Topic Editors

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, College of Education and Human Sciences, University of Nebraska at Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583, USA
Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583, USA
College of Allied Health Professions, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA

Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 September 2021)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2022)
Viewed by
141928

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Topic Issue entitled “Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules” will focus on the protective role of bioactive nutrient molecules as a therapeutic approach and against disease pathogenesis.

The identification of novel nutrient molecules for therapeutics or to prevent disease pathogenesis has been an attractive approach due to the ease of their translation to the general population. Recent advances in bioactive nutrient molecules protecting against human health outcomes has always been a growing field with new knowledge.

Our Topic Issue will consider original articles, commentaries, and review articles that focus on the following potential topics (but not limited to these):

  • Investigations related to the nutrients of foods and their effects in improving human health.
  • Investigations related to novel nutrient compounds and their impact on the human gut microbiome and gut health.
  • Investigations related to the gut bioactive metabolites of nutrient molecules and their impact on human health.
  • The novel protective roles of vitamins and their metabolites against adverse health outcomes.

Dr. Sathish Kumar Natarajan
Dr. Jiujiu Yu
Dr. Corrine K Hanson
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • bioactive nutrients
  • plant-derived exosome like nano particles
  • extracellular vesicles
  • gut microbial metabolites
  • gut-derived metabolites
  • nutrient signaling
  • phytochemicals

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Biomedicines
biomedicines
4.7 5.2 2013 15.4 Days CHF 2600
Current Issues in Molecular Biology
cimb
3.1 2.9 1999 13.5 Days CHF 2200
Reports
reports
0.9 - 2018 20.6 Days CHF 1400
Nutrients
nutrients
5.9 9.2 2009 14.5 Days CHF 2900
Metabolites
metabolites
4.1 5.7 2011 13.2 Days CHF 2700

Preprints.org is a multidiscipline platform providing preprint service that is dedicated to sharing your research from the start and empowering your research journey.

MDPI Topics is cooperating with Preprints.org and has built a direct connection between MDPI journals and Preprints.org. Authors are encouraged to enjoy the benefits by posting a preprint at Preprints.org prior to publication:

  1. Immediately share your ideas ahead of publication and establish your research priority;
  2. Protect your idea from being stolen with this time-stamped preprint article;
  3. Enhance the exposure and impact of your research;
  4. Receive feedback from your peers in advance;
  5. Have it indexed in Web of Science (Preprint Citation Index), Google Scholar, Crossref, SHARE, PrePubMed, Scilit and Europe PMC.

Published Papers (44 papers)

