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Sensors, Volume 23, Issue 22 (November-2 2023) – 281 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Imagine being able to monitor the real-world movement behavior of individuals with abnormal movement caused by Cerebral Palsy (CP). We are making strides towards achieving this goal by developing an end-to-end process for the highly accurate collection of movement behavior data over a 24-hour period. This process involved finding non-intrusive, reliable wearable sensors, optimizing a custom deep learning architecture, and encoding data in a format that is scalable. With our developed methodology, we gain better insight into how intervention impacts the movement behaviors of people with CP, ultimately leading to more effective interventions and improved quality of life. View this paper
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24 pages, 5693 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of a Cyber-Physical System Leveraging EFDPN for Enhanced WSN-IoT Network Security
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9294; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229294 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 626
Abstract
In the current digital era, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and the Internet of Things (IoT) are evolving, transforming human experiences by creating an interconnected environment. However, ensuring the security of WSN-IoT networks remains a significant hurdle, as existing security models are plagued with [...] Read more.
In the current digital era, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and the Internet of Things (IoT) are evolving, transforming human experiences by creating an interconnected environment. However, ensuring the security of WSN-IoT networks remains a significant hurdle, as existing security models are plagued with issues like prolonged training durations and complex classification processes. In this study, a robust cyber-physical system based on the Emphatic Farmland Fertility Integrated Deep Perceptron Network (EFDPN) is proposed to enhance the security of WSN-IoT. This initiative introduces the Farmland Fertility Feature Selection (F3S) technique to alleviate the computational complexity of identifying and classifying attacks. Additionally, this research leverages the Deep Perceptron Network (DPN) classification algorithm for accurate intrusion classification, achieving impressive performance metrics. In the classification phase, the Tunicate Swarm Optimization (TSO) model is employed to improve the sigmoid transformation function, thereby enhancing prediction accuracy. This study demonstrates the development of an EFDPN-based system designed to safeguard WSN-IoT networks. It showcases how the DPN classification technique, in conjunction with the TSO model, significantly improves classification performance. In this research, we employed well-known cyber-attack datasets to validate its effectiveness, revealing its superiority over traditional intrusion detection methods, particularly in achieving higher F1-score values. The incorporation of the F3S algorithm plays a pivotal role in this framework by eliminating irrelevant features, leading to enhanced prediction accuracy for the classifier, marking a substantial stride in fortifying WSN-IoT network security. This research presents a promising approach to enhancing the security and resilience of interconnected cyber-physical systems in the evolving landscape of WSN-IoT networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signal Processing and AI in Sensor Networks and IoT)
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16 pages, 6793 KiB  
Article
Magnetic Anomaly Detection Based on a Compound Tri-Stable Stochastic Resonance System
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9293; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229293 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 623
Abstract
In the case of strong background noise, a tri-stable stochastic resonance model has higher noise utilization than a bi-stable stochastic resonance (BSR) model for weak signal detection. However, the problem of severe system parameter coupling in a conventional tri-stable stochastic resonance model leads [...] Read more.
In the case of strong background noise, a tri-stable stochastic resonance model has higher noise utilization than a bi-stable stochastic resonance (BSR) model for weak signal detection. However, the problem of severe system parameter coupling in a conventional tri-stable stochastic resonance model leads to difficulty in potential function regulation. In this paper, a new compound tri-stable stochastic resonance (CTSR) model is proposed to address this problem by combining a Gaussian Potential model and the mixed bi-stable model. The weak magnetic anomaly signal detection system consists of the CTSR system and judgment system based on statistical analysis. The system parameters are adjusted by using a quantum genetic algorithm (QGA) to optimize the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The experimental results show that the CTSR system performs better than the traditional tri-stable stochastic resonance (TTSR) system and BSR system. When the input SNR is -8 dB, the detection probability of the CTSR system approaches 80%. Moreover, this detection system not only detects the magnetic anomaly signal but also retains information on the relative motion (heading) of the ferromagnetic target and the magnetic detection device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Geophysical Electromagnetics)
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23 pages, 7727 KiB  
Article
Damage Identification in Cement-Based Structures: A Method Based on Modal Curvatures and Continuous Wavelet Transform
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9292; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229292 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 821
Abstract
Modal analysis is an effective tool in the context of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) since the dynamic characteristics of cement-based structures reflect the structural health status of the material itself. The authors consider increasing level load tests on concrete beams and propose a [...] Read more.
Modal analysis is an effective tool in the context of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) since the dynamic characteristics of cement-based structures reflect the structural health status of the material itself. The authors consider increasing level load tests on concrete beams and propose a methodology for damage identification relying on the computation of modal curvatures combined with continuous wavelet transform (CWT) to highlight damage-related changes. Unlike most literature studies, in the present work, no numerical models of the undamaged structure were exploited. Moreover, the authors defined synthetic damage indices depicting the status of a structure. The results show that the I mode shape is the most sensitive to damages; indeed, considering this mode, damages cause a decrease of natural vibration frequency (up to approximately −67%), an increase of loss factor (up to approximately fivefold), and changes in the mode shapes morphology (a cuspid appears). The proposed damage indices are promising, even if the level of damage is not clearly distinguishable, probably because tests were performed after the load removal. Further investigations are needed to scale the methodology to in-field applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Civil Structural Health Monitoring)
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23 pages, 35782 KiB  
Article
Data-Driven Approach for Upper Limb Fatigue Estimation Based on Wearable Sensors
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9291; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229291 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 854
Abstract
Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduced ability to maintain maximal strength during voluntary contraction. It is associated with musculoskeletal disorders that affect workers performing repetitive activities, affecting their performance and well-being. Although electromyography remains the gold standard for measuring muscle fatigue, its [...] Read more.
Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduced ability to maintain maximal strength during voluntary contraction. It is associated with musculoskeletal disorders that affect workers performing repetitive activities, affecting their performance and well-being. Although electromyography remains the gold standard for measuring muscle fatigue, its limitations in long-term work motivate the use of wearable devices. This article proposes a computational model for estimating muscle fatigue using wearable and non-invasive devices, such as Optical Fiber Sensors (OFSs) and Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) along the subjective Borg scale. Electromyography (EMG) sensors are used to observe their importance in estimating muscle fatigue and comparing performance in different sensor combinations. This study involves 30 subjects performing a repetitive lifting activity with their dominant arm until reaching muscle fatigue. Muscle activity, elbow angles, and angular and linear velocities, among others, are measured to extract multiple features. Different machine learning algorithms obtain a model that estimates three fatigue states (low, moderate and high). Results showed that between the machine learning classifiers, the LightGBM presented an accuracy of 96.2% in the classification task using all of the sensors with 33 features and 95.4% using only OFS and IMU sensors with 13 features. This demonstrates that elbow angles, wrist velocities, acceleration variations, and compensatory neck movements are essential for estimating muscle fatigue. In conclusion, the resulting model can be used to estimate fatigue during heavy lifting in work environments, having the potential to monitor and prevent muscle fatigue during long working shifts. Full article
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21 pages, 6499 KiB  
Article
Weigh-in-Motion Site for Type Approval of Vehicle Mass Enforcement Systems in Poland
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9290; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229290 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 464
Abstract
The need to protect road infrastructure makes it necessary to direct the mass enforcement control of motor vehicles. Such control, in order to fulfil its role, must be continuous and universal. The only tool currently known to achieve these goals are weigh-in-motion (WIM) [...] Read more.
The need to protect road infrastructure makes it necessary to direct the mass enforcement control of motor vehicles. Such control, in order to fulfil its role, must be continuous and universal. The only tool currently known to achieve these goals are weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems. The implementation of mass enforcement WIM systems is possible only if the requirements for their metrological properties are formulated, followed by the implementation of administrative procedures for the type approval of WIM systems, rules for their metrological examination, and administrative regulations for their practical use. The AGH University of Krakow, in cooperation with the Central Office of Measures (Polish National Metrological Institute), has been conducting research in this direction for many years, and, now, as part of a research project financed by the Ministry of Education and Science. In this paper, we describe a unique WIM system located in the south of Poland and the results of over two years of our research. These studies are intended to lead to the formulation of requirements for metrological legalisation procedures for this type of system. Our efforts are focused on implementing WIM systems in Poland for direct mass enforcement. The tests carried out confirmed that the constructed system is fully functional. Its equipment with quartz and bending plate load sensors allows for the comparison of both technologies and the measurement of many parameters of the weighed vehicle and environmental parameters affecting weighing accuracy. The tests confirmed the stability of its metrological parameters. The GVW maximal measurement error does not exceed 5%, and the single axle load maximal measurement error does not exceed 12%. The sensors of the environmental parameters allow for the search for correlations between weighing accuracy and the intensity of these parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electronic Sensors)
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17 pages, 4232 KiB  
Article
Cross-View Gait Recognition Method Based on Multi-Teacher Joint Knowledge Distillation
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9289; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229289 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Aiming at challenges such as the high complexity of the network model, the large number of parameters, and the slow speed of training and testing in cross-view gait recognition, this paper proposes a solution: Multi-teacher Joint Knowledge Distillation (MJKD). The algorithm employs multiple [...] Read more.
Aiming at challenges such as the high complexity of the network model, the large number of parameters, and the slow speed of training and testing in cross-view gait recognition, this paper proposes a solution: Multi-teacher Joint Knowledge Distillation (MJKD). The algorithm employs multiple complex teacher models to train gait images from a single view, extracting inter-class relationships that are then weighted and integrated into the set of inter-class relationships. These relationships guide the training of a lightweight student model, improving its gait feature extraction capability and recognition accuracy. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed Multi-teacher Joint Knowledge Distillation (MJKD), the paper performs experiments on the CASIA_B dataset using the ResNet network as the benchmark. The experimental results show that the student model trained by Multi-teacher Joint Knowledge Distillation (MJKD) achieves 98.24% recognition accuracy while significantly reducing the number of parameters and computational cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Intelligent Sensors)
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16 pages, 1724 KiB  
Article
Functional Polymeric Membranes with Antioxidant Properties for the Colorimetric Detection of Amines
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9288; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229288 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 610
Abstract
Herein, the ability of highly porous colorimetric indicators to sense volatile and biogenic amine vapors in real time is presented. Curcumin-loaded polycaprolactone porous fiber mats are exposed to various concentrations of off-flavor compounds such as the volatile amine trimethylamine, and the biogenic amines [...] Read more.
Herein, the ability of highly porous colorimetric indicators to sense volatile and biogenic amine vapors in real time is presented. Curcumin-loaded polycaprolactone porous fiber mats are exposed to various concentrations of off-flavor compounds such as the volatile amine trimethylamine, and the biogenic amines cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine, and histamine, in order to investigate their colorimetric response. CIELAB color space analysis demonstrates that the porous fiber mats can detect the amine vapors, showing a distinct color change in the presence of down to 2.1 ppm of trimethylamine and ca. 11.0 ppm of biogenic amines, surpassing the limit of visual perception in just a few seconds. Moreover, the color changes are reversible either spontaneously, in the case of the volatile amines, or in an assisted way, through interactions with an acidic environment, in the case of the biogenic amines, enabling the use of the same indicator several times. Finally, yet importantly, the strong antioxidant activity of the curcumin-loaded fibers is successfully demonstrated through DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. Through such a detailed study, we prove that the developed porous mats can be successfully established as a reusable smart system in applications where the rapid detection of alkaline vapors and/or the antioxidant activity are essential, such as food packaging, biomedicine, and environmental protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorimetric Sensors: Methods and Applications)
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18 pages, 2218 KiB  
Article
Manipulation Direction: Evaluating Text-Guided Image Manipulation Based on Similarity between Changes in Image and Text Modalities
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9287; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229287 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 599
Abstract
At present, text-guided image manipulation is a notable subject of study in the vision and language field. Given an image and text as inputs, these methods aim to manipulate the image according to the text, while preserving text-irrelevant regions. Although there has been [...] Read more.
