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Inventions, Volume 9, Issue 1 (February 2024) – 23 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Synthetic inertia control topologies for frequency support in low-inertia networks are becoming popular. Unlike conventional inertia, synthetic inertia is a tradeable quantity in modern networks. Therefore, its participation in the market proposes an increase in the networks' overall marginal operation cost. Thus, minimizing operation costs by optimizing the required synthetic inertia is inevitable. Therefore, a flexible synthetic inertia optimization method is proposed. The algorithm minimizes the operation cost of the network by giving flexible synthetic inertia at a given value of conventional inertia and different severities of contingency events. The method uses Box's evolutionary optimizer with a self-tuning capability of the synthetic inertia control parameters. View this paper
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19 pages, 1570 KiB  
Article
Anaerobic Digestion of Cuttings from Grassland in Protected Landscape Areas
by Christina Brandhorst, Benedikt Hülsemann, Benjamin Ohnmacht and Andreas Lemmer
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010023 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1186
Abstract
Orchard meadows are biodiversity hotspots, as the understory often consists of species-rich lowland hay meadows. Due to the low energy density of the grass, it is not suitable as feed, but the energetic utilisation of cuttings from orchard meadows for biogas production could [...] Read more.
Orchard meadows are biodiversity hotspots, as the understory often consists of species-rich lowland hay meadows. Due to the low energy density of the grass, it is not suitable as feed, but the energetic utilisation of cuttings from orchard meadows for biogas production could facilitate the protection of these semi-natural grasslands. Here, lowland hay meadows and extensively used orchards were investigated to assess their potential for anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. Aboveground biomass was harvested weekly from three lowland hay meadows differing in conservation statuses and analysed for cell wall components (aNDF, ADF, and ADL), nutritional values (XF, XL, XP), and methane formation potential by anaerobic digestion. Further, orchard meadows were harvested twice during summer and analysed in the same way. Specific methane yield decreased linearly with cutting dates from 0.325 m3 kg−1(oDM) to 0.237 m3 kg−1(oDM). The cumulated area-related methane yields of the orchards ranged from 818 m3 ha−1 to 1036 m3 ha−1. Specific methane yields were linearly correlated with XL, aNDF, ADF, and ADL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Research and Applications of Biofuels and Bioplastics)
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20 pages, 8290 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study of a Model and Full-Scale Container Ship Sailing in Regular Head Waves
by Andreea Mandru, Liliana Rusu, Adham Bekhit and Florin Pacuraru
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010022 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1211
Abstract
In the present study, the added resistance, heave, and pitch of the KRISO Container Ship (KCS) in waves, at both model scale and full scale, are predicted numerically in regular head waves, for four wavelengths and three wave heights. The ISIS-CFD viscous flow [...] Read more.
In the present study, the added resistance, heave, and pitch of the KRISO Container Ship (KCS) in waves, at both model scale and full scale, are predicted numerically in regular head waves, for four wavelengths and three wave heights. The ISIS-CFD viscous flow solver, implemented in the Fidelity Fine Marine software provided by CADENCE, was employed for the numerical simulations. The spatial discretization was based on the finite volume method using an unstructured grid. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations were solved numerically, with the turbulence modeled by shear stress transport (k-ω) (SST). The free-surface capturing was based on the volume-of-fluid method. The computed solutions were validated through comparisons with towing test data available in the public domain. To predict the uncertainties in the numerical solution, a systematic grid convergence study based on the Richardson extrapolation method was performed for a single wave case on three different grid resolutions. Specific attention was given to the free-surface and wake flow in the propeller plane. The purpose was to compare the numerical results from the model- and full-scale tests to examine the scale’s effect on the ship’s performance in regular head waves. The comparison between the model scale and full scale showed obvious differences, less accentuated for the free-surface topology and clearly observed in terms of boundary layer formation in the propeller’s vicinity. Full article
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15 pages, 3087 KiB  
Article
Defining Data Model Quality Metrics for Data Vault 2.0 Model Evaluation
by Heli Helskyaho, Laura Ruotsalainen and Tomi Männistö
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010021 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1688
Abstract
Designing a database is a crucial step in providing businesses with high-quality data for decision making. The quality of a data model is the key to the quality of its data. Evaluating the quality of a data model is a complex and time-consuming [...] Read more.