Order results
Result details
Journals
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
16 pages, 2610 KiB  
Review
Something Smells Fishy: How Lipid Mediators Impact the Maternal–Fetal Interface and Neonatal Development
by Maranda Thompson, Arzu Ulu, Maheswari Mukherjee, Ana G. Yuil-Valdes, Melissa Thoene, Matthew Van Ormer, Rebecca Slotkowski, Teri Mauch, Ann Anderson-Berry, Corrine K. Hanson, Tara M. Nordgren and Sathish Kumar Natarajan
Biomedicines 2023, 11(1), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11010171 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2330
Abstract
Normal pregnancy relies on inflammation for implantation, placentation, and parturition, but uncontrolled inflammation can lead to poor maternal and infant outcomes. Maternal diet is one modifiable factor that can impact inflammation. Omega-3 and -6 fatty acids obtained through the diet are metabolized into [...] Read more.
Normal pregnancy relies on inflammation for implantation, placentation, and parturition, but uncontrolled inflammation can lead to poor maternal and infant outcomes. Maternal diet is one modifiable factor that can impact inflammation. Omega-3 and -6 fatty acids obtained through the diet are metabolized into bioactive compounds that effect inflammation. Recent evidence has shown that the downstream products of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids may influence physiology during pregnancy. In this review, the current knowledge relating to omega-3 and omega-6 metabolites during pregnancy will be summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 1960 KiB  
Review
Novel Therapeutic Nutrients Molecules That Protect against Zika Virus Infection with a Special Note on Palmitoleate
by Philma Glora Muthuraj, Chandan Krishnamoorthy, Ann Anderson-Berry, Corrine Hanson and Sathish Kumar Natarajan
Nutrients 2023, 15(1), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010124 - 27 Dec 2022
Viewed by 3067
Abstract
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a Flavivirus from the Flaviviridae family and a positive-sense single strand RNA virus. ZIKV infection can cause a mild infection to the mother but can be vertically transmitted to the developing fetus, causing congenital anomalies. The prevalence of ZIKV [...] Read more.
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a Flavivirus from the Flaviviridae family and a positive-sense single strand RNA virus. ZIKV infection can cause a mild infection to the mother but can be vertically transmitted to the developing fetus, causing congenital anomalies. The prevalence of ZIKV infections was relatively insignificant with sporadic outbreaks in the Asian and African continents until 2006. However, recent epidemic in the Caribbean showed significant increased incidence of Congenital Zika Syndrome. ZIKV infection results in placental pathology which plays a crucial role in disease transmission from mother to fetus. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved vaccine or therapeutic drug against ZIKV. This review article summarizes the recent advances on ZIKV transmission and diagnosis and reviews nutraceuticals which can protect against the ZIKV infection. Further, we have reviewed recent advances related to the novel therapeutic nutrient molecules that have been shown to possess activity against Zika virus infected cells. We also review the mechanism of ZIKV-induced endoplasmic reticulum and apoptosis and the protective role of palmitoleate (nutrient molecule) against ZIKV-induced ER stress and apoptosis in the placental trophoblasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4213 KiB  
Article
A Hydrodistillate of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and Damulin B Prevent Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity In Vitro and In Vivo via Regulation of AMPKα1 Transcription
by Minhyeok Song, Minseok Kim, Dang Hieu Hoang, Lochana Mangesh Kovale, Jihyun Lee, Youngjoo Kim, Changhyun Lee, Jongki Hong, Sungchul Park, Wonchae Choe, Insug Kang, Sung Soo Kim and Joohun Ha
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 4997; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14234997 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1891
Abstract
The clinical application of cisplatin, one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents used to treat various cancers, has been limited by the risk of adverse effects, notably nephrotoxicity. Despite intensive research for decades, there are no effective approaches for alleviating cisplatin nephrotoxicity. This [...] Read more.
The clinical application of cisplatin, one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents used to treat various cancers, has been limited by the risk of adverse effects, notably nephrotoxicity. Despite intensive research for decades, there are no effective approaches for alleviating cisplatin nephrotoxicity. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and potential mechanisms of a Gynostemma pentaphyllum leaves hydrodistillate (GPHD) and its major component, damulin B, against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. A hydro-distillation method can extract large amounts of components within a short period of time using non-toxic, environmentally friendly solvent. We found that the levels of AMP-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPKα1), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis were tightly associated with each other in HEK293 cells treated with cisplatin. We demonstrated that AMPKα1 acted as an anti-oxidant factor and that ROS generated by cisplatin suppressed the expression of AMPKα1 at the transcriptional level, thereby resulting in induction of apoptosis. Treatment with GPHD or damulin B effectively prevented cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HEK293 cells and cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in mice by suppressing oxidative stress and maintaining AMPKα1 levels. Therefore, our study suggests that GPHD and damulin B may serve as prospective adjuvant agents against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2786 KiB  
Article
Quercetin Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cell Damage and Inflammation via Regulation of the TLR4/NF-κB Pathway in Bovine Intestinal Epithelial Cells
by Xiaoxiao Gong, Yinghao Huang, Qianbo Ma, Maocheng Jiang, Kang Zhan and Guoqi Zhao
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2022, 44(11), 5234-5246; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb44110356 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
Acute diarrhoea and intestinal inflammation represent one of the most prevalent clinical disorders of milk production, resulting in enormous annual financial damage for the dairy sector. In the context of an unsatisfactory therapeutic effect of antibiotics, the natural products of plants have been [...] Read more.
Acute diarrhoea and intestinal inflammation represent one of the most prevalent clinical disorders of milk production, resulting in enormous annual financial damage for the dairy sector. In the context of an unsatisfactory therapeutic effect of antibiotics, the natural products of plants have been the focus of research. Quercetin is an important flavonoid found in a variety of plants, including fruits and vegetables, and has strong anti-inflammatory effects, so it has received extensive attention as a potential anti-inflammatory antioxidant. However, the underlying basis of quercetin on inflammatory reactions and oxidative tension generated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in bovine intestinal epithelial cells (BIECs) is currently unexplained. This research aimed to determine the influence of quercetin on LPS-induced inflammatory reactions, oxidative tension, and the barrier role of BIECs. Our findings demonstrated that BIEC viability was significantly improved in LPS-treated BIEC with 80 μg/mL quercetin compared with the control group. Indicators of oxidative overload and genes involved in barrier role revealed that 80 μg/mL quercetin efficiently rescued BIECs from oxidative and barrier impairment triggered by 5 μg/mL LPS. In addition, the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, as well as chemokines CXCL2, CXCL5, CCL5, and CXCL8, was diminished in LPS-treated BIECs with 80 μg/mL quercetin compared with LPS alone. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), CD14, myeloid differential protein-2 (MD2), and myeloid differentiation primary response protein (MyD88) genes associated with the TLR4 signal mechanism was markedly reduced by the addition of quercetin to LPS-modulated BIECs, indicating that quercetin can suppress the TLR4 signal mechanism. We performed Western blotting on the NF-κB signalling mechanism and compared it with immunofluorescence to further corroborate this conclusion. The LPS treatment enhanced the proportions of p-IκBα/GAPDH and p-p65/GAPDH. Compared with the LPS-treated group, quercetin administration decreased the proportions of p-IκBα/GAPDH and p-p65/GAPDH. In addition, immunofluorescence demonstrated that quercetin greatly reduced the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in BIECs. The benefits of quercetin on inflammatory reactions in LPS-induced BIECs may be a result of its capacity to inhibit the TLR4-mediated NF-κB signalling mechanism. These findings suggest that quercetin can be used as an anti-inflammatory reagent to treat intestinal inflammation induced by LPS release. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4687 KiB  
Article
Acetyl Co-A Carboxylase Inhibition Halts Hyperglycemia Induced Upregulation of De Novo Lipogenesis in Podocytes and Proximal Tubular Cells
by Pradeep Kayampilly, Nancy Roeser, Thekkelnaycke M Rajendiran, Subramaniam Pennathur and Farsad Afshinnia
Metabolites 2022, 12(10), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12100940 - 3 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1712
Abstract
The effect of glycemic stress on de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in podocytes and tubular epithelial cells is understudied. This study is aimed (A) to show the effect of glycemic stress on DNL, and (B) to assess the effect of acetyl-Co A (ACC) inhibition [...] Read more.
The effect of glycemic stress on de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in podocytes and tubular epithelial cells is understudied. This study is aimed (A) to show the effect of glycemic stress on DNL, and (B) to assess the effect of acetyl-Co A (ACC) inhibition on halting upregulation of DNL, on the expression of other lipid regulatory genes in the DNL pathway, and on markers of fibrosis and apoptosis in podocytes and tubular epithelial cells. We used cultured mouse primary tubular epithelial cells, mouse proximal tubular (BUMPT) cells, and immortal mouse podocytes and measured their percentage of labeled 13C2-palmitate as a marker of DNL after incubation with 13C2 acetate in response to high glucose concentration (25 mM). We then tested the effect of ACC inhibition by complimentary strategies utilizing CRISPR/cas9 deletion or incubation with Acaca and Acacb GapmeRs or using a small molecule inhibitor on DNL under hyperglycemic concentration. Exposure to high glucose concentration (25 mM) compared to osmotic controlled low glucose concentration (5.5 mM) significantly increased labeled palmitate after 24 h up to 72 h in podocytes and primary tubular cells. Knocking out of the ACC coding Acaca and Acacb genes by CRISPR/cas9, downregulation of Acaca and Acacb by specific antisense LNA GapmeRs and inhibition of ACC by firsocostat similarly halted/mitigated upregulation of DNL and decreased markers of fibrosis and programmed cell death in podocytes and various tubular cells. ACC inhibition is a potential therapeutic target to mitigate or halt hyperglycemia-induced upregulation of DNL in podocytes and tubular cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2595 KiB  
Article
β-Sitosterol Attenuates Dexamethasone-Induced Muscle Atrophy via Regulating FoxO1-Dependent Signaling in C2C12 Cell and Mice Model
by Young-Sool Hah, Won Keong Lee, Sangyeob Lee, Eun Ji Kim, Jung Hyeon Lee, Seung-Jun Lee, Yeong Ho Ji, Sang Gon Kim, Hyeong-Hwan Lee, Seo Yeon Hong and Jun-Il Yoo
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2894; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142894 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4532
Abstract
Sarcopenia refers to a decline in muscle mass and strength with age, causing significant impairment in the ability to carry out normal daily functions and increased risk of falls and fractures, eventually leading to loss of independence. Maintaining protein homeostasis is an important [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia refers to a decline in muscle mass and strength with age, causing significant impairment in the ability to carry out normal daily functions and increased risk of falls and fractures, eventually leading to loss of independence. Maintaining protein homeostasis is an important factor in preventing muscle loss, and the decrease in muscle mass is caused by an imbalance between anabolism and catabolism of muscle proteins. Although β-sitosterol has various effects such as anti-inflammatory, protective effect against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), antioxidant, and antidiabetic activity, the mechanism of β-sitosterol effect on the catabolic pathway was not well known. β-sitosterol was assessed in vitro and in vivo using a dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy mice model and C2C12 myoblasts. β-sitosterol protected mice from dexamethasone-induced muscle mass loss. The thickness of gastrocnemius muscle myofibers was increased in dexamethasone with the β-sitosterol treatment group (DS). Grip strength and creatine kinase (CK) activity were also recovered when β-sitosterol was treated. The muscle loss inhibitory efficacy of β-sitosterol in dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in C2C12 myotube was also verified in C2C12 myoblast. β-sitosterol also recovered the width of myotubes. The protein expression of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) was increased in dexamethasone-treated animal models and C2C12 myoblast, but it was reduced when β-sitosterol was treated. MuRF1 also showed similar results to MAFbx in the mRNA level of C2C12 myotubes. In addition, in the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles of mouse models, Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1) protein was increased in the dexamethasone-treated group (Dexa) compared with the control group and reduced in the DS group. Therefore, β-sitosterol would be a potential treatment agent for aging sarcopenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 1970 KiB  
Review
Neuroprotective Effects and Therapeutic Potential of the Citrus Flavonoid Hesperetin in Neurodegenerative Diseases
by Jasmine A. Evans, Patricia Mendonca and Karam F. A. Soliman
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2228; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112228 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 4751
Abstract
Neurodegenerative disorders affect more than fifty million Americans each year and represent serious health threats as the population ages. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are critical in the onset, progression, and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s (AD), Parkinson’s (PD), and amyotrophic lateral [...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative disorders affect more than fifty million Americans each year and represent serious health threats as the population ages. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are critical in the onset, progression, and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s (AD), Parkinson’s (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A wide range of natural compounds has been investigated because of their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. The citrus flavonoid hesperetin (HPT), an aglycone of hesperidin found in oranges, mandarins, and lemons, has been extensively reported to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental models of neurogenerative diseases. This review has compiled multiple studies on HPT in both in vivo and in vitro models to study neurodegeneration. We focused on the modulatory effects of hesperetin on the release of cellular anti-inflammatory and antioxidative stress mediators. Additionally, this review discusses the hesperetin effect in maintaining the levels of microRNA (miRNA) and modulating autophagy as it relates to hesperetin’s protective mechanisms against neurodegeneration. Moreover, this review is focused on providing experimental data for hesperetin’s potential as a neuroprotective compound and discusses reported evidence that HPT crosses the blood–brain barrier. In summary, this review shows the evidence available in the literature to indicate the efficacy of hesperetin in delaying the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 4642 KiB  
Article
Sesamin Promotes Osteoporotic Fracture Healing by Activating Chondrogenesis and Angiogenesis Pathways
by Zhengmeng Yang, Lu Feng, Ming Wang, Yucong Li, Shanshan Bai, Xuan Lu, Haixing Wang, Xiaoting Zhang, Yaofeng Wang, Sien Lin, Micky D. Tortorella and Gang Li
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2106; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14102106 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2500
Abstract
Osteoporotic fracture has been regarded as one of the most common bone disorders in the aging society. The natural herb-derived small molecules were revealed as potential treatment approaches for osteoporotic fracture healing. Sesamin is a member of lignan family, which possesses estrogenic activity [...] Read more.
Osteoporotic fracture has been regarded as one of the most common bone disorders in the aging society. The natural herb-derived small molecules were revealed as potential treatment approaches for osteoporotic fracture healing. Sesamin is a member of lignan family, which possesses estrogenic activity and plays a significant role in modulating bone homeostasis. Our previous study reported the promoting effect of sesamin on postmenopausal osteoporosis treatment. However, the role of sesamin in osteoporotic fracture healing has not been well studied yet. In this study, we further investigated the putative treatment effect of sesamin on osteoporotic fracture healing. Our study indicated that sesamin could activate bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) signaling pathway and further promotes in vitro chondrogenesis and angiogenesis activities. This promoting effect was abolished by the treatment of ERα inhibitor. In the osteoporotic bone fracture model, we demonstrated that sesamin markedly improves the callus formation and increases the cartilaginous area at the early-stage, as well as narrowing the fracture gap, and expands callus volume at the late-stage fracture healing site of the OVX mice femur. Furthermore, the angiogenesis at the osteoporotic fracture site was also significantly improved by sesamin treatment. In conclusion, our research illustrated the therapeutic potential and underlying regulation mechanisms of sesamin on osteoporotic fracture healing. Our studies shed light on developing herb-derived bioactive compounds as novel drugs for the treatment of osteoporotic fracture healing, especially for postmenopausal women with low estrogen level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2388 KiB  
Article
Dietary Alpha-Ketoglutarate Partially Abolishes Adverse Changes in the Small Intestine after Gastric Bypass Surgery in a Rat Model
by Paulina Iwaniak, Ewa Tomaszewska, Siemowit Muszyński, Marta Marszałek-Grabska, Stefan Grzegorz Pierzynowski and Piotr Dobrowolski
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2062; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14102062 - 14 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2610
Abstract
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is one of the key metabolites that play a crucial role in cellular energy metabolism. Bariatric surgery is a life-saving procedure, but it carries many gastrointestinal side effects. The present study investigated the beneficial effects of dietary AKG on the structure, [...] Read more.
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is one of the key metabolites that play a crucial role in cellular energy metabolism. Bariatric surgery is a life-saving procedure, but it carries many gastrointestinal side effects. The present study investigated the beneficial effects of dietary AKG on the structure, integrity, and absorption surface of the small intestine after bariatric surgery. Male 7-week-old Sprague Dowley rats underwent gastric bypass surgery, after which they received AKG, 0.2 g/kg body weight/day, administered in drinking water for 6 weeks. Changes in small intestinal morphology, including histomorphometric parameters of enteric plexuses, immunolocalization of claudin 3, MarvelD3, occludin and zonula ocludens 1 in the intestinal mucosa, and selected hormones, were evaluated. Proliferation, mucosal and submucosal thickness, number of intestinal villi and Paneth cells, and depth of crypts were increased; however, crypt activity, the absorption surface, the expression of claudin 3, MarvelD3, occludin and zonula ocludens 1 in the intestinal epithelium were decreased after gastric bypass surgery. Alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation partially improved intestinal structural parameters and epithelial integrity in rats undergoing this surgical procedure. Dietary AKG can abolish adverse functional changes in the intestinal mucosa, enteric nervous system, hormonal response, and maintenance of the intestinal barrier that occurred after gastric bypass surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 3114 KiB  
Article
HM-Chromanone Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Type 2 Diabetic Mice
by Jae Eun Park, Jaemin Son, Youngwan Seo and Ji Sook Han
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1951; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091951 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2060
Abstract
The effects of (E)-5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-3-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-4-chromanone (HMC) on hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia were investigated in diabetic mice. Mice were separated into three groups: db/db, rosiglitazone and HMC. Blood glucose or glycosylated hemoglobin values in HMC-treated mice were significantly lower compared to db/db mice. Total [...] Read more.
The effects of (E)-5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-3-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-4-chromanone (HMC) on hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia were investigated in diabetic mice. Mice were separated into three groups: db/db, rosiglitazone and HMC. Blood glucose or glycosylated hemoglobin values in HMC-treated mice were significantly lower compared to db/db mice. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride values were lower, and HDL-C levels were higher, in the HMC group compared to the diabetic and rosiglitazone groups. HMC markedly increased IRS-1Tyr612, AktSer473 and PI3K levels and plasma membrane GLUT4 levels in skeletal muscle, suggesting improved insulin resistance. HMC also significantly stimulated AMPKThr172 and PPARα in the liver, and ameliorated dyslipidemia by inhibiting SREBP-1c and FAS. Consequently, HMC reduced hyperglycemia by improving the expression of insulin-resistance-related genes and improved dyslipidemia by regulating fatty acid synthase and oxidation-related genes in db/db mice. Therefore, HMC could ameliorate hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetic mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2949 KiB  
Article
A Structure—Activity Relationship Study of the Inhibition of α-Amylase by Benzoic Acid and Its Derivatives
by Lei Guan, Haoyuan Long, Fazheng Ren, Yixuan Li and Hao Zhang
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1931; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091931 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1985
Abstract
Phenolic acids are widely found in fruits and vegetables. The inhibitory effect of phenolic acids on α-amylase, a key enzyme for starch digestion, has attracted the attention of researchers. To further investigate the effects of different substituents on the benzene ring of phenolic [...] Read more.
Phenolic acids are widely found in fruits and vegetables. The inhibitory effect of phenolic acids on α-amylase, a key enzyme for starch digestion, has attracted the attention of researchers. To further investigate the effects of different substituents on the benzene ring of phenolic acid on the inhibition of α-amylase activity, in vitro experiments and molecular docking were used. The structure-activity relationships of 17 phenolic acids with benzoic acid as the parent nucleus were analyzed by determining their half inhibitory concentration (IC50) toward α-amylase. The results showed that 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic acid had the strongest inhibitory effect on α-amylase with an IC50 value of 17.30 ± 0.73 mM. According to the structure-activity analysis, the hydroxyl group at the 2-position on the benzene ring had a strong positive effect on the inhibitory activity of α-amylase, while methoxylation at the 2-position and hydroxylation at the 5-position had a negative effect. Molecular docking revealed that hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions were involved in the inhibition, with hydrogen bonding being the primary force. These findings provide a more comprehensive understanding of phenolic acids as inhibitors of α-amylase and provide new ideas for the design of dietary formulations for diabetic patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 4356 KiB  
Article
ALDH1L2 Knockout in U251 Glioblastoma Cells Reduces Tumor Sphere Formation by Increasing Oxidative Stress and Suppressing Methionine Dependency
by Maëlle Quéré, Jean-Marc Alberto, Franck Broly, Sébastien Hergalant, Christo Christov, Guillaume Gauchotte, Jean-Louis Guéant, Farès Namour and Shyue-Fang Battaglia-Hsu
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1887; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091887 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2274
Abstract
Previously, the in vitro growth of cancer stem cells in the form of tumor spheres from five different brain cancer cell lines was found to be methionine-dependent. As this earlier work indicated that ALDH1L2, a folate-dependent mitochondria aldehyde dehydrogenase gene, is upregulated [...] Read more.
Previously, the in vitro growth of cancer stem cells in the form of tumor spheres from five different brain cancer cell lines was found to be methionine-dependent. As this earlier work indicated that ALDH1L2, a folate-dependent mitochondria aldehyde dehydrogenase gene, is upregulated in glioblastoma stem cells, we invalidated this gene using CRISPR-cas 9 technique in this present work. We reported here that this invalidation was effective in U251 glioblastoma cells, and no cas9 off target site could be detected by genome sequencing of the two independent knockout targeting either exon I or exon III. The knockout of ALDH1L2 gene in U251 cells rendered the growth of the cancer stem cells of U251 methionine independent. In addition, a much higher ROS (reactive oxygen radicals) level can be detected in the knockout cells compared to the wild type cells. Our evidence here linked the excessive ROS level of the knockout cells to reduced total cellular NADPH. Our evidence suggested also that the cause of the slower growth of the knockout turmor sphere may be related to its partial differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4310 KiB  
Article
Recombinant Klotho Protein Ameliorates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Attenuating Sterile Inflammation
by Jinwoo Myung, Jin-Ho Beom, Ju-Hee Kim, Ji-Sun Woo, Incheol Park, Sung-Phil Chung, Yong-Eun Chung and Je-Sung You
Biomedicines 2022, 10(4), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10040894 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2114
Abstract
Currently, no effective therapy and potential target have been elucidated for preventing myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury (I/R). We hypothesized that the administration of recombinant klotho (rKL) protein could attenuate the sterile inflammation in peri-infarct regions by inhibiting the extracellular release of high [...] Read more.
Currently, no effective therapy and potential target have been elucidated for preventing myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury (I/R). We hypothesized that the administration of recombinant klotho (rKL) protein could attenuate the sterile inflammation in peri-infarct regions by inhibiting the extracellular release of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). This hypothesis was examined using a rat coronary artery ligation model. Rats were divided into sham, sham+ rKL, I/R, and I/R+ rKL groups (n = 5/group). Administration of rKL protein reduced infarct volume and attenuated extracellular release of HMGB1 from peri-infarct tissue after myocardial I/R injury. The administration of rKL protein inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the peri-infarct regions and significantly attenuated apoptosis and production of intracellular reactive oxygen species by myocardial I/R injury. Klotho treatment significantly reduced the increase in the levels of circulating HMGB1 in blood at 4 h after myocardial ischemia. rKL regulated the levels of inflammation-related proteins. This is the first study to suggest that exogenous administration of rKL exerts myocardial protection effects after I/R injury and provides new mechanistic insights into rKL that can provide the theoretical basis for clinical application of new adjunctive modality for critical care of acute myocardial infarction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 5875 KiB  
Article
The Role of Palmitoleic Acid in Regulating Hepatic Gluconeogenesis through SIRT3 in Obese Mice
by Xin Guo, Xiaofan Jiang, Keyun Chen, Qijian Liang, Shixiu Zhang, Juan Zheng, Xiaomin Ma, Hongmei Jiang, Hao Wu and Qiang Tong
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071482 - 1 Apr 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3552
Abstract
Hepatic gluconeogenesis is a crucial process to maintain glucose level during starvation. However, unabated glucose production in diabetic patients is a major contributor to hyperglycemia. Palmitoleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid (16:1n7) that is available from dietary sources. Palmitoleic acid exhibits health [...] Read more.
Hepatic gluconeogenesis is a crucial process to maintain glucose level during starvation. However, unabated glucose production in diabetic patients is a major contributor to hyperglycemia. Palmitoleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid (16:1n7) that is available from dietary sources. Palmitoleic acid exhibits health beneficial effects on diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation, and metabolic syndrome. However, the mechanism by which palmitoleate reduces blood glucose is still unclear. SIRT3 is a key metabolism-regulating NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase. It is known that fasting elevates the expression of SIRT3 in the liver and it regulates many aspects of liver’s response to nutrient deprivation, such as fatty acid oxidation and ketone body formation. However, it is unknown whether SIRT3 also regulates gluconeogenesis. Our study revealed that palmitoleic acid reduced hepatic gluconeogenesis and the expression of SIRT3 under high-fat diet conditions. Overexpression of SIRT3 in the liver and hepatocytes enhanced gluconeogenesis. Further study revealed that SIRT3 played a role in enhancing the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes, such as PEPCK, PC, and MDH2. Therefore, our study indicated that under a high-fat diet, palmitoleic acid decreased gluconeogenesis by reducing enzymatic activities of PEPCK, PC, and MDH2 by down-regulating the expression of SIRT3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2746 KiB  
Article
Neuroprotective Effect of 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol Derived from Rice Bran Oil against Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats
by Hong Kyu Lee, Ji Yeon Jang, Hwan-Su Yoo and Yeon Hee Seong
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1380; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071380 - 25 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2235
Abstract
1,3-Dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (POP) is a triacylglyceride found in oils from various natural sources, including palm kernels, sunflower seeds, and rice bran. In the current study, the neuroprotective effects and the specific mechanism of POP derived from rice bran oil were investigated for the first [...] Read more.
1,3-Dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (POP) is a triacylglyceride found in oils from various natural sources, including palm kernels, sunflower seeds, and rice bran. In the current study, the neuroprotective effects and the specific mechanism of POP derived from rice bran oil were investigated for the first time using the middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) model in rats. Orally administered POP at 1, 3, or 5 mg/kg (three times: 0.5 h before MCAO, after 1 h of MCAO, and after 1 h of reperfusion) markedly reduced the MCAO/R-induced infarct/edema volume and neurobehavioral deficits. Glutathione depletion and the oxidative degradation of lipids in the rat brain induced by MCAO/R were prevented by POP administration. The upregulation of phosphorylated p38 MAPKs, inflammatory factors (inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)), and pro-apoptotic proteins (B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) associated X protein (Bax) and cleaved caspase-3) and the downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2) in the ischemic brain were significantly inhibited by POP administration. In addition, downregulation of phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt), and phosphorylated cyclic (adenosine monophosphate) AMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) expression in the ischemic brain was inhibited by POP administration. These results suggest that POP might exert neuroprotective effects by inhibition of p38 MAPK and activation of PI3K/Akt/CREB pathway, which is associated with anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory action. From the above results, the present study provides evidence that POP might be effectively applied for the management of cerebral ischemia-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 5998 KiB  
Article
Nobiletin Alleviates Ferroptosis-Associated Renal Injury, Inflammation, and Fibrosis in a Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction Mouse Model
by Yi-Hsin Lo, Shun-Fa Yang, Ching-Chang Cheng, Kuo-Chiang Hsu, Yu-Syuan Chen, Yu-Ya Chen, Chun-Wei Wang, Siao-Syun Guan and Cheng-Tien Wu
Biomedicines 2022, 10(3), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10030595 - 3 Mar 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4000
Abstract
Nobiletin (Nob), a critical active flavonoid of citrus fruits, has received attention for its superior physical functions, which have shown to improve the progression of diseases. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as a global health problem, and its mortality and morbidity rates [...] Read more.
Nobiletin (Nob), a critical active flavonoid of citrus fruits, has received attention for its superior physical functions, which have shown to improve the progression of diseases. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as a global health problem, and its mortality and morbidity rates are worsened with an increased risk of accompanying disorders. In this study, we aimed to elucidate whether Nob treatment ameliorates kidney fibrosis and also to identify the potential signaling networks in a unilateral ureteral obstructive (UUO) mouse model, which was used to mimic the progression of CKD. Six-week-old C57BL/6J mice were orally treated with 50 mg/kg of Nob for 14 constitutive days after UUO surgery. We found that the administration of Nob diminished kidney fibrosis and the expression of EMT markers, ameliorated oxidative stress and ferroptosis-associated injury, and mitigated the inflammatory response in the kidneys of UUO mice. Our results suggested that Nob treatment has antiferroptosis, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects, improving the progression of CKD in UUO mice. Nob may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the improvement of progressive CKD in further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