At present, text-guided image manipulation is a notable subject of study in the vision and language field. Given an image and text as inputs, these methods aim to manipulate the image according to the text, while preserving text-irrelevant regions. Although there has been extensive research to improve the versatility and performance of text-guided image manipulation, research on its performance evaluation is inadequate. This study proposes Manipulation Direction (MD), a logical and robust metric, which evaluates the performance of text-guided image manipulation by focusing on changes between image and text modalities. Specifically, we define MD as the consistency of changes between images and texts occurring before and after manipulation. By using MD to evaluate the performance of text-guided image manipulation, we can comprehensively evaluate how an image has changed before and after the image manipulation and whether this change agrees with the text. Extensive experiments on Multi-Modal-CelebA-HQ and Caltech-UCSD Birds confirmed that there was an impressive correlation between our calculated MD scores and subjective scores for the manipulated images compared to the existing metrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Computer Vision Systems 2023)
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12 pages, 2201 KiB  
Article
Oscillatory Responses to Tactile Stimuli of Different Intensity
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9286; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229286 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Tactile perception encompasses several submodalities that are realized with distinct sensory subsystems. The processing of those submodalities and their interactions remains understudied. We developed a paradigm consisting of three types of touch tuned in terms of their force and velocity for different submodalities: [...] Read more.
Tactile perception encompasses several submodalities that are realized with distinct sensory subsystems. The processing of those submodalities and their interactions remains understudied. We developed a paradigm consisting of three types of touch tuned in terms of their force and velocity for different submodalities: discriminative touch (haptics), affective touch (C-tactile touch), and knismesis (alerting tickle). Touch was delivered with a high-precision robotic rotary touch stimulation device. A total of 39 healthy individuals participated in the study. EEG cluster analysis revealed a decrease in alpha and beta range (mu-rhythm) as well as theta and delta increase most pronounced to the most salient and fastest type of stimulation. The participants confirmed that slower stimuli targeted to affective touch low-threshold receptors were the most pleasant ones, and less intense stimuli aimed at knismesis were indeed the most ticklish ones, but those sensations did not form an EEG cluster, probably implying their processing involves deeper brain structures that are less accessible with EEG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bio-Inspired Systems and Signal Processing)
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23 pages, 7024 KiB  
Article
Measuring Heat Stress for Human Health in Cities: A Low-Cost Prototype Tested in a District of Valencia, Spain
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9285; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229285 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 748
Abstract
Nowadays, the measurement of heat stress indices is of principal importance due to the escalating impact of global warming. As temperatures continue to rise, the well-being and health of individuals are increasingly at risk, which can lead to a detrimental effect on human [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the measurement of heat stress indices is of principal importance due to the escalating impact of global warming. As temperatures continue to rise, the well-being and health of individuals are increasingly at risk, which can lead to a detrimental effect on human performance and behavior. Hence, monitoring and assessing heat stress indices have become necessary for ensuring the safety and comfort of individuals. Thermal comfort indices, such as wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT), Tropical Summer Index (TSI), and Predicted Heat Strain (PHS), as well as parameters like mean radiant temperature (MRT), are typically used for assessing and controlling heat stress conditions in working and urban environments. Therefore, measurement and monitoring of these parameters should be obtained for any environment in which people are constantly exposed. Modern cities collect and publish this relevant information following the Smart City concept. To monitor large cities, cost-effective solutions must be developed. This work presents the results of a Heat Stress Monitoring (HSM) system prototype network tested in the Benicalap-Ciutat Fallera district in Valencia, Spain. The scope of this work is to design, commission, and test a low-cost prototype that is able to measure heat stress indices. The Heat Stress Monitoring system comprises a central unit or receiver and several transmitters communicating via radiofrequency. The transmitter accurately measures wind speed, air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar irradiation, and black globe temperature. The receiver has a 4G modem that sends the data to an SQL database in the cloud. The devices were tested over one year, showing that radio data transmission is reliable up to 700 m from the receiver. The system’s power supply, composed of a Photovoltaic panel and Lithium-ion batteries, provided off-grid capabilities to the transmitter, with a tested backup autonomy of up to 36 days per charge. Then, indicators such as WBGT, TSI, and MRT were successfully estimated using the data collected by the devices. The material cost of a 12-point network is around EUR 2430 with a competitive price of EUR 190 per device. Full article
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17 pages, 6218 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of an IoT Neurostimulator for the Treatment of Neurogenic Bladder
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9284; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229284 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 736
Abstract
Neurogenic bladder is a dysfunction in the lower urinary tract due to damage to the nervous system. One of the treatments that has shown important results is transcutaneous neuromodulation. The neuromodulation equipment available on the market does not allow remote activation or offer [...] Read more.
