State-of-the-Art Catalytical Technology in South Korea

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020) | Viewed by 82967

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea
Interests: surface analyses; heterogeneous catalysis; CO2 conversion; adsorption; oxidation of volatile organic compounds; atomic layer deposition; polymer thin films
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

South Korea has become an important country in the field of heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis, including but not limited to catalysts for chemical synthesis, the biorefinery process, environmental remediation, and sustainable-energy devices such as fuel cells. This Special Issue welcomes both review and original research articles on all aspects of heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis with an emphasis on fundamental and applied research implemented across South Korea. Topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Air treatment;
  • Water/wastewater treatment and disinfection;
  • Catalytic reactions relevant to fuel cells;
  • Catalysts related to the biorefinery process;
  • Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis for organic synthesis;
  • Green synthesis using solar photochemistry and photocatalysis;
  • Photocatalytic hybrid-systems;
  • Photocatalytic, photochemical, and photosynthetic systems for H2 production and CO2 utilization;
  • Carbon dioxide reforming;
  • New materials for all types of  heterogeneously catalyzed reactions;
  • Operando spectroscopy for identifying catalytically active sites;

Although papers should report on trends and advances in the field of catalysis across South Korea; collaborative work between South Korean and non-South Korean partners is also welcome.

Prof. Young Dok Kim
Prof. Dr. Francis Verpoort
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Catalysts is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Oxidation of volatile organic compounds 
  • Selective catalytic reduction 
  • Wastewater treatment 
  • Pollution abatement 
  • Solar photocatalysis
  • Fenton process 
  • Photosynthesis 
  • Energy 
  • Biorefinery process 
  • Partial oxidation 
  • Nitrogen activation 
  • Solar-to-fuel process 
  • Carbon dioxide 
  • Hydrogen production 
  • Nanomaterials 
  • Operando spectroscopy

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Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 5175 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Catalyst Calcination Temperature on Catalytic Decomposition of HFC-134a over γ-Al2O3
by Mahshab Sheraz, Ali Anus, Van Cam Thi Le, Caroline Mercy Andrew Swamidoss and Seungdo Kim
Catalysts 2021, 11(9), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11091021 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3025
Abstract
This paper explores the thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of HFC-134a over γ-Al2O3 calcined at temperatures of 550 °C (A550), 650 °C (A650), 750 °C (A750), and 850 °C (A850). The physicochemical properties of catalysts were studied through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), [...] Read more.
This paper explores the thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of HFC-134a over γ-Al2O3 calcined at temperatures of 550 °C (A550), 650 °C (A650), 750 °C (A750), and 850 °C (A850). The physicochemical properties of catalysts were studied through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller equation for nitrogen physisorption analysis (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD). The non-catalytic pyrolysis of HFC-134a showed less than 15% decomposition of HFC-134a. Catalysts increased the decomposition as A650 revealed the highest decomposition efficiency by decomposing more than 95% HFC-134a for 8 h followed by A750, A850, and A550. The larger surface area and pore volume paired with a low amount of strong acidic sites were considered as the main contributors to the comparatively longer catalytic activity of A650. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Catalytical Technology in South Korea)
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9 pages, 3105 KiB  
Communication
A CO2-Mediated Conjugate Cyanide Addition to Chalcones
by Simon Dotzauer, Gul Barg Hadaf, Fadhil S. Kamounah, Anders Kadziola and Ji-Woong Lee
Catalysts 2020, 10(12), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10121481 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3325
Abstract
Carbon dioxide is an intrinsically stable molecule; however, it can readily react with various nucleophilic reagents. In the presence of a cyanide source, CO2 was proven to be useful to promote addition reactions. Here we report the use of CO2 to [...] Read more.
