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Processes, Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2023) – 209 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): ASPENplus was used to simulate biogas upgrading via sorption-enhanced methanation in a dual-interconnected bubbling fluidized bed configuration using CaO to remove H2O from the reaction environment. The chemical looping scheme consisted of a methanator/hydrator, where the catalytic reactions occurred on a catalyst with 20% Ni supported on alumina, as well as the steam removal via CaO, and a regenerator, where the Ca(OH)2 was dehydrated back to CaO. The simulations were conducted to identify possible reactants composition (H2 and biogas), CaO amount, and methanation temperature to produce an outlet gas matching the specifications for direct grid injection. View this paper
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13 pages, 2542 KiB  
Review
Current Research Status and Development Trends of Cooling Suits in High-Temperature Mine Environments: A Review
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3256; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113256 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 761
Abstract
To gain a deeper understanding of the current research status of cooling suits in high-temperature mines, this paper provides separate introductions to vest-type cooling suits and full-body cooling suits. It summarizes the categories of cooling suits based on different cooling media and systematically [...] Read more.
To gain a deeper understanding of the current research status of cooling suits in high-temperature mines, this paper provides separate introductions to vest-type cooling suits and full-body cooling suits. It summarizes the categories of cooling suits based on different cooling media and systematically elucidates the advantages and disadvantages of each type. The paper also analyzes the current application status of cooling suits in mine environments. It suggests that the future research directions for cooling suits in mines include the miniaturization of components, intelligent temperature control, optimization of new phase-change materials, development of cooling fabrics, and research in smart fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Wearable Technology: Thermal Management and Energy Applications)
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15 pages, 5549 KiB  
Article
Environmental Footprint of Inland Fisheries: Integrating LCA Analysis to Assess the Potential of Wastewater-Based Microalga Cultivation as a Promising Solution for Animal Feed Production
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3255; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113255 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1096
Abstract
This study evaluated the environmental impacts of producing 1 kg of biomass for animal feed grown in inland fisheries effluents as a culture medium using the ReCiPe method. Four scenarios with two downstream alternatives were modeled using the life cycle assessment method: Algal [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the environmental impacts of producing 1 kg of biomass for animal feed grown in inland fisheries effluents as a culture medium using the ReCiPe method. Four scenarios with two downstream alternatives were modeled using the life cycle assessment method: Algal Life Feed (ALF), Algal Life Feed with Recycled nutrients (ALF+Rn), Pelletized Biomass (PB), and Pelletized Biomass with Recycled nutrients (PB+Rn). The findings reveal a substantial reduction in environmental impacts when wastewater is employed as a water source and nutrient reservoir. However, the eutrophication and toxicity-related categories reported the highest normalized impacts. ALF+Rn emerges as the most promising scenario due to its reduced energy consumption, highlighting the potential for further improvement through alternative energy sources in upstream and downstream processes. Therefore, liquid waste from fish production is a unique opportunity to implement strategies to reduce the emission of nutrients and pollutants by producing microalgae rich in various high-value-added metabolites. Full article
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12 pages, 2010 KiB  
Article
The Assessment of Fatty Acid Composition in Deep-Fried Dough Sticks across Five Cities in China in 2020
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3254; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113254 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 627
Abstract
Objective: To analyze and compare the concentrations and dietary intake of different fatty acids (FAs) in deep-fried dough sticks (Chinese fried bread) across various cities in China. Method: Sixty-one deep-fried dough stick samples were collected from five cities (Beijing, Shijiazhuang, Guangzhou, Chongqing, and [...] Read more.