10 pages, 749 KiB  
Article
Impact of Parenteral Glutamine Supplement on Oncologic Outcomes in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treated with Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy
by Chih-Chun Wang, Tzer-Zen Hwang, Chuan-Chien Yang, Ching-Feng Lien, Chien-Chung Wang, Yu-Chen Shih, Shyh-An Yeh and Meng-Che Hsieh
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14050997 - 26 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2872
Abstract
Background: Oral mucositis (OM) is a common toxic side effect in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) that has a negative impact on treatment outcomes and patients’ survival. Our study aimed to evaluate the impact of parenteral glutamine supplement (dipeptiven) on [...] Read more.
Background: Oral mucositis (OM) is a common toxic side effect in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) that has a negative impact on treatment outcomes and patients’ survival. Our study aimed to evaluate the impact of parenteral glutamine supplement (dipeptiven) on oncologic outcomes in patients with NPC treated with CCRT. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with pathologically proved NPC and treated with CCRT were enrolled into our study. Patients were classified as dipeptiven (+) and dipeptiven (–). Oncologic outcomes were measured, and multivariate regression analysis was performed. Grade 3–4 treatment related toxicities were also documented. Results: A total of 144 patients with NPC were recruited in this study to evaluate oncologic outcomes, with 41 dipeptiven (+) and 103 dipeptiven (–). CCRT interruption rate and severe adverse effect (SAE) rate were significant lower in the dipeptiven (+) group than in the dipeptiven (–) group. The median overall survival (OS) was not mature yet in the dipeptiven (+) group and 30 months in the dipeptiven (–) group (p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that dipeptiven supplementation and CCRT interruption were independent predictors associated with better survival. The OS was longest in patients with a dipeptiven supplement and patients who had CCRT interruption had significantly worst OS. As for safety profiles, grade 3 to 4 adverse effects were fewer in dipeptiven (+) than in dipeptiven (–). Conclusion: Dipeptiven supplementation is crucial in NPC patients treated with CCRT, which can ameliorate treatment-related toxicity and augment treatment efficacy. Further prospective clinical trials are warranted to validate our results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2116 KiB  
Article
The Endogenous Metabolite Glycerophosphocholine Promotes Longevity and Fitness in Caenorhabditis elegans
by Jia-Yu Liu, Run-Qi Zheng, Yao Wang, Yan-Hong Liu, Shuai Jiang, Xin-Zheng Wang, Kun He, Xin Pan, Tao Zhou, Tao Li, Qing Xia and Wei-Na Zhang
Metabolites 2022, 12(2), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo12020177 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2376
Abstract
Metabolism and aging are closely connected. The choline derivative glycerophosphocholine (GPC), an important precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, plays important roles in brain and nervous system function. Although it has been reported to alleviate cognitive decline in aged mice, whether GPC could promote [...] Read more.
Metabolism and aging are closely connected. The choline derivative glycerophosphocholine (GPC), an important precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, plays important roles in brain and nervous system function. Although it has been reported to alleviate cognitive decline in aged mice, whether GPC could promote longevity and other fitness factors remains unclear. Here, we find endogenous GPC level declines in the plasma of ageing humans. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), GPC extends lifespan and improves exercise capacity during aging. Likewise, GPC inhibits lipofuscin accumulation. We further show that GPC treatment has no adverse effect on nematodes’ reproductive abilities and body length. In addition to its benefits under normal conditions, GPC enhances the stress resistance of C. elegans. Mechanically, we find GPC significantly inhibits the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in worms. Our findings indicate the health benefits of GPC and its potential application in strategies to improve lifespan and healthspan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 3537 KiB  
Article
Neuroprotective Effect of Eco-Sustainably Extracted Grape Polyphenols in Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia
by Hélène Roumes, Stéphane Sanchez, Imad Benkhaled, Valentin Fernandez, Pierre Goudeneche, Flavie Perrin, Luc Pellerin, Jérôme Guillard and Anne-Karine Bouzier-Sore
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040773 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2071
Abstract
Polyphenols are natural compounds with promising prophylactic and therapeutic applications. However, their methods of extraction, using organic solvents, may prove to be unsuitable for daily consumption or for certain medical indications. Here, we describe the neuroprotective effects of grape polyphenols extracted in an [...] Read more.
Polyphenols are natural compounds with promising prophylactic and therapeutic applications. However, their methods of extraction, using organic solvents, may prove to be unsuitable for daily consumption or for certain medical indications. Here, we describe the neuroprotective effects of grape polyphenols extracted in an eco-sustainable manner in a rat model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (NHI). Polyphenols (resveratrol, pterostilben and viniferin) were obtained using a subcritical water extraction technology to avoid organic solvents and heavy metals associated with chemical synthesis processes. A resveratrol or a polyphenol cocktail were administered to pregnant females at a nutritional dose and different time windows, prior to induction of NHI in pups. Reduced brain edema and lesion volumes were observed in rat pups whose mothers were supplemented with polyphenols. Moreover, the preservation of motor and cognitive functions (including learning and memory) was evidenced in the same animals. Our results pave the way to the use of polyphenols to prevent brain lesions and their associated deficits that follow NHI, which is a major cause of neonatal death and disabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 6622 KiB  
Article
Oligosaccharides Ameliorate Acute Kidney Injury by Alleviating Cluster of Differentiation 44-Mediated Immune Responses in Renal Tubular Cells
by Tso-Hsiao Chen, Chung-Te Liu, Chung-Yi Cheng, Yuh-Mou Sue, Nai-Jen Huang and Cheng-Hsien Chen
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040760 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2715
Abstract
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a sudden episode of kidney damage that commonly occurs in patients admitted to hospitals. To date, no ideal treatment has been developed to reduce AKI severity. Oligo-fucoidan (FC) interferes with renal tubular cell surface protein cluster of differentiation [...] Read more.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a sudden episode of kidney damage that commonly occurs in patients admitted to hospitals. To date, no ideal treatment has been developed to reduce AKI severity. Oligo-fucoidan (FC) interferes with renal tubular cell surface protein cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) to prevent renal interstitial fibrosis; however, the influence of oligosaccharides on AKI remains unknown. In this study, FC, galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS), and fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) were selected to investigate the influence of oligosaccharides on AKI. All three oligosaccharides have been proven to be partially absorbed by the intestine. We found that the oligosaccharides dose-dependently reduced CD44 antigenicity and suppressed the hypoxia-induced expression of CD44, phospho-JNK, MCP-1, IL-1β, and TNF-α in NRK-52E renal tubular cells. Meanwhile, CD44 siRNA transfection and JNK inhibitor SP600125 reduced the hypoxia-induced expression of phospho-JNK and cytokines. The ligand of CD44, hyaluronan, counteracted the influence of oligosaccharides on CD44 and phospho-JNK. At 2 days post-surgery for ischemia–reperfusion injury, oligosaccharides reduced kidney inflammation, serum creatine, MCP-1, IL-1β, and TNF-α in AKI mice. At 7 days post-surgery, kidney recovery was promoted. These results indicate that FC, GOS, and FOS inhibit the hypoxia-induced CD44/JNK cascade and cytokines in renal tubular cells, thereby ameliorating AKI and kidney inflammation in AKI mice. Therefore, oligosaccharide supplementation is a potential healthcare strategy for patients with AKI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 6310 KiB  
Article
An Apple a Day Keeps the Doctor Away: Potential Role of miRNA 146 on Macrophages Treated with Exosomes Derived from Apples
by Martina Trentini, Federica Zanotti, Elena Tiengo, Francesca Camponogara, Margherita Degasperi, Danilo Licastro, Luca Lovatti and Barbara Zavan
Biomedicines 2022, 10(2), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10020415 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 3950
Abstract
The constant dialogue between the plant world and the animal world (including man among them) has been known since the time of Adam and Eve, where an apple was the origin of the evils of the world. Apart from Snow White—who might have [...] Read more.
The constant dialogue between the plant world and the animal world (including man among them) has been known since the time of Adam and Eve, where an apple was the origin of the evils of the world. Apart from Snow White—who might have something to object to when it comes to the use of apples—fruits, plants, and natural extracts have been known for millennia as remedies for human health-related ailments. In the light of such evidence, the aim of the present work was to investigate from a biological point of view the potential role of apple exosomes in inflammatory processes on human cells. To this end we isolated and characterized apple exosomes and treated human cells such as macrophages and NCTC L929 as cancer cells in order to evaluate the tumorigenic and anti-inflammatory effect of apple exomes. Microscopic and molecular biology analyses were conducted to characterize exosomes and to assess cell proliferation, death, and miRNA line, as well as gene expression and the uptake of exosomes by cells. The results confirm the absolute biological safety of exosomes and their anti-inflammatory effect, mediated mainly by miRNA146 production by M2 macrophages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1370 KiB  
Article
Effect of Alpha-S1-Casein Tryptic Hydrolysate and L-Theanine on Poor Sleep Quality: A Double Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial
by Kokila Thiagarajah, Huei Phing Chee and Nam Weng Sit
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030652 - 3 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4791
Abstract
This randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover and double-blind study investigates the effects of RLX2™ containing alpha-s1-casein tryptic hydrolysate and L-theanine in working adults affected by poor sleep quality. The supplement or placebo was randomly and blindly assigned to 39 subjects for four weeks and the [...] Read more.
This randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover and double-blind study investigates the effects of RLX2™ containing alpha-s1-casein tryptic hydrolysate and L-theanine in working adults affected by poor sleep quality. The supplement or placebo was randomly and blindly assigned to 39 subjects for four weeks and the changes in the subjective sleep assessment via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), heart rate, blood pressure, salivary cortisol by high-performance liquid chromatography method and alpha power of awake electroencephalogram (EEG) were studied. The data were analyzed in two ways, by crossover and crossover summed up. The latter depicted that RLX2™ improved PSQI total score, sleep latency, sleep duration, sleep habitual efficiency, daytime dysfunction, and increased total and frontal alpha power significantly (p < 0.05). The supplement prolonged the total sleeping time by 45 min in the supplement receiving group compared to the placebo group (p < 0.001). However, only sleep duration and sleep habitual efficiency showed a profound effect in both analyses (p < 0.05). In conclusion, being given its beneficial effects without notable adverse events, it would be advantageous to use these nutraceutical ingredients to promote better sleep quality. Further studies with a larger number participants are warranted to support these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 2637 KiB  
Article
Metabolism and Health Effects of Rare Sugars in a CACO-2/HepG2 Coculture Model
by Amar van Laar, Charlotte Grootaert, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, Dieter Deforce, Tom Desmet, Koen Beerens and John Van Camp
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030611 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3847
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most prevalent liver disease worldwide and is impacted by an unhealthy diet with excessive calories, although the role of sugars in NAFLD etiology remains largely unexplored. Rare sugars are natural sugars with alternative monomers and [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most prevalent liver disease worldwide and is impacted by an unhealthy diet with excessive calories, although the role of sugars in NAFLD etiology remains largely unexplored. Rare sugars are natural sugars with alternative monomers and glycosidic bonds, which have attracted attention as sugar replacers due to developments in enzyme engineering and hence an increased availability. We studied the impact of (rare) sugars on energy production, liver cell physiology and gene expression in human intestinal colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells, hepatoma G2 (HepG2) liver cells and a coculture model with these cells. Fat accumulation was investigated in the presence of an oleic/palmitic acid mixture. Glucose, fructose and galactose, but not mannose, l-arabinose, xylose and ribose enhanced hepatic fat accumulation in a HepG2 monoculture. In the coculture model, there was a non-significant trend (p = 0.08) towards higher (20–55% increased) median fat accumulation with maltose, kojibiose and nigerose. In this coculture model, cellular energy production was increased by glucose, maltose, kojibiose and nigerose, but not by trehalose. Furthermore, glucose, fructose and l-arabinose affected gene expression in a sugar-specific way in coculture HepG2 cells. These findings indicate that sugars provide structure-specific effects on cellular energy production, hepatic fat accumulation and gene expression, suggesting a health potential for trehalose and l-arabinose, as well as a differential impact of sugars beyond the distinction of conventional and rare sugars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2703 KiB  
Article
Cod Liver Oil, but Not Retinoic Acid, Treatment Restores Bone Thickness in a Vitamin A-Deficient Rat
by Richard C. Baybutt, Joseph T. Standard, Daniel Dim, Tim Quinn, Hana Hamdan, Dingbo Lin, Kyle Kunz, Zachary S. Bomstein, Benjamin J. Estorge, Betty Herndon, Hamid Zia, Ahmad Mansour, Manesha Lankachandra and Agostino Molteni
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030486 - 22 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4099
Abstract
Vitamin A plays a prominent role for maintaining optimal bone status, but its impact upon the bone in response to vitamin A deficiency is not well defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how replenishing vitamin A by either whole food [...] Read more.
Vitamin A plays a prominent role for maintaining optimal bone status, but its impact upon the bone in response to vitamin A deficiency is not well defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how replenishing vitamin A by either whole food cod liver oil (COD) or the active metabolite of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA), altered bone thickness of vitamin A-deficient (VAD) rats. Weanling rats were administered a control diet (CTRL) or VAD diet for 9 weeks. This was followed by four weeks of treatment in which the VAD group was divided into the following 4 subgroups: (1) VAD (9 weeks)-VAD (4 weeks); (2) VAD-CTRL; (3) VAD-COD; and (4) VAD-RA. Compared to controls, VAD rats had thicker bones which showed marked dysplasia. VAD-rats treated with COD produced a thinner bone that was not significantly different from that of untreated rats. In contrast, RA did not significantly change the thicker bone, and also had significantly greater periosteal and endosteal osteoblast numbers compared to VAD-COD. Active osteoclasts were not detected in VAD rats, nor during the treatment period. These findings suggest that the abnormal bone thickness in VAD rats appears to be more effectively restored to bone thickness of untreated control rats when treated with COD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2824 KiB  
Article
Novel Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides Identified from Walnut Glutelin-1 Hydrolysates: Molecular Interaction, Stability, and Antihypertensive Effects
by Jing Wang, Guoliang Wang, Yufeng Zhang, Runguang Zhang and Youlin Zhang
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010151 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 2538
Abstract
In recent years, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide has become a research hotspot because of its essential role in maintaining human blood pressure balance. In this study, two novel ACE inhibitory peptides of Val-Glu-Arg-Gly-Arg-Arg-lle-Thr-Ser-Val (Valine-Glutamate-Arginine-Glycine-Arginine-Arginine-Isoleucine-Threonine-Serine-Valine, VERGRRITSV) and Phe-Val-Ile-Glu-Pro-Asn-Ile-Thr-Pro-Ala (Phenylalanine-Valine-Isoleucine-Glutamate-Proline-Asparagine-Isoleucine-Threonine-Proline-Alanine, FVIEPNITPA) were isolated and [...] Read more.
In recent years, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide has become a research hotspot because of its essential role in maintaining human blood pressure balance. In this study, two novel ACE inhibitory peptides of Val-Glu-Arg-Gly-Arg-Arg-lle-Thr-Ser-Val (Valine-Glutamate-Arginine-Glycine-Arginine-Arginine-Isoleucine-Threonine-Serine-Valine, VERGRRITSV) and Phe-Val-Ile-Glu-Pro-Asn-Ile-Thr-Pro-Ala (Phenylalanine-Valine-Isoleucine-Glutamate-Proline-Asparagine-Isoleucine-Threonine-Proline-Alanine, FVIEPNITPA) were isolated and purified from defatted walnut meal hydrolysates through a series of preparation processes including ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-15 gel chromatography, and reverse high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Both peptides showed high ACE inhibitory activities. The molecular docking study revealed that VERGRRITSV and FVIEPNITPA were primarily attributed to the formation of strong hydrogen bonds with the active pockets of ACE. The binding free energies of VERGRRITSV and FVIEPNITPA with ACE were −14.99 and −14.69 kcal/mol, respectively. Moreover, these ACE inhibitory peptides showed good stability against gastrointestinal enzymes digestion and common food processing conditions (e.g., temperature and pH, sugar, and salt treatments). Furthermore, animal experiment results indicated that the administration of VERGRRITSV or FVIEPNITPA exhibited antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Our results demonstrated that walnut could be a potential source of bioactive peptides with ACE inhibitory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

