, 791 KiB  
Review
Surgical Treatment and Rehabilitation Strategies for Upper and Lower Extremity Lymphedema: A Comprehensive Review
by Alessandro de Sire, Luigi Losco, Lorenzo Lippi, Davide Spadoni, Juste Kaciulyte, Gokhan Sert, Paola Ciamarra, Marco Marcasciano, Roberto Cuomo, Alberto Bolletta, Marco Invernizzi and Emanuele Cigna
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070954 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 4442
Abstract
Lymphedema is a chronic disabling condition affecting a growing number of patients worldwide. Although lymphedema is not life-threatening, several reports underlined detrimental consequences in terms of distress, pain, functional impairment, and infections with a relevant decrease in quality of life. Currently, there is [...] Read more.
Lymphedema is a chronic disabling condition affecting a growing number of patients worldwide. Although lymphedema is not life-threatening, several reports underlined detrimental consequences in terms of distress, pain, functional impairment, and infections with a relevant decrease in quality of life. Currently, there is no cure, and the therapeutic management of this condition aims at slowing down the disease progression and preventing secondary complications. Early diagnosis is paramount to enhance the effects of rehabilitation or surgical treatments. On the other hand, a multidisciplinary treatment should be truly integrated, the combination of microsurgical and reductive procedures should be considered a valid strategy to manage extremity lymphedema, and rehabilitation should be considered the cornerstone of the multidisciplinary treatment not only for patients not suitable for surgical interventions but also before and after surgical procedures. Therefore, a specialized management of Plastic Reconstructive Surgeons and Physical and Rehabilitative Medicine physicians should be mandatory to address patients’ needs and optimize the treatment of this disabling and detrimental condition. Therefore, the aim of this review was to characterize the comprehensive management of lymphedema, providing a broad overview of the potential therapy available in the current literature to optimize the comprehensive management of lymphedema and minimize complications. Full article
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9 pages, 5403 KiB  
Case Report
Combined Application of Virtual Simulation Technology and 3-Dimensional-Printed Computer-Aided Rapid Prototyping in Autotransplantation of a Mature Third Molar
by Hui Zhang, Min Cai, Zhiguo Liu, He Liu, Ya Shen and Xiangya Huang
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070953 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2256
Abstract
The use of computer-aided rapid prototyping (CARP) models was considered to reduce surgical trauma and improve outcomes when autotransplantation of teeth (ATT) became a viable alternative for dental rehabilitation. However, ATT is considered technique-sensitive due to its series of complicated surgical procedures and [...] Read more.
The use of computer-aided rapid prototyping (CARP) models was considered to reduce surgical trauma and improve outcomes when autotransplantation of teeth (ATT) became a viable alternative for dental rehabilitation. However, ATT is considered technique-sensitive due to its series of complicated surgical procedures and unfavorable outcomes in complex cases. This study reported a novel autotransplantation technique of a 28-year-old patient with an unrestorable lower first molar (#36) with double roots. Regardless of a large shape deviation, a lower third molar (#38) with a completely single root formation was used as the donor tooth. ATT was performed with a combined use of virtual simulation, CARP model-based rehearsed surgery, and tooth replica-guided surgery. A 3D virtual model of the donor and recipient site was generated from cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) radiographs prior to surgery for direct virtual superimposition simulation and CARP model fabrication. The virtual simulation indicated that it was necessary to retain cervical alveolar bone during the surgical socket preparation, and an intensive surgical rehearsal was performed on the CARP models. The donor tooth replica was used during the procedure to guide precise socket preparation and avoid periodontal ligament injury. Without an additional fitting trial and extra-alveolar storage, the donor tooth settled naturally into the recipient socket within 30 s. The transplanted tooth showed excellent stability and received routine root canal treatment three weeks post-surgery, and the one-year follow-up examination verified the PDL healing outcome and normal functioning. Patient was satisfied with the transplanted tooth. This cutting-edge technology combines virtual simulation, digital surgery planning, and guided surgery implementation to ensure predictable and minimally invasive therapy in complex cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outcome of Minimally Invasive Techniques in Dentistry)
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21 pages, 1388 KiB  
Review
Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s Disease: Context of Use, Qualification, and Roadmap for Clinical Implementation
by Jeffrey Cummings and Jefferson Kinney
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070952 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5516
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines a biomarker as a characteristic that is measured as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or responses to an exposure or intervention. Biomarkers may be used in clinical care [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines a biomarker as a characteristic that is measured as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or responses to an exposure or intervention. Biomarkers may be used in clinical care or as drug development tools (DDTs) in clinical trials. The goal of this review and perspective is to provide insight into the regulatory guidance for the use of biomarkers in clinical trials and clinical care. Materials and Methods: We reviewed FDA guidances relevant to biomarker use in clinical trials and their transition to use in clinical care. We identified instructive examples of these biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) drug development and their application in clinical practice. Results: For use in clinical trials, biomarkers must have a defined context of use (COU) as a risk/susceptibility, diagnostic, monitoring, predictive, prognostic, pharmacodynamic, or safety biomarker. A four-stage process defines the pathway to establish the regulatory acceptance of the COU for a biomarker including submission of a letter of intent, description of the qualification plan, submission of a full qualification package, and acceptance through a qualification recommendation. Biomarkers used in clinical care may be companion biomarkers, in vitro diagnostic devices (IVDs), or laboratory developed tests (LDTs). A five-phase biomarker development process has been proposed to structure the biomarker development process. Conclusions: Biomarkers are increasingly important in drug development and clinical care. Adherence to regulatory guidance for biomarkers used in clinical trials and patient care is required to advance these important drug development and clinical tools. Full article
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4 pages, 1293 KiB  
Case Report
Epithelioid Rhabdomyosarcoma at the High Parietal Area of the Head: A Case Report
by Susanne Jung, Lauren Bohner, Miriam Schulte and Johannes Kleinheinz
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070951 - 19 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1589
Abstract
Epithelioid rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare condition, which may be clinically misinterpreted as melanoma due to its morphological appearance. Careful morphological and immunohistochemical analysis play an important role in its diagnosis. This case report describes the clinicopathological features of an epithelioid RMS diagnosed at [...] Read more.
Epithelioid rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare condition, which may be clinically misinterpreted as melanoma due to its morphological appearance. Careful morphological and immunohistochemical analysis play an important role in its diagnosis. This case report describes the clinicopathological features of an epithelioid RMS diagnosed at the high parietal area of the head. A 71-year-old male patient presented a red-brown pigmented ulcerative nodule in the high parietal region of the head. Previous biopsy and computer tomography imaging revealed a malignant melanoma in stage I (pT2, sN0, Mx). After tumor operation, histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor were conducted. Histological analysis showed an erosive lesion with a monomorphic cell population containing small cells with prominent nucleoli. A positivity was confirmed for CD10, Vimentin, and Desmin. MyoD1 was detected, as well as a fluctuating signal for p53. Molecular analysis revealed a negativity for Sox-10, and a weak positivity for CK8/18 by absence of p40. Based on the morphological and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as epithelioid RMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
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10 pages, 3735 KiB  
Article
Bradycardia and Heart Rate Fluctuation Are Associated with a Prolonged Intensive Care Unit Stay in Patients with Severe COVID-19
by Pattraporn Tajarernmuang, Konlawij Trongtrakul, Warawut Chaiwong, Teerapat Nantsupawat, Athavudh Deesomchok, Panida Chanayat, Nutchanok Niyatiwatchanchai, Theerakorn Theerakittikul, Atikun Limsukon, Chaicharn Pothirat, Chalerm Liwsrisakun and Chaiwat Bumroongkit
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 950; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070950 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2378
Abstract
Background and Objective: Bradycardia has been observed among patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is suspected to be associated with poorer outcomes. Heart rate (HR) fluctuation has been found to be correlated with a greater mortality rate [...] Read more.