Designing a database is a crucial step in providing businesses with high-quality data for decision making. The quality of a data model is the key to the quality of its data. Evaluating the quality of a data model is a complex and time-consuming task. Having suitable metrics for evaluating the quality of a data model is an essential requirement for automating the design process of a data model. While there are metrics available for evaluating data warehouse data models to some degree, there is a distinct lack of metrics specifically designed to assess how well a data model conforms to the rules and best practices of Data Vault 2.0. The quality of a Data Vault 2.0 data model is considered suboptimal if it fails to adhere to these principles. In this paper, we introduce new metrics that can be used for evaluating the quality of a Data Vault 2.0 data model, either manually or automatically. This methodology involves defining a set of metrics based on the best practices of Data Vault 2.0, evaluating five representative data models using both metrics and manual assessments made by a human expert. Finally, a comparative analysis of both evaluations was conducted to validate the consistency of the metrics with the judgments made by a human expert. Full article
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30 pages, 34635 KiB  
Article
Innovative Maritime Uncrewed Systems and Satellite Solutions for Shallow Water Bathymetric Assessment
by Laurențiu-Florin Constantinoiu, António Tavares, Rui Miguel Cândido and Eugen Rusu
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010020 - 05 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Shallow water bathymetry is a topic of significant interest in various fields, including civil construction, port monitoring, and military operations. This study presents several methods for assessing shallow water bathymetry using maritime uncrewed systems (MUSs) integrated with advanced and innovative sensors such as [...] Read more.
Shallow water bathymetry is a topic of significant interest in various fields, including civil construction, port monitoring, and military operations. This study presents several methods for assessing shallow water bathymetry using maritime uncrewed systems (MUSs) integrated with advanced and innovative sensors such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and multibeam echosounder (MBES). Furthermore, this study comprehensively describes satellite-derived bathymetry (SDB) techniques within the same geographical area. Each technique is thoroughly outlined with respect to its implementation and resultant data, followed by an analytical comparison encompassing their accuracy, precision, rapidness, and operational efficiency. The accuracy and precision of the methods were evaluated using a bathymetric reference survey conducted with traditional means, prior to the MUS survey and with cross-comparisons between all the approaches. In each assessment of the survey methodologies, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted, explaining both the advantages and limitations for each approach, thereby enabling an inclusive understanding for the reader regarding the efficacy and applicability of these methods. The experiments were conducted as part of the Robotic Experimentation and Prototyping using Maritime Unmanned Systems 23 (REPMUS23) multinational exercise, which was part of the Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA) experimentations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Sensing Technology towards Digital Twin in Applications)
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16 pages, 6073 KiB  
Article
Development of Membrane Electrode Assembly with Double-Catalytic Layer for Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell
by Shubin Zhang and Yanfeng Jiang
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010019 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1079
Abstract
This paper presents a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with a double-catalytic layered structure to improve the performance of the micro direct methanol fuel cell. The inner and outer parts of the double-catalytic layer comprise an unsupported and carbon-supported catalyst, respectively. A two-dimensional two-phase [...] Read more.
This paper presents a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with a double-catalytic layered structure to improve the performance of the micro direct methanol fuel cell. The inner and outer parts of the double-catalytic layer comprise an unsupported and carbon-supported catalyst, respectively. A two-dimensional two-phase model of mass transport and electrochemical reaction is established and simulated to analyze the superiority of the double-catalytic layered structure. Simulation results show that this structure has a more uniform current density distribution and less over-potential across the catalyst layer. Methanol crossover is also reduced. Experimental results confirm that the MEA with the double-catalytic layered structure exhibits better performance than the traditional MEA. The adoption of a gas diffusion electrode as the outer catalytic layer and a catalyst-coated membrane as the inner layer of the double-catalytic layered structure can further improve the performance of the MEA. Both simulation and experimental results show the existence of an optimum number of metal loadings of the inner and outer parts of the double-catalytic layer. Full article
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18 pages, 4900 KiB  
Article
Flexible Synthetic Inertia Optimization in Modern Power Systems
by Peter Makolo, Ramon Zamora, Uvini Perera and Tek Tjing Lie
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010018 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1419
Abstract
Increasing the replacement of conventional synchronous machines by non-synchronous renewable machines reduces the conventional synchronous generator (SG) inertia in the modern network. Synthetic inertia (SI) control topologies to provide frequency support are becoming a new frequency control tactic in new networks. However, the [...] Read more.