Neurogenic bladder is a dysfunction in the lower urinary tract due to damage to the nervous system. One of the treatments that has shown important results is transcutaneous neuromodulation. The neuromodulation equipment available on the market does not allow remote activation or offer many resources for adjusting the parameters of the generated stimulus, as most devices operate with pre-established parameters in closed packages. For this reason, customizing therapy for each individual can be difficult. Therefore, the objective was to develop and validate a neuromodulation device capable of being remotely programmed and properly monitored. Materials and methods for validating devices were used according to the Brazilian Regulatory Standard (NBR), which deals with general requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of electromedical devices. After verifying the reliability of the device, which was capable of generating a biphasic and symmetrical wave, measured by an oscilloscope, considered safe by the technical requirements, it was tested in a real application. Users reported feeling a comfortable stimulus, similar to other previously used devices, and considered the device easy to use. In this way, it was possible to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the developed device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Sensors and IoT for Human Health Monitoring)
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13 pages, 2050 KiB  
Article
Improving Automatic Smartwatch Electrocardiogram Diagnosis of Atrial Fibrillation by Identifying Regularity within Irregularity
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9283; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229283 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Smartwatches equipped with automatic atrial fibrillation (AF) detection through electrocardiogram (ECG) recording are increasingly prevalent. We have recently reported the limitations of the Apple Watch (AW) in correctly diagnosing AF. In this study, we aim to apply a data science approach to a [...] Read more.
Smartwatches equipped with automatic atrial fibrillation (AF) detection through electrocardiogram (ECG) recording are increasingly prevalent. We have recently reported the limitations of the Apple Watch (AW) in correctly diagnosing AF. In this study, we aim to apply a data science approach to a large dataset of smartwatch ECGs in order to deliver an improved algorithm. We included 723 patients (579 patients for algorithm development and 144 patients for validation) who underwent ECG recording with an AW and a 12-lead ECG (21% had AF and 24% had no ECG abnormalities). Similar to the existing algorithm, we first screened for AF by detecting irregularities in ventricular intervals. However, as opposed to the existing algorithm, we included all ECGs (not applying quality or heart rate exclusion criteria) but we excluded ECGs in which we identified regular patterns within the irregular rhythms by screening for interval clusters. This “irregularly irregular” approach resulted in a significant improvement in accuracy compared to the existing AW algorithm (sensitivity of 90% versus 83%, specificity of 92% versus 79%, p < 0.01). Identifying regularity within irregular rhythms is an accurate yet inclusive method to detect AF using a smartwatch ECG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomedical Sensing, Instrumentation and Systems)
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19 pages, 2702 KiB  
Article
Action Quality Assessment Model Using Specialists’ Gaze Location and Kinematics Data—Focusing on Evaluating Figure Skating Jumps
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9282; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229282 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 659
Abstract
Action quality assessment (AQA) tasks in computer vision evaluate action quality in videos, and they can be applied to sports for performance evaluation. A typical example of AQA is predicting the final score from a video that captures an entire figure skating program. [...] Read more.
Action quality assessment (AQA) tasks in computer vision evaluate action quality in videos, and they can be applied to sports for performance evaluation. A typical example of AQA is predicting the final score from a video that captures an entire figure skating program. However, no previous studies have predicted individual jump scores, which are of great interest to competitors because of the high weight of competition. Despite the presence of unnecessary information in figure skating videos, human specialists can focus and reduce information when they evaluate jumps. In this study, we clarified the eye movements of figure skating judges and skaters while evaluating jumps and proposed a prediction model for jump performance that utilized specialists’ gaze location to reduce information. Kinematic features obtained from the tracking system were input into the model in addition to videos to improve accuracy. The results showed that skaters focused more on the face, whereas judges focused on the lower extremities. These gaze locations were applied to the model, which demonstrated the highest accuracy when utilizing both specialists’ gaze locations. The model outperformed human predictions and the baseline model (RMSE:0.775), suggesting a combination of human specialist knowledge and machine capabilities could yield higher accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Navigation and Positioning)
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21 pages, 6094 KiB  
Article
A Method for Image Anomaly Detection Based on Distillation and Reconstruction
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9281; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229281 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 844
Abstract
Image anomaly detection is a trending research topic in computer vision. The objective is to build models using available normal samples to detect various abnormal images without depending on real abnormal samples. It has high research significance and value for applications in the [...] Read more.
Image anomaly detection is a trending research topic in computer vision. The objective is to build models using available normal samples to detect various abnormal images without depending on real abnormal samples. It has high research significance and value for applications in the detection of defects in product appearance, medical image analysis, hyperspectral image processing, and other fields. This paper proposes an image anomaly detection algorithm based on feature distillation and an autoencoder structure, which uses the feature distillation structure of a dual-teacher network to train the encoder, thus suppressing the reconstruction of abnormal regions. This system also introduces an attention mechanism to highlight the detection objects, achieving effective detection of different defects in product appearance. In addition, this paper proposes a method for anomaly evaluation based on patch similarity that calculates the difference between the reconstructed image and the input image according to different regions of the image, thus improving the sensitivity and accuracy of the anomaly score. This paper conducts experiments on several datasets, and the results show that the proposed algorithm has superior performance in image anomaly detection. It achieves 98.8% average AUC on the SMDC-DET dataset and 98.9% average AUC on the MVTec-AD dataset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensing and Imaging)
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13 pages, 4087 KiB  
Article
A Simple Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Method for Quantification and Classification of Edible Sea Salts Assisted by Surface-Hydrophilicity-Enhanced Silicon Wafer Substrates
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9280; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229280 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Salt, one of the most commonly consumed food additives worldwide, is produced in many countries. The chemical composition of edible salts is essential information for quality assessment and origin distinction. In this work, a simple laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument was assembled with a [...] Read more.
