State-of-the-Art Mixed Matrix Membranes (MMMs)

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymeric Membranes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2021) | Viewed by 13157

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry and Fermentation Sciences, Appalachian State University, 525 Rivers Street, Boone, NC 28608, USA
Interests: metal-organic frameworks; covalent organic frameworks; organic polymers; environmental remediation; heterogeneous catalysis; sensing; C-H activation; mixed matrix membranes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Advanced Institute of Materials Science, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012, China
Interests: metal-organic frameworks; porous organic polymers; polyoxometalate; photocatalysis; hybrid membranes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As an alternative to inorganic and polymer membranes, mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have the advantages of both inorganic and organic polymers. Inorganic membranes with remarkable permeability and selectivity are inherently fragile, while flexible organic polymer chains synergistically make MMMs more malleable and ductile. Porous materials, such as zeolites, covalent organic frameworks (COFs), act as porous fillers in the matrix to mitigate the “trade-off” relationship between permeability and selectivity. The development and application of defect-free MMMs in oil exploitation, natural gas purification, and wastewater treatment are needed to meet global demand for a greener environment as a result of population growth, urbanization, economic development, and climate change.

The Special Issue on “State-of-the-Art Mixed Matrix Membranes (MMMs)” of the journal Membranes welcomes original research articles, reviews, and perspectives on innovation in synthetic methodology and application of the MMMs to address 21st-century challenges, including gas separation and water purification.

Dr. Harsh Vardhan
Prof. Dr. Francis Verpoort
Dr. Wenwen He
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Mixed matrix membranes
  • Porous materials
  • Gas separation
  • Water treatment
  • Pervaporation desalination
  • Environmental remediation
  • Organic solvent nanofiltration
  • Sustainability

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 194 KiB  
Editorial
State-of-the-Art Mixed Matrix Membranes (MMMs)
by Harsh Vardhan, Francis Verpoort and Wenwen He
Membranes 2022, 12(3), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12030294 - 04 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
The performance of most polymer membranes suffers from the trade-off relationship between permeability and selectivity [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Mixed Matrix Membranes (MMMs))