Increasing the replacement of conventional synchronous machines by non-synchronous renewable machines reduces the conventional synchronous generator (SG) inertia in the modern network. Synthetic inertia (SI) control topologies to provide frequency support are becoming a new frequency control tactic in new networks. However, the participation of SI in the market of RES-rich networks to provide instant frequency support when required proposes an increase in the overall marginal operation cost of contemporary networks. Consequently, depreciation of operation costs by optimizing the required SI in the network is inevitable. Therefore, this paper proposes a flexible SI optimization method. The algorithm developed in the proposed method minimizes the operation cost of the network by giving flexible SI at a given SG inertia and different sizes of contingency events. The proposed method uses Box’s evolutionary optimizer with a self-tuning capability of the SI control parameters. The proposed method is validated using the modified New England 39-bus network. The results show that provided SIs support the available SG inertia to reduce the RoCoF values and maintain them within acceptable limits to increase the network’s resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distribution Renewable Energy Integration and Grid Modernization)
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11 pages, 8424 KiB  
Brief Report
Development of Fishcake Gripping and Classification Automation Process Based on Suction Shape Transformation Gripper
by Seolha Kim, Jonghwan Baek, Myeongsu Jeong, Jinho Suh and Jaeyoul Lee
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010017 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1215
Abstract
The surge in demand for automating seafood processing necessitates the development of robotic processes for transportation, packaging, and classification. South Korean companies are actively constructing diverse robots and grippers for fishcake handling, yet small workshops face spatial constraints. To address this, the study [...] Read more.
The surge in demand for automating seafood processing necessitates the development of robotic processes for transportation, packaging, and classification. South Korean companies are actively constructing diverse robots and grippers for fishcake handling, yet small workshops face spatial constraints. To address this, the study focuses on creating a gripper capable of versatile fishcake handling within compact spaces. The gripper, designed for single-robot use, employs three suction cups, adapting its grip based on fishcake shapes. Small fishcakes are gripped at the center with one suction cup, elongated ones with two cups aligned to the slope, and wider ones with three cups. A testbed with the gripper attached to a robot facilitates fishcake gripping, classification, and automation testing. Fishcake recognition and gripping tests revealed challenges based on shape, width, and material. Despite difficulties, a commendable 100% success rate was achieved for the majority of fishcakes, showcasing the gripper’s effectiveness. Identified improvements include reducing the suction cup diameter and increasing pressure for enhanced gripping and classification in confined spaces. The study demonstrates the successful development of a gripper for versatile fishcake handling, particularly beneficial for small workshops. The identified improvements offer pathways to enhance efficiency in fishcake gripping and classification within limited spaces. Full article
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24 pages, 13906 KiB  
Article
Lab Scale Investigation of Gaseous Emissions, Performance and Stability of an Aviation Turbo-Engine While Running on Biodiesel Based Sustainable Aviation Fuel
by Radu Mirea and Grigore Cican
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010016 - 19 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1511
Abstract
The research experimentally examines the viability of biodiesel obtained from pork fat (BP) as a sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) when mixed with kerosene (Ke)—Jet-A aviation fuel + 5% Aeroshell 500 oil. Various blends of biodiesel and kerosene (10, 20, and 30% vol. of [...] Read more.
The research experimentally examines the viability of biodiesel obtained from pork fat (BP) as a sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) when mixed with kerosene (Ke)—Jet-A aviation fuel + 5% Aeroshell 500 oil. Various blends of biodiesel and kerosene (10, 20, and 30% vol. of BP added in Ke) were subjected to testing in an aviation micro turbo-engine under different operational states: idle, cruise, and maximum power. During the tests, monitoring of engine parameters such as burning temperature, fuel consumption, and thrust force was conducted. The study also encompassed the calculation of crucial performance indicators like burning efficiency, thermal efficiency, and specific consumption for all fuel blends under maximum power conditions. Combustion temperatures ahead of the turbines rise with an increase in biodiesel concentration, particularly in the idle regime, without compromising engine integrity. However, for regimes 2 and 3, the temperature in front of the turbine decreases with rising biodiesel concentration, accompanied by an increase in fuel flow rate. This phenomenon is reflected in the elevated specific consumption. Notably, for regime 3, there is a noticeable rise in specific consumption, starting from S = 0.0264 kg/Nh when the turbo-engine operates solely with Ke, to S = 0.0266 kg/Nh for Ke + 10% BP, S = 0.0269 kg/Nh for Ke + 20% BP, and S = 0.0275 kg/Nh for Ke + 30% BP. Physical–chemical properties of the blends, encompassing density, viscosity, flash point, and calorific power, were determined. Furthermore, elemental analysis and FTIR were used for chemical composition determination. The amount of CO2 produced during the stoichiometric combustion reaction with air showed variations. Initially, when using only Ke, it amounted to 3.12 kg per kilogram of fuel. Upon adding 10% BP, this value decreased to 3.09 kg, further reducing to 3.05 kg with 20% BP. The lowest value was observed with 30% BP, reaching 3.04 kg. Experimental assessments were performed on the Jet Cat P80® micro-turbo-engine, covering aspects such as starting procedures, sudden acceleration, sudden deceleration, and emissions of pollutants (NOx, CO, and SO2) during several engine operational phases. The outcomes reveal that the examined fuel blends exhibited stable engine performance across all tested conditions. This indicates that these blends hold promise as sustainable aviation fuels for micro turbo-engines, presenting benefits in terms of diminished pollution and a more ecologically sound raw material base for fuel production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamic and Technical Analysis for Sustainability (Volume 3))
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15 pages, 3165 KiB  
Article
Two-Phase Flow Pattern Identification in Vertical Pipes Using Transformer Neural Networks
by Carlos Mauricio Ruiz-Díaz, Erwing Eduardo Perilla-Plata and Octavio Andrés González-Estrada
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010015 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1628
Abstract
The oil and gas industry consistently embraces innovative technologies due to the significant expenses associated with hydrocarbon transportation, pipeline corrosion issues, and the necessity to gain a deeper understanding of two-phase flow characteristics. These solutions involve the implementation of predictive models utilizing neural [...] Read more.