Salt, one of the most commonly consumed food additives worldwide, is produced in many countries. The chemical composition of edible salts is essential information for quality assessment and origin distinction. In this work, a simple laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument was assembled with a diode-pumped solid-state laser and a miniature spectrometer. Its performances in analyzing Mg and Ca in six popular edible sea salts consumed in South Korea and classification of the products were investigated. Each salt was dissolved in water and a tiny amount of the solution was dropped and dried on the hydrophilicity-enhanced silicon wafer substrate, providing homogeneous distribution of salt crystals. Strong Mg II and Ca II emissions were chosen for both quantification and classification. Calibration curves could be constructed with limits-of-detection of 87 mg/kg for Mg and 45 mg/kg for Ca. Also, the Mg II and Ca II emission peak intensities were used in a k-nearest neighbors model providing 98.6% classification accuracy. In both quantification and classification, intensity normalization using a Na I emission line as a reference signal was effective. A concept of interclass distance was introduced, and the increase in the classification accuracy due to the intensity normalization was rationalized based on it. Our methodology will be useful for analyzing major mineral nutrients in various food materials in liquid phase or soluble in water, including salts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectroscopy-Based Sensing Technologies for Food Quality and Safety)
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18 pages, 2440 KiB  
Article
Exploring IoT Vulnerabilities in a Comprehensive Remote Cybersecurity Laboratory
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9279; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229279 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 649
Abstract
With the rapid proliferation of Internet of things (IoT) devices across various sectors, ensuring robust cybersecurity practices has become paramount. The complexity and diversity of IoT ecosystems pose unique security challenges that traditional educational approaches often fail to address comprehensively. Current curricula may [...] Read more.
With the rapid proliferation of Internet of things (IoT) devices across various sectors, ensuring robust cybersecurity practices has become paramount. The complexity and diversity of IoT ecosystems pose unique security challenges that traditional educational approaches often fail to address comprehensively. Current curricula may provide theoretical knowledge but typically lack the practical components necessary for students to engage with real-world cybersecurity scenarios. This gap hinders the development of proficient cybersecurity professionals capable of securing complex IoT infrastructures. To bridge this educational divide, a remote online laboratory was developed, allowing students to gain hands-on experience in identifying and mitigating cybersecurity threats in an IoT context. This virtual environment simulates real IoT ecosystems, enabling students to interact with actual devices and protocols while practicing various security techniques. The laboratory is designed to be accessible, scalable, and versatile, offering a range of modules from basic protocol analysis to advanced threat management. The implementation of this remote laboratory demonstrated significant benefits, equipping students with the necessary skills to confront and resolve IoT security issues effectively. Our results show an improvement in practical cybersecurity abilities among students, highlighting the laboratory’s efficacy in enhancing IoT security education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) Platforms and Applications)
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15 pages, 10083 KiB  
Article
Aberration Estimation for Synthetic Aperture Digital Holographic Microscope Using Deep Neural Network
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9278; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229278 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a valuable technique for investigating the optical properties of samples through the measurement of intensity and phase of diffracted beams. However, DHMs are constrained by Lagrange invariance, compromising the spatial bandwidth product (SBP) which relates resolution and field [...] Read more.
Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a valuable technique for investigating the optical properties of samples through the measurement of intensity and phase of diffracted beams. However, DHMs are constrained by Lagrange invariance, compromising the spatial bandwidth product (SBP) which relates resolution and field of view. Synthetic aperture DHM (SA-DHM) was introduced to overcome this limitation, but it faces significant challenges such as aberrations in synthesizing the optical information corresponding to the steering angle of incident wave. This paper proposes a novel approach utilizing deep neural networks (DNNs) for compensating aberrations in SA-DHM, extending the compensation scope beyond the numerical aperture (NA) of the objective lens. The method involves training a DNN from diffraction patterns and Zernike coefficients through a circular aperture, enabling effective aberration compensation in the illumination beam. This method makes it possible to estimate aberration coefficients from the only part of the diffracted beam cutoff by the circular aperture mask. With the proposed technique, the simulation results present improved resolution and quality of sample images. The integration of deep neural networks with SA-DHM holds promise for advancing microscopy capabilities and overcoming existing limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Optical Sensors Based on Machine Learning)
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18 pages, 3097 KiB  
Article
Joint Reconfiguration after Failure for Performing Emblematic Gestures in Humanoid Receptionist Robot
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9277; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229277 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 613
Abstract
This study proposed a strategy for a quick fault recovery response when an actuator failure problem occurred while a humanoid robot with 7-DOF anthropomorphic arms was performing a task with upper body motion. The objective of this study was to develop an algorithm [...] Read more.
This study proposed a strategy for a quick fault recovery response when an actuator failure problem occurred while a humanoid robot with 7-DOF anthropomorphic arms was performing a task with upper body motion. The objective of this study was to develop an algorithm for joint reconfiguration of the receptionist robot called Namo so that the robot can still perform a set of emblematic gestures if an actuator fails or is damaged. We proposed a gesture similarity measurement to be used as an objective function and used bio-inspired artificial intelligence methods, including a genetic algorithm, a bacteria foraging optimization algorithm, and an artificial bee colony, to determine good solutions for joint reconfiguration. When an actuator fails, the failed joint will be locked at the average angle calculated from all emblematic gestures. We used grid search to determine suitable parameter sets for each method before making a comparison of their performance. The results showed that bio-inspired artificial intelligence methods could successfully suggest reconfigured gestures after joint motor failure within 1 s. After 100 repetitions, BFOA and ABC returned the best-reconfigured gestures; there was no statistical difference. However, ABC yielded more reliable reconfigured gestures; there was significantly less interquartile range among the results than BFOA. The joint reconfiguration method was demonstrated for all possible joint failure conditions. The results showed that the proposed method could determine good reconfigured gestures under given time constraints; hence, it could be used for joint failure recovery in real applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinematically Redundant Robots: Sensing and Control)
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18 pages, 5105 KiB  
Article
Two-Axial Measurement of the Angular Microdeflection of a Laser Beam Using One Single-Axis Sensor
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9276; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229276 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 436
Abstract
The majority of current methods for measuring the angular deflection of a laser beam enable measurement only in one selected plane. However, there are tasks in which measurements of laser beam deflections in 3D are required. In this paper, we present a way [...] Read more.
