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Selected Papers from 2019 Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand: Beyond Nutrition—kei tua i te kaitōtika

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020) | Viewed by 49668

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will comprise manuscripts of papers presented as either oral or poster presentations at the 2019 Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand: Beyond Nutrition—kei tua i te kaitōtika

(http://www.nutritionsociety.ac.nz/newsandevents/society-meeting-2019). The Special Issue will also include a manuscript written by the postgraduate student who received the “Nutrients Prize” for Best Student Oral Presentation.

Assoc. Prof. Rachel Brown
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 2201 KiB  
Article
Assessing Diet Quality of Indigenous Food Systems in Three Geographically Distinct Solomon Islands Sites (Melanesia, Pacific Islands)
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010030 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4864
Abstract
Indigenous Solomon Islanders, like many living in Pacific Small Island Developing States (PSIDS), are currently experiencing the global syndemic—the combined threat of obesity, undernutrition, and climate change. This mixed-method study aimed to assess nutrition transitions and diet quality by comparing three geographically unique [...] Read more.
Indigenous Solomon Islanders, like many living in Pacific Small Island Developing States (PSIDS), are currently experiencing the global syndemic—the combined threat of obesity, undernutrition, and climate change. This mixed-method study aimed to assess nutrition transitions and diet quality by comparing three geographically unique rural and urban indigenous Solomon Islands populations. Participants in rural areas sourced more energy from wild and cultivated foods; consumed a wider diversity of foods; were more likely to meet WHO recommendations of >400 g of non-starchy fruits and vegetables daily; were more physically active; and had significantly lower body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI) when compared to urban populations. Urban populations were found to have a reduced ability to self-cultivate agri-food products or collect wild foods, and therefore consumed more ultra-processed foods (classified as NOVA 4) and takeout foods, and overall had less diverse diets compared to rural populations. Clear opportunities to leverage traditional knowledge and improve the cultivation and consumption of underutilized species can assist in building more sustainable and resilient food systems while ensuring that indigenous knowledge and cultural preferences are respected. Full article
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17 pages, 730 KiB  
Article
Dietary Patterns, Their Nutrients, and Associations with Socio-Demographic and Lifestyle Factors in Older New Zealand Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3425; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113425 - 08 Nov 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4186
Abstract
Dietary patterns analyse combinations of foods eaten. This cross-sectional study identified dietary patterns and their nutrients. Associations between dietary patterns and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were examined in older New Zealand adults. Dietary data (109-item food frequency questionnaire) from the Researching Eating, Activity [...] Read more.
Dietary patterns analyse combinations of foods eaten. This cross-sectional study identified dietary patterns and their nutrients. Associations between dietary patterns and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were examined in older New Zealand adults. Dietary data (109-item food frequency questionnaire) from the Researching Eating, Activity and Cognitive Health (REACH) study (n = 367, 36% male, mean age = 70 years) were collapsed into 57 food groups. Using principal component analysis, three dietary patterns explained 18% of the variation in diet. Dietary pattern associations with sex, age, employment, living situation, education, deprivation score, physical activity, alcohol, and smoking, along with energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, were investigated using regression analysis. Higher ‘Mediterranean’ dietary pattern scores were associated with being female, higher physical activity, and higher education (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.07). Higher ‘Western’ pattern scores were associated with being male, higher alcohol intake, living with others, and secondary education (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.16). Higher ‘prudent’ pattern scores were associated with higher physical activity and lower alcohol intake (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.15). There were positive associations between beta-carotene equivalents, vitamin E, and folate and ‘Mediterranean’ dietary pattern scores (p < 0.0001, R2 ≥ 0.26); energy intake and ‘Western’ scores (p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.43); and fibre and carbohydrate and ‘prudent’ scores (p < 0.0001, R2 ≥ 0.25). Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were associated with dietary patterns. Understanding relationships between these characteristics and dietary patterns can assist in health promotion. Full article
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13 pages, 249 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Aspects of Commercially Available Complementary Foods in New Zealand Supermarkets
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 2980; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12102980 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4284
Abstract
Optimal nutrition in early childhood fosters growth and development whilst preventing morbidity and mortality in later life. There is little research in New Zealand on commercially available complementary foods (CACFs). This cross-sectional study of the nutritional aspects and packaging of CACFs used data [...] Read more.
