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Inventions, Volume 9, Issue 3 (June 2024) – 19 articles

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17 pages, 5750 KiB  
Article
Development of an MPPT-Based Genetic Algorithm for Photovoltaic Systems versus Classical MPPT Techniques in Scenarios with Partial Shading
by Fernando Marcos de Oliveira, Marcelo Henrique Manzke Brandt, Fabiano Salvadori, José Enrique Eirez Izquierdo, Marco Roberto Cavallari and Oswaldo Hideo Ando Junior
Inventions 2024, 9(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9030064 (registering DOI) - 30 May 2024
Abstract
Photovoltaic (PV) systems face challenges in achieving maximum energy extraction due to the non-linear nature of their current versus voltage (IxV) characteristics, which are influenced by temperature and solar irradiation. These factors lead to variations in power generation. The situation becomes [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic (PV) systems face challenges in achieving maximum energy extraction due to the non-linear nature of their current versus voltage (IxV) characteristics, which are influenced by temperature and solar irradiation. These factors lead to variations in power generation. The situation becomes even more complex under partial shading conditions, causing distortion in the characteristic curve and creating discrepancies between local and global maximum power points. Achieving the highest output is crucial to enhancing energy efficiency in such systems. However, conventional maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques often struggle to locate the global maximum point required to extract the maximum power from the PV system. This study employs genetic algorithms (GAs) to address this issue. The system can efficiently search for the global maximum point using genetic algorithms, maximizing power extraction from the PV arrangements. The proposed approach is compared with the traditional Perturb and Observe (P&O) method through simulations, demonstrating its superior effectiveness in achieving optimal power generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Challenges in Emerging Power Systems: 2nd Edition)
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15 pages, 1004 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Structural Capacity Assessment with a Novel Failure Decision Function for Rectangular Reinforced Concrete Columns
by Petros Christou, Marios Charalambides, Demetris Nicolaides and Georgios Xekalakis
Inventions 2024, 9(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9030063 (registering DOI) - 29 May 2024
Viewed by 54
Abstract
This study introduces the Failure Decision Function, a novel approach for evaluating the structural capacity of rectangular reinforced concrete columns under axial forces and moments, both uniaxial and biaxial. The method simplifies existing practices, enhancing accuracy and integration into design software. The methodology [...] Read more.
This study introduces the Failure Decision Function, a novel approach for evaluating the structural capacity of rectangular reinforced concrete columns under axial forces and moments, both uniaxial and biaxial. The method simplifies existing practices, enhancing accuracy and integration into design software. The methodology hinges on deriving exact biaxial bending failure surfaces, utilizing integral expressions based on material properties and cross-sectional geometry. This direct integration process uncovers failure surface characteristics previously undocumented. Results confirm the utility of the Failure Decision Function through comparative analysis with established literature, showcasing its potential for simplifying and improving structural capacity assessments. The analytic procedure developed enables efficient computation of failure surfaces, streamlining the inclusion of these functions in structural engineering software in two key ways: (1) compiling a library of pre-calculated functions for quick capacity checks and (2) creating a dynamic application that generates these functions based on specific design parameters, allowing users to explore various load and moment scenarios. In conclusion, the Failure Decision Function represents a significant advancement in structural engineering design, offering an accurate and user-friendly method for assessing column performance under critical loading conditions. Full article
5 pages, 149 KiB  
Editorial
Recent Advances and Challenges in Emerging Power Systems
by Om P. Malik
Inventions 2024, 9(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9030062 - 23 May 2024
Viewed by 269
Abstract
Diminishing fossil fuels, the continually increasing demand for energy due to rapid urbanization, pollution caused by the increased generation of electricity using fossil fuels, the consequent environmental effect, and concerns about man-made global warming have prompted a call for renewable energy solutions [...] [...] Read more.
Diminishing fossil fuels, the continually increasing demand for energy due to rapid urbanization, pollution caused by the increased generation of electricity using fossil fuels, the consequent environmental effect, and concerns about man-made global warming have prompted a call for renewable energy solutions [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Challenges in Emerging Power Systems)
10 pages, 3599 KiB  
Article
Temperature-Dependent Residual Stresses and Thermal Expansion Coefficient of VO2 Thin Films
by Chuen-Lin Tien, Chun-Yu Chiang, Ching-Chiun Wang and Shih-Chin Lin
Inventions 2024, 9(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9030061 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 411
Abstract
This study aims to investigate the thermomechanical properties of vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films. A VO2 thin film was simultaneously deposited on B270 and H-K9L glass substrates by electron-beam evaporation with ion-assisted deposition. Based on optical interferometric methods, the thermal–mechanical [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the thermomechanical properties of vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films. A VO2 thin film was simultaneously deposited on B270 and H-K9L glass substrates by electron-beam evaporation with ion-assisted deposition. Based on optical interferometric methods, the thermal–mechanical behavior of and thermal stresses in VO2 films can be determined. An improved Twyman–Green interferometer was used to measure the temperature-dependent residual stress variations of VO2 thin films at different temperatures. This study found that the substrate has a great impact on thermal stress, which is mainly caused by the mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the film and the substrate. By using the dual-substrate method, thermal stresses in VO2 thin films from room temperature to 120 °C can be evaluated. The thermal expansion coefficient is 3.21 × 10−5 °C−1, and the biaxial modulus is 517 GPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamic and Technical Analysis for Sustainability (Volume 3))
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30 pages, 5535 KiB  
Review
Potential of 3D Printing for Heat Exchanger Heat Transfer Optimization—Sustainability Perspective
by Beata Anwajler
Inventions 2024, 9(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9030060 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 532
Abstract
In just a few short years, the additive manufacturing (AM) technology known as 3D printing has experienced intense growth from a niche technology to a disruptive innovation that has captured the imagination of mainstream manufacturers and hobbyists alike. The purpose of this article [...] Read more.
In just a few short years, the additive manufacturing (AM) technology known as 3D printing has experienced intense growth from a niche technology to a disruptive innovation that has captured the imagination of mainstream manufacturers and hobbyists alike. The purpose of this article is to introduce the use of 3D printing for specific applications, materials, and manufacturing processes that help to optimize heat transfer in heat exchangers, with an emphasis on sustainability. The ability to create complex geometries, customize designs, and use advanced materials provides opportunities for more efficient and stable heat transfer solutions. One of the key benefits of incremental technology is the potential reduction in material waste compared to traditional manufacturing methods. By optimizing the design and structure of heat transfer components, 3D printing enables lighter yet more efficient solutions and systems. The localized manufacturing of components, which reduces the need for intensive transportation and associated carbon emissions, can lead to reduced energy consumption and improved overall efficiency. The customization and flexibility of 3D printing enables the integration of heat transfer components into renewable energy systems. This article presents the key challenges to be addressed and the fundamental research needed to realize the full potential of incremental manufacturing technologies to optimize heat transfer in heat exchangers. It also presents a critical discussion and outlook for solving global energy challenges through innovative incremental manufacturing technologies in the heat exchanger sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Heat Exchangers)
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13 pages, 929 KiB  
Review
Review: Deep Learning-Based Survival Analysis of Omics and Clinicopathological Data
by Julia Sidorova and Juan Jose Lozano
Inventions 2024, 9(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9030059 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 361
Abstract
The 2017–2024 period has been prolific in the area of the algorithms for deep-based survival analysis. We have searched the answers to the following three questions. (1) Is there a new “gold standard” already in clinical data analysis? (2) Does the DL component [...] Read more.
The 2017–2024 period has been prolific in the area of the algorithms for deep-based survival analysis. We have searched the answers to the following three questions. (1) Is there a new “gold standard” already in clinical data analysis? (2) Does the DL component lead to a notably improved performance? (3) Are there tangible benefits of deep-based survival that are not directly attainable with non-deep methods? We have analyzed and compared the selected influential algorithms devised for two types of input: clinicopathological (a small set of numeric, binary and categorical) and omics data (numeric and extremely high dimensional with a pronounced p >> n complication). Full article
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24 pages, 2540 KiB  
Article
Systematic Opportunity Scan of Energy Recovery Technologies Applied to Trucks with Electric Refrigerated Units
by Áquila Chagas de Carvalho, Matheus Henrique Rodrigues Miranda, Ludmila Corrêa de Alkmin e Silva, Fabrício Leonardo Silva, Rafael Rogora Kawano, Jony Javorski Eckert and Franco Giuseppe Dedini
Inventions 2024, 9(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9030058 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 455
Abstract
This article presents an original research methodology that combines insights from patents and academic research, offering a unique perspective on energy recovery technologies for trucks equipped with refrigeration units. The purpose of the study is to perform a functional analysis of existing solutions [...] Read more.
This article presents an original research methodology that combines insights from patents and academic research, offering a unique perspective on energy recovery technologies for trucks equipped with refrigeration units. The purpose of the study is to perform a functional analysis of existing solutions and to suggest a mechanism for exposing unexplored areas and opportunities for innovation. To achieve this goal, a systematic opportunity scan is presented, investigating patents and conducting a state-of-the-art search of existing technologies. This scan classifies a diverse range of solutions, elucidating their interconnections and providing an overview of the existing technological area, covering system components and technical trends. Thus, the main functions and components are listed, as well as the system requirements. Once the functions have been surveyed, a morphological matrix is proposed, and five main functions are analyzed. This methodology makes it possible to list the majority of the possible solutions for the functions analyzed, taking into account the components observed in the literature review and patents, including new components raised by the research group. Finally, with the morphological matrix structure, it was possible to combine unexplored elements, achieving innovative solutions. Full article
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24 pages, 10693 KiB  
Article
A Modified Enthalpic Lattice Boltzmann Method for Simulating Conjugate Heat Transfer Problems in Non-Homogeneous Media
by Vinicius Akyo Matsuda, Ivan Talão Martins, Debora Carneiro Moreira, Luben Cabezas-Gómez and Enio Pedone Bandarra Filho
Inventions 2024, 9(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9030057 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 506
Abstract
In this study, we introduced modifications to a prior existing enthalpic lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) tailored for simulating the conjugate heat transfer phenomena in non-homogeneous media with time-dependent thermal properties. Our approach is based upon the incorporation of the remaining terms of a [...] Read more.
In this study, we introduced modifications to a prior existing enthalpic lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) tailored for simulating the conjugate heat transfer phenomena in non-homogeneous media with time-dependent thermal properties. Our approach is based upon the incorporation of the remaining terms of a conservative energy equation, excluding only the terms regarding flow compressibility and viscous dissipation, thereby accounting for the local and transient variations in the thermophysical properties. The solutions of verification tests, comprising assessments of both transient and steady-state solutions, validated the accuracy of the proposed model, further bolstering its reliability for analyzing heat transfer processes. The modified model was then used to perform an analysis on structured cavities under free convection, revealing compelling insights, particularly regarding transient regimes, demonstrating that the structured cavities exhibit a beneficial impact on enhancing the heat transfer processes, hence providing insights for potential design enhancements in heat exchangers. These results demonstrate the potential of our modified enthalpic LBM approach for simulating complex heat transfer phenomena in non-homogeneous media and structured geometries, offering valuable results for heat exchanger engineering and optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Heat Exchangers)
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23 pages, 11190 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Effective Heat Recapture Ammonia Pyrolysis System for Hydrogen Energy
by Jian Tiong Lim, Eddie Yin-Kwee Ng, Hamid Saeedipour and Hiang Kwee Lee
Inventions 2024, 9(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9030056 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 585
Abstract
This paper proposes a solution to address the challenges of high storage and transport costs associated with using hydrogen (H2) as an energy source. It suggests utilizing ammonia (NH3) as a hydrogen carrier to produce [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a solution to address the challenges of high storage and transport costs associated with using hydrogen (H2) as an energy source. It suggests utilizing ammonia (NH3) as a hydrogen carrier to produce H2 onsite for hydrogen gas turbines. NH3 offers higher volumetric hydrogen density compared to liquid H2, potentially reducing shipping costs by 40%. The process involves NH3 pyrolysis, which utilizes the heat waste from exhaust gas generated by gas turbines to produce H2 and nitrogen (N2). Numerical simulations were conducted to design and understand the behaviour of the heat recapture NH3 decomposition system. The design considerations included the concept of the number of transfer units and heat exchanger efficiency, achieving a heat recapture system efficiency of up to 91%. The simulation of NH3 decomposition was performed using ANSYS, a commercial simulation software, considering wall surface reactions, turbulent flow, and chemical reaction. Parameters such as activation energy and pre-exponential factor were provided by a study utilizing a nickel wire for NH3 decomposition experiments. The conversion of NH3 reached up to 94% via a nickel-based catalyst within a temperature range of 823 K to 923 K which is the exhaust gas temperature range. Various factors were considered to compare the efficiency of the system, including the mass flow of NH3, operating gauge pressure, mass flow of exhaust gas, among others. Result showed that pressure would not affect the conversion of NH3 at temperatures above 800 K, thus a lower amount of energy is required for a compression purpose in this approach. The conversion is maintained at 94% to 97% when lower activation energy is applied via a ruthenium-based catalyst. Overall, this study showed the feasibility of utilizing convective heat transfer from exhaust gas in hydrogen production by NH3 pyrolysis, and this will further enhance the development of NH3 as the potential H2 carrier for onsite production in hydrogen power generation. Full article
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16 pages, 3886 KiB  
Article
Performance Comparison of Five Methods Available in ImageJ for Bird Counting and Detection from Video Datasets
by Kevin Adi Kurnia, Ferry Saputra, Cao Thang Luong, Marri Jmelou M. Roldan, Tai-Sheng Cheng and Chung-Der Hsiao
Inventions 2024, 9(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9030055 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 847
Abstract
Bird monitoring is an important approach to studying the diversity and abundance of birds, especially during migration, as it can provide core data for bird conservation purposes. The previous methods for bird number estimation are largely based on manual counting, which suffers from [...] Read more.
Bird monitoring is an important approach to studying the diversity and abundance of birds, especially during migration, as it can provide core data for bird conservation purposes. The previous methods for bird number estimation are largely based on manual counting, which suffers from low throughput and a high error rate. In this study, we aimed to provide an alternative bird-counting method from video datasets by using five available ImageJ methods: Particle Analyzer, Find Maxima, Watershed segmentation, TrackMate, and trainable WEKA segmentation. The numbers of birds and their XY coordinates were extracted from videos to conduct a side-by-side comparison with the manual counting results, and the three important criteria of the sensitivity, precision, and F1 score were calculated for the performance evaluation. From the tests, which we conducted for four different cases with different bird numbers or flying patterns, TrackMate had the best overall performance for counting birds and pinpointing their locations, followed by Particle Analyzer, Find Maxima, WEKA, and lastly, Watershed, which showed low precision in most of the cases. In summary, five ImageJ-based counting methods were compared in this study, and we validated that TrackMate obtains the best performance for bird counting and detection. Full article
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24 pages, 8760 KiB  
Article
Satellite Thermal Management Pump Impeller Design and Optimization
by Valeriu Drăgan, Oana Dumitrescu, Cristian Dobromirescu and Ionuț Florian Popa
Inventions 2024, 9(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9030054 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 805
Abstract
This study presents a numerical approach to the design and optimization of centrifugal impellers used in the pumps of active thermal control systems of spacecraft. Although launch costs have shrunk in the last decade, the performance requirements, such as efficiency and reliability, have [...] Read more.
This study presents a numerical approach to the design and optimization of centrifugal impellers used in the pumps of active thermal control systems of spacecraft. Although launch costs have shrunk in the last decade, the performance requirements, such as efficiency and reliability, have increased, as such systems are required to work up to 15 years, depending on the mission. To that effect, our paper deals with the first step in this pump design, namely the hydraulic optimization of the impeller. Constructively, this type of impeller allows for certain balancing systems and labyrinth seals to be applied in a more effective way, as well as allowing for additive manufacturing methods to be used—however, details regarding these aspects are beyond the scope of the current paper. By combining empirical formulas, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, and artificial neural networks (ANNs), the research focuses on achieving high efficiency and fast manufacturing. A series of geometries have been sized and validated using steady-state RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) simulations, leading to the identification of the most efficient configuration. Subsequent optimization using an ANN resulted in a refined impeller design with notable improvements in hydraulic performance: a 3.55% increase in efficiency and a 7.9% increase in head. Key parameters influencing impeller performance, including blade number, incidence, and backsweep angles, are identified. This approach offers a comprehensive method to address the evolving requirements of space missions and contributes to the advancement of centrifugal pump technology in the space domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Sights in Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena)
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12 pages, 6497 KiB  
Article
A Modeling-Based Flammable Risk Treatment of Refrigerant Leakage from a Commercial R-290 Refrigeration Machine
by Mingkan Zhang, Vishaldeep Sharma and Praveen Cheekatamarla
Inventions 2024, 9(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9030053 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 619
Abstract
Because of serious concerns about global warming, manufacturers have started phasing out high global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants in commercial refrigeration equipment (e.g., R-134a). As a potential replacement, propane (R-290) is an environmentally friendly refrigerant for commercial refrigeration equipment because its GWP is [...] Read more.
Because of serious concerns about global warming, manufacturers have started phasing out high global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants in commercial refrigeration equipment (e.g., R-134a). As a potential replacement, propane (R-290) is an environmentally friendly refrigerant for commercial refrigeration equipment because its GWP is only three. However, propane is flammable and is therefore classified as a Class A3 refrigerant per ASHRAE Standards, so safety is a very important consideration when propane-based equipment is designed and deployed in buildings. In the event of a refrigerant leak, flammability of the refrigerant depends on the refrigerant’s local concentration, which is highly affected by the indoor air environment, including temperature and air flow. In this study, a ventilation system attached to a commercial R-290 refrigeration device was designed to eliminate the flammability risk. Moreover, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to investigate the refrigerant leak, thereby evaluating effects of the ventilation system. The CFD model can visualize the flammable zones owing to the leak. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamic and Technical Analysis for Sustainability (Volume 3))
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13 pages, 39444 KiB  
Article
Concept of a Peripheral-Free Electrified Monorail System (PEMS) for Flexible Material Handling in Intralogistics
by Marvin Sperling, Timo Kurschilgen and Pietro Schumacher
Inventions 2024, 9(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9030052 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 677
Abstract
With the emergence of Industry 4.0 in intralogistics, the need for flexible material handling solutions is increasing. While conventional conveyor systems are often too inflexible to meet changing requirements. Automated guided vehicles offer an answer, additional solutions are required for companies relying on [...] Read more.
With the emergence of Industry 4.0 in intralogistics, the need for flexible material handling solutions is increasing. While conventional conveyor systems are often too inflexible to meet changing requirements. Automated guided vehicles offer an answer, additional solutions are required for companies relying on already busy and crowded shop floors. This paper presents a concept for a periphery-free electrified monorail system (PEMS) that enables flexible material transport with minimal floor requirements. The PEMS is based on classic electrified monorail technology, and requires no additional peripheral devices within the rail system. Installation and maintenance costs are kept to a minimum through simplified branching elements and a battery-powered energy supply for the vehicles. The modular design of the rail elements further allows transport on standardized Euro-pallets. Moreover, a taxonomy for evaluating the passivity of branching elements of electrified monorail systems is introduced. The functionality of the PEMS was validated by conducting real experiments using a prototype, The results show that the PEMS provides high flexibility in terms of layout design and usage, allowing for fast adaption to the changing requirements of intralogistics. Full article
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9 pages, 2588 KiB  
Article
Hydraulic Drilling Nozzle Design and Research
by Przemysław Toczek, Rafał Wiśniowski, Albert Złotkowski and Wojciech Teper
Inventions 2024, 9(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9030051 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 592
Abstract
In light of the European Union’s zero-emissions policy and the growing demand for energy associated with technological advances, it is necessary to consider adopting technologies and innovative solutions that simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas emissions while increasing potential extraction from existing hydrocarbon deposits, for [...] Read more.
In light of the European Union’s zero-emissions policy and the growing demand for energy associated with technological advances, it is necessary to consider adopting technologies and innovative solutions that simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas emissions while increasing potential extraction from existing hydrocarbon deposits, for example. This can result in increased production from deposits with low reservoir energy values or those in which the energy value does not allow the resource to be exploited on its own. By using a hydraulic drilling nozzle that harnesses the hydraulic energy of the fluid stream for workover, the possibility of increasing the contact between the reservoir layer and the producing well increases in direct proportion to the number of small-diameter radial wells drilled with a hydraulic rotary head from a horizontal well toward the reservoir layer. The main aspect of this paper is to outline an algorithm for the design of rotary drilling heads to maximize the use of the hydraulic energy from fluid streams flowing from the face of innovative drilling tools. The presented design algorithm allows changing the mutual position between the holes in the face section and the angle of the holes with respect to the longitudinal axis of the designed hydraulic rotary nozzle, simplifying the design work. The use of the rotary head developed using this algorithm enables seamless drilling in rocks with compressive strength Rc = 50 MPa, considering the drilling progress at ROP = 4 mm/s. Full article
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19 pages, 886 KiB  
Article
Barriers and Facilitators for Usage of Self-Compacting Concrete—An Interview Study
by Inga Mikhaltchouk, Jörgen Eklund and Mikael Forsman
Inventions 2024, 9(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9030050 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Workers in the construction industry must endure different weather conditions, long working hours, and engage in repetitive and strenuous jobs with unrealistic deadlines. Sick leaves, caused by accidents and by work-related diseases, are common in the construction industry. Hand–arm vibration from hand-held power [...] Read more.
Workers in the construction industry must endure different weather conditions, long working hours, and engage in repetitive and strenuous jobs with unrealistic deadlines. Sick leaves, caused by accidents and by work-related diseases, are common in the construction industry. Hand–arm vibration from hand-held power tools is a cause of significant ill health (disorders of the blood vessels, nerves, and joints). Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a fluid concrete and does not need to be vibrated. Despite the health advantages of SCC, its market share in Sweden is lower than in comparable countries. The aim of this article is to describe views, opinions, and knowledge concerning the work environment and health in concrete casting and to identify barriers and facilitators of SCC usage. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 interviewees from the construction industry in Sweden. The answers were analysed from a human–technology–organisation (HTO) perspective in order to identify barriers and facilitators for a broader usage of SCC. The results indicate that knowledge about SCC is low within the Swedish construction industry, including educational institutions; when SCC is chosen, it is chosen exclusively due to its technical characteristics, and not because it eliminates vibrations. Barriers to a broader usage of SCC comprise an incomplete knowledge base, clients who never choose it, recipes that are said to be too demanding, and workplace traditions. Facilitators comprise large companies investing in knowledge development about SCC and engaged persons promoting it. This study used an HTO-based model (BTOH) to identify barriers and facilitators for a broader usage of SCC, thus contributing to a deeper understanding of reasons for the low usage of SCC and ways of increasing it. Full article
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17 pages, 4827 KiB  
Communication
Coverage Performance of Non-Lambertian Underwater Wireless Optical Communications for 6G Internet of Things
by Jupeng Ding, Chih-Lin I, Jintao Wang and Jian Song
Inventions 2024, 9(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9030049 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 620
Abstract
In medium- and short-range underwater application scenarios, thanks to the superior performance in transmission bandwidth, link latency, and security, underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) is growing to be a promising complement to the mature underwater acoustic communication technique. In order to extend the [...] Read more.
In medium- and short-range underwater application scenarios, thanks to the superior performance in transmission bandwidth, link latency, and security, underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) is growing to be a promising complement to the mature underwater acoustic communication technique. In order to extend the future 6G Internet of Things (IOT) to various challenging and valuable underwater scenarios, the underwater spatial coverage and transmission performance has been actively discussed in typical seawater environments. However, almost all current works focus on underwater scenarios including light-emitting diode (LED) transmitters with well-known Lambertian optical beams and fail to characterize the scenarios adopting LED transmitters with distinctive non-Lambertian beam patterns. For addressing this limitation, in this article, the coverage performance of non-Lambertian UWOC for 6G is analyzed and illustrated. Furthermore, the switchable optical beam configuration scheme is proposed and estimated for UWOC. Numerical results illustrate that, compared with about 15.42 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) fluctuation amplitude for UWOC with baseline Lambertian optical beam configuration, the corresponding SNR fluctuation amplitudes of UWOC based with two typical non-Lambertian optical beams are 8.71 dB and 24.60 dB. Furthermore, once the receiver depth is increased to 6.0 m, the SNR fluctuation amplitude for the above three UWOC coverage with distinct beam configuration could be reduced to 5.61 dB, 1.58 dB, and 10.33 dB, respectively. Full article
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15 pages, 4348 KiB  
Article
Improving the Hydrodynamic Performance of Underwater Tags for Blue Shark Monitoring
by José Azevedo, Violeta Carvalho, Tiago Bartolomeu, Ana Arieira, Senhorinha F. Teixeira and José C. Teixeira
Inventions 2024, 9(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9030048 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 685
Abstract
The use of tag devices in marine environments has become indispensable in attaining a better understanding of marine life and contributing to conservation efforts. However, the successful deployment and operation of underwater tags both depend significantly on their hydrodynamic characteristics, particularly their resistance [...] Read more.
The use of tag devices in marine environments has become indispensable in attaining a better understanding of marine life and contributing to conservation efforts. However, the successful deployment and operation of underwater tags both depend significantly on their hydrodynamic characteristics, particularly their resistance to motion and stability in various environmental conditions. Herein, a comprehensive study on the hydrodynamic characteristics and optimization of an underwater tag designed for monitoring blue sharks is presented. Firstly, a validation process is conducted by comparing the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results with the experimental data from Myring’s study, focusing on the resistance characteristics of the tag’s body and the impact of various operational conditions. Subsequently, the validated CFD model is applied to assess the hydrodynamic performance of the tag under different flow conditions, velocities, and angles of attack. Through iterative simulations, including mesh independence studies and boundary condition adjustments, the study identifies key parameters influencing the tag’s resistance and stability. Furthermore, the paper proposes and implements design modifications, including the incorporation of stabilizing fins, aimed at minimizing resistance and improving the tag’s equilibrium position. The effectiveness of these design enhancements is demonstrated through a comparative analysis of resistance and pitching moments for both preliminary and optimized tag configurations. Overall, the study provides valuable insights into the hydrodynamic behavior of underwater tags and offers practical recommendations for optimizing their design to minimize interference with the movement of tagged marine animals. Full article
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15 pages, 4732 KiB  
Article
Detection and Analysis of Aircraft Composite Material Structures Using UAV
by Kuo-Chien Liao, Jian-Liang Liou, Muhamad Hidayat, Hung-Ta Wen and Hom-Yu Wu
Inventions 2024, 9(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9030047 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 842
Abstract
Pre-flight inspection and maintenance are essential prerequisites for aviation safety. This study focused on developing a real-time monitoring system designed to assess the condition of composite material structures on the exterior of aircraft. Implementing such a system can reduce operational costs, enhance flight [...] Read more.