The majority of current methods for measuring the angular deflection of a laser beam enable measurement only in one selected plane. However, there are tasks in which measurements of laser beam deflections in 3D are required. In this paper, we present a way of enabling two-axial measurements of the deflection of a beam based on a single-axis sensor. The key idea is to direct a laser beam, alternately, into one of two arms of a measurement system. In the first arm, the beam is transmitted directly to the angular sensor, while in the second, the beam is directed to the sensor via a special optical element that rotates the plane of the beam deflection; in other words, this element changes the deflection in the horizontal plane into a deflection in the vertical plane, and vice versa. To alternate the path of the beam, a variable phase retarder and a polarising beamsplitter are used. The proposed technique was experimentally verified, and the results confirm its effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lasing Sensing and Applications)
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14 pages, 1053 KiB  
Article
Position Tracking of Multiple Robotic Manipulator Systems Associated with Communication Strength Dynamics
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9275; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229275 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 495
Abstract
In general, a multiple robotic manipulator system (MRMS) with uncertainties can be considered a composition system with a robotic manipulator subsystem (RMS) and a communication strength subsystem (CSS), and both subsystems are coupled to each other. In this paper, a new position tracking [...] Read more.
In general, a multiple robotic manipulator system (MRMS) with uncertainties can be considered a composition system with a robotic manipulator subsystem (RMS) and a communication strength subsystem (CSS), and both subsystems are coupled to each other. In this paper, a new position tracking control scheme is proposed for the MRMS while considering the communication strength dynamics between robotic manipulators. The control scheme designed in this paper consists of two parts: the first part is to design the control protocol in the RMS, and the second part is to design the coupling relationship in the CSS. Through these two parts, we can achieve the position tracking of an MRMS. Firstly, the dynamical mathematical model of the RMS and CSS in the MRMS is constructed, and the corresponding assumptions are given. Then, the corresponding stability analysis is proposed, which provides the basis for a theoretical understanding of the underlying problem. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensors and Robotics)
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22 pages, 8135 KiB  
Article
A Lightweight Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Method with a High Precision in Dynamic Scenes
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9274; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229274 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 706
Abstract
Currently, in most traditional VSLAM (visual SLAM) systems, static assumptions result in a low accuracy in dynamic environments, or result in a new and higher level of accuracy but at the cost of sacrificing the real–time property. In highly dynamic scenes, balancing a [...] Read more.
Currently, in most traditional VSLAM (visual SLAM) systems, static assumptions result in a low accuracy in dynamic environments, or result in a new and higher level of accuracy but at the cost of sacrificing the real–time property. In highly dynamic scenes, balancing a high accuracy and a low computational cost has become a pivotal requirement for VSLAM systems. This paper proposes a new VSLAM system, balancing the competitive demands between positioning accuracy and computational complexity and thereby further improving the overall system properties. From the perspective of accuracy, the system applies an improved lightweight target detection network to quickly detect dynamic feature points while extracting feature points at the front end of the system, and only feature points of static targets are applied for frame matching. Meanwhile, the attention mechanism is integrated into the target detection network to continuously and accurately capture dynamic factors to cope with more complex dynamic environments. From the perspective of computational expense, the lightweight network Ghostnet module is applied as the backbone network of the target detection network YOLOv5s, significantly reducing the number of model parameters and improving the overall inference speed of the algorithm. Experimental results on the TUM dynamic dataset indicate that in contrast with the ORB–SLAM3 system, the pose estimation accuracy of the system improved by 84.04%. In contrast with dynamic SLAM systems such as DS–SLAM and DVO SLAM, the system has a significantly improved positioning accuracy. In contrast with other VSLAM algorithms based on deep learning, the system has superior real–time properties while maintaining a similar accuracy index. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer Vision in AI for Robotics Development)
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10 pages, 4468 KiB  
Article
Aberration Theory of a Flat, Aplanatic Metalens Doublet and the Design of a Meta-Microscope Objective Lens
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9273; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229273 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 638
Abstract
A theoretical approach for reducing multiple monochromatic aberrations using a flat metalens doublet is proposed and verified through ray tracing simulations. The theoretical relation between the Abbe sine condition and the generalized Snell’s law is revealed in the doublet system. Starting from the [...] Read more.
A theoretical approach for reducing multiple monochromatic aberrations using a flat metalens doublet is proposed and verified through ray tracing simulations. The theoretical relation between the Abbe sine condition and the generalized Snell’s law is revealed in the doublet system. Starting from the Abbe aplanat design, minimization conditions of astigmatism and field curvature are derived. Based on the theory, a metalens doublet is semi-analytically optimized as a compact, practical-level meta-microscope objective lens working for a target wavelength. The proposed approach also reveals how to reduce lateral chromatism for an additional wavelength. The design degree of freedom and fundamental limits of the system are both rigorously analyzed in theory and verified through ray tracing simulations. It is expected that the proposed method will provide unprecedented practical opportunities for the design of advanced compact microscopic imaging or sensing systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Sensors)
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15 pages, 1934 KiB  
Article
Anomaly Detection in Time Series Data Using Reversible Instance Normalized Anomaly Transformer
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9272; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229272 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 863
Abstract
Anomalies are infrequent in nature, but detecting these anomalies could be crucial for the proper functioning of any system. The rarity of anomalies could be a challenge for their detection as detection models are required to depend on the relations of the datapoints [...] Read more.