10 pages, 1898 KiB  
Article
Anti-Periodontitis Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Alpinia Katsumadai Seeds
by Seo Woo Shin and Young Sun Hwang
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010136 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2412
Abstract
Oral microbes are intimately associated with many oral and systemic diseases. Ongoing research is seeking to elucidate drugs that prevent and treat microbial diseases. Various functions of Alpinia Katsumadai seed extracts have been reported such as their anti-viral, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-puritic, anti-emetic, and [...] Read more.
Oral microbes are intimately associated with many oral and systemic diseases. Ongoing research is seeking to elucidate drugs that prevent and treat microbial diseases. Various functions of Alpinia Katsumadai seed extracts have been reported such as their anti-viral, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-puritic, anti-emetic, and cytoprotective effects. Here, we investigated the anti-periodontitis effect of an ethanol extract of Alpinia Katsumadai seeds (EEAKSs) on dental plaque bacteria (DPB)-induced inflammation and bone resorption. DPB and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) were cultured and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was extracted. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) levels were estimated using ELISA. Cytotoxicity was also verified. Proteases were screened using a protease antibody array method. Osteoclastic bone resorption was also investigated. EEAKSs suppressed P. gingivalis growth on agar plates. LPS prepared from dental plaque bacteria (DPB-LPS) and P. gingivalis (PG-LPS) significantly increased PGE2 and COX2 levels in immortalized gingival fibroblasts (IGFs), immortalized human oral keratinocytes (IHOKs), and RAW264.7 macrophage cells. However, DPB-LPS and PG-LPS-induced PGE2 and COX-2 increases were effectively abolished by EEAKS treatment at non-cytotoxic concentrations. In the protease antibody array, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, kallikrein 10, cathepsin D, and cathepsin V levels were increased by PG-LPS stimulation. However, increases in protease levels except for cathepsin D were suppressed by EEAKS treatment. In addition, RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation was significantly inhibited by EEAKS treatment, leading to reductions in resorption pit formation. These results suggest that EEAKSs exerted a beneficial oral health effect to help prevent DPB-mediated periodontal disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4086 KiB  
Article
Inhibitory Effects of Astaxanthin on CML-HSA-Induced Inflammatory and RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenic Gene Expression in RAW 264.7 Cells
by A. N. M. Mamun-Or-Rashid, Tanzima Tarannum Lucy, Masayuki Yagi and Yoshikazu Yonei
Biomedicines 2022, 10(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10010054 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3433
Abstract
Objective: Elevated levels of serum Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML), a well-known advanced glycation end-product (AGE), were observed in patients with inflammation or osteoporosis. Astaxanthin was reported to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of commercially available [...] Read more.
Objective: Elevated levels of serum Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML), a well-known advanced glycation end-product (AGE), were observed in patients with inflammation or osteoporosis. Astaxanthin was reported to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of commercially available dietary supplement AstaReal ACTR (ASR) capsule content as astaxanthin on CML-HSA-induced inflammatory and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa-Β ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenic gene expression. Methods: RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells were stimulated with CML-HSA to trigger inflammatory gene expression and treated with either a vehicle control or varied concentrations of astaxanthin. Inflammatory gene expression was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or qPCR. We triggered osteoclastogenesis using RANKL, and osteoclastogenic gene expression was measured through tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, staining, immunofluorescence, and qPCR analyses. Results: CML-HSA showed a stimulatory effect on inflammatory gene expression, and astaxanthin reduced the expression by at least two-fold. The levels of autoinflammatory gene expression were reduced by astaxanthin. The RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis was significantly inhibited by astaxanthin, with reductions in the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), the expression of NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T cells 1), multinucleated cell formation, and the expression of mature osteoclast marker genes. Conclusion: Astaxanthin has potential as a remedy for CML-HSA-induced inflammation and RANKL-induced excessive bone loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

