nutrients-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Health Effects of Nut Consumption

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018) | Viewed by 60725

Special Issue Editors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrients is planning a Special Issue focusing on the health effects of nuts.  Current guidelines in a number of countries emphasise the inclusion of nuts as part of a cardioprotective diet. Recent research has investigated the effects of regular nut consumption on a wide range of risk factors for a number of different chronic diseases. The continued investigation of these risk factors, as well as other novel biomarkers of chronic disease, are important for guiding nut consumption recommendations.  

This Special Issue aims to bring together up-to-date reviews and cutting-edge original research in the field of health effects of nut consumption. We welcome manuscripts on long-term, short-term and acute human studies, as well as epidemiological research on a wide range of outcomes associated with nut consumption. We also invite submissions of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on nut consumption.

We invite you to submit your latest research on the health effects of nut consumption.

Assoc. Prof. Rachel Brown
Dr. Siew Ling Tey
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nuts
  • Chronic disease
  • Cardiometabolic risk
  • Human health
  • Energy balance
  • Dietary patterns
  • Snacks
  • Microbiota
  • Phytochemicals
  • Ageing
  • Appetite
  • Cognitive Function

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

10 pages, 660 KiB  
Article
Metabolizable Energy from Cashew Nuts is Less than that Predicted by Atwater Factors
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010033 - 24 Dec 2018
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 9773
Abstract
Recent studies have demonstrated that the energy provided by several tree nuts is less than that predicted by the Atwater factors, though energy available from cashews has never been assessed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolizable energy in cashew [...] Read more.
Recent studies have demonstrated that the energy provided by several tree nuts is less than that predicted by the Atwater factors, though energy available from cashews has never been assessed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolizable energy in cashew nuts. Eighteen healthy adults were enrolled in a randomized, crossover study with two treatment periods. Subjects were fed a fully controlled base diet for 4 weeks with either no additions or with the addition of 42 g/day (1.5 servings) of cashew nuts, with the final treatment diets being isocaloric. Complete diet collections were analyzed for nitrogen (for protein), fat, energy, and carbohydrate by difference. During the final week of each intervention phase, subjects collected all feces and urine produced, and these were also analyzed for nitrogen (feces and urine), energy (feces and urine), and fat (feces). The resulting data were used to calculate the metabolizable energy of cashews and the digestibility of macronutrients. The average available energy (calorie) content of a 28 g serving of cashew nuts was 137 kcal (±3.4 kcal SEM) and ranged from 105 to 151 kcal. The mean value of 137 kcal/serving is 16% lower (p < 0.0001) than what is typically found on food labels. Digestibility of energy, fat, protein, and carbohydrate was lower for the cashew-containing diet compared to the control diet (92.9% vs. 94.9%, p < 0.0001 for energy; 96.1% vs. 97.8%, p = 0.0009 for fat; 90.1% vs. 91.2%, p = 0.0012 for protein; 92.9% vs. 94.9%, p < 0.0001 for carbohydrate; for the cashew-containing diet vs. the control diet, respectively). In conclusion, cashews provide fewer calories than the values predicted by the Atwater factors, as found on current food labels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Nut Consumption)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 591 KiB  
Article
Walnut Consumption for Two Years and Leukocyte Telomere Attrition in Mediterranean Elders: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1907; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121907 - 04 Dec 2018
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 5817
Abstract
Randomized controlled trials on diet and shortening of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) mostly focus on marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Walnuts are a sustainable source of n-3 PUFA. We investigated whether inclusion of walnuts (15% of energy) in the diet [...] Read more.
Randomized controlled trials on diet and shortening of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) mostly focus on marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Walnuts are a sustainable source of n-3 PUFA. We investigated whether inclusion of walnuts (15% of energy) in the diet for 2 years would maintain LTL in cognitively healthy elders (63–79 years old) compared to a control group (habitual diet, abstaining from walnuts). This opportunistic sub-study was conducted within the Walnuts and Healthy Aging study, a dual-centre (Barcelona, Spain and Loma Linda University, California) parallel trial. A sub-set of the Barcelona site participants were randomly assigned to the walnut (n = 80) or control group (n = 69). We assessed LTL at baseline and at 2 years and we conducted repeated-measures ANCOVA with 2 factors: time (baseline, 2 years) and group (control, walnut) and their interaction. Adjusted means (95% confidence interval) of LTL (in kb) in controls were 7.360 (7.084,7.636) at baseline and 7.061 (6.835,7.288) after 2 years; corresponding values in the walnut group were 7.064 (6.807,7.320) and 7.074 (6.864,7.284). The time × intervention interaction was nearly significant (p = 0.079), suggestive of a trend of walnut consumption in preserving LTL. This exploratory research finding should be confirmed in trials with adequate statistical power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Nut Consumption)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1985 KiB  
Article
Glucoregulatory and Cardiometabolic Profiles of Almond vs. Cracker Snacking for 8 Weeks in Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10080960 - 25 Jul 2018