Carbon dioxide is an intrinsically stable molecule; however, it can readily react with various nucleophilic reagents. In the presence of a cyanide source, CO2 was proven to be useful to promote addition reactions. Here we report the use of CO2 to facilitate 1,4-conjugate cyanide addition reaction to chalcones to generate organonitriles. Nitriles are key component in organic synthesis due to their utility in numerous functional group transformation, however, conjugation addition of cyanide has been a challenge in this substrate class due to side reactions. To mitigate this, we employed simple ammonium and metal cyanide sources as nucleophiles under carbon dioxide atmosphere where high selectivity toward the desired product was obtained. The presented reaction is not feasible under inert atmosphere, which highlights the important role of CO2, as a Lewis and Brøndsted acidic catalyst. Further derivatization of organonitriles compounds were performed to showcase the utility of the reaction, while an unprecedented dimerization reaction was identified and characterized, affording a cyclopentanone scaffold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Catalytical Technology in South Korea)
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11 pages, 1857 KiB  
Article
Simple Electrochemical Synthesis of Polyethylenimine-Encapsulated Ag Nanoparticles from Solid AgCl Applied in Catalytic Reduction of H2O2
by Kyung Tae Kim and Deog-Su Park
Catalysts 2020, 10(12), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10121416 - 4 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2394
Abstract
We report a simple and environmentally friendly synthesis of polyethylenimine (PEI)-encapsulated Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) by a direct electroreduction of solid AgCl. The AgNPs, characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), revealed that AgNPs [...] Read more.
We report a simple and environmentally friendly synthesis of polyethylenimine (PEI)-encapsulated Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) by a direct electroreduction of solid AgCl. The AgNPs, characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), revealed that AgNPs diameters (100–500 nm) depended on the loading of the AgCl precursor. Using cyclic voltammetry (CV), it was confirmed that the AgNPs had a catalytic effect on the electrochemical reduction of H2O2. The obtained AgNPs were subsequently used to construct an electrochemical H2O2 sensor exhibiting a low detection limit (1.66 μM) and a wide linear response range, with real-life tests indicating an insensitivity to common interferents and confirming the potential use of the developed technique in diverse applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Catalytical Technology in South Korea)
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12 pages, 4291 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Molybdenum Carbide/Heteroatom-Doped Carbon Electrocatalyst for Advanced Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Hydrogen Production
by Jihun Kim, Dae Hoon Lee, Yang Yang, Kai Chen, Chunli Liu, Jun Kang and Oi Lun Li
Catalysts 2020, 10(11), 1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10111290 - 8 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2710
Abstract
Hydrogen energy is one of the key technologies that can help to prevent global warming. A water electrolysis process can be used to produce hydrogen, in which hydrogen is produced at one electrode of the electrochemical cell, and oxygen is produced at the [...] Read more.
Hydrogen energy is one of the key technologies that can help to prevent global warming. A water electrolysis process can be used to produce hydrogen, in which hydrogen is produced at one electrode of the electrochemical cell, and oxygen is produced at the other electrode. On the other hand, the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) requires multiple reaction steps and precious-metal-based catalysts (e.g., Ru/C, Ir/C, RuO2, and IrO2) as electrocatalysts to improve the reaction rate. Their high cost and limited supply, however, limit their applications to the mass production of hydrogen. In this study, boron, nitrogen-doped carbon incorporated with molybdenum carbide (MoC-BN/C) was synthesized to replace the precious-metal-based catalysts in the OER. B, N-doped carbon with nanosized molybdenum nanoparticles was fabricated by plasma engineering. The synthesized catalysts were heat-treated at 600, 700, and 800 °C in nitrogen for one hour to enhance the conductivity. The best MoC-BN/C electrocatalysts (heated at 800 °C) exhibited superior OER catalytic activity: 1.498 V (vs. RHE) and 1.550 V at a current density of 10 and 100 mA/cm2, respectively. The hybrid electrocatalysts even outperformed the noble electrocatalyst (5 wt.% Ru/C) with higher stability. Therefore, the hybrid electrocatalyst can replace expensive precious-metal-based catalysts for the upcoming hydrogen economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Catalytical Technology in South Korea)
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11 pages, 1919 KiB  
Article
Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol Using Chemical Vapor Desposition Graphene Column
by Juhee Kim, Baekwon Park, Dong Heon Shin, Je Min Yoo, Hyukjin Lee and Byung Hee Hong
Catalysts 2020, 10(11), 1251; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10111251 - 29 Oct 2020
Viewed by 2704
Abstract
In the field of wastewater treatment, the advanced oxidation process (AOP) is a widely employed method. It uses reactive oxygen species (ROS) to degrade harmful organic and inorganic chemicals. Metal catalysts are the conventional standard when using these methods. However, they have drawbacks [...] Read more.