31 pages, 2544 KiB  
Review
Therapeutic Potential of Thymoquinone in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Prevention and Progression through the Modulation of the Tumor Microenvironment
by Getinet M. Adinew, Equar Taka, Bereket Mochona, Ramesh B. Badisa, Elizabeth A. Mazzio, Rashid Elhag and Karam F. A. Soliman
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010079 - 25 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5149
Abstract
To date, the tumor microenvironment (TME) has gained considerable attention in various areas of cancer research due to its role in driving a loss of immune surveillance and enabling rapid advanced tumor development and progression. The TME plays an integral role in driving [...] Read more.
To date, the tumor microenvironment (TME) has gained considerable attention in various areas of cancer research due to its role in driving a loss of immune surveillance and enabling rapid advanced tumor development and progression. The TME plays an integral role in driving advanced aggressive breast cancers, including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), a pivotal mediator for tumor cells to communicate with the surrounding cells via lymphatic and circulatory systems. Furthermore, the TME plays a significant role in all steps and stages of carcinogenesis by promoting and stimulating uncontrolled cell proliferation and protecting tumor cells from the immune system. Various cellular components of the TME work together to drive cancer processes, some of which include tumor-associated adipocytes, fibroblasts, macrophages, and neutrophils which sustain perpetual amplification and release of pro-inflammatory molecules such as cytokines. Thymoquinone (TQ), a natural chemical component from black cumin seed, is widely used traditionally and now in clinical trials for the treatment/prevention of multiple types of cancer, showing a potential to mitigate components of TME at various stages by various pathways. In this review, we focus on the role of TME in TNBC cancer progression and the effect of TQ on the TME, emphasizing their anticipated role in the prevention and treatment of TNBC. It was concluded from this review that the multiple components of the TME serve as a critical part of TNBC tumor promotion and stimulation of uncontrolled cell proliferation. Meanwhile, TQ could be a crucial compound in the prevention and progression of TNBC therapy through the modulation of the TME. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3749 KiB  
Article
Sulforaphane Attenuates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease by Inhibiting Hepatic Steatosis and Apoptosis
by Jinwang Li, Siyu Xie and Wendi Teng
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010076 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5576
Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by lipotoxicity and ectopic lipid deposition within hepatocytes. Sulforaphane (SFA), an active compound used for inhibiting tumors, was found to have the potency to improve lipid metabolism. However, its molecular mechanisms on ameliorating NAFLD are still [...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by lipotoxicity and ectopic lipid deposition within hepatocytes. Sulforaphane (SFA), an active compound used for inhibiting tumors, was found to have the potency to improve lipid metabolism. However, its molecular mechanisms on ameliorating NAFLD are still incompletely understood. This research evaluated if SFA could inhibit hepatic steatosis and apoptosis. The effects of SFA on cell viability, lipid accumulation, triglyceride (TG) contents, apoptosis, ceramide contents, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were analyzed in palmitic acid (PA)-treated HepG2 cells and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. The related molecular mechanisms were further explored in hepatocytes. The results showed SFA alleviated lipid accumulation and regulated AMPK/SREBP1c/FAS signaling pathway in PA-stressed HepG2 cells. In addition, SFA alleviated PA-mediated apoptosis, downregulated the expressions of cleaved caspase 3, as well as reduced ceramide contents and ROS levels. Moreover, SFA treatment reduced HFD-induced body weight gain, alleviated insulin resistance, decreased serum TG, total cholesterol (TC), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, and prevented lipid deposition and apoptosis in the liver. This study showed SFA suppressed lipid deposition and apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that SFA may be a potential candidate for preventing and treating NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