Objective: To analyze and compare the concentrations and dietary intake of different fatty acids (FAs) in deep-fried dough sticks (Chinese fried bread) across various cities in China. Method: Sixty-one deep-fried dough stick samples were collected from five cities (Beijing, Shijiazhuang, Guangzhou, Chongqing, and Hangzhou), and the contents of FA monomers were determined using gas chromatography. Moreover, the dietary FA intake was estimated. Results: The mean FA concentration was 18.83 g/100 g (maximum, 41.59 g/100 g; minimum, 4.88 g/100 g). Polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) accounted for the highest proportion of the total FAs at 41.7% (7.86 g/100 g), followed by monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) at 30.77% (5.79 g/100 g), saturated FAs (SFAs) at 26.27% (4.95 g/100 g), and trans-FAs (TFAs) at 1.18% (0.22 g/100 g). The Guangzhou deep-fried dough stick samples had a significantly different FA composition than those from the other cities, presenting with the highest concentration of SFAs (8.64 ± 4.74 g/100 g) and lowest concentration of PUFAs (5.01 ± 3.41 g/100 g). Beijing had the highest intake of PUFAs and MUFAs, whereas Guangzhou had the highest intake of SFAs. Conclusion: The contents and intake of saturated and unsaturated FAs in deep-fried dough sticks varied across the five cities in China. These results are useful for comparing the nutritional characteristics of deep-fried dough sticks in the different cities of China, thereby promoting further research on the relationship between deep-fried dough stick consumption and human health. Full article
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12 pages, 1734 KiB  
Article
Tillage Methods Change Nitrogen Distribution and Enzyme Activities in Maize Rhizosphere and Non-Rhizosphere Chernozem in Jilin Province of China
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3253; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113253 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 619
Abstract
The tillage method in farming systems is essential to develop strategies to increase fertilizer uptake by plant roots and to avoid environmental pollution. The field study aimed to investigate the characteristics of nitrogen and enzyme activities in rhizosphere soil with different tillage methods. [...] Read more.
The tillage method in farming systems is essential to develop strategies to increase fertilizer uptake by plant roots and to avoid environmental pollution. The field study aimed to investigate the characteristics of nitrogen and enzyme activities in rhizosphere soil with different tillage methods. Four treatment plots applied with fertilizers were established: continuous rotary tillage (CR), plowing-rotary tillage (PR), continuous no-till (CN) and ploughing-no-till (PN). The total content of nitrogen in chernozem was high during early stages of plant growth, and then it decreased with the maize growth. In the rhizosphere soil, the total N accounted 1314.45, 1265.96, 1120.47, 1120.47, 1204.05 mg·kg−1 of CR, PR, CN, and PN, respectively, which were markedly greater than that of non-rhizosphere soil (1237.52, 1168.40, 984.51, 1106.49 mg·kg−1 of CR, PR, CN, and PN, respectively). At first growth stages, content of NH4+-N and NO3-N in two soil regions was low, then increased gradually, which followed the order of CR < PR < PN < CN. The rhizosphere soil showed slightly higher concentration of NH4+-N and NO3-N than non-rhizosphere. The soil enzymes were more active in the rhizosphere soil than that of non-rhizosphere during the whole maize growth stages. Due to minimal damage to the soil environment and optimal soil moisture and temperature, the urease and catalase activities were greatest in the rhizosphere for CN treatment. Therefore, CN was recommended to be used by farmers for the improvement of macronutrient availability and soil enzyme activities in the soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agriculture Products Processing and Storage)
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15 pages, 2326 KiB  
Article
Assessing Biodegradation Processes of Atrazine in Constructed Wetland Using Compound-Specific Stable Isotope Analysis
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3252; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113252 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 534
Abstract
To bridge the gap between lab-scale microcosm research and field application in the compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of atrazine, we studied the characteristics of carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation in the atrazine degradation processes within a constructed wetland. In the wetland, we [...] Read more.