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 10723
Abstract
The transition to nutritional independence makes new college students vulnerable to alterations in eating patterns, which can increase the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The aim of the study was to examine the potential benefits of almond vs. cracker snacking in improving glucoregulatory and [...] Read more.
The transition to nutritional independence makes new college students vulnerable to alterations in eating patterns, which can increase the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The aim of the study was to examine the potential benefits of almond vs. cracker snacking in improving glucoregulatory and cardiometabolic profiles in new college students. A randomized controlled, parallel-arm, 8-week intervention of 73 college students (BMI: 18–41 kg/m2) with no cardiometabolic disorders was conducted. Participants were randomized into either an almond snack group (56.7 g/day; 364 kcal; n = 38) or Graham cracker control group (77.5 g/day; 338 kcal/d; n = 35). Chronic, static changes were assessed from fasting serum/plasma samples at baseline, and after 4 and 8 weeks. Acute, dynamic effects were assessed during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 8 weeks. Almond snacking resulted in a smaller decline in HDL cholesterol over 8 weeks (13.5% vs. 24.5%, p < 0.05), 13% lower 2-h glucose area under the curve (AUC), 34% lower insulin resistance index (IRI) and 82% higher Matsuda index (p < 0.05) during the OGTT, despite similar body mass gains over 8 weeks compared with the cracker group. In general, both almond and cracker snacking reduced fasting glucose, and LDL cholesterol. Conclusions: Incorporating a morning snack in the dietary regimen of predominantly breakfast-skipping, first-year college students had some beneficial effects on glucoregulatory and cardiometabolic health. Almond consumption has the potential to benefit postprandial glucoregulation in this cohort. These responses may be influenced by cardiometabolic risk factor status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Nut Consumption)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1716 KiB  
Article
Mastication of Nuts under Realistic Eating Conditions: Implications for Energy Balance
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060710 - 01 Jun 2018
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 7218
Abstract
The low digestibility and high satiety effects of nuts have been partly attributed to mastication. This work examines chewing forces and the bolus particle size of nuts (walnuts, almonds, pistachios) varying in physical properties under different conditions (with and without water, juice, sweetened [...] Read more.
The low digestibility and high satiety effects of nuts have been partly attributed to mastication. This work examines chewing forces and the bolus particle size of nuts (walnuts, almonds, pistachios) varying in physical properties under different conditions (with and without water, juice, sweetened yogurt and plain yogurt) along with satiety sensations and gut hormone concentrations following walnut consumption (whole or butter). In a randomized, cross-over design with 50 adults (25 males, 25 females; Body Mass Index (BMI) 24.7 ± 3.4 kg/m2; age: 18–52 years old (y/o), the chewing forces and particle size distribution of chewed nuts were measured under different chewing conditions. Appetite sensations were measured at regular intervals for 3 h after nut intake, and plasma samples were collected for the measurement of glucose, insulin and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The three nuts displayed different particle sizes at swallowing though no differences in chewing forces were observed. Walnuts with yogurt yielded larger particle sizes than the other treatments. Particle size was not correlated with either food palatability or flavor. Fullness sensations were higher after whole nut than nut butter consumption though there were no significant changes in glucose, insulin, or GLP-1 concentrations under any condition. Changing the conditions at swallowing might influence the release of energy from nuts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Nut Consumption)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2035 KiB  
Article
Association between Frequency of Consumption of Fruit, Vegetables, Nuts and Pulses and BMI: Analyses of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030316 - 07 Mar 2018
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 7075
Abstract
Diets which emphasize intakes of plant-based foods are recommended to reduce disease risk and for promoting healthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fruit, vegetables, pulses and nut intake and body mass index (BMI) across countries in [...] Read more.
Diets which emphasize intakes of plant-based foods are recommended to reduce disease risk and for promoting healthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fruit, vegetables, pulses and nut intake and body mass index (BMI) across countries in adolescents (13–14 years) and children (6–7 years). Data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood; 77,243 children’s parents and 201,871 adolescents was used to examine the association between dietary intake (Food Frequency Questionnaire) and BMI using general linear models, adjusting for country gross national index. Adolescents who consumed fruit, vegetables, pulses and nuts three or more times a week had a lower BMI than the never or occasional group; eating nuts three or more times a week, was associated with a BMI value of 0.274 kg/m2 lower than the never group (p < 0.001). Compared to children who never or occasionally reported eating vegetables, those reporting that they ate vegetables three or more times per week had a lower BMI of −0.079 kg/m2. In this large global study, an inverse association was observed between BMI and the reported increasing intake of vegetables in 6–7 years old and fruit, vegetables, pulses and nuts in adolescents. This study supports current dietary recommendations which emphasize the consumption of vegetables, nut and pulses, although the effect sizes were small. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Nut Consumption)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