The oil and gas industry consistently embraces innovative technologies due to the significant expenses associated with hydrocarbon transportation, pipeline corrosion issues, and the necessity to gain a deeper understanding of two-phase flow characteristics. These solutions involve the implementation of predictive models utilizing neural networks. In this research paper, a comprehensive database comprising 4864 data points, encompassing information pertaining to oil–water two-phase flow properties within vertical pipelines, was meticulously curated. Subsequently, an encoder-only type transformer neural network (TNN) was employed to identify two-phase flow patterns. Various configurations for the TNN model were proposed, involving parameter adjustments such as the number of attention heads, activation function, dropout rate, and learning rate, with the aim of selecting the configuration yielding optimal outcomes. Following the training of the network, predictions were generated using a reserved dataset, thus facilitating the creation of flow maps depicting the patterns anticipated by the model. The developed TNN model successfully predicted 9 out of the 10 flow patterns present in the database, achieving a peak accuracy of 53.07%. Furthermore, the various predicted flow patterns exhibited an average precision of 63.21% and an average accuracy of 86.51%. Full article
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16 pages, 4972 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Object Localization Using a Fuzzy Controller for a Vision-Based Drone
by Ping-Sheng Wang, Chien-Hung Lin and Cheng-Ta Chuang
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010014 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1316
Abstract
This study proposes a drone system with visual identification and tracking capabilities to address the issue of limited communication bandwidth for drones. This system can lock onto a target during flight and transmit its simple features to the ground station, thereby reducing communication [...] Read more.
This study proposes a drone system with visual identification and tracking capabilities to address the issue of limited communication bandwidth for drones. This system can lock onto a target during flight and transmit its simple features to the ground station, thereby reducing communication bandwidth demands. RealFlight is used as the simulation environment to validate the proposed drone algorithm. The core components of the system include DeepSORT and MobileNet lightweight models for target tracking. The designed fuzzy controller enables the system to adjust the drone’s motors, gradually moving the locked target to the center of the frame and maintaining continuous tracking. Additionally, this study introduces channel and spatial reliability tracking (CSRT) switching from multi-object to single-object tracking and multithreading technology to enhance the system’s execution speed. The experimental results demonstrate that the system can accurately adjust the target to the frame’s center within approximately 1.5 s, maintaining precision within ±0.5 degrees. On the Jetson Xavier NX embedded platform, the average frame rate (FPS) for the multi-object tracker was only 1.37, with a standard deviation of 1.05. In contrast, the single-object tracker CSRT exhibited a significant improvement, achieving an average FPS of 9.77 with a standard deviation of 1.86. This study provides an effective solution for visual tracking in drone systems that is efficient and conserves communication bandwidth. The validation of the embedded platform highlighted its practicality and performance. Full article
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31 pages, 10260 KiB  
Article
Particle Number Concentration and SEM-EDX Analyses of an Auxiliary Heating Device in Operation with Different Fossil and Renewable Fuel
by Péter Nagy, Ádám István Szabó, Ibolya Zsoldos and György Szabados
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010013 - 11 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1427
Abstract
Pollution from road vehicles enters the air environment from many sources. One such source could be if the vehicle is equipped with an auxiliary heater. They can be classified according to whether they work with diesel or gasoline and whether they heat water [...] Read more.
Pollution from road vehicles enters the air environment from many sources. One such source could be if the vehicle is equipped with an auxiliary heater. They can be classified according to whether they work with diesel or gasoline and whether they heat water or air. The subject of our research series is an additional heating system that heats the air, the original fuel is gasoline. This device has been built up in a modern engine test bench, where the environmental parameters can be controlled. The length of the test cycle was chosen to be 30 min. The tested fuels were E10, E30, E100 and B7. A 30-min operating period has been chosen in the NORMAL operating mode of the device as a test cycle. The focus of the tests was particle number concentration and soot composition. The results of the particle number concentration showed that renewable fuel content significantly reduces the number concentration of the emitted particles (9.56 × 108 #/cycle for E10 vs. 1.65 × 108 #/cycle for E100), while B7 causes a significantly higher number of emissions than E10 (3.92 × 1010 #/cycle for B7). Based on the elemental analysis, most deposits are elemental carbon, but non-organic compounds are also present. Carbon (92.18 m/m% for E10), oxygen (6.34 m/m% for E10), fluorine (0.64 m/m% for E10), and zinc (0.56 m/m% for E10) have been found in the largest quantity of deposits taken form the combustion chamber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Research and Applications of Biofuels and Bioplastics)
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59 pages, 24049 KiB  
Article
IIR Shelving Filter, Support Vector Machine and k-Nearest Neighbors Algorithm Application for Voltage Transients and Short-Duration RMS Variations Analysis
by Vladislav Liubčuk, Gediminas Kairaitis, Virginijus Radziukynas and Darius Naujokaitis
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010012 - 09 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1808
Abstract
This paper focuses on both voltage transients and short-duration RMS variations, and presents a unique and heterogeneous approach to their assessment by applying AI tools. The database consists of both real (obtained from Lithuanian PQ monitoring campaigns) and synthetic data (obtained from the [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on both voltage transients and short-duration RMS variations, and presents a unique and heterogeneous approach to their assessment by applying AI tools. The database consists of both real (obtained from Lithuanian PQ monitoring campaigns) and synthetic data (obtained from the simulation and literature review). Firstly, this paper investigates the fundamental grid component and its harmonics filtering with an IIR shelving filter. Secondly, in a key part, both SVM and KNN are used to classify PQ events by their primary cause in the voltage–duration plane as well as by the type of short circuit in the three-dimensional voltage space. Thirdly, since it seemed to be difficult to interpret the results in the three-dimensional space, the new method, based on Clarke transformation, is developed to convert it to two-dimensional space. The method shows an outstanding performance by avoiding the loss of important information. In addition, a geometric analysis of the fault voltage in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional spaces revealed certain geometric patterns that are undoubtedly important for PQ classification. Finally, based on the results of a PQ monitoring campaign in the Lithuanian distribution grid, this paper presents a unique discussion regarding PQ assessment gaps that need to be solved in anticipation of a great leap forward and refers them to PQ legislation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Challenges in Emerging Power Systems)
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15 pages, 3611 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Nusselt Correlation on Exergy Efficiency of a Plate Heat Exchanger Operating with TiO2:SiO2/EG:DI Hybrid Nanofluid
by Sylwia Wciślik
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010011 - 09 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1412
Abstract
This paper studies how the correlation with the Nusselt number affects the final result of the efficiency, ε, and exergy efficiency, ηex, of a chevron-type gasketed plate heat exchanger, which is installed in a typical small solar installation dedicated to [...] Read more.
This paper studies how the correlation with the Nusselt number affects the final result of the efficiency, ε, and exergy efficiency, ηex, of a chevron-type gasketed plate heat exchanger, which is installed in a typical small solar installation dedicated to single-family housing; the solar fluid is a TiO2:SiO2/EG:DI hybrid nanofluid with concentrations from 0% to 1.5% vol. The experimental model assumes constant flow of the solar fluid and varies on the domestic hot water side—from 3 lpm to 6 lpm. The inlet temperatures are 30 °C and 60 °C on the cold and hot sides of the heat exchanger, respectively. Of the six analysed correlations that showed similar trends, it is concluded that for the assumed flow conditions, geometry, and chevron angle of the plate heat exchanger, one model is the most accurate. The largest difference between the ηex values for a given concentration is 3.4%, so the exergy efficiency is not affected by the chosen Nusselt model by very much. However, the choice of correlation with the Nusselt number significantly affects the efficiency, ε; the difference between the values obtained within a given concentration is more than 40% and depends on the Reynolds number and flow. Most research discusses the scenario with the nanofluid as a coolant. This paper considers the opposite situation in which the solar fluid is a hotter working medium that transfers heat to domestic hot water installation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Heat Exchangers)
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33 pages, 4009 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Smart Agriculture Monitoring via Connectivity Management Scheme and Dynamic Clustering Strategy
by Fariborz Ahmadi, Omid Abedi and Sima Emadi
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010010 - 05 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1404
Abstract
The evolution of agriculture towards a modern, intelligent system is crucial for achieving sustainable development and ensuring food security. In this context, leveraging the Internet of Things (IoT) stands as a pivotal strategy to enhance both crop quantity and quality while effectively managing [...] Read more.