To bridge the gap between lab-scale microcosm research and field application in the compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of atrazine, we studied the characteristics of carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation in the atrazine degradation processes within a constructed wetland. In the wetland, we observed multiple element (C, N) isotope fractionation parameters, such as kinetic isotope effects and dual isotope slopes. These parameters are very consistent with those observed in the cultivation of AtzA- or TrzN-harboring strains, suggesting a similarity in the pathway and reaction mechanism of atrazine biodegradation between the two settings. However, we recorded variable carbon (εC: −3.2 ± 0.6‰ to −4.3 ± 0.6‰) and nitrogen isotope fractionation (εN: 1.0 ± 0.3‰ to 2.2 ± 0.3‰) across different phases. This variance could lead to an over- or underestimation of the biodegradation extent of atrazine when employing the large or small enrichment factor of the carbon isotope. Intriguingly, the estimation accuracy improved considerably when using the enrichment factor (−4.6‰) derived from the batch cultivation of the pore water. This study advances the application of CSIA in tracking atrazine biodegradation processes in ecosystems, and it also underlines the importance of the careful selection and application of the enrichment factor in quantifying the intrinsic biodegradation of atrazine in ecosystems. Full article
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18 pages, 6463 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Urea-Formaldehyde Fertilizers and Analysis of Factors Affecting These Processes
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3251; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113251 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 833
Abstract
Urea formaldehyde slow-release fertilizers are efficient and environmentally friendly fertilizers. They have good slow-release properties and can significantly improve the utilization rate of fertilizers. However, problems remain regarding the synthesis of urea formaldehyde slow-release fertilizers, their characterization, and aspects of their performance. This [...] Read more.
Urea formaldehyde slow-release fertilizers are efficient and environmentally friendly fertilizers. They have good slow-release properties and can significantly improve the utilization rate of fertilizers. However, problems remain regarding the synthesis of urea formaldehyde slow-release fertilizers, their characterization, and aspects of their performance. This study explores the effects of different reaction conditions on the quality of synthesized urea formaldehyde and establishes a response relationship between synthesis factors and sustained-release performance. Optimal conditions for urea formaldehyde synthesis included use of an ammonium chloride catalyst, pH 4 as the final pH condition, and a urea/formaldehyde molar ratio (U/F) of 1.3. Samples prepared in this study were characterized in terms of cold water-insoluble nitrogen, hot water-insoluble nitrogen, and soil-available nitrogen. The samples were also characterized by spectroscopic and instrumental methods to correlate the microscale behaviors of the urea formaldehyde particles with their performance as controlled-release fertilizers. This work is expected to provide a basis for the production of urea formaldehyde and to improve its performance as a slow-release fertilizer. Full article
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16 pages, 7570 KiB  
Article
Graphene Oxide from Graphite of Spent Batteries as Support of Nanocatalysts for Fuel Hydrogen Production
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3250; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113250 - 19 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 727
Abstract
The increasing production of electronic waste and the rising demand for renewable energy are currently subjects of debate. Sustainable processes based on a circular economy are required. Then, electronic devices could be the main source for the synthesis of new materials. Thus, this [...] Read more.
The increasing production of electronic waste and the rising demand for renewable energy are currently subjects of debate. Sustainable processes based on a circular economy are required. Then, electronic devices could be the main source for the synthesis of new materials. Thus, this work aimed to synthesize graphene oxide (GO) from graphite rod of spent Zn-C batteries. This was used as support for Ni/Co bimetallic nanocatalysts in the evolution of hydrogen from NaBH4 for the first time. The graphene oxide (GO) exhibited a diffraction peak at 2θ = 9.1°, as observed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), along with the presence of oxygenated groups as identified using FTIR. Characteristic bands at 1345 and 1574 cm−1 were observed using Raman spectroscopy. A leaf-shaped morphology was observed using SEM. GO sheets was observed using TEM, with an interplanar distance of 0.680 nm. Ni/Co nanoparticles, with an approximate size of 2 nm, were observed after deposition on GO. The material was used in the evolution of hydrogen from NaBH4, obtaining an efficiency close to 90%, with a kinetic constant of 0.0230 s−1 at 296.15 K and activation energy of 46.7 kJ mol−1. The material showed an efficiency in seven reuse cycles. Therefore, a route of a new material with added value from electronic waste was obtained from an eco-friendly process, which can be used in NaBH4 hydrolysis. Full article
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17 pages, 26986 KiB  
Article
Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow Separation Control in Low-Speed Diffuser Cascade with Splitter Blades
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3249; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113249 - 18 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 692
Abstract
The passive flow control technology of using splitter blades in low-speed diffuser cascade was investigated in this study. Based on the Reynolds average Navier-Stokes calculations, the arrangement parameters of the splitter blades were studied in detail to determine the optimal parameters. The large-eddy [...] Read more.