14 pages, 472 KiB  
Review
The Effects of Nut Consumption on Vascular Function
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010116 - 08 Jan 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 5516
Abstract
Vascular stiffness can be measured using numerous techniques including assessments of central haemodynamics, aortic arterial stiffness, and indices of aortic wave reflection and endothelial dilatation. Impaired vascular function is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Epidemiological studies indicate that regular nut [...] Read more.
Vascular stiffness can be measured using numerous techniques including assessments of central haemodynamics, aortic arterial stiffness, and indices of aortic wave reflection and endothelial dilatation. Impaired vascular function is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Epidemiological studies indicate that regular nut consumption reduces CVD risk, with one of the proposed mechanisms being via improvements in vascular function. This narrative review summarizes the evidence from a systematic search of the literature of the effects of tree nut and peanut consumption on measures of vascular function excluding flow mediated dilatation. A total of 16 studies were identified, with a mix of acute controlled studies (n = 3), an uncontrolled pre/post chronic study (n = 1), chronic crossover (n = 7) and parallel studies (n = 5). Nut types tested included almonds, peanuts, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts, with dose and length of supplementation varying greatly across studies. Most studies (n = 13) included individuals at risk for CVD, according to various criteria. Findings were inconsistent, with ten studies reporting no significant changes in vascular function and six studies (one acute and five chronic studies) reporting improvements in at least one measure of vascular function. In summary, nuts have the potential to improve vascular function and future studies should consider the population, dose and length of nut supplementation as well as suitability of the different vascular function techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Nut Consumption)
Show Figures

Figure 1

44 pages, 627 KiB  
Review
Nuts and Cardio-Metabolic Disease: A Review of Meta-Analyses
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1935; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121935 - 06 Dec 2018
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 7176
Abstract
Objectives: Accumulating epidemiological and intervention evidence suggest that nut consumption is associated with reduced incidence of some cardiometabolic diseases. However, to date no review of meta-analyses of epidemiological and intervention studies has evaluated the effects of nut consumption on cardiometabolic disease. Design/Results: Electronic [...] Read more.
Objectives: Accumulating epidemiological and intervention evidence suggest that nut consumption is associated with reduced incidence of some cardiometabolic diseases. However, to date no review of meta-analyses of epidemiological and intervention studies has evaluated the effects of nut consumption on cardiometabolic disease. Design/Results: Electronic searches for meta-analyses of epidemiological and intervention studies were undertaken in PubMed®/MEDLINE®. Meta-analyses of prospective studies show that nut consumption appears to be associated with reduced all-cause mortality by 19–20% (n = 6), cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence (19%; n = 3) and mortality (25%; n = 3), coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence (20–34%; n = 2) and mortality (27–30%; n = 2) and stroke incidence (10–11%; n = 7) and mortality (18%; n = 2). No association between nut consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was observed in meta-analyses of prospective studies, whereas a decrease in fasting blood glucose ranging from 0.08 to 0.15 mmol/L was observed in 3 meta-analyses of intervention studies. In the interventions, nut consumption also had favorable effects on total cholesterol (0.021 to 0.28 mmol/L reduction from 8 meta-analyses of interventions) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.017 to 0.26 mmol/L reduction from 8 meta-analyses of interventions) and endothelial function (0.79 to 1.03% increase in flow-mediated dilation from 4 meta-analyses of interventions). Nut consumption did not significantly affect body weight. Nut consumption had no effect on inflammatory markers in intervention studies. The effect on blood pressure was inconsistent. A higher nut consumption was associated with a lower incidence of hypertension in prospective studies, while nut consumption did not improve blood pressure in intervention studies. Conclusions: Nut consumption appeared to be associated with lower all-cause mortality and CVD and CHD mortality. There was no association between nut consumption and the incidence of T2DM although fasting blood glucose is decreased in intervention studies. In intervention studies nuts lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Nut Consumption)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 608 KiB  
Review
Can Nuts Mitigate Malnutrition in Older Adults? A Conceptual Framework
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1448; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101448 - 06 Oct 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6641
Abstract
The proportion of adults aged over 60 years in the world is expected to reach 20% by the year 2050. Ageing is associated with several physiological changes that increase the risk of malnutrition among this population. Malnutrition is characterized by deficiencies or insufficiencies [...] Read more.
The proportion of adults aged over 60 years in the world is expected to reach 20% by the year 2050. Ageing is associated with several physiological changes that increase the risk of malnutrition among this population. Malnutrition is characterized by deficiencies or insufficiencies of macro- and micronutrients. Malnutrition has detrimental effects on the health, wellbeing, and quality of life in older adults. Nuts are rich in energy, unsaturated fats, and protein, as well as other nutrients that provide a range of health benefits. While the effects of nuts on overnutrition have been studied extensively, very few studies have been specifically designed to understand the role of nuts in mitigating undernutrition in the elderly. Therefore, this review explores the potential role of nuts in improving the nutritional status of older adults who are at risk of undernutrition. Several properties of whole nuts, some of which appear important for addressing overnutrition, (e.g., hardness, lower-than-expected nutrient availability, satiety-enhancing effects) may limit their effectiveness as a food to combat undernutrition. However, we propose that modifications such as transforming the physical form of nuts, addressing the timing of nut ingestion, and introducing variety may overcome these barriers. This review also discusses the feasibility of using nuts to prevent and reverse undernutrition among older adults. We conclude with a recommendation to conduct clinical studies in the future to test this conceptual framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Effects of Nut Consumption)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop