Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 64345

Special Issue Editors

Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Granada, Avda Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain
Interests: bioactive compounds; phenolic compounds; green extraction techniques; microencapsulation; mass spectrometry; metabolomics.
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, the investigation of the relationship between health and diet has seen a continuous and exponential increase. The high variety of bioactive constituents present in foods, together with the diverse mechanisms of action involved in the prevention of different pathologies, make this research topic of great interest and still under investigation. Moreover, the recent advances in extraction procedures, analytical techniques, and bioactivity assays have allowed researchers to delve into minor food constituents and metabolites with potent bioactivity and their mechanisms of action.

For this reason, a Special Issue of Foods is being released, focused on the analysis and bioactivity of different food phytochemicals with potential for the prevention of different diseases. It will provide an overview of the current status and future perspectives of the presence of these compounds in foods and their role in the prevention or amelioration of several kinds of illnesses.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Food bioactive compounds with potent antioxidant activity involved in disease prevention.
  • Phytochemicals present in food with antiobesity property.
  • Bioactive compounds from food matrices with antidiabetic potential.
  • Enriched bioactive foods with anti-inflammatory effect.
  • Food bioactives with anticancer activity.
  • Food constituents with microbiota modulation activity.

This Special Issue on “Disease Prevention by Food Bioactives” will include a selection of recent research and current review articles about bioactive compounds present in foods and plants with disease prevention activity. This Special Issue is particularly focused on articles describing the presence of bioactive compounds from different food sources, their analysis, bioactive properties, and mechanisms of action regarding disease prevention.

Dr. Isabel Borrás
Prof. Dr. Jesús Lozano-Sánchez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • food bioactive compounds
  • phenolic compounds
  • antioxidant activity
  • antiobesity activity
  • antidiabetic activity
  • anti-inflammatory activity
  • anticancer activity
  • microbiota modulation activity

Published Papers (20 papers)

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23 pages, 1268 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Screening of Commercialized Protein Supplements for Sports Practice
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3500; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213500 - 03 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4003
Abstract
Recent years have seen a rise in the popularity of the consumption of sports-related supplements. However, the hypothesis is raised that it is necessary to analyze the quality aspects of these supplements in relation to the information provided on the label, to avoid [...] Read more.
Recent years have seen a rise in the popularity of the consumption of sports-related supplements. However, the hypothesis is raised that it is necessary to analyze the quality aspects of these supplements in relation to the information provided on the label, to avoid associated risks and obtain the greatest possible benefit from their consumption. Therefore, the aim of this study has been to carry out an analysis or screening of the protein supplements that are currently marketed in Spain. We analyzed the labels of 52 protein sports supplements available both in physical stores and online. The analysis consisted of addressing three relevant aspects considering the labeling: (a) the legislative framework in which the supplements are marketed, (b) the quality of the protein, and (c) the presence of other ingredients according to the specifications of the label. In the legislative context, there do not seem to be any specific regulations to guarantee consumer protection, which can lead to unfair practices and misleading advertising. Most of the supplements analyzed to comply with the requirements of their current regulations. However, claims about their benefits that are not allowed under European legislation have been found in some of them. Regarding composition and according to label information, the supplements have been found to provide a sufficient dose of protein in terms of recommended protein intake per serving. Regarding the presence of other ingredients and according to the information on the label, most of them, except for egg supplements, contain other ingredients. Colostrum was also found in one of the supplements evaluated. The conclusions of the study reveal that, due to a lack of knowledge or misleading advertising practices, supplements are often not used properly. The information provided is essential for both professionals and consumers to avoid the risks associated with consumption, such as unintentional doping, interactions between ingredients that reduce the quality of the supplement, and consumption of supplements inappropriately, among others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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18 pages, 2153 KiB  
Article
A Thai Traditional Triple-Fruit Formulation “Phikud Tri-Phon” May Provide Fat Loss and Nutritional Benefits
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3067; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193067 - 02 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3319
Abstract
Obesity and overweight have serious health outcomes. “Phikud Tri-Phon” (PTP) is a traditional Thai medicine comprising three dried fruits from Aegle marmelos L., Morinda citrifolia L., and Coriandrum sativum L. Whether this medicine impacts on metabolic disease is unclear. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
Obesity and overweight have serious health outcomes. “Phikud Tri-Phon” (PTP) is a traditional Thai medicine comprising three dried fruits from Aegle marmelos L., Morinda citrifolia L., and Coriandrum sativum L. Whether this medicine impacts on metabolic disease is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the phenolic and flavonoid contents of PTP and each of its herbal components, and further assess their antioxidant and anti-adipogenetic activities. Oil-red O staining was measured for lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The chemical profiles of PTP and each herbal extract were determined by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS. Our results show that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of PTP water extract were 22.35–108.42 mg of gallic acid equivalents and PTP ethanolic extract was 1.19–0.93 mg of quercetin equivalents and the DPPH scavenging capacity assay of PTP ethanolic extract (1 mg/mL) was 92.45 ± 6.58 (Trolox equivalent)/g. The PTP extracts and individual herbs had inhibitory adipogenesis activity, which reduced lipid accumulation by approximately 31% in PTP water extract and 22% in PTP ethanolic extract compared with control cells. These results provided insights into the traditional preparation method of using boiling water as a vehicle for PTP. In conclusion, PTP has antioxidant and anti-adipogenesis potential, indicating it is a promising ingredient in functional food and herbal health products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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15 pages, 1022 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Profile and Chemopreventive Properties of Cooked Glutinous Purple Rice Extracts Using Cell-Based Assays and Rat Model
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2333; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152333 - 04 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
Purple rice has gained attention for its health promoting potential due to a high content of bioactive phytochemicals. The heat generated during cooking alters the quality and quantity of nutrients and phytochemicals in food. This study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile and [...] Read more.
Purple rice has gained attention for its health promoting potential due to a high content of bioactive phytochemicals. The heat generated during cooking alters the quality and quantity of nutrients and phytochemicals in food. This study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile and chemopreventive properties of cooked glutinous purple rice using cell-based assays and a rat model. Purple rice was cooked in a rice cooker and was then further extracted with solvents to obtain dichloromethane and methanol extracts. The methanol extracts of glutinous purple rice contained great amounts of phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins. Protocatechuic acid (2.26–5.40 mg/g extract) and cyanidin 3-glucoside (34.3–65.7 mg/g extract) were the major phenolic acid and anthocyanin contents, respectively. After cooking, the content of anthocyanins, γ-oryzanols, and phytosterols decreased, while the amount of some phenolic acid and tocol contents increased. Methanol extracts of glutinous purple rice inhibited reactive oxygen species production about 60% in PMA-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, reduced nitric oxide formation in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells (26–39% inhibition), and exhibited antimutagenicity against several mutagens using the Ames test, but dichloromethane extracts presented only mild anti-inflammatory activities. Although methanol extracts induced mild mutagenicity (mutagenic index 2.0–2.5), they did not induce micronucleated hepatocyte formation and certain hepatic CYP450 isozyme activities in rats. However, the mutagenicity of the methanol extract significantly declined after cooking. In summary, the methanol extract of the cooked glutinous purple rice might be a promising cancer chemopreventive fraction, which was neither genotoxic nor posing adverse effects on phytochemical–drug interaction in rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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12 pages, 1155 KiB  
Article
Elaboration of Cookies Using Oils and Flours from Seeds and Nuts: Effects on Technological, Nutritional and Consumer Aspects
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2249; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152249 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
The consumption of cookies is widely extended throughout the world, although their formulas contain ingredients such as saturated fats or refined flours that are considered harmful to health. In addition, cookies are generally made from wheat flour, and nowadays there is a growing [...] Read more.
The consumption of cookies is widely extended throughout the world, although their formulas contain ingredients such as saturated fats or refined flours that are considered harmful to health. In addition, cookies are generally made from wheat flour, and nowadays there is a growing concern about gluten intolerance, thus the demand for gluten-free products is increasing. In this regard, the aim of the present study is to reformulate traditional cookies by replacing wheat flour and butter by flours and oils from nuts and seeds. Within these seeds, poppy or chia are not commonly consumed ingredients as they can cause rejection by consumers. Thus, a study was performed to evaluate the neophobia level of consumers and the consumer acceptance for the inclusion of these novel ingredients in cookies. The results have been obtained by measuring physical parameters, proximate composition and consumer evaluation of five batches of cookies. By replacing butter and wheat flour with maize flour, almond, walnut, chia or poppy seed flours and oils, an increase of protein, fat and fiber has been observed as well as a decrease in carbohydrate content; thus, the resultant cookies would be a good source of vegetal protein as well as a source of oleic and linoleic acid with potential benefits on health. The cookies in general have similar physical properties and a positive consumer acceptance in texture, taste and external aspect. The Food Neophobia Scale results suggest that non-neophobic consumers gave higher scores than neophobic consumers in all the parameters. The resultant product would be a functional product able to substitute traditional ones not only directed to celiac people but all type of consumers because of their beneficial composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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21 pages, 1838 KiB  
Article
Impact of Protein Content on the Antioxidants, Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Glycemic Index of Wheat and Wheat Bran
Foods 2022, 11(14), 2049; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142049 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2110
Abstract
Conventional wheat milling generates important volumes of wheat bran (WB), which is a concentrated source of polyphenols and insoluble fiber. In terms of health benefits and based on epidemiological and experimental evidence, these compounds contribute to reducing the risk of certain chronic pathologies. [...] Read more.
Conventional wheat milling generates important volumes of wheat bran (WB), which is a concentrated source of polyphenols and insoluble fiber. In terms of health benefits and based on epidemiological and experimental evidence, these compounds contribute to reducing the risk of certain chronic pathologies. Protein concentration is the main quality factor conditioning wheat use in the agroindustry. When turning waste into feasible resources, it is essential to evaluate the variability of the raw material. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the impact of protein content in the valorization of WB based on its antioxidants, anti-inflammatory properties and glycemic index (GI). A significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower content of phenolic compounds was found in the whole grain (WG) fractions, both free (FP) and bound (BP), as compared to the WB phenolic fractions, differences that ranged from 4- to 6-fold (538 to 561 mg GAE 100 g−1 in WG vs. 1027 to 1236 in WB mg GAE 100 g−1 in FP and 2245 to 2378 vs. 6344 to 7232 mg GAE 100 g−1 in BP). A significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect of the protein content on the resulting phenolic content and antioxidant capacity was observed, especially in WG, but also in WB, although in the latter a significant (p ≤ 0.05) negative correlation was observed, and increasing the protein content resulted in decreasing total phenolic content, antioxidants, and ferric-reducing capacities, probably due to their different types of proteins. The highest protein content in WB produced a significant (p ≤ 0.05) reduction in GI value, probably due to the role of protein structure in protecting starch from gelatinization, along with phytic acid, which may bind to proteins closely associated to starch and chelate calcium ions, required for α-amylase activity. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect of the protein content on the GI was also found, which may be explained by the structural effect of the proteins associated with starch, reducing the GI (21.64). The results obtained show the importance of segregation of WB in valorization strategies in order to increase the efficiency of the processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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12 pages, 1828 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Profiling of Bulgarian Potato Cultivars
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1981; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131981 - 04 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1698
Abstract
Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are the fourth most economically important crop in the world. They have a short period of vegetation and are an excellent source of carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins, organic acids, minerals and phenolics as antioxidant substances. Potato can be [...] Read more.
Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are the fourth most economically important crop in the world. They have a short period of vegetation and are an excellent source of carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins, organic acids, minerals and phenolics as antioxidant substances. Potato can be a major dietary source of various bioactive compounds. In this study, we applied gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolite profiling to classify eight Bulgarian potato cultivars bred in the Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute (VCRI), Plovdiv, according to their metabolite contents. Altogether, we determine their flavonoids/phenolics to evaluate their nutritive quality for the breeding program with the target of determining strong health-promoting compounds. The “Kalina” cultivar is highlighted as the best one with the highest number of metabolites, containing 14 out of the 26 evaluated; it was selected as the highest-quality cultivar, compared with the other seven cultivars studied. According to the grouping of the cultivars in principal component analysis PCA, their positive distribution is explained mainly by them having the highest contents of aminobutyric and isocitric acids, methionine and alanine and lower levels of fumaric acid, pyroglutamic acid and glycine, in contrast to the cultivars distributed negatively, which had high contents of carbohydrates and relatively low contents of most of the amino acids. The highest number of amino acids was found in the cultivar “Kalina”, followed by “Perun” and “Bor”. The highest number of carbohydrates was found in “Pavelsko” and “Iverce”, while the prominent accumulation of organic acids was found in “Kalina”, “Bor” and “Rozhen”. The highest number of flavonoids in the flesh of the tubers was found in the cultivars “Nadezhda” and “Pavelsko”, followed by “Bor”. The highest ratio of flavonoids/phenolics in the flesh was found in “Pavelsko” and in “Nadezhda”, followed by “Iverce”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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19 pages, 1700 KiB  
Article
Potential Antioxidant and Antiviral Activities of Hydroethanolic Extracts of Selected Lamiaceae Species
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1862; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131862 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2058
Abstract
Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) are potential sources of natural bioactive phytochemical compounds of an incredible worth for the food industry, such as polyphenols. Lamiaceae medicinal and aromatic plants from Granada’s high plateau, concretely Origanum bastetanum, Thymus zygis gracilis, Thymus longiflorus [...] Read more.
Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) are potential sources of natural bioactive phytochemical compounds of an incredible worth for the food industry, such as polyphenols. Lamiaceae medicinal and aromatic plants from Granada’s high plateau, concretely Origanum bastetanum, Thymus zygis gracilis, Thymus longiflorus, Thymus membranaceus and Ziziphora hispanica, were evaluated under different conventional solid–liquid extraction conditions to obtain extracts enriched in bioactive compounds. Phenolic profile was detected by HPLC-QTOF-MS, identifying a high abundance of bioactive constituents. Furthermore, antioxidant and antiviral activities of the mentioned plants were studied as biological properties of interest for the improvement of food shelf-life. Thus, Origanum bastetanum showed the highest antioxidant potential for all assays. Antiviral activity was also tested against some important foodborne viruses, feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), with the highest activity obtained for Ziziphora hispanica, Thymus longiflorus and Origanum bastetanum. This research proposes the studied plants as rich sources of bioactive compounds with potential use as preservatives in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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14 pages, 911 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Bioactive Compound Extraction from Green Soybean (Glycine max L.) and the Effect of Drying Methods and Storage Conditions on Procyanidin Extract
Foods 2022, 11(12), 1775; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11121775 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1927
Abstract
Green soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds (GSS) are rich in various antioxidants and phytonutrients that are linked to various health benefits. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technology was used for extracting the effective components from GSS. A response surface method (RSM) was used to [...] Read more.
Green soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds (GSS) are rich in various antioxidants and phytonutrients that are linked to various health benefits. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technology was used for extracting the effective components from GSS. A response surface method (RSM) was used to examine the influence of liquid-to-solid ratio and extraction temperature on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant characteristics. The optimal conditions were a liquid-to-solid ratio of 25:1 and a UAE temperature of 40 °C. The observed values coincided well with the predicted values under optimal conditions. Additionally, the effects of drying methods on the procyanidins and antioxidant activities of GSS extract were evaluated. The spray-dried GSS extract contained the highest levels of procyanidins (21.4 ± 0.37 mg PC/g), DPPH (199 ± 0.85 µM Trolox eq/g), and FRAP (243 ± 0.26 µM Trolox eq/g). Spray drying could be the most time- and energy-efficient technique for drying the GSS extract. The present study also assessed the effects of storage temperature and time on procyanidins and antioxidant activities in GSS extract powder. Procyanidins were found to degrade more rapidly at 45 °C than at 25 °C and 35 °C. Storage under 25 °C was appropriate for maintaining the procyanidin contents, DPPH, and FRAP activities in the GSS extract powder. This study contributed to the body of knowledge by explaining the preparation of procyanidin extract powder from GSS, which might be employed as a low-cost supply of nutraceutical compounds for the functional food industry and pharmaceutical sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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11 pages, 1658 KiB  
Article
Screening of Naturally Grown European Cranberrybush (Viburnum opulus L.) Genotypes Based on Physico-Chemical Characteristics
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111614 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1665
Abstract
It has become very important to offer species with high nutritional value as fresh or processed products for human consumption in their daily diet for balanced nutrition. In the scope of this study, 15 naturally grown European Cranberry bush (ECB) genotypes that naturally [...] Read more.