In the field of wastewater treatment, the advanced oxidation process (AOP) is a widely employed method. It uses reactive oxygen species (ROS) to degrade harmful organic and inorganic chemicals. Metal catalysts are the conventional standard when using these methods. However, they have drawbacks such as harsh activation conditions and poor recyclability. We previously suggested chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene film as an alternative metal-free catalyst. In this study, we enhanced the catalytic activity of the CVD graphene film by synergistically adding UV light irradiation. The result was complete degradation of phenol on a wafer-scale in a reduced timeframe. To further enhance the degradation process, we devised a graphene-based column for continuous in situ chemical oxidation and analyzed the intermediates over time, proving the potential of graphene-assisted AOP in industrial wastewater applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Catalytical Technology in South Korea)
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12 pages, 1748 KiB  
Article
Effect of Metal Composition and Carbon Support on the Durability of the Reversal-Tolerant Anode with IrRu Alloy Catalyst
by Eunyoung You, Seung Woo Lee, Daejong You, Bongho Lee and Chanho Pak
Catalysts 2020, 10(8), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10080932 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2983
Abstract
In polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) for fuel cell electric vehicles, cell reversal (CR) at the anode side can occasionally occur—usually when hydrogen supply is interrupted—which results in degradation of the anode. To mitigate this problem, reversal-tolerant anodes (RTAs) using oxygen evolution [...] Read more.
In polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) for fuel cell electric vehicles, cell reversal (CR) at the anode side can occasionally occur—usually when hydrogen supply is interrupted—which results in degradation of the anode. To mitigate this problem, reversal-tolerant anodes (RTAs) using oxygen evolution reaction catalysts have been generally applied. Adding such materials promotes water oxidation and, thus, provides the protons and electrons during CR situation, while minimizing the carbon-oxidation reaction. In this study, we performed a detailed investigation of the sole use of IrxRuy/C catalysts for RTAs in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA)—including the effects of the IrRu alloy composition and the degree of graphitization of the carbon support on the durability under fuel starvation. Supported IrRu alloy catalysts with different Ir/Ru ratios were prepared via a facile impregnation method on carbon supports with differing degrees of graphitization by heat-treatment at a range of high temperatures. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the crystal structure of the alloy nanoparticles depended on the alloy composition, showing the development of a hexagonal closely packed structure with increasing Ru content. Raman spectroscopy indicated an increase in the degree of graphitization of carbon with progressively higher processing temperatures. IrxRuy alloys were found to be a suitable replacement for Pt anode from single-cell MEA performance testing. Furthermore, we examined the synergic enhancement of the CR durability of IrRu alloys with different compositions comparing to the Ir and Ru metals by measuring the initial and total voltage change of MEAs under hydrogen starvation. For the same alloy composition, higher CR durability was observed for MEAs with catalysts prepared using a higher degree of graphitization of the carbon support. Based on the results, we concluded that to develop efficient catalysts for RTAs of automotive PEMFCs, it is important to consider both the durability of the carbon support under high voltages and the catalyst composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Catalytical Technology in South Korea)
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12 pages, 3722 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Photocatalytic Activities with Nanosized Polystyrene Spheres Patterned Titanium Dioxide Films for Water Purification
by Hyeon Jin Seo, Ji Won Lee, Young Hoon Na and Jin-Hyo Boo
Catalysts 2020, 10(8), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10080886 - 5 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2332
Abstract
For environmental applications, such as water and air purification utilizing photocatalysts, we synthesized patterned titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films using polystyrene (PS) spheres. This was primarily done to enhance the surface area and photocatalytic activities. TiO2 thin films were deposited [...] Read more.