Anomalies are infrequent in nature, but detecting these anomalies could be crucial for the proper functioning of any system. The rarity of anomalies could be a challenge for their detection as detection models are required to depend on the relations of the datapoints with their adjacent datapoints. In this work, we use the rarity of anomalies to detect them. For this, we introduce the reversible instance normalized anomaly transformer (RINAT). Rooted in the foundational principles of the anomaly transformer, RINAT incorporates both prior and series associations for each time point. The prior association uses a learnable Gaussian kernel to ensure a thorough understanding of the adjacent concentration inductive bias. In contrast, the series association method uses self-attention techniques to specifically focus on the original raw data. Furthermore, because anomalies are rare in nature, we utilize normalized data to identify series associations and employ non-normalized data to uncover prior associations. This approach enhances the modelled series associations and, consequently, improves the association discrepancies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Semantic Technologies in Sensors and Sensing Systems)
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24 pages, 1396 KiB  
Review
The State of the Art on Graphene-Based Sensors for Human Health Monitoring through Breath Biomarkers
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9271; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229271 - 19 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1044
Abstract
The field of organic-borne biomarkers has been gaining relevance due to its suitability for diagnosing pathologies and health conditions in a rapid, accurate, non-invasive, painless and low-cost way. Due to the lack of analytical techniques with features capable of analysing such a complex [...] Read more.
The field of organic-borne biomarkers has been gaining relevance due to its suitability for diagnosing pathologies and health conditions in a rapid, accurate, non-invasive, painless and low-cost way. Due to the lack of analytical techniques with features capable of analysing such a complex matrix as the human breath, the academic community has focused on developing electronic noses based on arrays of gas sensors. These sensors are assembled considering the excitability, sensitivity and sensing capacities of a specific nanocomposite, graphene. In this way, graphene-based sensors can be employed for a vast range of applications that vary from environmental to medical applications. This review work aims to gather the most relevant published papers under the scope of “Graphene sensors” and “Biomarkers” in order to assess the state of the art in the field of graphene sensors for the purposes of biomarker identification. During the bibliographic search, a total of six pathologies were identified as the focus of the work. They were lung cancer, gastric cancer, chronic kidney diseases, respiratory diseases that involve inflammatory processes of the airways, like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnoea and diabetes. The achieved results, current development of the sensing sensors, and main limitations or challenges of the field of graphene sensors are discussed throughout the paper, as well as the features of the experiments addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene-Based Sensors: Design, Development and Application)
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13 pages, 450 KiB  
Article
Small Sample Building Energy Consumption Prediction Using Contrastive Transformer Networks
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9270; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229270 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Predicting energy consumption in large exposition centers presents a significant challenge, primarily due to the limited datasets and fluctuating electricity usage patterns. This study introduces a cutting-edge algorithm, the contrastive transformer network (CTN), to address these issues. By leveraging self-supervised learning, the CTN [...] Read more.
Predicting energy consumption in large exposition centers presents a significant challenge, primarily due to the limited datasets and fluctuating electricity usage patterns. This study introduces a cutting-edge algorithm, the contrastive transformer network (CTN), to address these issues. By leveraging self-supervised learning, the CTN employs contrastive learning techniques across both temporal and contextual dimensions. Its transformer-based architecture, tailored for efficient feature extraction, allows the CTN to excel in predicting energy consumption in expansive structures, especially when data samples are scarce. Rigorous experiments on a proprietary dataset underscore the potency of the CTN in this domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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16 pages, 2745 KiB  
Article
Latency Reduction and Packet Synchronization in Low-Resource Devices Connected by DDS Networks in Autonomous UAVs
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9269; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229269 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Real-time flight controllers are becoming dependent on general-purpose operating systems, as the modularity and complexity of guidance, navigation, and control systems and algorithms increases. The non-deterministic nature of operating systems creates a critical weakness in the development of motion control systems for robotic [...] Read more.
Real-time flight controllers are becoming dependent on general-purpose operating systems, as the modularity and complexity of guidance, navigation, and control systems and algorithms increases. The non-deterministic nature of operating systems creates a critical weakness in the development of motion control systems for robotic platforms due to the random delays introduced by operating systems and communication networks. The high-speed operation and sensitive dynamics of UAVs demand fast and near-deterministic communication between the sensors, companion computer, and flight control unit (FCU) in order to achieve the required performance. In this paper, we present a method to assess communications latency between a companion computer and an RTOS open-source flight controller, which is based on an XRCE-DDS bridge between clients hosted in the low-resource environment and the DDS network used by ROS2. A comparison based on the measured statistics of latency illustrates the advantages of XRCE-DDS compared to the standard communication method based on MAVROS-MAVLink. More importantly, an algorithm to estimate latency offset and clock skew based on an exponential moving average filter is presented, providing a tool for latency estimation and correction that can be used by developers to improve synchronization of processes that rely on timely communication between the FCU and companion computer, such as synchronization of lower-level sensor data at the higher-level layer. This addresses the challenges introduced in GNC applications by the non-deterministic nature of general-purpose operating systems and the inherent limitations of standard flight controller hardware. Full article
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26 pages, 9070 KiB  
Article
Novel Information-Driven Smoothing Spline Linearization Method for High-Precision Displacement Sensors Based on Information Criterions
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9268; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229268 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 699
Abstract
A noise-resistant linearization model that reveals the true nonlinearity of the sensor is essential for retrieving accurate physical displacement from the signals captured by sensing electronics. In this paper, we propose a novel information-driven smoothing spline linearization method, which innovatively integrates one new [...] Read more.