The passive flow control technology of using splitter blades in low-speed diffuser cascade was investigated in this study. Based on the Reynolds average Navier-Stokes calculations, the arrangement parameters of the splitter blades were studied in detail to determine the optimal parameters. The large-eddy simulation was performed on the base case and the optimized splitter blade case to obtain the transient vortex structures and unsteady flow characteristics of the cascade. The results show that the aerodynamic performance of the cascade was susceptible to the position of the splitter blades. The optimal position of the splitter blades was located in the middle of the main blades near the leading edge. When the cascade was arranged with optimized splitter blades, the static pressure coefficient was improved and the stall occurrence was delayed. The scale and intensity of the separation vortices generated on the suction surface of the main blade decreased. In addition, the separation vortices of the main blade and the splitter blade interacted and rapidly decomposed into small-scale vortices downstream of the cascade, reducing the flow loss. The stability of the cascade was enhanced. Full article
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18 pages, 354 KiB  
Article
Infinite Horizon H2/H Control for Discrete-Time Mean-Field Stochastic Systems
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3248; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113248 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 545
Abstract
In this paper, we deal with the H2/H control problem in the infinite horizon for discrete-time mean-field stochastic systems with (x,u,v)-dependent noise. First of all, a stochastic-bounded real lemma, which is the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we deal with the H2/H control problem in the infinite horizon for discrete-time mean-field stochastic systems with (x,u,v)-dependent noise. First of all, a stochastic-bounded real lemma, which is the core of H analysis, is derived. Secondly, a sufficient condition in terms of the solution of coupled difference Riccati equations (CDREs) is obtained for solving the H2/H control problem above. In addition, an iterative algorithm for solving CDREs is proposed and a numerical example is given for verification of the feasibility of the developed results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nonlinear and Stochastic System Control)
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24 pages, 3527 KiB  
Article
A Novel Hybrid Deep Learning Model for Forecasting Ultra-Short-Term Time Series Wind Speeds for Wind Turbines
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3247; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113247 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 808
Abstract
Accurate forecasting of ultra-short-term time series wind speeds (UTSWS) is important for improving the efficiency and safe and stable operation of wind turbines. To address this issue, this study proposes a VMD-AOA-GRU based method for UTSWS forecasting. The proposed method utilizes variational mode [...] Read more.
Accurate forecasting of ultra-short-term time series wind speeds (UTSWS) is important for improving the efficiency and safe and stable operation of wind turbines. To address this issue, this study proposes a VMD-AOA-GRU based method for UTSWS forecasting. The proposed method utilizes variational mode decomposition (VMD) to decompose the wind speed data into temporal mode components with different frequencies and effectively extract high-frequency wind speed features. The arithmetic optimization algorithm (AOA) is then employed to optimize the hyperparameters of the model of the gated recurrent unit (GRU), including the number of hidden neurons, training epochs, learning rate, learning rate decay period, and training data temporal length, thereby constructing a high-precision AOA-GRU forecasting model. The AOA-GRU forecasting model is trained and tested using different frequency temporal mode components obtained from the VMD, which achieves multi-step accurate forecasting of the UTSWS. The forecasting results of the GRU, VMD-GRU, VMD-AOA-GRU, LSTM, VMD-LSTM, PSO-ELM, VMD-PSO-ELM, PSO-BP, VMD-PSO-BP, PSO-LSSVM, VMD-PSO-LSSVM, ARIMA, and VMD-ARIMA are compared and analyzed. The calculation results show that the VMD algorithm can accurately mine the high-frequency components of the time series wind speed, which can effectively improve the forecasting accuracy of the forecasting model. In addition, optimizing the hyperparameters of the GRU model using the AOA can further improve the forecasting accuracy of the GRU model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Design and Modeling of Low-Carbon Energy Systems)
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20 pages, 9117 KiB  
Essay
Experimental Study on the Coefficient of Internal Frictional Resistance in the Annular Gap during the Plunger Gas Lift Process
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3246; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113246 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Plunger gas lift process technology is an economical solution to the problem of gas well liquid buildup. However, in-house simulation experiments revealed that the high-speed movement of the plunger may lead to fluid leakage and generate annular gap frictional resistance. To address this [...] Read more.