For environmental applications, such as water and air purification utilizing photocatalysts, we synthesized patterned titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films using polystyrene (PS) spheres. This was primarily done to enhance the surface area and photocatalytic activities. TiO2 thin films were deposited on silicon wafers attached to variously sized PS spheres via the spin coating method and were annealed at 600 °C. The processing step involved patterning and coating a TiO2 sol–gel. The photocatalytic performance was analyzed using an UV–visible spectrophotometer. Within 20 min, a high catalytic efficiency (98% removal) with a 20-time faster decomposition rate of the malachite green (MG) solution than that of the nonpatterned TiO2 was obtained from the patterned TiO2 with 400 nm sized PS due to the large surface area. In addition, the phenol in the water removed as much as 50% within 2 h with the same photocatalyst, which was expected to be one of the strong candidates to be applied to the next generation of photocatalysts for water purification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Catalytical Technology in South Korea)
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20 pages, 1792 KiB  
Article
Pyridine-Chelated Imidazo[1,5-a]Pyridine N-Heterocyclic Carbene Nickel(II) Complexes for Acrylate Synthesis from Ethylene and CO2
by Jiyun Kim, Hyungwoo Hahm, Ji Yeon Ryu, Seunghwan Byun, Da-Ae Park, Seoung Ho Lee, Hyunseob Lim, Junseong Lee and Sukwon Hong
Catalysts 2020, 10(7), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10070758 - 8 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4758
Abstract
Nickel(II) dichloride complexes with a pyridine-chelated imidazo[1,5-a]pyridin-3-ylidene py-ImPy ligand were developed as novel catalyst precursors for acrylate synthesis reaction from ethylene and carbon dioxide (CO2), a highly promising sustainable process in terms of carbon capture and utilization (CCU). Two [...] Read more.
Nickel(II) dichloride complexes with a pyridine-chelated imidazo[1,5-a]pyridin-3-ylidene py-ImPy ligand were developed as novel catalyst precursors for acrylate synthesis reaction from ethylene and carbon dioxide (CO2), a highly promising sustainable process in terms of carbon capture and utilization (CCU). Two types of ImPy salts were prepared as new C,N-bidentate ligand precursors; py-ImPy salts (3, 4a4e) having a pyridine group at C(5) on ImPy and a N-picolyl-ImPy salt (10) having a picolyl group at N atom on ImPy. Nickel(II) complexes such as py-ImPyNi(II)Cl2 (7, 8a8e) and N-picolyl-ImPyNi(II)Cl2 (12) were synthesized via transmetalation protocol from silver(I) complexes, py-ImPyAgCl (5, 6a6e) and N-picolyl-ImPyAgCl (11). X-ray diffraction analysis of nickel(II) complexes (7, 8b, 12) showed a monomeric distorted tetrahedral geometry and a six-membered chelate ring structure. py-ImPy ligands formed a more planar six-membered chelate with the nickel center than did N-picolyl-ImPy ligand. py-ImPyNi(II)Cl2 complexes (8a8e) with tert-butyl substituents exhibited noticeable catalytic activity in acrylate synthesis from ethylene and CO2 (up to 108% acrylate). Interestingly, the use of additional additives including monodentate phosphines increased catalytic activity up to 845% acrylate (TON 8). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Catalytical Technology in South Korea)
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18 pages, 3379 KiB  
Article
Annealing Temperature-Dependent Effects of Fe-Loading on the Visible Light-Driven Photocatalytic Activity of Rutile TiO2 Nanoparticles and Their Applicability for Air Purification
by Soong Yeon Kim, Shahid Saqlain, Byeong Jun Cha, Shufang Zhao, Hyun Ook Seo and Young Dok Kim
Catalysts 2020, 10(7), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10070739 - 3 Jul 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2710
Abstract
Commercial rutile TiO2 particles (200–300 nm) were modified by the temperature-regulated chemical vapor deposition (tr-CVD) of Fe-oxide and subsequent annealing at various temperatures (300~750 °C). As a result of the modification, the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 regarding acetaldehyde removal under [...] Read more.