A noise-resistant linearization model that reveals the true nonlinearity of the sensor is essential for retrieving accurate physical displacement from the signals captured by sensing electronics. In this paper, we propose a novel information-driven smoothing spline linearization method, which innovatively integrates one new and three standard information criterions into a smoothing spline for the high-precision displacement sensors’ linearization. Using theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation, the proposed linearization method is demonstrated to outperform traditional polynomial and spline linearization methods for high-precision displacement sensors with a low noise to range ratio in the 10−5 level. Validation experiments were carried out on two different types of displacement sensors to benchmark the performance of the proposed method compared to the polynomial models and the the non-smoothing cubic spline. The results show that the proposed method with the new modified Akaike Information Criterion stands out compared to the other linearization methods and can improve the residual nonlinearity by over 50% compared to the standard polynomial model. After being linearized via the proposed method, the residual nonlinearities reach as low as ±0.0311% F.S. (Full Scale of Range), for the 1.5 mm range chromatic confocal displacement sensor, and ±0.0047% F.S., for the 100 mm range laser triangulation displacement sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensing and Decision-Making in Advanced Manufacturing)
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22 pages, 2826 KiB  
Article
State Evaluation of Self-Powered Wireless Sensors Based on a Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9267; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229267 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 551
Abstract
The energy harvesters used in self-powered wireless sensing technology, which has the potential to completely solve the power supply problem of the sensing nodes from the source, usually require mechanical movement or operate in harsh environments, resulting in a significant reduction in device [...] Read more.
The energy harvesters used in self-powered wireless sensing technology, which has the potential to completely solve the power supply problem of the sensing nodes from the source, usually require mechanical movement or operate in harsh environments, resulting in a significant reduction in device lifespan and reliability. Therefore, the influencing factors and failure mechanisms of the operating status of self-powered wireless sensors were analyzed, and an innovative evaluation index system was proposed, which includes 4 primary indexes and 13 secondary indexes, including energy harvesters, energy management circuits, wireless communication units, and sensors. Next, the weights obtained from the subjective analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and objective CRITIC weight method were fused to obtain the weights of each index. A self-powered sensor evaluation scheme (FE-SPS) based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation was implemented by constructing a fuzzy evaluation model. The advantage of this scheme is that it can determine the current health status of the system based on its output characteristics. Finally, taking vibration energy as an example, the operational status of the self-powered wireless sensors after 200 h of operation was comprehensively evaluated. The experimental results show that the test self-powered wireless sensor had the highest score of “normal”, which is 0.4847, so the evaluation result was “normal”. In this article, a reliability evaluation strategy for self-powered wireless sensor was constructed to ensure the reliable operation of self-powered wireless sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Fault Detection and Condition Monitoring)
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21 pages, 4444 KiB  
Article
Signal Processing and Waveform Re-Tracking for SAR Altimeters on High Mobility Platforms with Vertical Movement and Antenna Mis-Pointing
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9266; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229266 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) altimeters can achieve higher spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than conventional altimeters by Doppler beam sharpening or focused SAR imaging methods. To improve the estimation accuracy of waveform re-tracking, several average echo power models for SAR altimetry have [...] Read more.
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) altimeters can achieve higher spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than conventional altimeters by Doppler beam sharpening or focused SAR imaging methods. To improve the estimation accuracy of waveform re-tracking, several average echo power models for SAR altimetry have been proposed in previous works. However, these models were mainly proposed for satellite altimeters and are not applicable to high-mobility platforms such as aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and missiles, which may have a large antenna mis-pointing angle and significant vertical movement. In this paper, we propose a novel semi-analytical waveform model and signal processing method for SAR altimeters with vertical movement and large antenna mis-pointing angles. A new semi-analytical expression that can be numerically computed for the flat pulse response (FSIR) is proposed. The 2D delay–Doppler map is then obtained by numerical computation of the convolution between the proposed analytical function, the probability density function, and the time/frequency point target response of the radar. A novel delay compensation method based on sinc interpolation for SAR altimeters with vertical movement is proposed to obtain the multilook echo, which can optimally handle non-integer delays and maintain signal frequency characteristics. In addition, a height estimation method based on least squares (LS) estimation is proposed. The LS estimator does not have an analytical solution, and requires iterative solving through gradient descent. We evaluate the performance of the proposed estimation strategy using simulated data for typical airborne scenarios. When the mis-pointing angles are within 10 degrees, the normalized quadratic error (NQE) of the proposed model is less than 10−10 and the RMSE of τ obtained by the re-tracking method fitted by the proposed model is less than 0.2 m, which indicates the high applicability of the model and accuracy of the re-tracking method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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12 pages, 1978 KiB  
Communication
Optimizing Sensitivity in a Fluid-Structure Interaction-Based Microfluidic Viscometer: A Multiphysics Simulation Study
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9265; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229265 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 605
Abstract
Fluid-structure interactions (FSI) are used in a variety of sensors based on micro- and nanotechnology to detect and measure changes in pressure, flow, and viscosity of fluids. These sensors typically consist of a flexible structure that deforms in response to the fluid flow [...] Read more.
Fluid-structure interactions (FSI) are used in a variety of sensors based on micro- and nanotechnology to detect and measure changes in pressure, flow, and viscosity of fluids. These sensors typically consist of a flexible structure that deforms in response to the fluid flow and generates an electrical, optical, or mechanical signal that can be measured. FSI-based sensors have recently been utilized in applications such as biomedical devices, environmental monitoring, and aerospace engineering, where the accurate measurement of fluid properties is critical to ensure performance and safety. In this work, multiphysics models are employed to identify and study parameters that affect the performance of an FSI-based microfluidic viscometer that measures the viscosity of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids using the deflection of flexible micropillars. Specifically, we studied the impact of geometric parameters such as pillar diameter and height, aspect ratio of the pillars, pillar spacing, and the distance between the pillars and the channel walls. Our study provides design guidelines to adjust the sensitivity of the viscometer toward specific applications. Overall, this highly sensitive microfluidic sensor can be integrated into complex systems and provide real-time monitoring of fluid viscosity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integration and Application of Microfluidic Sensors)
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