It has become very important to offer species with high nutritional value as fresh or processed products for human consumption in their daily diet for balanced nutrition. In the scope of this study, 15 naturally grown European Cranberry bush (ECB) genotypes that naturally grown were characterized in terms of horticultural characteristics. Fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight, the number of fruits per each cluster and cluster weight were determined within the ranges of 8.78–10.96 mm, 7.93–10.84 mm, 0.21–0.70 g, 31–121, and 7.70–66.67 g, respectively. Ranking of the average values of examined organic acids obtained from all genotypes found as; malic acid (11,419 mg L−1) > citric acid (1926 mg L−1) > ascorbic acid (581 mg L−1) > oxalic acid (561 mg L−1). Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were found at high levels in ECB with 2922–3475 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) L−1 and 1463–3163 mg quercetin equivalents (QE) L−1, respectively. While pomological characteristics were found to be highly positive correlated with each other, they were negatively correlated with chemical properties. Low pH was found to be an important parameter to obtain higher amounts of phytochemicals such as TPC, TFC, organic and phenolic acids correlated with strong antioxidant effects. The obtained results will be useful for both germplasm enrichment and cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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17 pages, 2853 KiB  
Article
Inverse Molecular Docking Elucidating the Anticarcinogenic Potential of the Hop Natural Product Xanthohumol and Its Metabolites
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1253; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091253 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
Natural products from plants exert a promising potential to act as antioxidants, antimicrobials, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic agents. Xanthohumol, a natural compound from hops, is indeed known for its anticarcinogenic properties. Xanthohumol is converted into three metabolites: isoxanthohumol (non-enzymatically) as well as 8- and [...] Read more.
Natural products from plants exert a promising potential to act as antioxidants, antimicrobials, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic agents. Xanthohumol, a natural compound from hops, is indeed known for its anticarcinogenic properties. Xanthohumol is converted into three metabolites: isoxanthohumol (non-enzymatically) as well as 8- and 6-prenylnaringenin (enzymatically). An inverse molecular docking approach was applied to xanthohumol and its three metabolites to discern their potential protein targets. The aim of our study was to disclose the potential protein targets of xanthohumol and its metabolites in order to expound on the potential anticarcinogenic mechanisms of xanthohumol based on the found target proteins. The investigated compounds were docked into the predicted binding sites of all human protein structures from the Protein Data Bank, and the best docking poses were examined. Top scoring human protein targets with successfully docked compounds were identified, and their experimental connection with the anticarcinogenic function or cancer was investigated. The obtained results were carefully checked against the existing experimental findings from the scientific literature as well as further validated using retrospective metrics. More than half of the human protein targets of xanthohumol with the highest docking scores have already been connected with the anticarcinogenic function, and four of them (including two important representatives of the matrix metalloproteinase family, MMP-2 and MMP-9) also have a known experimental correlation with xanthohumol. Another important protein target is acyl-protein thioesterase 2, to which xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, and 6-prenylnaringenin were successfully docked with the lowest docking scores. Moreover, the results for the metabolites show that their most promising protein targets are connected with the anticarcinogenic function as well. We firmly believe that our study can help to elucidate the anticarcinogenic mechanisms of xanthohumol and its metabolites as after consumption, all four compounds can be simultaneously present in the organism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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13 pages, 761 KiB  
Article
Toxicity, Antioxidant Activity, and Phytochemicals of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Leaves Cultivated in Southern Punjab, Pakistan
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1239; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091239 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4288
Abstract
Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is one of the most common aromatic herbs, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and is used extensively to add aroma and flavor to food. The leaves, both in fresh and dried form, are used as a culinary ingredient [...] Read more.
Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is one of the most common aromatic herbs, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and is used extensively to add aroma and flavor to food. The leaves, both in fresh and dried form, are used as a culinary ingredient in different cultures. O. basilicum is also famous for its therapeutic potential and preservation effects. The present study investigated the cytotoxicity of basil at three different growth stages (GS), i.e., GS-1 (58 days of growth), GS-2 (69 days of growth), and GS-3 (93 days of growth) using the brine shrimp lethality assay. The results revealed that cytotoxicity was influenced by GS and the concentration of extracts. Aqueous extracts of basil at a concentration of 10 to 1000 µg/mL did not show notable toxicity. The lowest mortality rate, i.e., 8.9%, was recorded for GS-2 at the highest tested dose of basil extracts. The mortality rate at GS-1, GS-2, and GS-3 was found to be 26.7 ± 3.34%, 8.91 ± 0.10%, and 16.7 ± 0.34%, respectively, at 1000 µg/mL. GS-2 basil powder with the lowest toxicological risk was extracted with different solvents, viz., n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol, and water. The highest concentration of plant secondary metabolites including total phenolic acid, flavonoids, and tannin content was observed in ethanol extracts. Ethanol extracts also exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH, FRAP and H2O2 assays. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis presented ethanol extracts of basil as a promising source of known health-promoting and therapeutic compounds such as rosmarinic acid, ellagic acid, catechin, liquiritigenin, and umbelliferone. The results suggest basil, a culinary ingredient, as a potential source of bioactive compounds which may offer an array of health promoting and therapeutic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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14 pages, 1127 KiB  
Article
Variation in Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Rubus Fruits at Different Developmental Stages
Foods 2022, 11(8), 1169; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11081169 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3838
Abstract
Blackberry and raspberry have high nutritional, health value, and are popular with consumers for their unique flavors. To explore the relationships between nutrient accumulation, antioxidant substance contents in blackberry and raspberry fruits, and fruit growth and development, seven Rubus cultivars were selected, and [...] Read more.