Commercial rutile TiO2 particles (200–300 nm) were modified by the temperature-regulated chemical vapor deposition (tr-CVD) of Fe-oxide and subsequent annealing at various temperatures (300~750 °C). As a result of the modification, the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 regarding acetaldehyde removal under visible light was enhanced, and the enhancement effects were dependent on the annealing temperature. Specifically, the enhancement effects of the modification were most pronounced when Fe-TiO2 was annealed at 375 °C, whereas the effects were significantly reduced by annealing at higher temperatures (525 and 750 °C). The analytical results with various techniques, including two surface-sensitive methods (XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and TOF-SIMS (time of fight-secondary ion mass spectrometry)), revealed that the stronger metal support interaction between TiO2 and the loaded Fe-oxide at high temperature (>375 °C) resulted in the decreased charge separation efficiency and photocatalytic activity of the Fe-TiO2 under light irradiation. The production scale for the Fe-TiO2 photocatalysts can be easily increased (from 200 g to 8 kg per the unit process) by upsizing the reactor volume. The mass-produced samples exhibited similar activity to the samples produced at small scale, and they were photocatalytically active after being spread on a cement block (stainless steel plate) using a surface hardening agent (paint), showing the high applicability in real applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Catalytical Technology in South Korea)
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13 pages, 5908 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Metal Oxides Containing ppm Levels of Pd as Catalysts for the Reduction of Nitroarene and Evaluation of Their Catalytic Activity by the Fluorescence-Based High-Throughput Screening Method
by Taeho Lim and Min Su Han
Catalysts 2020, 10(5), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10050542 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2736
Abstract
Herein, an easily accessible and efficient green method for the reduction of nitroarene compounds was developed using metal oxide catalysts. Heterogeneous metal oxides with or without Pd were prepared by a simple and scalable co-precipitation method and used for the reduction of nitroarenes. [...] Read more.
Herein, an easily accessible and efficient green method for the reduction of nitroarene compounds was developed using metal oxide catalysts. Heterogeneous metal oxides with or without Pd were prepared by a simple and scalable co-precipitation method and used for the reduction of nitroarenes. A fluorescence-based high-throughput screening (HTS) method was also developed for the rapid analysis of the reaction conditions. The catalytic activity of the metal oxides and reaction conditions were rapidly screened by the fluorescence-based HTS method, and Pd/CuO showed the highest catalytic activity under mild reaction conditions. After identifying the optimal reaction conditions, various nitroarenes were reduced to the corresponding aniline derivatives by Pd/CuO (0.005 mol% of Pd) under these conditions. Furthermore, the Pd/CuO catalyst was used for the one-pot Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling/reduction reaction. A gram-scale reaction (20 mmol) was successfully performed using the present method, and Pd/CuO showed high reusability without a loss of catalytic activity for five cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Catalytical Technology in South Korea)
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12 pages, 2316 KiB  
Article
MIL-101(Cr) for CO2 Conversion into Cyclic Carbonates, Under Solvent and Co-Catalyst Free Mild Reaction Conditions
by Emmanuelia Akimana, Jichao Wang, Natalya V. Likhanova, Somboon Chaemchuen and Francis Verpoort
Catalysts 2020, 10(4), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10040453 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4853
Abstract
Mild reaction conditions (nearly room temperature and atmospheric CO2 pressure) for the cycloaddition of CO2 with epoxides to produce cyclic carbonates were investigated applying MIL-101(Cr) as a catalyst. The MIL-101 catalyst contains strong acid sites, which promote the ring-opening of the [...] Read more.