22 pages, 1517 KiB  
Review
Curcumin May Prevent Basement Membrane Disassembly by Matrix Metalloproteinases and Progression of the Bladder Cancer
by Paweł Wroński, Stanisław Wroński, Marcin Kurant, Bartosz Malinowski and Michał Wiciński
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010032 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4030
Abstract
Authors present a review of crucial mechanisms contributing to the invasion of the basement membrane (BM) of the urothelium by cancer cells and to the progression of bladder cancer (BC). The breeching of the urothelial BM, facilitated by an aberrant activation of matrix [...] Read more.
Authors present a review of crucial mechanisms contributing to the invasion of the basement membrane (BM) of the urothelium by cancer cells and to the progression of bladder cancer (BC). The breeching of the urothelial BM, facilitated by an aberrant activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) is particularly perilous. Inhibition of activation of these proteinases constitutes a logic opportunity to restrain progression. Because of limited efficacy of current therapeutic methods, the search for the development of alternative approaches constitutes “the hot spot” of modern oncology. Recent studies revealed significant anticancer potential of natural phytochemicals. Especially, curcumin has emerged as a one of the most promising phytochemicals and showed its efficacy in several human malignancies. Therefore, this article addresses experimental and clinical data indicating multi-directional inhibitory effect of curcumin on the growth of bladder cancer. We particularly concentrate on the mechanisms, by which curcumin inhibits the MMP’s activities, thereby securing BM integrity and alleviating the eventual cancer invasion into the bladder muscles. Authors review the recently accumulating data, that curcumin constitutes a potent factor contributing to the more effective treatment of the bladder cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3276 KiB  
Article
DANCR Mediates the Rescuing Effects of Sesamin on Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Treatment via Orchestrating Osteogenesis and Osteoclastogenesis
by Zhengmeng Yang, Lu Feng, Haixing Wang, Yucong Li, Jessica Hiu Tung Lo, Xiaoting Zhang, Xuan Lu, Yaofeng Wang, Sien Lin, Micky D. Tortorella and Gang Li
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4455; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124455 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3087
Abstract
As one of the leading causes of bone fracture in postmenopausal women and in older men, osteoporosis worldwide is attracting more attention in recent decades. Osteoporosis is a common disease mainly resulting from an imbalance of bone formation and bone resorption. Pharmaceutically active [...] Read more.
As one of the leading causes of bone fracture in postmenopausal women and in older men, osteoporosis worldwide is attracting more attention in recent decades. Osteoporosis is a common disease mainly resulting from an imbalance of bone formation and bone resorption. Pharmaceutically active compounds that both activate osteogenesis, while repressing osteoclastogenesis hold the potential of being therapeutic medications for osteoporosis treatment. In the present study, sesamin, a bioactive ingredient derived from the seed of Sesamum Indicum, was screened out from a bioactive compound library and shown to exhibit dual-regulating functions on these two processes. Sesamin was demonstrated to promote osteogenesis by upregulating Wnt/β-catenin, while repressing osteoclastogenesis via downregulating NF-κB signaling . Furthermore, DANCR was found to be the key regulator in sesamin-mediated bone formation and resorption . In an ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporotic mouse model, sesamin could rescue OVX-induced bone loss and impairment. The increased serum level of DANCR caused by OVX was also downregulated upon sesamin treatment. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that sesamin plays a dual-functional role in both osteogenesis activation and osteoclastogenesis de-activation in a DANCR-dependent manner, suggesting that it may be a possible medication candidate for osteoporotic patients with elevated DNACR expression levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1866 KiB  
Article
Protection of Aronia melanocarpa Fruit Extract from Sodium-Iodate-Induced Damages in Rat Retina
by Yan Xing, Shan Liang, Yuanyuan Zhao, Shuo Yang, He Ni and Haihang Li
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4411; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124411 - 9 Dec 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2831
Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the major causes of blindness in elderly populations. However, the dry form of AMD has lack of effective treatments. The fruits of Aronia melanocarpa are rich in anthocyanins. In this study, the protective effects of aronia [...] Read more.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the major causes of blindness in elderly populations. However, the dry form of AMD has lack of effective treatments. The fruits of Aronia melanocarpa are rich in anthocyanins. In this study, the protective effects of aronia fruit extract on rat retina were investigated using a NaIO3-induced dry AMD model. Full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) showed that b-wave amplitudes were significantly decreased and the retina structures were disordered in the model. The extract treatment alleviated the injuries. The b-wave amplitudes increased 61.5% in Scotopic 0.01ERG, 122.0% in Photopic 3.0ERG, and 106.8% in Photopic 3.0 flicker; the retina structure disorder was improved with the thickness of outer nuclear layer increasing by 44.1%; and the malonaldehyde level was significantly reduced in extract-treated rat retinas compared to the model. The proteomics analysis showed the expressions of five crystallin proteins, α-crystallin A chain, β-crystallin B2, β-crystallin A3, α-crystallin B chain, and γ-crystallin S, which protect retina ganglion cells, were increased by 7.38-, 7.74-, 15.30-, 4.86-, and 9.14-fold, respectively, in the extract treatment compared to the control, which was also confirmed by immunoblotting. The results suggest that aronia fruit extract, probably due to its anthocyanins, could protect the rat retina by alleviating oxidative damages and by upregulating the crystallin proteins to protect its nerve system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 5102 KiB  
Article
Steviol Represses Glucose Metabolism and Translation Initiation in Pancreatic Cancer Cells
by Sonam Kumari, Mohammed Sikander, Shabnam Malik, Manish K. Tripathi, Bilal B. Hafeez, Murali M. Yallapu, Subhash C. Chauhan, Sheema Khan and Meena Jaggi
Biomedicines 2021, 9(12), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9121814 - 2 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2381
Abstract
Pancreatic cancer has the worst prognosis and lowest survival rate among all cancers. Pancreatic cancer cells are highly metabolically active and typically reprogrammed for aberrant glucose metabolism; thus they respond poorly to therapeutic modalities. It is highly imperative to understand mechanisms that are [...] Read more.
Pancreatic cancer has the worst prognosis and lowest survival rate among all cancers. Pancreatic cancer cells are highly metabolically active and typically reprogrammed for aberrant glucose metabolism; thus they respond poorly to therapeutic modalities. It is highly imperative to understand mechanisms that are responsible for high glucose metabolism and identify natural/synthetic agents that can repress glucose metabolic machinery in pancreatic cancer cells, to improve the therapeutic outcomes/management of pancreatic cancer patients. We have identified a glycoside, steviol that effectively represses glucose consumption in pancreatic cancer cells via the inhibition of the translation initiation machinery of the molecular components. Herein, we report that steviol effectively inhibits the glucose uptake and lactate production in pancreatic cancer cells (AsPC1 and HPAF-II). The growth, colonization, and invasion characteristics of pancreatic cancer cells were also determined by in vitro functional assay. Steviol treatment also inhibited the tumorigenic and metastatic potential of human pancreatic cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G1/M phase. The metabolic shift by steviol was mediated through the repression of the phosphorylation of mTOR and translation initiation proteins (4E-BP1, eIF4e, eIF4B, and eIF4G). Overall, the results of this study suggest that steviol can effectively suppress the glucose metabolism and translation initiation in pancreatic cancer cells to mitigate their aggressiveness. This study might help in the design of newer combination therapeutic strategies for pancreatic cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 712 KiB  
Review
Causal Links between Hypovitaminosis D and Dysregulation of the T Cell Connection of Immunity Associated with Obesity and Concomitant Pathologies
by Natalia Todosenko, Maria Vulf, Kristina Yurova, Olga Khaziakhmatova, Larisa Mikhailova and Larisa Litvinova
Biomedicines 2021, 9(12), 1750; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9121750 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2688
Abstract
Subclinical inflammation in morbid obesity is associated with immune activation and the development of concomitant diseases. Impaired immune homeostasis and immune cell dysregulation in adipose tissue are associated with phenotypic and functional changes in the pool of T lymphocytes and the development of [...] Read more.
Subclinical inflammation in morbid obesity is associated with immune activation and the development of concomitant diseases. Impaired immune homeostasis and immune cell dysregulation in adipose tissue are associated with phenotypic and functional changes in the pool of T lymphocytes and the development of chronic hypovitaminosis D. Low vitamin D levels in obesity lead to the activation, proliferation and production of pro-inflammatory mediators by T cells. Hypovitaminosis D is the cause of a decrease in the functional potential of regulatory and anti-inflammatory lymphocytes and the maintenance of the inflammatory response. The exact molecular genetic mechanisms of the effect of vitamin D on T lymphocytes have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, uncovering the functional role of T cells and their relationship to vitamin D homeostasis in the context of obesity development may contribute to the development of new pathogenetic methods for clinical prediction of the risk of metabolic, oncologic, autoimmune and infectious complications. The review presents the molecular genetic mechanisms of the effect of vitamin D on adipose tissue resident T lymphocytes and the characteristics of vitamin D receptor expression, and analyzes the phenotypic and functional characteristics of potentially pathogenic T lymphocytes in relation to the development of obesity and its associated complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1093 KiB  
Article
Dietary Supplementation with Biobran/MGN-3 Increases Innate Resistance and Reduces the Incidence of Influenza-like Illnesses in Elderly Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Clinical Trial
by Ahmed F. Elsaid, Sudhanshu Agrawal, Anshu Agrawal and Mamdooh Ghoneum
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4133; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114133 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4208
Abstract
Influenza-like illness (ILI) remains a major cause of severe mortality and morbidity in the elderly. Aging is associated with a decreased ability to sense pathogens and mount effective innate and adaptive immune responses, thus mandating the development of protective nutraceuticals. Biobran/MGN-3, an arabinoxylan [...] Read more.
Influenza-like illness (ILI) remains a major cause of severe mortality and morbidity in the elderly. Aging is associated with a decreased ability to sense pathogens and mount effective innate and adaptive immune responses, thus mandating the development of protective nutraceuticals. Biobran/MGN-3, an arabinoxylan from rice bran, has potent anti-aging and immunomodulatory effects, suggesting that it may be effective against ILI. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of Biobran/MGN-3 on ILI incidence, natural killer (NK) cell activity, and the expressions of RIG-1 (retinoic acid-inducible gene 1), MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5), and their downstream signaling genes ISG-15 (interferon-stimulated genes 15) and MX1 (myxovirus (influenza) resistance 1, interferon-inducible). A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial included eighty healthy older adults over 55 years old, 40 males and 40 females, who received either a placebo or Biobran/MGN-3 (500 mg/day) for 3 months during known ILI seasonality (peak incidence) in Egypt. The incidence of ILI was confirmed clinically according to the WHO case definition criteria. Hematological, hepatic, and renal parameters were assessed in all subjects, while the activity of NK and NKT (natural killer T) cells was assessed in six randomly chosen subjects in each group by the degranulation assay. The effect of Biobran/MGN-3 on RIG-1 and MDA5, as well as downstream ISG15 and MX1, was assessed in BEAS-2B pulmonary epithelial cells using flow cytometry. The incidence rate and incidence density of ILI in the Biobran/MGN-3 group were 5.0% and 0.57 cases per 1000 person-days, respectively, compared to 22.5% and 2.95 cases per 1000 person-days in the placebo group. Furthermore, Biobran/MGN-3 ingestion significantly enhanced NK activity compared to the basal levels and to the placebo group. In addition, Biobran/MGN-3 significantly upregulated the expression levels of RIG-1, MDA5, ISG15, and MX1 in the human pulmonary epithelial BEAS-2B cell lines. No side effects were observed. Taken together, Biobran/MGN-3 supplementation enhanced the innate immune response of elderly subjects by upregulating the NK activity associated with reduction of ILI incidence. It also upregulated the intracellular RIG-1, MDA5, ISG15, and MX1 expression in pulmonary epithelial tissue cultures. Biobran/MGN-3 could be a novel agent with prophylactic effects against a wide spectrum of respiratory viral infections that warrants further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2432 KiB  
Article
Preparation, Characterization, and Anticancer Effects of Capsaicin-Loaded Nanoliposomes
by Ali Al-Samydai, Walhan Alshaer, Emad A. S. Al-Dujaili, Hanan Azzam and Talal Aburjai
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3995; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113995 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3311
Abstract
Background: Medicinal plants have proven their value as a source of molecules with therapeutic potential, and recent studies have shown that capsaicin has profound anticancer effects in several types of human cancers. However, its clinical use is handicapped due to its poor pharmacokinetics. [...] Read more.
Background: Medicinal plants have proven their value as a source of molecules with therapeutic potential, and recent studies have shown that capsaicin has profound anticancer effects in several types of human cancers. However, its clinical use is handicapped due to its poor pharmacokinetics. This study aims to enhance capsaicin’s pharmacokinetic properties by loading the molecule into nanoliposomes model and testing its anticancer activity. Methods: Nanoliposomes were prepared using the thin-film method, and characteristics were examined followed by qualitative and quantitative analyses of encapsulation efficiency and drug loading using HPLC at different lipid/capsaicin ratios. Cell viability assay (MTT) was used to determine IC50. Results: Capsaicin-loaded nanoliposomes showed optimum characteristics of morphology, particle size, zeta potential, and stability. In vitro anticancer activity of capsaicin and capsaicin-loaded nanoliposomes were compared against MCF7, MDA-MB-231, K562, PANC1, and A375 cell lines. Capsaicin-loaded nanoliposomes showed significant improvement in anticancer activity against cancers cell lines studied (p < 0.001), with increased selectivity against cancer cells compared to capsaicin. Conclusion: The encapsulated capsaicin nanoliposomes produced an improvement in pharmacokinetics properties, enhancing the anticancer activity and selectivity compared with capsaicin. This model seems to offer a potential for developing capsaicin formulations for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4822 KiB  
Article
Structure-Activity Relationship of Hydroxycinnamic Acid Derivatives for Cooperating with Carnosic Acid and Calcitriol in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells
by Aviram Trachtenberg, Katarzyna Sidoryk, Somaya Alreate, Suchismita Muduli, Andrzej Leś, Marcin Cybulski and Michael Danilenko
Biomedicines 2021, 9(11), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9111517 - 21 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1885
Abstract
Plant phenolic compounds have shown the ability to cooperate with one another at low doses in producing enhanced anticancer effects. This may overcome the limitations (e.g., poor bioavailability and high-dose toxicity) in developing these agents as cancer medicines. We have previously reported that [...] Read more.
Plant phenolic compounds have shown the ability to cooperate with one another at low doses in producing enhanced anticancer effects. This may overcome the limitations (e.g., poor bioavailability and high-dose toxicity) in developing these agents as cancer medicines. We have previously reported that the hydroxycinnamic acid derivative (HCAD) methyl-4-hydroxycinnamate and the phenolic diterpene carnosic acid (CA) can synergistically induce massive calcium-dependent apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at non-cytotoxic concentrations of each agent. Here, we explored the chemical nature of the synergy between HCADs and either CA, in inducing cytotoxicity, or the active metabolite of vitamin D (calcitriol), in enhancing the differentiation of AML cells. This was done by determining the structure–activity relationship of a series of hydroxycinnamic acids and their derivatives (methyl hydroxycinnamates and hydroxybenzylideneacetones) in combination with CA or calcitriol. The HCAD/CA synergy required the following critical structural elements of an HCAD molecule: (a) the para-hydroxyl on the phenolic ring, (b) the carbon C7–C8 double bond, and (c) the methyl-esterified carboxyl. Thus, the only HCADs capable of synergizing with CA were found to be methyl-4-hydroxycinnamate and methyl ferulate, which also most potently enhanced calcitriol-induced cell differentiation. Notably, the C7–C8 double bond was the major requirement for this HCAD/calcitriol cooperation. Our findings may contribute to the rational design of novel synergistically acting AML drugs based on prototype combinations of HCADs with other agents studied here. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