The evolution of agriculture towards a modern, intelligent system is crucial for achieving sustainable development and ensuring food security. In this context, leveraging the Internet of Things (IoT) stands as a pivotal strategy to enhance both crop quantity and quality while effectively managing natural resources such as water and fertilizer. Wireless sensor networks, the backbone of IoT-based smart agricultural infrastructure, gather ecosystem data and transmit them to sinks and drones. However, challenges persist, notably in network connectivity, energy consumption, and network lifetime, particularly when facing supernode and relay node failures. This paper introduces an innovative approach to address these challenges within heterogeneous wireless sensor network-based smart agriculture. The proposed solution comprises a novel connectivity management scheme and a dynamic clustering method facilitated by five distributed algorithms. The first and second algorithms focus on path collection, establishing connections between each node and m-supernodes via k-disjoint paths to ensure network robustness. The third and fourth algorithms provide sustained network connectivity during node and supernode failures by adjusting transmission powers and dynamically clustering agriculture sensors based on residual energy. In the fifth algorithm, an optimization algorithm is implemented on the dominating set problem to strategically position a subset of relay nodes as migration points for mobile supernodes to balance the network’s energy depletion. The suggested solution demonstrates superior performance in addressing connectivity, failure tolerance, load balancing, and network lifetime, ensuring optimal agricultural outcomes. Full article
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20 pages, 7631 KiB  
Article
Computer Vision Algorithm for Characterization of a Turbulent Gas–Liquid Jet
by Ilya Starodumov, Sergey Sokolov, Pavel Mikushin, Margarita Nikishina, Timofey Mityashin, Ksenia Makhaeva, Felix Blyakhman, Dmitrii Chernushkin and Irina Nizovtseva
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010009 - 04 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1582
Abstract
A computer vision algorithm to determine the parameters of a two-phase turbulent jet of a water-gas mixture traveling at a velocity in the range of 5–10 m/s was developed in order to evaluate the hydrodynamic efficiency of mass exchange apparatuses in real time, [...] Read more.
A computer vision algorithm to determine the parameters of a two-phase turbulent jet of a water-gas mixture traveling at a velocity in the range of 5–10 m/s was developed in order to evaluate the hydrodynamic efficiency of mass exchange apparatuses in real time, as well as to predict the gas exchange rate. The algorithm is based on threshold segmentation, the active contours method, the regression of principal components method, and the comparison of feature overlays, which allows the stable determination of jet boundaries and is a more efficient method when working with low-quality data than traditional implementations of the Canny method. Based on high-speed video recordings of jets, the proposed algorithm allows the calculation of key characteristics of jets: the velocity, angle of incidence, structural density, etc. Both the algorithm’s description and a test application based on video recordings of a real jet created on an experimental prototype of a jet bioreactor are discussed. The results are compared with computational fluid dynamics modeling and theoretical predictions, and good agreement is demonstrated. The presented algorithm itself represents the basis for a real-time control system for aerator operation in jet bioreactors, as well as being used in laboratory jet stream installations for the accumulation of big data on the structure and dynamic properties of jets. Full article
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24 pages, 5149 KiB  
Article
Early-Stage Identification of Powdery Mildew Levels for Cucurbit Plants in Open-Field Conditions Based on Texture Descriptors
by Claudia Angélica Rivera-Romero, Elvia Ruth Palacios-Hernández, Osbaldo Vite-Chávez and Iván Alfonso Reyes-Portillo
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010008 - 03 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1559
Abstract
Constant monitoring is necessary for powdery mildew prevention in field crops because, as a fungal disease, it modifies the green pigments of the leaves and is responsible for production losses. Therefore, there is a need for solutions that assure early disease detection to [...] Read more.
Constant monitoring is necessary for powdery mildew prevention in field crops because, as a fungal disease, it modifies the green pigments of the leaves and is responsible for production losses. Therefore, there is a need for solutions that assure early disease detection to realize proactive control and management of the disease. The methodology currently used for the identification of powdery mildew disease uses RGB leaf images to detect damage levels. In the early stage of the disease, no symptoms are visible, but this is a point at which the disease can be controlled before the symptoms appear. This study proposes the implementation of a support vector machine to identify powdery mildew on cucurbit plants using RGB images and color transformations. First, we use an image dataset that provides photos covering five growing seasons in different locations and under natural light conditions. Twenty-two texture descriptors using the gray-level co-occurrence matrix result are calculated as the main features. The proposed damage levels are ’healthy leaves’, ’leaves in the fungal germination phase’, ’leaves with first symptoms’, and ’diseased leaves’. The implementation reveals that the accuracy in the L * a * b color space is higher than that when using the combined components, with an accuracy value of 94% and kappa Cohen of 0.7638. Full article
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20 pages, 8656 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study of the Influence of the Type of Gas on Drag Reduction by Microbubble Injection
by Hai An, Po Yang, Hanyu Zhang and Xinquan Liu
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010007 - 02 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1294
Abstract
In this work, a novel numerical method for studying the influence of gas types on drag reduction by microbubble injection is presented. Aimed at the microbubble drag reduction (MBDR) process for different types of gases, the mass transfer velocity of different types of [...] Read more.