Research

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19 pages, 3883 KiB  
Article
Mixed Matrix Membranes Containing a Biphenyl-Based Knitting Aryl Polymer and Gas Separation Performance
by Raquel Martinez-Tirado, Nastasia Yuriychuk, Marta Iglesias, Mar López-González and Eva M. Maya
Membranes 2021, 11(12), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11120914 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1560
Abstract
Novel mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were prepared using Matrimid (M), polysulfone (PSF) or polyphenylene oxide (PPO) as the continuous phase and a porous biphenyl-based knitting aryl polymer as a filler, synthesized through the Friedel–Craft reaction. The filler had little influence on the thermal [...] Read more.
Novel mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were prepared using Matrimid (M), polysulfone (PSF) or polyphenylene oxide (PPO) as the continuous phase and a porous biphenyl-based knitting aryl polymer as a filler, synthesized through the Friedel–Craft reaction. The filler had little influence on the thermal and morphological properties of the membranes but affected the mechanical and gas transport properties, which were different depending on the type of matrix. Thus, in the case of MMMs based on Matrimid, the filler increased considerably the permeability to all gases, although no improvements in selectivity were achieved. A PSF-based MMM showed minor permeability increases, but not in all gases, while the selectivity was particularly improved for hydrogen separations. A PPO-based MMM did not exhibit variation in permeability nor in permselectivity with the addition of the filler. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Mixed Matrix Membranes (MMMs))
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12 pages, 3889 KiB  
Article
Formation of Water-Channel by Propylene Glycol into Polymer for Porous Materials
by Seong Ho Hong, Younghyun Cho and Sang Wook Kang
Membranes 2021, 11(11), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11110881 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1685
Abstract
In this study, a porous membrane with a cellulose acetate (CA) matrix was fabricated using propylene glycol with a water pressure treatment without a metal salt as an additive. The water pressure treatment of the fabricated CA membrane with propylene glycol yielded nanopores. [...] Read more.
In this study, a porous membrane with a cellulose acetate (CA) matrix was fabricated using propylene glycol with a water pressure treatment without a metal salt as an additive. The water pressure treatment of the fabricated CA membrane with propylene glycol yielded nanopores. The nanopores were formed as the additives in the CA chains led to plasticization. The weakened chains of the parts where the plasticization occurred were broken by the water pressure, which generated the pores. Compared to the previous study with glycerin as an additive, the size of the hydration region was controlled by the number of hydrophilic functional groups. When water pressure was applied to the CA membrane containing propylene glycol as an additive, the hydration area was small, so it was effective to control the pore size and the number of nano pores than glycerin. In addition, the number of nanopores and pore size could be easily adjusted by the water pressure. The porosity of the membrane was increased owing to the trace amount of propylene glycol, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and porosimetry. The interaction between the CA and propylene glycol was verified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Consequently, it was the optimum composition to generate pores at the CA/propylene glycol 1:0.2 ratio, and porosity of 69.7% and average pore diameter of 300 nm was confirmed. Since it is a membrane with high porosity and nano sized pores, it is expected to be applied in various fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Mixed Matrix Membranes (MMMs))
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13 pages, 8301 KiB  
Article
Cacao Pod Husk Extract Phenolic Nanopowder-Impregnated Cellulose Acetate Matrix for Biofouling Control in Membranes
by Yusuf Wibisono, Eka Mustika Diniardi, Dikianur Alvianto, Bambang Dwi Argo, Mochamad Bagus Hermanto, Shinta Rosalia Dewi, Nimatul Izza, Angky Wahyu Putranto and Saiful Saiful
Membranes 2021, 11(10), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11100748 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2180
Abstract
The ultrafiltration membrane process is widely used for fruit juice clarification, yet the occurring of fouling promotes a decline in process efficiency. To reduce the fouling potential in the membrane application in food processing, the use of natural phenolic compounds extracted from cocoa [...] Read more.
The ultrafiltration membrane process is widely used for fruit juice clarification, yet the occurring of fouling promotes a decline in process efficiency. To reduce the fouling potential in the membrane application in food processing, the use of natural phenolic compounds extracted from cocoa pod husk is investigated. The cocoa pod husk extract (CPHE) was prepared in phenolic nanoparticles form and added into the polymer solution at varying concentrations of 0.5 wt%, 0.75 wt%, and 1.0 wt%, respectively. The composite membrane was made of a cellulose acetate polymer using DMF (dimethylformamide) and DMAc (dimethylacetamide) solvents. The highest permeability of 2.34 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 was achieved by 1.0 wt% CPHE/CA prepared with the DMAc solvent. CPHE was found to reduce the amount of Escherichia coli attached to the membranes by 90.5% and 70.8% for membranes prepared with DMF and DMAc, respectively. It is concluded that CPHE can be used to control biofouling in the membrane for food applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Mixed Matrix Membranes (MMMs))
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18 pages, 6103 KiB  
Article
Fabrication, Optimization, and Performance of a TiO2 Coated Bentonite Membrane for Produced Water Treatment: Effect of Grafting Time
by Mohamad Izrin Mohamad Esham, Abdul Latif Ahmad and Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman
Membranes 2021, 11(10), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11100739 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1750
Abstract
The main problem usually faced by commercial ceramic membranes in the treatment of produced water (PW) is low water flux even though ceramic membrane was well-known with their excellent mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties. In the process of minimizing the problem faced by [...] Read more.
The main problem usually faced by commercial ceramic membranes in the treatment of produced water (PW) is low water flux even though ceramic membrane was well-known with their excellent mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties. In the process of minimizing the problem faced by commercial ceramic membranes, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposites, which synthesized via a sol-gel method, were deposited on the active layer of the hydrolysed bentonite membrane. This paper studied the influence of grafting time of TiO2 nanocomposite on the properties and performance of the coated bentonite membranes. Several characterizations, which are Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), contact angle, porosity, and average pore size, were applied to both pristine and coated bentonite membranes to compare the properties of the membranes. The deposition of TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface of the coated bentonite membranes was successfully confirmed by the characterization results. The pure water flux performance showed an increment from 262.29 L h−1 m² bar−1 (pristine bentonite membrane) to 337.05 L h−1 m² bar−1 (Ti-Ben 30) and 438.33 L h−1 m² bar−1 (Ti-Ben 60) as the grafting time increase but when the grafting time reached 90 min (Ti-Ben 90), the pure water flux was decreased to 214.22 L h−1 m² bar−1 which is lower than the pristine membrane. The oil rejection performance also revealed an increase in the oil rejection performance from 95 to 99%. These findings can be a good example to further studies and exploit the advantages of modified ceramic membranes in PW treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Mixed Matrix Membranes (MMMs))
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18 pages, 4005 KiB  
Article
Microcrystalline Cellulose-Blended Polyethersulfone Membranes for Enhanced Water Permeability and Humic Acid Removal
by Amirul Islah Nazri, Abdul Latif Ahmad and Mohd Hazwan Hussin
Membranes 2021, 11(9), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11090660 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3119
Abstract
A novel polyethersulfone (PES)/microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) composite membrane for humic acid (HA) removal in water was fabricated using the phase inversion method by blending hydrophilic MCC with intrinsically hydrophobic PES in a lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide (LiCl/DMAc) co-solvent system. A rheological study indicated that the [...] Read more.
A novel polyethersulfone (PES)/microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) composite membrane for humic acid (HA) removal in water was fabricated using the phase inversion method by blending hydrophilic MCC with intrinsically hydrophobic PES in a lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide (LiCl/DMAc) co-solvent system. A rheological study indicated that the MCC-containing casting solutions exhibited a significant increase in viscosity, which directly influenced the composite membrane’s pore structure. Compared to the pristine PES membrane, the composite membranes have a larger surface pore size, elongated finger-like structure, and presence of sponge-like pores. The water contact angle and pure water flux of the composite membranes indicated an increase in hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. However, the permeability of the composite membranes started to decrease at 3 wt.% MCC and beyond. The natural organic matter removal experiments were performed using humic acid (HA) as the surface water pollutant. The hydrophobic HA rejection was significantly increased by the enhanced hydrophilic PES/MCC composite membrane via the hydrophobic–hydrophilic interaction and pore size exclusion. This study provides insight into the utilization of a low-cost and environmentally friendly additive to improve the hydrophilicity of PES membranes for efficient removal of HA in water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Mixed Matrix Membranes (MMMs))
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