10 pages, 921 KiB  
Article
Serum Osteoprotegerin Is an Independent Marker of Metabolic Complications in Non-DialysisDependent Chronic Kidney Disease Patients
by Aleksandra Rymarz, Katarzyna Romejko, Anna Matyjek, Zbigniew Bartoszewicz and Stanisław Niemczyk
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3609; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103609 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1980
Abstract
Background: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) belongs to the tumour necrosis factor superfamily and is known to accelerate endothelial dysfunction and vascular calcification. OPG concentrations are elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between OPG levels [...] Read more.
Background: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) belongs to the tumour necrosis factor superfamily and is known to accelerate endothelial dysfunction and vascular calcification. OPG concentrations are elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between OPG levels and frequent complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) such as anaemia, protein energy wasting (PEW), inflammation, overhydration, hyperglycaemia and hypertension. Methods: One hundred non-dialysis-dependent men with CKD stage 3–5 were included in the study. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) was used to measure overhydration, fat amount and lean body mass. We also measured the serum concentrations of haemoglobin, albumin, total cholesterol, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and glycated haemoglobin (HgbA1c), as well as blood pressure. Results: We observed a significant, positive correlation between OPG and age, serum creatinine, CRP, fibrinogen, HgbA1c concentrations, systolic blood pressure and overhydration. Negative correlations were observed between OPG and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), serum albumin concentrations and serum haemoglobin level. Logistic regression models revealed that OPG is an independent marker of metabolic complications such as anaemia, PEW, inflammation and poor renal prognosis (including overhydration, uncontrolled diabetes and hypertension) in the studied population. Conclusion: Our results suggest that OPG can be an independent marker of PEW, inflammation and vascular metabolic disturbances in patients with chronic kidney disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

