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Selected Papers from 2018 Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019) | Viewed by 24056

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will comprise manuscripts of papers presented as either oral or poster presentations at the 2018 Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand (http://www.nutritionsociety.ac.nz/newsandevents/society-meeting-2018). The Special Issue will also include a manuscript written by the postgraduate student who received the “Nutrients Prize” for Best Student Oral Presentation.

Assoc. Prof. Rachel Brown
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (3 papers)

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11 pages, 292 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Ultrasound and Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry as Indicators of Bone Mineral Density in Young Women and Nutritional Factors Affecting It
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2336; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102336 - 01 Oct 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3702 | Correction
Abstract
Young adulthood is an important stage in the accrual of bone mass. Young women are often unaware of the need, and how to optimize modifiable risk factors, particularly intake of nutrients associated with good bone health. In this study, an accessible way to [...] Read more.
Young adulthood is an important stage in the accrual of bone mass. Young women are often unaware of the need, and how to optimize modifiable risk factors, particularly intake of nutrients associated with good bone health. In this study, an accessible way to estimate osteoporosis risk, quantitative ultrasound (QUS), is compared to the gold-standard technique dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a group of 54 healthy young women (18–26 years) from Manawatu, New Zealand, and the relationship with nutrient intake is investigated. Broadband ultrasound attenuation and speed of sound (BUA, SOS) were assessed by QUS calcaneal scans and bone mineral concentration/density (BMC/BMD) were determined by DXA scans of the lumbar spine and hip (total and femoral neck). Dietary intake of energy, protein, and calcium was estimated using three-day food diaries and questionnaires. DXA mean Z-scores (>−2.0) for the hip (0.19) and spine (0.2) and QUS mean Z-scores (>−1.0) (0.41) were within the expected ranges. DXA (BMD) and QUS (BUA, SOS) measurements were strongly correlated. Median intakes of protein and calcium were 83.7 g/day and 784 mg/day, respectively. Protein intake was adequate and, whilst median calcium intake was higher than national average, it was below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). No significant relationship was found between dietary intake of calcium or protein and BMD or BMC. To conclude, QUS may provide a reasonable indicator of osteoporosis risk in young women but may not be an appropriate diagnostic tool. Increased calcium intake is recommended for this group, regardless of BMD. Full article
13 pages, 722 KiB  
Article
Acute Supplementation with Nitrate-Rich Beetroot Juice Causes a Greater Increase in Plasma Nitrite and Reduction in Blood Pressure of Older Compared to Younger Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1683; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071683 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 10864
Abstract
Nitrate-rich beetroot juice supplementation has been shown to improve cardiovascular and cognitive function in younger and older adults via increased nitric oxide production. However, it is unclear whether the level of effects differs between the two groups. We hypothesized that acute supplementation with [...] Read more.
Nitrate-rich beetroot juice supplementation has been shown to improve cardiovascular and cognitive function in younger and older adults via increased nitric oxide production. However, it is unclear whether the level of effects differs between the two groups. We hypothesized that acute supplementation with nitrate-rich beetroot juice would improve cardiovascular and cognitive function in older and younger adults, with the potential for greater improvements in older adults. Thirteen younger (18–30 years) and 11 older (50–70 years) adults consumed either 150 mL of nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR; 10.5 mmol nitrate) or placebo (PL; 1 mmol nitrate) in a double-blind, crossover design, 2.25 h prior to a 30-min treadmill walk. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cognitive function, mood and perceptual tests were performed throughout the trial. BR consumption significantly increased plasma nitrate (p < 0.001) and nitrite (p = 0.003) concentrations and reduced systolic BP (p < 0.001) in both age groups and reduced diastolic BP (p = 0.013) in older adults. Older adults showed a greater elevation in plasma nitrite (p = 0.038) and a greater reduction in diastolic BP (p = 0.005) following BR consumption than younger adults. Reaction time was improved in the Stroop test following BR supplementation for both groups (p = 0.045). Acute BR supplementation increased plasma nitrite concentrations and reduced diastolic BP to a greater degree in older adults; whilst systolic BP was reduced in both older and younger adults, suggesting nitrate-rich BR may improve cardiovascular health, particularly in older adults due to the greater benefits from reductions in diastolic BP. Full article
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10 pages, 371 KiB  
Commentary
Power Dynamics in 21st-Century Food Systems
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2544; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102544 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 9012
Abstract
Food systems are central to our very planetary existence, yet they are not fit for purpose in the 21st century because of the enormous damage they do to the environment and human health. Transforming food systems to optimize human health, ecological health, social [...] Read more.
Food systems are central to our very planetary existence, yet they are not fit for purpose in the 21st century because of the enormous damage they do to the environment and human health. Transforming food systems to optimize human health, ecological health, social equity and economic prosperity will require major changes in power dynamics between players to shift the status quo. The purpose of this paper is to assess these power dynamics and the opportunities for the Great Intergenerational Food Transformation (GIFT)—how this current generation in power can transform food systems within one generation for future generations. The current ‘policy inertia’ preventing food policy action is due to the strong opposition from the commercial food sector, the reluctance of governments to regulate and tax, and the lack of demand for policy action from civil society. The translation of the market power of large food industries into self-serving political power is the dominant barrier to action. The most promising systemic lever for holding the major power players (governments and food industries) to account for the GIFT is increasing the power of civil society (including non-governmental organizations (NGOs), researchers, professional societies and the public) to demand changes in the political economy of food. Full article
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