Pre-flight inspection and maintenance are essential prerequisites for aviation safety. This study focused on developing a real-time monitoring system designed to assess the condition of composite material structures on the exterior of aircraft. Implementing such a system can reduce operational costs, enhance flight safety, and increase aircraft availability. This study aims to detect defects in aircraft fuselages manufactured from composite materials by applying image visual recognition technology. This study integrated a drone and an infrared camera for real-time image transmission to ground stations. MATLAB image analysis software (MATLAB 2020b) was used to analyze infrared (IR) images and detect structural defects in the aircraft’s appearance. This methodology was based on the inspection of damaged engine cowlings. The developed approach compares composite material conditions with known defects before and after repair, considering mechanical performance, defect size, and strength. Simultaneously, tests were conducted on various composite material panels with unknown defects, yielding favorable results. This study underscores an integrated system offering rapid detection, real-time feedback, and analysis, effectively reducing time, and potential hazards associated with high-altitude operations. Furthermore, it addresses blind spots in aircraft inspections, contributing to effective flight safety maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quadrotor UAV with Advanced Applications)
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22 pages, 13772 KiB  
Article
Experimental Research on an Afterburner System Fueled with Hydrogen–Methane Mixtures
by Florin Gabriel Florean, Andreea Mangra, Marius Enache, Marius Deaconu, Razvan Ciobanu and Razvan Carlanescu
Inventions 2024, 9(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9030046 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 838
Abstract
A new afterburner installation is proposed, fueled with pure hydrogen (100%H2) or hydrogen–methane mixtures (60% H2 + 40% CH4, 80% H2 + 20% CH4) for use in cogeneration applications. Two prototypes (P1 and P2) with the [...] Read more.
A new afterburner installation is proposed, fueled with pure hydrogen (100%H2) or hydrogen–methane mixtures (60% H2 + 40% CH4, 80% H2 + 20% CH4) for use in cogeneration applications. Two prototypes (P1 and P2) with the same expansion angle (45 degrees) were developed and tested. P1 was manufactured by the classic method and P2 by additive manufacturing. Both prototypes were manufactured from Inconel 625. During the tests, analysis of flue gas (CO2, CO, and NO concentration), PIV measurements, and noise measurements were conducted. The flue gas analysis emphasizes that the behavior of the two tested prototypes was very similar. For all three fuels used, the CO2 concentration levels were slightly lower in the case of the additive-manufactured prototype P2. The CO concentration levels were significantly higher in the case of the additive-manufactured prototype P2 when 60% H2/40% CH4 and 80% H2/20% CH4 mixtures were used as fuel. When pure H2 was used as fuel, the measured data suggest that no additional CO was produced during the combustion process, and the level of CO was similar to that from the Garrett micro gas turbine in all five measuring points. The NO emissions gradually decreased as the percentage of H2 in the fuel mixture increased. The NO concentration was significantly lower in the case of the additive-manufactured prototype (P2) in comparison with the classic manufactured prototype (P1). Examining the data obtained from the PIV measurements of the flow within the mixing region shows that the highest axial velocity component value on the centerline was measured for the P1 prototype. The acoustic measurements showed that a higher H2 concentration led to a reduction in noise of approximately 1.5 dB for both afterburner prototypes. The outcomes reveal that the examined V-gutter flame holder prototype flow was smooth, without any perpendicular oscillations, without chaotic motions or turbulent oscillations to the flow direction, across all tested conditions, keeping constant thermal power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamic and Technical Analysis for Sustainability (Volume 3))
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