Mild reaction conditions (nearly room temperature and atmospheric CO2 pressure) for the cycloaddition of CO2 with epoxides to produce cyclic carbonates were investigated applying MIL-101(Cr) as a catalyst. The MIL-101 catalyst contains strong acid sites, which promote the ring-opening of the epoxide substrate. Moreover, the high surface area, enabling the adsorption of more CO2 (substrate), combined with a large pore size of the catalyst is essential for the catalytic performance. Additionally, epoxide substrates bearing electron-withdrawing substituents or having a low boiling point demonstrated an excellent conversion towards the cyclic carbonates. MIL-101(Cr) for the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide with epoxides is demonstrated to be a robust and stable catalyst able to be re-used at least five times without loss in activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Catalytical Technology in South Korea)
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20 pages, 4008 KiB  
Article
Recent Developments in the Recycling of Spent Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst in South Korea
by In-Hyeok Choi, Yeon-Chul Cho, Gyeonghye Moon, Hee-Nam Kang, YoungBok Oh, Jin-Young Lee and Jungshin Kang
Catalysts 2020, 10(2), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10020182 - 3 Feb 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3997
Abstract
Spent selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst installed in power and incineration plants is used to convert nitrogen oxide (NOx) gas to nitrogen (N2) gas. Currently, most spent SCR catalyst in South Korea is eventually discarded in landfills. Recently, a [...] Read more.
Spent selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst installed in power and incineration plants is used to convert nitrogen oxide (NOx) gas to nitrogen (N2) gas. Currently, most spent SCR catalyst in South Korea is eventually discarded in landfills. Recently, a novel and efficient recycling process has been developed to recover tungsten (W), vanadium (V) and titanium (Ti) from spent SCR catalyst. In this process, after soda-melting reactions between the spent SCR catalyst and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) at 1273 K, hydrometallurgical treatments were carried out for the production of high-purity products, such as 99.3% sodium tungstate (Na2WO4), 99.3% vanadium oxide (V2O5) and 99.6% titanium dioxide (TiO2). On the basis of the fundamental investigation of this novel recycling process, process scale-up has been attempted to establish a commercial process. In this paper, recent developments in the recycling process for spent SCR catalyst and the results obtained using the scaled-up process will be discussed. Therefore, this study will provide a practical method for the recovery of W, V and Ti from spent SCR catalyst. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Catalytical Technology in South Korea)
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16 pages, 3315 KiB  
Article
Positive Effects of Impregnation of Fe-oxide in Mesoporous Al-Oxides on the Decontamination of Dimethyl Methylphosphonate
by Tae Gyun Woo, Byeong Jun Cha, Young Dok Kim and Hyun Ook Seo
Catalysts 2019, 9(11), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9110898 - 28 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3058
Abstract
Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) is an important simulant of organophosphates pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. Here, we investigated the catalytic decontamination of DMMP on Fe-oxide impregnated mesoporous Al2O3. Fe-oxide/Al2O3 sample was prepared via the temperature regulated [...] Read more.
Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) is an important simulant of organophosphates pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. Here, we investigated the catalytic decontamination of DMMP on Fe-oxide impregnated mesoporous Al2O3. Fe-oxide/Al2O3 sample was prepared via the temperature regulated chemical vapor deposition of Fe-oxide on mesoporous Al2O3 and post-annealing at 750 °C. The Fe-oxide/Al2O3 and bare Al2O3 samples were exposed to DMMP-containing dry air at room temperature to study the effects of Fe-oxide impregnation on the reactive adsorption of DMMP. The facilitation of DMMP degradation into CO2 and methanol at room temperature in the presence of nano-dispersed Fe-oxide was evidenced by gas-chromatograph and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy. In addition, temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) experiments and gas chromatography (Agilent, 6890) equipped with mass spectrometer (Agilent, 5973N) (GC/MS) analyses revealed that the minimum temperature that was required for total oxidation of DMMP into CO2 can also be lowered by Fe-oxide impregnation in mesoporous Al2O3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Catalytical Technology in South Korea)
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13 pages, 2459 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Analysis of Aqueous Benzalkonium Chloride Micellar Solution and Its Mediated Electrocatalytic De-Chlorination Application
by G. Muthuraman, K. Chandrasekara Pillai and Il-Shik Moon
Catalysts 2019, 9(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9010099 - 17 Jan 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4928
Abstract
The physicochemical properties of biologically important benzalkonium chlorides (BKCs) and the effects of its structure on the de-chlorination of allyl chloride was studied by electrogenerated [Co(I)(bipyridine)3]+ (Co(I)) using an electrochemical technique. The results of [Co(II)(bipyridine)3]2+ (Co(II)) cyclic [...] Read more.