In this work, a novel numerical method for studying the influence of gas types on drag reduction by microbubble injection is presented. Aimed at the microbubble drag reduction (MBDR) process for different types of gases, the mass transfer velocity of different types of gases in the gas–liquid phase is defined by writing a user-defined function (UDF), which reflected the influence of gas solubility on the drag reduction rate. An Eulerian multiphase flow model and the Realizable kε turbulence model are used for numerical calculation. The population balance model is used to describe the coalescence and breakup phenomena of the microbubble groups. Henry’s theorem is used to calculate the equilibrium concentration of the microbubble mixed flow. The interphase mass transfer rate of the microbubble injection process for different types of gases is studied by using permeation theory. The local mass fraction of the mixed flow is solved by the component transport equation. It is found that the larger the solubility of the gas, the lower the efficiency of MBDR. When the volume flow rate of the same type of gas is the same but the injection speed is different, the larger the solubility of the gas is, the greater the difference in the drag reduction ratio. Full article
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14 pages, 2970 KiB  
Article
A Modified Xception Deep Learning Model for Automatic Sorting of Olives Based on Ripening Stages
by Seyed Iman Saedi and Mehdi Rezaei
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010006 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1596
Abstract
Olive fruits at different ripening stages give rise to various table olive products and oil qualities. Therefore, developing an efficient method for recognizing and sorting olive fruits based on their ripening stages can greatly facilitate post-harvest processing. This study introduces an automatic computer [...] Read more.
Olive fruits at different ripening stages give rise to various table olive products and oil qualities. Therefore, developing an efficient method for recognizing and sorting olive fruits based on their ripening stages can greatly facilitate post-harvest processing. This study introduces an automatic computer vision system that utilizes deep learning technology to classify the ‘Roghani’ Iranian olive cultivar into five ripening stages using color images. The developed model employs convolutional neural networks (CNN) and transfer learning based on the Xception architecture and ImageNet weights as the base network. The model was modified by adding some well-known CNN layers to the last layer. To minimize overfitting and enhance model generality, data augmentation techniques were employed. By considering different optimizers and two image sizes, four final candidate models were generated. These models were then compared in terms of loss and accuracy on the test dataset, classification performance (classification report and confusion matrix), and generality. All four candidates exhibited high accuracies ranging from 86.93% to 93.46% and comparable classification performance. In all models, at least one class was recognized with 100% accuracy. However, by taking into account the risk of overfitting in addition to the network stability, two models were discarded. Finally, a model with an image size of 224 × 224 and an SGD optimizer, which had a loss of 1.23 and an accuracy of 86.93%, was selected as the preferred option. The results of this study offer robust tools for automatic olive sorting systems, simplifying the differentiation of olives at various ripening levels for different post-harvest products. Full article
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9 pages, 283 KiB  
Editorial
Automatic Control and System Theory and Advanced Applications—Volume 2
by Luigi Fortuna and Arturo Buscarino
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010005 - 29 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1435
Abstract
The aim of the Special Issue on Automatic Control and System Theory and Advanced Applications, the second volume of a previous paper selection, is to emphasize the role of new inventions in the area of automatic control applications [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automatic Control and System Theory and Advanced Applications)
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9 pages, 3819 KiB  
Article
Design of a Novel Magnetic Induction Switch with a Permalloy Film and a Trans-Impedance Amplifier Circuit
by Shubin Zhang, Qi Jiang and Yanfeng Jiang
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010004 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1201
Abstract
At present, magnetic induction switches are widely used in industrial automation control and biological sensing systems. A core module composed of a magnetic sensing device and a signal conditioning circuit is designed and analyzed in this paper. Utilizing a permalloy film with the [...] Read more.
At present, magnetic induction switches are widely used in industrial automation control and biological sensing systems. A core module composed of a magnetic sensing device and a signal conditioning circuit is designed and analyzed in this paper. Utilizing a permalloy film with the anisotropic magneto-resistance (AMR) effect, the novel magnetic induction switch shows its ability to correctly detect the direction of magnetic fields. Furthermore, an interfacial circuit based on a trans-impedance amplifier (TIA) is designed to measure and regulate the output signal of the sensing device. Accurate simulation results show the gain of the TIA reaches up to 51.36 dB with a bandwidth of 1.3 GHz and a power consumption of 3.65 mW. The outstanding performance of the proposed module demonstrates the possibility of solving the problems induced by high input impedance, high frequency, and parasitic effects in magnetic induction switches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Sensing Technology towards Digital Twin in Applications)
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19 pages, 4671 KiB  
Article
Large-Scale BESS for Damping Frequency Oscillations of Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetration
by Shami Ahmad Assery, Xiao-Ping Zhang and Nan Chen
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010003 - 26 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1689
Abstract
With the high penetration of renewable energy into power grids, frequency stability and oscillation have become big concerns due to the reduced system inertia. The application of the Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is considered one of the options to deal with frequency [...] Read more.