31 pages, 5399 KiB  
Systematic Review
Vitamin C in Critically Ill Patients: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Dhan Bahadur Shrestha, Pravash Budhathoki, Yub Raj Sedhai, Sujit Kumar Mandal, Shreeja Shikhrakar, Saurab Karki, Ram Kaji Baniya, Markos G. Kashiouris, Xian Qiao and Alpha A. Fowler
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3564; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103564 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5522
Abstract
Background: Vitamin C is a water-soluble antioxidant vitamin. Oxidative stress and its markers, along with inflammatory markers, are high during critical illness. Due to conflicting results of the published literature regarding the efficacy of vitamin C in critically ill patients, and especially the [...] Read more.
Background: Vitamin C is a water-soluble antioxidant vitamin. Oxidative stress and its markers, along with inflammatory markers, are high during critical illness. Due to conflicting results of the published literature regarding the efficacy of vitamin C in critically ill patients, and especially the concerns for nephrotoxicity raised by some case reports, this meta-analysis was carried out to appraise the evidence and affirmation regarding the role of vitamin C in critically ill patients. Methods: We searched the database thoroughly to collect relevant studies that assessed intravenous vitamin C use in critically ill patients published until 25 February 2021. We included randomized controlled trials and observational studies with 20 or more critically ill patients who have received intravenous ascorbic acid (vitamin C). After screening 18,312 studies from different databases, 53 were included in our narrative synthesis, and 48 were included in the meta-analysis. We used the Covidence software for screening of the retrieved literature. Review Manager (RevMan) 5.4 was used for the pooling of data and Odds Ratios (OR) and Mean difference (MD) as measures of effects with a 95% confidence interval to assess for explanatory variables. Results: Pooling data from 33 studies for overall hospital mortality outcomes using a random-effect model showed a 19% reduction in odds of mortality among the vitamin C group (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66–0.98). Length of hospital stay (LOS), mortality at 28/30 days, ICU mortality, new-onset AKI and Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) for AKI did not differ significantly across the two groups. Analysis of data from 30 studies reporting ICU stay disclosed 0.76 fewer ICU days in the vitamin C group than the placebo/standard of care (SOC) group (95% CI, −1.34 to −0.19). This significance for shortening ICU stay persisted even when considering RCTs only in the analysis (MD, −0.70; 95% CI, −1.39 to −0.02). Conclusion: Treatment of critically ill patients with intravenous vitamin C was relatively safe with no significant difference in adverse renal events and decreased in-hospital mortality. The use of vitamin C showed a significant reduction in the length of ICU stays in critically ill patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 2235 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammatory Effect of 4,5-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid on RAW264.7 Cells and a Rat Model of Inflammation
by Goeun Jang, Seulah Lee, Joonho Hong, Boram Park, Dokyung Kim and Chunsung Kim
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3537; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103537 - 9 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2300
Abstract
Anti-inflammatory agents that are safer and more effective than the currently used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are urgently needed. The dicaffeoylquinic acid (diCQA) isomer 4,5-diCQA exhibits antioxidant activity and various other health-promoting benefits; however, its anti-inflammatory properties require further investigation. This study was conducted [...] Read more.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are safer and more effective than the currently used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are urgently needed. The dicaffeoylquinic acid (diCQA) isomer 4,5-diCQA exhibits antioxidant activity and various other health-promoting benefits; however, its anti-inflammatory properties require further investigation. This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of 4,5-diCQA in vitro and in vivo using RAW264.7 cells and a carrageenan-induced inflammation model, respectively. In RAW264.7 cells, 4,5-diCQA pretreatment significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6, without inducing cytotoxicity. The inhibitory effects of 4,5-diCQA were mediated by the suppression of nuclear factor-κB nuclear translocation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Oral administration of 4,5-diCQA at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of the body weight suppressed carrageenan-induced edema and the expression of nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and tumor necrosis factor-α in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our results suggest that 4,5-diCQA exerts anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing activation of the nuclear factor-κB and MAPK pathways in vitro and reducing carrageenan-induced edema in vivo. Therefore, 4,5-diCQA shows potential as a natural alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 515 KiB  
Review
Experimental Animal Studies Support the Role of Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products in Health and Disease
by Melpomeni Peppa and Ioanna Mavroeidi
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3467; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103467 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3098
Abstract
The increased incidence of obesity, diabetes mellitus, aging, and associated comorbidities indicates the interplay between genetic and environmental influences. Several dietary components have been identified to play a role in the pathogenesis of the so-called “modern diseases”, and their complications including advanced glycation [...] Read more.
The increased incidence of obesity, diabetes mellitus, aging, and associated comorbidities indicates the interplay between genetic and environmental influences. Several dietary components have been identified to play a role in the pathogenesis of the so-called “modern diseases”, and their complications including advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are generated during the food preparation and processing. Diet-derived advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) can be absorbed in the gastrointestinal system and contribute to the total body AGEs’ homeostasis, partially excreted in the urine, while a significant amount accumulates to various tissues. Various in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies support that dAGEs play an important role in health and disease, in a similar way to those endogenously formed. Animal studies using wild type, as well as experimental, animal models have shown that dAGEs contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of various diseases and their complications, and are involved in the changes related to the aging process. In addition, they support that dAGEs’ restriction reduces insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation; restores immune alterations; and prevents or delays the progression of aging, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and their complications. These data can be extrapolated in humans and strongly support that dAGEs’ restriction should be considered as an alternative therapeutic intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 10473 KiB  
Article
The Combined Beneficial Effects of Postbiotic Butyrate on Active Vitamin D3-Orchestrated Innate Immunity to Salmonella Colitis
by Fu-Chen Huang and Shun-Chen Huang
Biomedicines 2021, 9(10), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9101296 - 22 Sep 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2989
Abstract
Salmonella spp. Remains a major public health problem globally. Biomedicine is the cornerstone of modern health care and could be a solution for antibiotic-resistant Salmonellosis. Although postbiotics seem to be an effective treatment in various clinical conditions, their clinical effects on Salmonella [...] Read more.
Salmonella spp. Remains a major public health problem globally. Biomedicine is the cornerstone of modern health care and could be a solution for antibiotic-resistant Salmonellosis. Although postbiotics seem to be an effective treatment in various clinical conditions, their clinical effects on Salmonella colitis have not been reported. Our previous report revealed that active vitamin D attenuates the severity of Salmonella colitis and invasiveness by reducing inflammation and enhancing the production of antimicrobial peptides. Therefore, we investigated the synergistic effects of butyrate, the most studied postbiotic, and active vitamin D on the severity of Salmonella colitis, invasiveness of Salmonella, and host immune responses, as well as its novel mechanisms, using in vitro and in vivo studies. We demonstrated that a combination of butyrate and active vitamin D (1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) synergically reduced the severity of Salmonella colitis in C57BL/6 mice and reduced cecal inflammatory mIL-6, mIL-8, mTNF-α, and mIL-1β mRNA expression, but enhanced the antimicrobial peptide mhBD-3 mRNA, compared to a single treatment. Additionally, upregulated vitamin D receptor (VDR) plays a critical role in the synergistic effects. This suggests combined benefits of butyrate and active vitamin D on Salmonella colitis through VDR-mediated antibacterial and anti-inflammatory responses. The combined use of both supplements could be a potential biomedicine for infectious and autoimmune colitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 2474 KiB  
Review
Role for Selenium in Metabolic Homeostasis and Human Reproduction
by Albaraa Mojadadi, Alice Au, Wed Salah, Paul Witting and Gulfam Ahmad
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3256; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093256 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 74 | Viewed by 7668
Abstract
Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient essential for life. Dietary intake of Se within the physiological range is critical for human health and reproductive functions. Selenium levels outside the recommended range have been implicated in infertility and variety of other human diseases. However, presently [...] Read more.
Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient essential for life. Dietary intake of Se within the physiological range is critical for human health and reproductive functions. Selenium levels outside the recommended range have been implicated in infertility and variety of other human diseases. However, presently it is not clear how different dietary Se sources are processed in our bodies, and in which form or how much dietary Se is optimum to maintain metabolic homeostasis and boost reproductive health. This uncertainty leads to imprecision in published dietary guidelines and advice for human daily intake of Se and in some cases generating controversies and even adverse outcomes including mortality. The chief aim for this review is to describe the sources of organic and inorganic Se, the metabolic pathways of selenoproteins synthesis, and the critical role of selenprotenis in the thyroid gland homeostasis and reproductive/fertility functions. Controversies on the use of Se in clinical practice and future directions to address these challenges are also described and discussed herein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 306 KiB  
Article
Associations of Dietary Lipid-Soluble Micronutrients with Hepatic Steatosis among Adults in the United States
by Weiwen Chai, Sarah Eaton, Heather E. Rasmussen and Meng-Hua Tao
Biomedicines 2021, 9(9), 1093; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9091093 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1640
Abstract
Lipid-soluble micronutrients may be beneficial to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease due to their important roles in metabolism and maintaining tissue functions. Utilizing 2017–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, this study examined the potential overall and race/ethnicity-specific (black, Hispanic and white) associations of [...] Read more.
Lipid-soluble micronutrients may be beneficial to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease due to their important roles in metabolism and maintaining tissue functions. Utilizing 2017–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, this study examined the potential overall and race/ethnicity-specific (black, Hispanic and white) associations of dietary lipid-soluble micronutrients (α-tocopherol, retinol, vitamin D, β-carotene and total carotenoids) with hepatic steatosis. The analysis included 4376 adults (1037 blacks, 981 Hispanics, 1549 whites) aged ≥20 years who completed the transient elastography examination with dietary data available. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regressions. The age-adjusted prevalence of steatosis was 20.9% for blacks, 34.0% for Hispanics and 28.7% for whites. Overall, dietary α-tocopherol was inversely associated with steatosis (highest vs. lowest quartile: OR = 0.51, 95%CI = 0.35–0.74, Ptrend = 0.0003). The associations remained significant among blacks (highest vs. lowest tertile: OR = 0.45, 95%CI = 0.26–0.77, Ptrend = 0.002) and whites (highest vs. lowest tertile: OR = 0.56, 95%CI = 0.33–0.94, Ptrend = 0.02). Higher α-tocopherol intake was associated with lower odds of steatosis among all (Ptrend = 0.016) and black participants (Ptrend = 0.003) classified as never/rare/occasional alcohol drinkers. There was a trend suggesting higher β-carotene intake with lower odds of steatosis (Ptrend = 0.01). Our results suggest potential protective effects of dietary vitamin E as α-tocopherol on steatosis particularly among blacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Back to TopTop