The physicochemical properties of biologically important benzalkonium chlorides (BKCs) and the effects of its structure on the de-chlorination of allyl chloride was studied by electrogenerated [Co(I)(bipyridine)3]+ (Co(I)) using an electrochemical technique. The results of [Co(II)(bipyridine)3]2+ (Co(II)) cyclic voltammetry in the presence of BKC demonstrates Co(II)/Co(III) redox couple for physicochemical analysis of BKC and Co(II)/Co(I) redox couple for catalytic application. Cyclic voltammetry over a range of scan rates and BKC concentrations revealed the BKC-bound Co(II)/Co(III) micelles showed that the identification of cmc and association of the probe Co(II) species, associated more in the hydrophobic region. In addition, change in diffusion coefficient value of Co(II)/Co(III) with BKC concentration demonstrates the association of Co(II) in micellar hydrophobic region. The beneficial effects of BKC could be accounted for by considering the benzyl headgroup-Co (II) precatalyst-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (allyl chloride here) substrate interaction. Chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) revealed 100% complete de-chlorination of allyl chloride accompanied by three non-chloro products. This is the first report of benzyl headgroup-induced micellar enhancement by an electrochemical method, showing that it is possible to use hydrophobic benzyl headgroup-substitution to tune the properties of micelles for various applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Catalytical Technology in South Korea)
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Review

Jump to: Research

30 pages, 5294 KiB  
Review
Progress of MOF-Derived Functional Materials Toward Industrialization in Solar Cells and Metal-Air Batteries
by Mohamed Elhousseini Hilal, Abdelkhalk Aboulouard, Abdul Rehman Akbar, Hussein A. Younus, Nesrin Horzum and Francis Verpoort
Catalysts 2020, 10(8), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10080897 - 7 Aug 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4829
Abstract
The cutting-edge photovoltaic cells are an indispensable part of the ongoing progress of earth-friendly plans for daily life energy consumption. However, the continuous electrical demand that extends to the nighttime requires a prior deployment of efficient real-time storage systems. In this regard, metal-air [...] Read more.
The cutting-edge photovoltaic cells are an indispensable part of the ongoing progress of earth-friendly plans for daily life energy consumption. However, the continuous electrical demand that extends to the nighttime requires a prior deployment of efficient real-time storage systems. In this regard, metal-air batteries have presented themselves as the most suitable candidates for solar energy storage, combining extra lightweight with higher power outputs and promises of longer life cycles. Scientific research over non-precious functional catalysts has always been the milestone and still contributing significantly to exploring new advanced materials and moderating the cost of both complementary technologies. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-derived functional materials have found their way to the application as storage and conversion materials, owing to their structural variety, porous advantages, as well as the tunability and high reactivity. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the latest progress of MOF-based materials operating in metal-air batteries and photovoltaic cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Catalytical Technology in South Korea)
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32 pages, 13251 KiB  
Review
Catalytic Technologies for CO Hydrogenation for the Production of Light Hydrocarbons and Middle Distillates
by Ho Jin Chae, Jin-Ho Kim, Soo Chool Lee, Hyo-Sik Kim, Seong Bin Jo, Jae-Hong Ryu, Tae Young Kim, Chul Ho Lee, Se Jeong Kim, Suk-Hwan Kang, Jae Chang Kim and Myung-June Park
Catalysts 2020, 10(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10010099 - 9 Jan 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 6156
Abstract
In South Korea, where there are no resources such as natural gas or crude oil, research on alternative fuels has been actively conducted since the 1990s. The research on synthetic oil is subdivided into Coal to Liquid (CTL), Gas to Liquid (GTL), Biomass [...] Read more.