Background and Objective: Bradycardia has been observed among patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is suspected to be associated with poorer outcomes. Heart rate (HR) fluctuation has been found to be correlated with a greater mortality rate in critically ill patients. The association of bradycardia and HR fluctuation with the outcome of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients has not been clarified. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether bradycardia and HR fluctuation correlated with poor outcomes in patients with severe COVID-19. Materials and Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis from a prospective data collection of patients admitted to the intensive care unit, between April and June 2021, at Chiang Mai University Hospital. Results: The results showed that 62 of 86 patients (72.1%) had bradycardia, defined by HR < 60 beats per minute (bpm). The number of patients with high HR fluctuation, defined as the difference in HR during admission ≥ 40 bpm, was greater among the bradycardia group than in the non-bradycardia group (70.9% vs. 14.7%, p = 0.015, respectively). The patients with bradycardia had greater levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). In addition, a greater proportion of patients with bradycardia received interleukin-6 inhibitors and hemoperfusion as a rescue therapy than those with non-bradycardia. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, CRP, and mechanical ventilator; bradycardia and the high HR fluctuation were significantly associated with a longer length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU-LOS), with adjusted risk ratios of 2.67, 95% CI; 1.02, 6.94, p = 0.045 and 2.88, 95% CI; 1.22, 6.78, p = 0.016, respectively. Conclusion: We found that bradycardia and a high heart rate fluctuation were associated with a poorer ICU outcome in terms of longer ICU-LOS among the patients with severe COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease)
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8 pages, 304 KiB  
Review
Radiation-Induced Esophageal Cancer: Investigating the Pathogenesis, Management, and Prognosis
by Athanasios Syllaios, Michail Vailas, Maria Tolia, Nikolaos Charalampakis, Konstantinos Vlachos, Emmanouil I. Kapetanakis, Periklis I. Tomos and Dimitrios Schizas
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070949 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2122
Abstract
One of the most serious late side effects of irradiation is the promotion of tumorigenesis. Radiation-induced esophageal cancer (RIEC) can arise in a previously irradiated field, mostly in patients previously irradiated for thoracic malignancies such as breast cancer, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, head [...] Read more.
One of the most serious late side effects of irradiation is the promotion of tumorigenesis. Radiation-induced esophageal cancer (RIEC) can arise in a previously irradiated field, mostly in patients previously irradiated for thoracic malignancies such as breast cancer, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, head and neck cancers, lung cancer, or previous esophageal cancer. RIEC is rare and accounts for less than 1% of all carcinomas of the esophagus. There are little data available in the current literature regarding pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of esophageal cancer developed in a previously irradiated field. RIEC seems to represent a biologically aggressive disease with a poor prognosis. Although it is difficult to perform radical surgery on a previously irradiated field, R0 resection remains the mainstay of treatment. The use of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy remains very helpful in RIEC, similarly to conventional esophageal cancer protocols. The aim of this article is to elucidate this rare but challenging entity. Full article
13 pages, 764 KiB  
Article
Reliability of Isometric Muscle Strength Measurement and Its Accuracy Prediction of Maximal Dynamic Force in People with Multiple Sclerosis
by Kora Portilla-Cueto, Carlos Medina-Pérez, Ena Monserrat Romero-Pérez, José Aldo Hernández-Murúa, Carolina Vila-Chã and José Antonio de Paz
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070948 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2631
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease that manifests with varied neurological symptoms, including muscle weakness, especially in the lower extremities. Strength exercises play an important role in the rehabilitation and functional maintenance of these patients. The individualized prescription of [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease that manifests with varied neurological symptoms, including muscle weakness, especially in the lower extremities. Strength exercises play an important role in the rehabilitation and functional maintenance of these patients. The individualized prescription of strength exercises is recommended to be based on the maximum force determined by the one-repetition maximum (1RM), although to save time and because it requires less equipment, it is often determined by the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). The purpose of this work was to study, in patients with MS (pwMS), the reliability of MVIC and the correlation between the MVIC and 1RM of the knee extensors and to predict the MVIC-based 1RM. Materials and Methods: A total of 328 pwMS participated. The study of the reliability of MVIC included all pwMS, for which MVIC was determined twice in one session. Their 1RM was also evaluated. The sample was randomized by MS type, sex, and neurological disability score into a training group and a testing group for the analysis of the correlation and prediction of MVIC-based 1RM. Results: MVIC repeatability (ICC, 2.1 = 0.973) was determined, along with a minimum detectable change of 13.2 kg. The correlation between MVIC and 1RM was R2 = 0.804, with a standard error estimate of 12.2 kg. The absolute percentage error of 1RM prediction based on MVIC in the test group was 12.7%, independent of MS type and with no correlation with neurological disability score. Conclusions: In patients with MS, MVIC presents very good intrasubject repeatability, and the difference between two measurements of the same subject must differ by 17% to be considered a true change in MVIC. There is a high correlation between MVIC and 1RM, which allows estimation of 1RM once MVIC is known, with an estimation error of about 12%, regardless of sex or type of MS, and regardless of the degree of neurological disability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Medicine and Sports Traumatology)
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8 pages, 421 KiB  
Article
The First Evaluation of Proteinase K-Resistant Prion Protein (PrPSc) in Korean Appendix Specimens
by Sae-Young Won, Yong-Chan Kim, Yu-Ni Lee, Chan-Gyun Park, Woo-Young Kim and Byung-Hoon Jeong
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 947; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070947 - 18 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1600
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by the abnormal proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrPSc). Since variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) was first reported in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1996, the occurrence of variant CJD has been reported [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by the abnormal proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrPSc). Since variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) was first reported in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1996, the occurrence of variant CJD has been reported in over 10 countries. To date, variant CJD has not been reported in Korea. However, the E211K somatic mutation in the prion protein gene (PRNP), which is related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), was reported in Korean Holstein cattle, and atypical BSE, which is supposed to be sporadic BSE, has been occurring in many countries, including Japan and the USA. These results suggest that BSE may occur naturally in Korea. Thus, we performed a preemptive PrPSc test in appendix specimens to diagnose variant CJD in a Korean population. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we investigated CJD-related mutations and polymorphisms of the PRNP gene and carried out an examination on PrPSc in appendix specimens of Korean patients after appendectomy. Results: In all Korean appendix specimens tested, PrPSc bands were not detected. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this was the first evaluation of PrPSc in Korean appendix specimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurology)
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9 pages, 500 KiB  
Article
Liver Stiffness in Obese Hypothyroid Patients Taking Levothyroxine
by Roberta Pujia, Elisa Mazza, Tiziana Montalcini, Franco Arturi, Antonio Brunetti, Antonio Aversa, Stefano Romeo, Maria Perticone, Angela Sciacqua and Arturo Pujia
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070946 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2172
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Thyroid dysfunction is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, but its role in the progression of liver damage in obese patients remains unclear. In addition, several case reports have suggested the existence of a levothyroxine-induced liver injury, which has [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Thyroid dysfunction is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, but its role in the progression of liver damage in obese patients remains unclear. In addition, several case reports have suggested the existence of a levothyroxine-induced liver injury, which has been poorly investigated. Our aim was to verify whether a difference in the prevalence of liver fibrosis exists in a population of obese individuals taking Levothyroxine. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on a population of 137 obese individuals, of which 49 were on replacement therapy with Levothyroxine. We excluded those who had hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes mellitus. All participants underwent a liver stiffness assessment by transient elastography as well as biochemical measurements. In subjects with liver fibrosis, other cause of liver fibrosis were ruled out. Results: Participants taking Levothyroxine had a higher prevalence of liver fibrosis than those not taking Levothyroxine (30.6% vs. 2.3%; p < 0.001), and these results were obtained after we made an adjustment for age (Exp(B) = 18.9; 95% CI = 4.1–87.4; p < 0.001). The liver stiffness value differed significantly between groups (6.0 ± 3.6 and 5.1 ± 1.2, p = 0.033). Of those subjects taking Levothyroxine, there were no significant differences in the dose of medication (1.21 ± 0.36 vs. 1.07 ± 0.42; p = 0.240) and treatment duration (13.7 ± 7.43 vs. 11.13 ± 6.23; p = 0.380) between those with and without liver fibrosis. Conclusions: We found, for the first time, a greater prevalence of liver fibrosis in obese individuals taking Levothyroxine than in those not taking this medication. This finding needs to be confirmed by longitudinal population studies as well as by cellular studies. Full article
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12 pages, 319 KiB  
Article
Mortality Predictors in Severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection
by Mihai Lazar, Ecaterina Constanta Barbu, Cristina Emilia Chitu, Ana-Maria-Jennifer Anghel, Cristian-Mihail Niculae, Eliza-Daniela Manea, Anca-Cristina Damalan, Adela-Abigaela Bel, Raluca-Elena Patrascu, Adriana Hristea and Daniela Adriana Ion
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070945 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2158
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia are associated with acute hypoxic respiratory failure and high mortality rates, raising significant challenges for the medical community. The objective of this paper is to present the importance of early quantitative evaluation of [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia are associated with acute hypoxic respiratory failure and high mortality rates, raising significant challenges for the medical community. The objective of this paper is to present the importance of early quantitative evaluation of radiological changes in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, including an alternative way to evaluate lung involvement using normal density clusters. Based on these elements we have developed a more accurate new predictive score which includes quantitative radiological parameters. The current evolution models used in the evaluation of severe cases of COVID-19 only include qualitative or semi-quantitative evaluations of pulmonary lesions which lead to a less accurate prognosis and assessment of pulmonary involvement. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study that included 100 adult patients admitted with confirmed severe COVID-19. The patients were divided into two groups: group A (76 survivors) and group B (24 non-survivors). All patients were evaluated by CT scan upon admission in to the hospital. Results: We found a low percentage of normal lung densities, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, lymphocytes, platelets, hemoglobin and serum albumin associated with higher mortality; a high percentage of interstitial lesions, oxygen flow, FiO2, Neutrophils/lymphocytes ratio, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase MB, myoglobin, and serum creatinine were also associated with higher mortality. The most accurate regression model included the predictors of age, lymphocytes, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, percent of lung involvement, lactate dehydrogenase, serum albumin, D-dimers, oxygen flow, and myoglobin. Based on these parameters we developed a new score (COV-Score). Conclusions: Quantitative assessment of lung lesions improves the prediction algorithms compared to the semi-quantitative parameters. The cluster evaluation algorithm increases the non-survivor and overall prediction accuracy.COV-Score represents a viable alternative to current prediction scores, demonstrating improved sensitivity and specificity in predicting mortality at the time of admission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emergency Medicine and Emergency Room Medical Issues)
10 pages, 1319 KiB  
Article
Association of Clinical Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Complementary Therapy Use in Taiwanese Female Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Ming-Chi Lu, Chia-Wen Hsu, Hui-Chin Lo, Hsiu-Hua Chang and Malcolm Koo
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070944 - 17 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2106
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease that affects predominantly women in the childbearing years. Patients may seek complementary therapies to manage their health and to reduce symptoms. However, to our knowledge, no studies have explored [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease that affects predominantly women in the childbearing years. Patients may seek complementary therapies to manage their health and to reduce symptoms. However, to our knowledge, no studies have explored the association between clinical manifestations of SLE and complementary therapies. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association of complementary therapies with common clinical manifestations in Taiwanese female patients with SLE. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a regional teaching hospital in southern Taiwan. Outpatients from the rheumatology clinic who met the inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited. Demographic data, clinical manifestations of SLE, and types of complementary therapy use were determined using paper-based questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the use of complementary therapies associated with clinical manifestations of SLE. Results: Of the 317 female patients with SLE, 60.9% were 40 years or older. The five SLE clinical manifestations with the highest prevalence were Raynaud’s phenomenon (61.2%), photosensitivity (50.2%), Sjögren’s syndrome (28.4%), arthralgia and arthritis (22.1%), and renal involvement (14.5%). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that Raynaud’s phenomenon was significantly associated with fitness walking or strolling (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.77; p = 0.027) and fish oil supplements (aOR 3.55, p < 0.001). Photosensitivity was significantly and inversely associated with the use of probiotics (aOR 0.49; p = 0.019). Renal involvement was significantly associated with the use of probiotics (aOR 2.43; p = 0.026) and visit to the Chinese medicine department in a hospital (aOR 3.14, p = 0.026). Conclusions: We found that different clinical manifestations of SLE were associated with the use of different complementary therapies. Health care providers should have up-to-date knowledge of common complementary therapies and be ready to provide evidence-based advice to patients with SLE. Full article
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