Blackberry and raspberry have high nutritional, health value, and are popular with consumers for their unique flavors. To explore the relationships between nutrient accumulation, antioxidant substance contents in blackberry and raspberry fruits, and fruit growth and development, seven Rubus cultivars were selected, and contents of the main active substance were determined. “Clode Summit” had the highest soluble sugar and fructose contents, “Chester”—the highest total phenol content, and “Bristol’—the highest anthocyanin content. Generally, the contents of flavonoids and total phenols showed a downward trend with the development of fruit in seven Rubus cultivars, and the content of anthocyanins increased rapidly in the later stage of development. Pearson correlation analysis showed extremely significant correlation between antioxidant activity and the contents of vitamin E, total phenols, and flavonoids. Flavonoids were extremely significantly positively correlated with the content of total phenols, and the contents of flavonoids and anthocyanins in various cultivars were highly negatively correlated. Considering the different nutritional ingredients and active antioxidant substance contents, “Clode Summit”, “Bristol”, and “Chester” are recommended for raw consumption, processing, and medicinal purposes, respectively. These results provide a reference for comparing the main active substance contents in different Rubus cultivars and their changes across fruit development stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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20 pages, 2008 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Influence of Static In Vitro Digestion on Bioaccessibility of Bioactive Polyphenols from an Olive Leaf Extract
Foods 2022, 11(5), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050743 - 03 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2462
Abstract
Olive leaves, one of the most abundant olive production by-products, have shown incredible potential for their characteristic bioactive compound composition, with unique compounds such as the polyphenol oleuropein. In order to evaluate the bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds present in an olive leaf extract, [...] Read more.
Olive leaves, one of the most abundant olive production by-products, have shown incredible potential for their characteristic bioactive compound composition, with unique compounds such as the polyphenol oleuropein. In order to evaluate the bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds present in an olive leaf extract, samples were submitted to an in vitro digestion process following INFOGEST protocol, and qualitative and quantitative characterization of the original extract and digestive samples at different times were carried out using HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. The analyzed extract presented an abundance of phenolic compounds, such as secoiridoids, with oleuropein being the main identified compound. The in vitro digestion process showed an effect on the phenolic profile of the extract, with a lower recovery in the gastric phase and an increase at the beginning of the intestinal phase. Most of the studied compounds showed high bioaccessibility at the end of the digestion, with oleuropein, ligstroside, and quercetin-3-O-galactoside being among the ones with higher value. These findings show the potential for future use of olive leaf polyphenols. However, further research is needed in order to evaluate the absorption, delivery, and interaction of these compounds with the colon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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15 pages, 2674 KiB  
Article
Polysaccharide from Patinopecten yessoensis Skirt Boosts Immune Response via Modulation of Gut Microbiota and Short-Chain Fatty Acids Metabolism in Mice
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2478; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102478 - 16 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2140
Abstract
Polysaccharide from marine shellfish has various bioactivities. In this study, the effects of polysaccharide from Patinopecten yessoensis skirt (PS) on boosting immune response in mice were evaluated, and the potential mechanisms were explored. The results showed that PS administration effectively increased the serum [...] Read more.