Plunger gas lift process technology is an economical solution to the problem of gas well liquid buildup. However, in-house simulation experiments revealed that the high-speed movement of the plunger may lead to fluid leakage and generate annular gap frictional resistance. To address this issue, a detailed experimental study was conducted to comparatively analyze five existing frictional-resistance models, which were found to have significant deviations. Therefore, we propose a new model of annular gap frictional resistance and validate it with experimental data, and the results show that the new model is more accurate and reliable. We also conducted a comparative analysis of production-site examples by using VB programming and found that when considering the annular gap frictional resistance, the upward travel time of the plunger was delayed, the difference between the upper and lower end face pressures was significant, and the difference in speed was 1.73 m/s. This indicates that the annular gap frictional resistance cannot be ignored and is crucial for optimizing plunger gas lift process technology and improving the drainage efficiency of gas wells. Full article
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28 pages, 5729 KiB  
Article
Maximum Power Point Tracking Constraint Conditions and Two Control Methods for Isolated Photovoltaic Systems
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3245; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113245 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 461
Abstract
A maximum power point (MPP) always exists in photovoltaic (PV) cells, but a mismatch between PV system circuit parameters, weather conditions and system structure leads to the possibility that the MPP may not be tracked successfully. In addition, the introduction of an isolation [...] Read more.
A maximum power point (MPP) always exists in photovoltaic (PV) cells, but a mismatch between PV system circuit parameters, weather conditions and system structure leads to the possibility that the MPP may not be tracked successfully. In addition, the introduction of an isolation transformer into a basic PV system allows for moderate values of the converter duty cycle and electrical isolation. However, there is no comprehensive research on MPPT (maximum power point tracking) constraint conditions for different isolated PV systems, which seriously hinders the application of isolated PV systems and the development of a related linear control theory. Therefore, in this paper, the overall mathematical models of different isolated PV systems are first established based on the PV cell engineering model and the MPP linear model, and then, two sets of constraint conditions are found for the successful realization of MPPT. These MPPT constraint conditions (MCCs) describe in detail the direct mathematical relationships between PV cell parameters, weather conditions and circuit parameters. Finally, based on the MPP linear model and MCCs, two new MPPT methods are designed for isolated PV systems. Considering the MCCs proposed in this paper, a suitable range of load and transformer ratios can be estimated from the measured data of irradiance and temperature in a certain area, and the range of MPPs existing in PV systems with different structures can be estimated, which is a good guide for circuit design, theoretical derivation and product selection for PV systems. Meanwhile, comparative experiments confirm the rapidity and accuracy of the two proposed MPPT methods, with the MPPT time improving from 0.23 s to 0.03 s, and they have the advantages of a simple program, small computational volume and low hardware cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Design and Modeling of Low-Carbon Energy Systems)
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17 pages, 4884 KiB  
Article
Exploration of Eco-Friendly Hydrochar’s Potential in Advanced Oxidative Processes for Dicamba Degradation within a Circular Bio-Economy Framework
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3244; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113244 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 651
Abstract
Dicamba, renowned for its limited sorption capacity, presents a substantial risk of contaminating surface and groundwater if the disposal of spray tank effluent is not adequately controlled. In this work, a dicamba effluent underwent treatment through a Fenton-like process employing an iron/hydrochar (Hy-Fe) [...] Read more.
Dicamba, renowned for its limited sorption capacity, presents a substantial risk of contaminating surface and groundwater if the disposal of spray tank effluent is not adequately controlled. In this work, a dicamba effluent underwent treatment through a Fenton-like process employing an iron/hydrochar (Hy-Fe) composite, synthesized via hydrothermal methods using coffee husk as the precursor. The Hy-Fe displayed carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen levels of 52.30%, 5.21%, and 1.49%, respectively. Additionally, the material exhibited a specific surface area measuring 9.00 m2 g−1. The presence of the γ-Fe2O3 phase within the composite was confirmed through X-ray diffraction analysis. The Fenton-like process employing Hy-Fe demonstrated approximately 100% degradation of dicamba within 5 h. The treated effluent underwent toxicity evaluation via biological assays using beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) as indicator plants, revealing no observable signs of intoxication. These findings were corroborated by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, providing additional confirmation of the degradation results. Additionally, decontamination of personal protective equipment potentially contaminated with dicamba was also assessed. The Hy-Fe composite demonstrated reusability across three degradation cycles, achieving degradation percentages of 100%, 70%, and 60%, respectively. The Hy-Fe composite demonstrates substantial potential for use in a Fenton-like process. This process is characterized by its simplicity, speed, and sustainability. The notable effectiveness, evidenced by high degradation rates and minimal toxicity, underscores its suitability as a practical solution for addressing dicamba contamination. Full article
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21 pages, 15488 KiB  
Article
Investigation of a Jet-Based Direct Mixing Process for Improved Structuring of Conductive Battery Hetero-Agglomerates
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3243; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113243 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 574
Abstract
A jet-based direct mixing process is used to effectively mix heterogeneous materials. In this work, its application in the structuring, coating and agglomeration of cathode materials for all-solid-state battery (ASSB) production is investigated, with the aim of increasing the homogeneity and conductivity of [...] Read more.
A jet-based direct mixing process is used to effectively mix heterogeneous materials. In this work, its application in the structuring, coating and agglomeration of cathode materials for all-solid-state battery (ASSB) production is investigated, with the aim of increasing the homogeneity and conductivity of the composites and ultimately improving battery performance. In this process, different particle systems consisting of lithium iron phosphate (LFP), carbon black (CB) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are dispersed in the gas phase and brought together in a mixing zone as particle-laden aerosol jets. The cathode material’s structure is studied through scanning electron microscopy combined with a focussed ion beam (SEM–FIB). Electrical conductivity measurements of the resulting composites assess the degree of mixing and the changes in tortuosity, while a laser light diffractor and a cascade impactor analyse the particle size distribution (PSD). The jet-based process effectively produces hetero-agglomerates with the possibility of creating different composite structures by adjusting the process parameters. The mass concentration influences not only the structure, but also the PSD in the flow and the electrical conductivity of the composite. The results serve as a basis for future experiments with solid electrolytes to comprehensively evaluate the process and the resulting battery materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Particle Processes)
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14 pages, 3896 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on the Control Mechanism of Non-Equilibrium Retrograde Condensation in Buried Hill Fractured Condensate Gas Reservoirs
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3242; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113242 - 17 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 497
Abstract
During the depletion development of condensate gas reservoirs, when the formation pressure drops below the dew point pressure, the condensate oil and natural gas systems are in the non-equilibrium state of foggy retrograde condensation. The rational use of the non-equilibrium phase characteristics of [...] Read more.
During the depletion development of condensate gas reservoirs, when the formation pressure drops below the dew point pressure, the condensate oil and natural gas systems are in the non-equilibrium state of foggy retrograde condensation. The rational use of the non-equilibrium phase characteristics of the foggy retrograde condensation phenomenon during the development process will be beneficial to the recovery of condensate oil and natural gas. In order to clarify the retrograde condensation control mechanism during the non-equilibrium depletion development of condensate gas reservoirs, the phase characteristics of a condensate oil and gas system were studied by constant composition expansion and constant volume depletion experiments. Then, on the basis of a long core depletion experiment and chromatographic analysis experiment, the influence of different pressure drop speeds, fluid properties, and reservoir physical properties on the control effect of non-equilibrium retrograde condensation after the coupling of the fluid retrograde condensation and reservoir core is analyzed. The results show that during the pressure decline process, the condensate oil and gas system will produce a strong foggy retrograde condensation phenomenon, with the saturation of the retrograde condensate increasing and then decreasing. The cumulative recovery of the condensate oil and natural gas, as well as the mass fraction of the heavy components in the condensate oil, increase with the increase in the depletion rate. Different fluid properties and reservoir physical properties have a great influence on the cumulative recovery degree of the condensate oil, and have little influence on the recovery degree of the natural gas. This work has a certain guiding role for the stable production and enhanced recovery of fractured condensate gas reservoirs in subsurface structures of metamorphic rocks. Full article