Optimal nutrition in early childhood fosters growth and development whilst preventing morbidity and mortality in later life. There is little research in New Zealand on commercially available complementary foods (CACFs). This cross-sectional study of the nutritional aspects and packaging of CACFs used data collected in four major supermarket chains in New Zealand in 2019 (Nutritrack). Of the 197 CACFs analysed, 43 (21.8%) were inappropriately recommended for consumption by children four months of age or older, 10 (5.1%) had added salt, and 67 (34.0%) contained free sugars. The majority (n = 136, 69.0%) contained ingredients with a sweet flavour. Relatively sweet vegetables like carrot and sweetcorn were used more often than bitter vegetables such as broccoli and spinach. The described texture of most (n = 145, 62.1%) wet ‘spoonable’ products was of the lowest complexity (smooth, puréed, custard). CACFs would adequately expose children to cow’s milk and wheat but not to other common food allergens (cooked hen’s egg, soy, fish, crustacean shellfish, peanut, and tree-nuts). If children’s diets include CACFs, non-commercial meals must be offered as well in order to meet nutritional guidelines related to the introduction of common food allergens, diversity of flavours, and complex textures for infants and toddlers. Full article
14 pages, 265 KiB  
Article
Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Are Symptoms and Diet Linked?
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 2975; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12102975 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5139
Abstract
New Zealand (NZ) has one of the world’s highest incidence rates of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), a group of chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the gastrointestinal tract. Patients with IBD often believe certain foods influence their disease symptoms and consequently may alter their [...] Read more.
New Zealand (NZ) has one of the world’s highest incidence rates of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), a group of chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the gastrointestinal tract. Patients with IBD often believe certain foods influence their disease symptoms and consequently may alter their diet considerably. The objective of this study was to determine foods, additives, and cooking methods (dietary elements) that NZ IBD patients identify in the onset, exacerbation, or reduction of their symptoms. A total of 233 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire concerning symptom behaviour in association with 142 dietary elements. Symptom onset and symptom exacerbation were associated with dietary elements by 55% (128) and 70% (164) of all IBD participants, respectively. Fruit and vegetables were most frequently identified, with dairy products, gluten-containing bread, and foods with a high fat content also considered deleterious. Of all IBD participants, 35% (82) associated symptom reduction with dietary elements. The identified foods were typically low in fibre, saturated fatty acids, and easily digestible. No statistically significant differences were seen between the type or number of dietary elements and disease subtype or recent disease activity. The association between diet and symptoms in patients with IBD and the mechanism(s) involved warrant further research and may lead to the development of IBD specific dietary guidelines. Full article
15 pages, 532 KiB  
Article
Dietary Choices of New Zealand Women during Pregnancy and Lactation
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2692; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092692 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4313
Abstract
Dietary recommendations during pregnancy and lactation have become increasingly complex, and sources of information more numerous but not always reliable, potentially causing confusion and unsafe choices. Women were recruited during pregnancy or within six months postpartum and completed questionnaires on dietary choices, food [...] Read more.
Dietary recommendations during pregnancy and lactation have become increasingly complex, and sources of information more numerous but not always reliable, potentially causing confusion and unsafe choices. Women were recruited during pregnancy or within six months postpartum and completed questionnaires on dietary choices, food safety, and sources of nutrition information. Women (n = 458) from around New Zealand participated in the study. They consumed a wide range of foods and beverages and reported various dietary changes. In pregnancy, women commonly avoided alcohol (92%), raw milk products (86%), and raw, smoked, or pre-cooked seafood and fish (84%), and made changes due to food safety concerns. Influential advice was acquired from a range of sources including midwives (37%) and the New Zealand pregnancy and breastfeeding guidelines (25%) during pregnancy. Food avoidance was less common in lactation. However, fewer women consumed milk products during lactation (64%) than pregnancy (93%). Potentially unreliable sources were used more frequently in lactation including alternative health practitioners (26%) and family or friends (12%), and dietary changes were often made in response to infant symptoms without supporting evidence. This study highlighted a need for good communication of evidence-based recommendations to women, especially during lactation. Full article
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16 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
Dietary Protein Intake and Determinants in Māori and Non-Māori Octogenarians. Te Puāwaitanga o Ngā Tapuwae Kia Ora Tonu: Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 2079; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072079 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2538
Abstract
Protein intake, food sources and distribution are important in preventing age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. The prevalence and determinants of low protein intake, food sources and mealtime distribution were examined in 214 Māori and 360 non-Māori of advanced age using two [...] Read more.
Protein intake, food sources and distribution are important in preventing age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. The prevalence and determinants of low protein intake, food sources and mealtime distribution were examined in 214 Māori and 360 non-Māori of advanced age using two 24 h multiple pass recalls. The contribution of food groups to protein intake was assessed. Low protein intake was defined as ≤0.75 g/kg for women and ≤0.86 g/kg for men. A logistic regression model was built to explore predictors of low protein intake. A third of both women (30.9%) and men (33.3%) had a low protein intake. The main food group sources were beef/veal, fish/seafood, milk, bread though they differed by gender and ethnicity. For women and men respectively protein intake (g/meal) was lowest at breakfast (10.1 and 13.0), followed by lunch (14.5 and 17.8) and dinner (23.3 and 34.2). Being a woman (p = 0.003) and having depressive symptoms (p = 0.029) were associated with consuming less protein. In adjusted models the odds of adequate protein intake were higher in participants with their own teeth or partial dentures (p = 0.036). Findings highlight the prevalence of low protein intake, uneven mealtime protein distribution and importance of dentition for adequate protein intake among adults in advanced age. Full article
17 pages, 839 KiB  
Article
Nutrition Knowledge and Perspectives of Physical Activity for Pre-Schoolers amongst Early Childhood Education and Care Teachers
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1984; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071984 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5479
Abstract
Caregivers’ nutrition and physical activity knowledge is recognised as being important for children’s health and body size. Identifying knowledge gaps amongst caregivers may inform professional development and obesity-prevention strategies in childcare settings. This cross-sectional validated online questionnaire aimed to measure current early childhood [...] Read more.
Caregivers’ nutrition and physical activity knowledge is recognised as being important for children’s health and body size. Identifying knowledge gaps amongst caregivers may inform professional development and obesity-prevention strategies in childcare settings. This cross-sectional validated online questionnaire aimed to measure current early childhood education and care (ECEC) teachers’ nutrition knowledge for pre-schoolers (2–5-year-olds) and related perspectives. Teachers’ (n = 386) knowledge of nutrition was lacking: The overall score was 22.56 ± 2.83 (mean ± SD), or 61% correct. Increased years of experience significantly predicted an increase in knowing that national nutrition and physical activity guidelines exist (B = 0.02 [95% CI, 0.00–0.03], r2 = 0.13, p = 0.033). Teachers’ increased agreement in feeling they were confident talking about nutrition to parents significantly predicted an increase in overall nutrition knowledge scores (B = 0.34 [95% CI, 0.06–0.63], r2 = 0.15, p = 0.019). The belief that ECEC teachers play a vital role in promoting pre-schoolers’ healthy eating and physical activity was widespread. Common knowledge barriers included a lack of staff training, confidence, and resources. ECEC teachers may lack nutrition knowledge for pre-schoolers, particularly in regard to basic nutrition recommendations (servings, food/beverage choices, and portion sizes). Full article
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10 pages, 428 KiB  
Article
The Development of a Psychometrically Valid and Reliable Questionnaire to Assess Nutrition Knowledge Related to Pre-Schoolers
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1964; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071964 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2924
Abstract
With rising childcare enrollments, caregivers have a unique opportunity to promote children’s nutrition education and healthy eating. Accurately identifying nutrition knowledge gaps amongst caregivers is necessary for professional development planning. Our aim was to design an early childhood education and care (ECEC) teacher [...] Read more.
With rising childcare enrollments, caregivers have a unique opportunity to promote children’s nutrition education and healthy eating. Accurately identifying nutrition knowledge gaps amongst caregivers is necessary for professional development planning. Our aim was to design an early childhood education and care (ECEC) teacher nutrition knowledge questionnaire that satisfies psychometric criteria of validity and reliability. Items were based on the New Zealand Ministry of Health dietary guidelines, literature and expert advice. University students in their final year of a Bachelor of Science (BSc) in Human Nutrition (n = 40), and students with no nutrition background (n = 51) completed the questionnaire to assess construct validity; 35 BSc nutrition students completed the questionnaire two weeks later to assess reliability. The Mann-Whitney-U test and a median-split table assessed construct validity; Pearson’s product-moment correlation assessed test-retest reliability. Nutrition students achieved higher total and subcategory scores (p < 0.01). All nutrition students scored above the median of the combined group; 82% of non-nutrition students scored below the median. In testing reliability, first and second administration median scores for total and subcategories were significantly correlated (r = 0.43–0.78; p < 0.01). The questionnaire achieved construct validity and test-retest reliability and measured ECEC teachers’ nutrition knowledge for preschoolers. Full article
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17 pages, 741 KiB  
Article
The Effects on Immune Function and Digestive Health of Consuming the Skin and Flesh of Zespri® SunGold Kiwifruit (Actinidia Chinensis var. Chinensis ‘Zesy002’) in Healthy and IBS-Constipated Individuals
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1453; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051453 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4831
Abstract
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder that results in constipation (IBS-C) or diarrhoea with abdominal pain, flatulence, nausea and bloating. Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) are nutrient-dense fruit with a number of reported health benefits that include lowering glycaemic response, improving [...] Read more.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder that results in constipation (IBS-C) or diarrhoea with abdominal pain, flatulence, nausea and bloating. Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) are nutrient-dense fruit with a number of reported health benefits that include lowering glycaemic response, improving cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers, and enhancing gut comfort and laxation. This study investigated the effect of consuming three whole Zespri® SunGold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis ‘Zesy002’) with or without skin on cytokine production and immune and gut health in healthy people and those with IBS-C symptoms. This study enrolled thirty-eight participants in a 16 week randomized cross-over study (19 healthy and 19 participants with IBS-C). Participants were randomized to consume either three kiwifruit without eating the skin or three kiwifruit including the skin for 4 weeks each, with a 4 week washout in between each intervention. There was a significant decrease in the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, for both the healthy and the IBS-C participants when they consumed whole kiwifruit and skin, and also for the healthy participants when they ate whole kiwifruit without the skin (p < 0.001). The kiwifruit interventions increased bowel frequency and significantly reduced the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale constipation and Birmingham IBS pain scores for both participant groups. We have demonstrated that consuming the skin of SunGold kiwifruit might have beneficial effects on gastrointestinal health that are not produced by consuming the flesh alone. Full article
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17 pages, 546 KiB  
Article
Inflammation (IL-1β) Modifies the Effect of Vitamin D and Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Core Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder—An Exploratory Pilot Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030661 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 6389
Abstract
Background: The role of vitamin D and omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 LCPUFA) in improving core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children has been investigated by a few randomised controlled trials and the results are mixed and inconclusive. The [...] Read more.