Polysaccharide from marine shellfish has various bioactivities. In this study, the effects of polysaccharide from Patinopecten yessoensis skirt (PS) on boosting immune response in mice were evaluated, and the potential mechanisms were explored. The results showed that PS administration effectively increased the serum IgG and IgM levels, implying that PS had immune response-boosting properties. Moreover, PS administration could modulate the composition of the gut microbiota, and significantly improve short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) metabolism, especially butyrate metabolism. Of note, the expression of the Tlr2, Tlr7, MyD88, Tnfa, and Il1b genes in toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway was significantly increased. In summary, PS could boost immune response by modulating the gut microbiota and SCFAs metabolism correlating with the activation of the TLR signaling pathway. Therefore, PS can be developed as a special ingredient for functional product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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Review

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25 pages, 2577 KiB  
Review
Enhancement Methods of Antioxidant Capacity in Rice Bran: A Review
Foods 2022, 11(19), 2994; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11192994 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2828
Abstract
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a primary food that is widely consumed throughout the world, especially in Asian countries. The two main subspecies of rice are japonica and indica which are different in physical characteristics. In general, both indica and japonica rice [...] Read more.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a primary food that is widely consumed throughout the world, especially in Asian countries. The two main subspecies of rice are japonica and indica which are different in physical characteristics. In general, both indica and japonica rice consist of three types of grain colors, namely white, red, and black. Furthermore, rice and rice by-products contain secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tocopherols that have bioactivities such as antioxidants, antimicrobial, cancer chemopreventive, antidiabetic, and hypolipidemic agents. The existence of health benefits in rice bran, especially as antioxidants, gives rice bran the opportunity to be used as a functional food. Most of the bioactive compounds in plants are found in bound form with cell wall components such as cellulose and lignin. The process of releasing bonds between bioactive components and cell wall components in rice bran can increase the antioxidant capacity. Fermentation and treatment with enzymes were able to increase the total phenolic content, total flavonoids, tocotrienols, tocopherols, and γ-oryzanol in rice bran. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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22 pages, 1567 KiB  
Review
Bioactive Compounds, Health Benefits and Food Applications of Grape
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2755; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182755 - 07 Sep 2022
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 7545
Abstract
Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most popular fruits worldwide. It contains various bioactive compounds, such as proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenes, the contents of which could vary considerably in grape skin, pulp and seed. Many studies have [...] Read more.
Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most popular fruits worldwide. It contains various bioactive compounds, such as proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenes, the contents of which could vary considerably in grape skin, pulp and seed. Many studies have revealed that grape possesses a variety of health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, gut-microbiota-modulating, anticancer and cardioprotective effects. Grape is eaten as fresh fruit and is also used as raw material to produce various products, such as wine, grape juice and raisins. Moreover, the byproducts of grape, such as grape pomace and grape seed, have many applications in the food industry. In this paper, the bioactive compounds in grape are briefly summarized based on literature published in recent years. In addition, the health benefits of grape and its bioactive components are discussed, with special attention paid to the underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, the applications of grape in the food industry are elucidated, especially the applications of grape pomace and grape seed. This paper can contribute to understanding the health benefits and mechanisms of grape and its bioactive compounds, as well as the promotion of the use of grape in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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25 pages, 2821 KiB  
Review
In Vitro Toxicity Studies of Bioactive Organosulfur Compounds from Allium spp. with Potential Application in the Agri-Food Industry: A Review
Foods 2022, 11(17), 2620; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11172620 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1801
Abstract
Organosulfur compounds (OSCs) are secondary metabolites produced by different Allium species which present important biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, antispasmodic, etc. In recent years, their use has been promoted in the agri-food industry as a substitute for synthetic preservatives, [...] Read more.