In South Korea, where there are no resources such as natural gas or crude oil, research on alternative fuels has been actively conducted since the 1990s. The research on synthetic oil is subdivided into Coal to Liquid (CTL), Gas to Liquid (GTL), Biomass to Liquid (BTL), etc., and was developed with the focus on catalysts, their preparation, reactor types, and operation technologies according to the product to be obtained. In Fischer–Tropsch synthesis for synthetic oil from syngas, stability, CO conversion rate, and product selectivity of catalysts depends on the design of their components, such as their active material, promoter, and support. Most of the developed catalysts were Fe- and Co-based catalysts and were developed in spherical and cylindrical shapes according to the reactor type. Recently, hybrid catalysts in combination with cracking catalysts were developed to control the distribution of the product. In this review, we survey recent studies related to the design of catalysts for production of light hydrocarbons and middle distillates, including hybrid catalysts, encapsulated core–shell catalysts, catalysts with active materials with well-organized sizes and shapes, and catalysts with shape- and size-controlled supports. Finally, we introduce recent research and development (R&D) trends in the production of light hydrocarbons and middle distillates and in the catalytic processes being applied to the development of catalysts in Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Catalytical Technology in South Korea)
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36 pages, 13372 KiB  
Review
Current Catalyst Technology of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) for NOx Removal in South Korea
by Hyo-Sik Kim, Saravanan Kasipandi, Jihyeon Kim, Suk-Hwan Kang, Jin-Ho Kim, Jae-Hong Ryu and Jong-Wook Bae
Catalysts 2020, 10(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10010052 - 1 Jan 2020
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 15285
Abstract
Recently, air pollution has worsened throughout the world, and as regulations on nitrogen oxides (NOx) are gradually tightened many researchers and industrialists are seeking technologies to cope with them. In order to meet the stringent regulations, research is being actively conducted [...] Read more.
Recently, air pollution has worsened throughout the world, and as regulations on nitrogen oxides (NOx) are gradually tightened many researchers and industrialists are seeking technologies to cope with them. In order to meet the stringent regulations, research is being actively conducted worldwide to reduce NOx-causing pollution. However, different countries tend to have different research trends because of their regional and industrial environments. In this paper, the results of recent catalyst studies on NOx removal by selective catalytic reduction are reviewed with the sources and regulations applied according to the national characteristics of South Korea. Specifically, we emphasized the three major NOx emissions sources in South Korea such as plant, automobile, and ship industries and the catalyst technologies used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Catalytical Technology in South Korea)
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31 pages, 7125 KiB  
Review
Flexibility in Metal–Organic Frameworks: A Basic Understanding
by Noor Aljammal, Christia Jabbour, Somboon Chaemchuen, Tatjána Juzsakova and Francis Verpoort
Catalysts 2019, 9(6), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9060512 - 6 Jun 2019
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 8127
Abstract
Much has been written about the fundamental aspects of the metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). Still, details concerning the MOFs with structural flexibility are not comprehensively understood. However, a dramatic increase in research activities concerning rigid MOFs over the years has brought deeper levels of [...] Read more.
Much has been written about the fundamental aspects of the metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). Still, details concerning the MOFs with structural flexibility are not comprehensively understood. However, a dramatic increase in research activities concerning rigid MOFs over the years has brought deeper levels of understanding for their properties and applications. Nonetheless, robustness and flexibility of such smart frameworks are intriguing for different research areas such as catalysis, adsorption, etc. This manuscript overviews the different aspects of framework flexibility. The review has touched lightly on several ideas and proposals, which have been demonstrated within the selected examples to provide a logical basis to obtain a fundamental understanding of their synthesis and behavior to external stimuli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Catalytical Technology in South Korea)
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