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11 pages, 3008 KiB  
Article
Impact of Alloy Elements on the Adsorption and Dissociation of Gaseous Hydrogen on Surfaces of Ni–Cr–Mo Steel
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3241; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113241 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 554
Abstract
In this study, the effect of alloying elements on the adsorption and dissociation behaviors of hydrogen molecules on the bcc-Fe (001) surface has been investigated using first-principles calculations. H2 molecules can easily dissociate on the hollow site, and the dissociated hydrogen atoms [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of alloying elements on the adsorption and dissociation behaviors of hydrogen molecules on the bcc-Fe (001) surface has been investigated using first-principles calculations. H2 molecules can easily dissociate on the hollow site, and the dissociated hydrogen atoms bond with the surrounding metal atoms. Doping Cr and Mo atoms on the surface would reduce the H2 molecule adsorption energy, which promotes the H2 molecule adsorption and dissociation. When only one or two Ni atoms doping on the surface, it improves the adsorption energies, which in turn can hinder the H2 molecule adsorption and dissociation. However, three or four Ni atoms doping on the surface is beneficial to the H2 molecule adsorption and dissociation. Thus, the nickel content in Ni–Cr–Mo steel should be reasonably controlled to improve the hydrogen embrittlement resistance of the steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Research and Development of Materials and Processes)
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19 pages, 14506 KiB  
Article
Wear Detection of Extruder Elements Based on Current Signature by Means of a Continuous Wavelet Transform
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3240; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113240 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Assessing the wear of components in a single-screw extruder and its condition during the process is difficult. In this context, wavelet analysis was used to investigate the wear condition of extruder elements, which yielded data on current waveforms obtained from 1 kHz frequency [...] Read more.
Assessing the wear of components in a single-screw extruder and its condition during the process is difficult. In this context, wavelet analysis was used to investigate the wear condition of extruder elements, which yielded data on current waveforms obtained from 1 kHz frequency converters. To date, no tests of this type have been conducted on single-screw food extruders, which further emphasizes the relevance of the research undertaken by the authors. Experimental tests have been conducted to verify the hypothesis that it is possible to assess the level of wear of the working elements of an extruder by monitoring the variations in the frequencies on the current spectrum using wavelet analysis tools. The root mean square (RMS) values of the current were compared for two configurations of the working elements of the device, i.e., new and used. Observation of the frequency variations of the current spectrum values using wavelet analysis tools can provide valuable information on the technical condition of the working elements of an industrial extruder. Therefore, they can indicate the need for prompt replacement of friction elements in order to improve the efficiency and performance of the machine. Full article
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19 pages, 52598 KiB  
Article
Effect of Heat Treatment Process on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High-Carbon H13 Steel
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3239; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113239 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 799
Abstract
This paper investigated the mechanical properties and microstructures of different samples of H13 steel after they underwent various heat treatment processes. It provided a detailed analysis of the microstructure and mechanical properties under different processes and approached the topic from a theoretical perspective. [...] Read more.
This paper investigated the mechanical properties and microstructures of different samples of H13 steel after they underwent various heat treatment processes. It provided a detailed analysis of the microstructure and mechanical properties under different processes and approached the topic from a theoretical perspective. The phase composition of each sample remained unchanged after undergoing different heat treatment processes. Despite the vacuum gas quenching (H1) sample being guaranteed a hardness of 58.47 HRC, its toughness fell below expectations at a mere 46.75 J. Notably, the microstructure of the sample which underwent the H1 process and the cryogenic (H2) treatment exhibited a finer grain size and higher toughness compared to the sample which only underwent the H1 process without the cryogenic treatment. Its toughness was 70.19 J, but its hardness slightly decreased to 57.47 HRC. Following the application of oil quenching and cryogenic treatment (H3), the hardness of the sample significantly increased, reaching a remarkable 58.38 HRC. Additionally, the sample exhibited good impact resistance, with a measurement of 74.25 J. Before the H2 process, the sample which underwent the spheroidizing annealing process (H4) had a higher hardness compared to the sample without spheroidizing annealing. At the same time, when comparing the above four samples, the sample that underwent the H4 process exhibited the best toughness, with a value of 86.94 J, while still maintaining a hardness of 57.85 HRC; thus, it achieved an ideal balance between strength and toughness. Therefore, the optimal heat treatment process for high-carbon H13 steel was spheroidizing annealing followed by vacuum gas quenching and then cryogenic treatment. Full article
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13 pages, 4319 KiB  
Article
Preparation of a Novel Copper–Cobalt Composite Catalyst and Study on Performance Degradation of Methyl Orange
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3238; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113238 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 553
Abstract
A novel Co–Cu composite heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst was prepared by using a modified hydrothermal method for the degradation of methyl orange solution. The catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and a Fourier [...] Read more.