Organosulfur compounds (OSCs) are secondary metabolites produced by different Allium species which present important biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, antispasmodic, etc. In recent years, their use has been promoted in the agri-food industry as a substitute for synthetic preservatives, increasing potential accumulative exposure to consumers. Before their application in the food industry, it is necessary to pass a safety assessment as specified by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This work reviews the scientific literature on OSCs regarding their in vitro toxicity evaluation following PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews. Four electronic research databases were searched (Web of Science, Scopus, Science Database and PubMed) and a total of 43 works were selected according to predeterminate inclusion and exclusion criteria. Different data items and the risk of bias for each study were included. Currently, there are very few in vitro studies focused on investigating the potential toxicity of OSCs. Most research studies aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of OSCs to elucidate their antiproliferative effects focusing on their therapeutic aspects using cancer cell lines as the main experimental model. The results showed that diallyl disulfide (DADS) is the compound most studied, followed by diallyl trisulfide (DATS), diallyl sulfide (DAS), Allicin and Ajoene. Only 4 studies have been performed specifically to explore the safety of OSCs for agri-food applications, and genotoxicity studies are limited. More toxicity studies of OSCs are necessary to ensure consumers safety and should mainly be focused on the evaluation of genotoxicity and long-term toxicity effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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19 pages, 1397 KiB  
Review
Acylation of Anthocyanins and Their Applications in the Food Industry: Mechanisms and Recent Research Advances
Foods 2022, 11(14), 2166; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142166 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3181
Abstract
Anthocyanins are extensively used as natural non-toxic compounds in the food industry due to their unique biological properties. However, the instability of anthocyanins greatly affects their industrial application. Studies related to acylated anthocyanins with higher stability and increased solubility in organic solvents have [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins are extensively used as natural non-toxic compounds in the food industry due to their unique biological properties. However, the instability of anthocyanins greatly affects their industrial application. Studies related to acylated anthocyanins with higher stability and increased solubility in organic solvents have shown that the acylation of anthocyanins can improve the stability and fat solubility of anthocyanins. However, relevant developments in research regarding the mechanisms of acylation and applications of acylated anthocyanins are scarcely reviewed. This review aims to provide an overview of the mechanisms of acylation and the applications of acylated anthocyanins in the food industry. In the review, acylation methods, including biosynthesis, semi-biosynthesis, and chemical and enzymatic acylation, are elaborated, physicochemical properties and biological activities of acylated anthocyanins are highlighted, and their application as colourants, functionalizing agents, intelligent indicators, and novel packaging materials in the food industry are summarized. The limitations encountered in the preparation of acylated anthocyanins and future prospects, their applications are also presented. Acylated anthocyanins present potential alternatives to anthocyanins in the food industry due to their functions and advantages as compared with non-acylated analogues. It is hoped that this review will offer further information on the effective synthesis and encourage commercialization of acylated anthocyanins in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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23 pages, 1105 KiB  
Review
Role of Bioactive Compounds in Obesity: Metabolic Mechanism Focused on Inflammation
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091232 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3692
Abstract
Obesity is a disease characterized by an inflammatory process in the adipose tissue due to diverse infiltrated immune cells, an increased secretion of proinflammatory molecules, and a decreased secretion of anti-inflammatory molecules. On the other hand, obesity increases the risk of several diseases, [...] Read more.
Obesity is a disease characterized by an inflammatory process in the adipose tissue due to diverse infiltrated immune cells, an increased secretion of proinflammatory molecules, and a decreased secretion of anti-inflammatory molecules. On the other hand, obesity increases the risk of several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Their treatment is based on nutritional and pharmacological strategies. However, natural products are currently implemented as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Polyphenols and fiber are naturally compounds with potential action to reduce inflammation through several pathways and play an important role in the prevention and treatment of obesity, as well as in other non-communicable diseases. Hence, this review focuses on the recent evidence of the molecular mechanisms of polyphenols and dietary fiber, from Scopus, Science Direct, and PubMed, among others, by using key words and based on recent in vitro and in vivo studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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17 pages, 659 KiB  
Review
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Diet Review
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3128; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123128 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 7677
Abstract
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease related to upper and lower motor neurons degeneration. Although the environmental and genetic causes of this disease are still unclear, some factors involved in ALS onset such as oxidative stress may be influenced by diet. [...] Read more.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease related to upper and lower motor neurons degeneration. Although the environmental and genetic causes of this disease are still unclear, some factors involved in ALS onset such as oxidative stress may be influenced by diet. A higher risk of ALS has been correlated with a high fat and glutamate intake and β-methylamino-L-alanine. On the contrary, a diet based on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds, such as curcumin, creatine, coenzyme Q10, vitamin E, vitamin A, vitamin C, and phytochemicals could reduce the risk of ALS. However, data are controversial as there is a discrepancy among different studies due to a limited number of samples and the many variables that are involved. In addition, an improper diet could lead to an altered microbiota and consequently to an altered metabolism that could predispose to the ALS onset. In this review we summarized some research that involve aspects related to ALS such as the epidemiology, the diet, the eating behaviour, the microbiota, and the metabolic diseases. Further research is needed to better comprehend the role of diet and the metabolic diseases in the mechanisms leading to ALS onset and progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidants, and Health Benefits)
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