With the high penetration of renewable energy into power grids, frequency stability and oscillation have become big concerns due to the reduced system inertia. The application of the Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is considered one of the options to deal with frequency stability and oscillation. This paper presents a strategy to size, locate, and operate the BESS within the power grid and, therefore, investigate how sizing capacity is related to renewable energy penetration levels. This paper proposes an identification method to determine the best location of the BESS using the Prony method based on system oscillation analysis, which is easy to implement based on measurements while actual physical system models are not required. The proposed methods for BESS size and location are applied using MATLAB/Simulink simulation software (version: R2023a) on the Kundur 2-area 11-bus test system with different renewable energy penetration levels, and the effectiveness of the applied method in enhancing frequency stability is illustrated in the study cases. The case studies showed a significant improvement in steady-state frequency deviation, frequency nadir, and Rate of Change of Frequency (ROCOF) after implementing BESS at the selected bus. The integration of BESS can help to avoid Under-frequency Load Shedding (UFLS) by proper selections of size, location, and operating strategy of the BESS within the power grid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Strategy of Protection and Control for the Grid)
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19 pages, 3589 KiB  
Article
Development and Application of an Open Power Meter Suitable for NILM
by Carlos Rodríguez-Navarro, Francisco Portillo, Fernando Martínez, Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro and Alfredo Alcayde
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010002 - 21 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
In the context of the global energy sector’s increasing reliance on fossil fuels and escalating environmental concerns, there is an urgent need for advancements in energy monitoring and optimization. Addressing this challenge, the present study introduces the Open Multi Power Meter, a novel [...] Read more.
In the context of the global energy sector’s increasing reliance on fossil fuels and escalating environmental concerns, there is an urgent need for advancements in energy monitoring and optimization. Addressing this challenge, the present study introduces the Open Multi Power Meter, a novel open hardware solution designed for efficient and precise electrical measurements. This device is engineered around a single microcontroller architecture, featuring a comprehensive suite of measurement modules interconnected via an RS485 bus, which ensures high accuracy and scalability. A significant aspect of this development is the integration with the Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Toolkit, which utilizes advanced algorithms for energy disaggregation, including Combinatorial Optimization and the Finite Hidden Markov Model. Comparative analyses were performed using public datasets alongside commercial and open hardware monitors to validate the design and capabilities of this device. These studies demonstrate the device’s notable effectiveness, characterized by its simplicity, flexibility, and adaptability in various energy monitoring scenarios. The introduction of this cost-effective and scalable tool marks a contribution to the field of energy research, enhancing energy efficiency practices. This research provides a practical solution for energy management and opens advancements in the field, highlighting its potential impact on academic research and real-world applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Challenges in Emerging Power Systems)
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15 pages, 1054 KiB  
Article
An Approach for Using a Tensor-Based Method for Mobility-User Pattern Determining
by Ivan P. Ashaev, Ildar A. Safiullin, Artur K. Gaysin, Adel F. Nadeev and Alexey A. Korobkov
Inventions 2024, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9010001 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1230
Abstract
Modern mobile networks exhibit a complex heterogeneous structure. To enhance the Quality of Service (QoS) in these networks, intelligent control mechanisms should be implemented. These functions are based on the processing of large amounts of data and feature extraction. One such feature is [...] Read more.
Modern mobile networks exhibit a complex heterogeneous structure. To enhance the Quality of Service (QoS) in these networks, intelligent control mechanisms should be implemented. These functions are based on the processing of large amounts of data and feature extraction. One such feature is information about user mobility. However, directly determining user mobility remains challenging. To address this issue, this study proposes an approach based on multi-linear data processing. The user mobility is proposed to determine, using the multi-linear data, about the changing of the Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise-Ratio (SINR). SINR varies individually for each user over time, relative to the network’s base stations. It is natural to represent these data as a tensor. A tensor-based preprocessing step employing Canonical Polyadic Decomposition (CPD) is proposed to extract user mobility information and reduce the data volume. In the next step, using the DBSCAN algorithm, users are clustered according to their mobility patterns. Subsequently, users are clustered based on their mobility patterns using the DBSCAN algorithm. The proposed approach is evaluated utilizing data from Network Simulator 3 (NS-3), which simulates a portion of the mobile network. The results of processing these data using the proposed method demonstrate superior performance in determining user mobility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and New Trends in Signal Processing)
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