Background: The role of vitamin D and omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 LCPUFA) in improving core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children has been investigated by a few randomised controlled trials and the results are mixed and inconclusive. The response to treatment with these nutrients is heterogenous and may be influenced by inflammatory state. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether inflammatory state would modulate the effect of these nutrients on core symptoms of ASD. Methods: Seventy-three New Zealand children with ASD (2.5–8.0 years) completed a 12-month randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D (VID, 2000 IU/day), omega-3 LCPUFA; (OM, 722 mg/day docosahexaenoic acid), or both (VIDOM). Non-fasting baseline plasma interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was available for 67 children (VID = 15, OM = 21, VIDOM = 15, placebo = 16). Children were categorised as having undetectable/normal IL-1β (<3.2 pg/ml, n = 15) or elevated IL-1β (≥3.2 pg/mL, n = 52). The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) questionnaire was used to assess core symptoms of ASD (baseline, 12-month). Mixed model repeated measure analyses (including all children or only children with elevated IL-1β) were used. Results: We found evidence for an interaction between baseline IL-1β and treatment response for SRS-total, SRS-social communicative functioning, SRS-awareness and SRS-communication (all Pinteraction < 0.10). When all children were included in the analysis, two outcome comparisons (treatments vs. placebo) showed greater improvements: VID, no effect (all P > 0.10); OM and VIDOM (P = 0.01) for SRS-awareness. When only children with elevated IL-1β were included, five outcomes showed greater improvements: OM (P = 0.01) for SRS-total; OM (P = 0.03) for SRS-social communicative functioning; VID (P = 0.01), OM (P = 0.003) and VIDOM (P = 0.01) for SRS-awareness. Conclusion: Inflammatory state may have modulated responses to vitamin D and omega-3 LCPUFA intervention in children with ASD, suggesting children with elevated inflammation may benefit more from daily vitamin D and omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation. Full article
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Review

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14 pages, 1096 KiB  
Review
Nutrition in New Zealand: Can the Past Offer Lessons for the Present and Guidance for the Future?
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3433; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113433 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3948
Abstract
Over the last century, nutrition research and public health in New Zealand have been inspired by Dr Muriel Bell, the first and only state nutritionist. Some of her nutritional concerns remain pertinent today. However, the nutritional landscape is transforming with extraordinary changes in [...] Read more.
Over the last century, nutrition research and public health in New Zealand have been inspired by Dr Muriel Bell, the first and only state nutritionist. Some of her nutritional concerns remain pertinent today. However, the nutritional landscape is transforming with extraordinary changes in the production and consumption of food, increasing demand for sustainable and healthy food to meet the requirements of the growing global population and unprecedented increases in the prevalence of both malnutrition and noncommunicable diseases. New Zealand’s economy is heavily dependent on agrifoods, but there is a need to integrate interactions between nutrition and food-related disciplines to promote national food and nutrition security and to enhance health and well-being. The lack of integration between food product development and health is evident in the lack of investigation into possible pathological effects of food additives. A national coherent food strategy would ensure all components of the food system are optimised and that strategies to address the global syndemic of malnutrition and climate change are prioritised. A state nutritionist or independent national nutrition advocacy organisation would provide the channel to communicate nutrition science and compete with social media, lead education priorities and policy development, engage with the food industry, facilitate collaboration between the extraordinary range of disciplines associated with food production and optimal health and lead development of a national food strategy. Full article
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