A novel Co–Cu composite heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst was prepared by using a modified hydrothermal method for the degradation of methyl orange solution. The catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), which confirmed that the catalyst contained Co(OH)2, Cu2O, and an exhibition of a hexagonal crystalline structure with sizes within the range of 0.5–5 μm. The influential factors were researched with the use of univariate analysis and the results showed that: the catalyst has better catalytic properties in the pH range of 2–10 and there was an optimum value of the dosage of the catalyst; the greater the dosage of the catalyst, the faster the COD degradation rate achieves its maximum value; the COD degradation rate increases with a higher reaction temperature. When the pH is 7, the dosage of the catalyst is 0.3 g/L, the dosage of hydrogen peroxide is 50 mL/L, and the reaction temperature is 313 K. The COD degradation rate reached 94% after 50 min of treatment, which proved that the catalyst exhibited high catalysis in a Fenton-like process. Furthermore, reuse of the catalyst and the degradation mechanism of methyl orange were also researched. Full article
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14 pages, 4497 KiB  
Article
Physical and Numerical Simulation Study on Structure Optimization of the Inner Wall of Submerged Entry Nozzle for Continuous Casting of Molten Steel
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3237; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113237 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 582
Abstract
The submerged entry nozzle (SEN) plays an important role in the continuous casting production process. It is a cast refractory pipe fitting installed in the lower part of the tundish and inserted below the molten steel level of the mold. It not only [...] Read more.
The submerged entry nozzle (SEN) plays an important role in the continuous casting production process. It is a cast refractory pipe fitting installed in the lower part of the tundish and inserted below the molten steel level of the mold. It not only affects the speed of molten steel flow, but is also prone to nodules and affects production. In the present work, the flow behavior of molten steel in a traditional nozzle and that in a new type of nozzle whose inner wall was distributed with arrays of hemispherical crowns were studied by means of both physical simulation (using a water model) and numerical simulation (using ANSYS CFX) based on the prototype of a production continuous casting slab mold. Both experimental and numerical simulation results show that, compared with the traditional nozzle, the impact depth generated by the new-type nozzle in the mold is reduced by 21.06–26.03 cm, the impact angle is reduced by 14–17 degrees, and swirl flow was generated inside the new-type nozzle, which not only improves the flow characteristics inside the submerged entry nozzle and changes the dead zone size in the submerged entry nozzle, but also improves the velocity distribution at the outlet of the nozzle and minimizes the possibility of nodulation. In addition, in contrast to the traditional nozzle that generates flat body-shaped jets of molten steel flow, the new-type nozzle produces baseball glove-shaped jets that penetrate shallower into the molten steel bath in the mold, which significantly reduces the outlet velocity and is conducive to the floating of inclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Simulation, Control, and Optimization of Processes)
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16 pages, 5310 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Analysis of the Drying Process of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Based on Non-Steady-State Drying Kinetics
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3236; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113236 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 706
Abstract
The drying process of lithium-ion battery electrodes is one of the key processes for manufacturing electrodes with high surface homogeneity and is one of the most energy-consuming stages. The choice of the drying parameters has a significant impact on the electrode properties and [...] Read more.
The drying process of lithium-ion battery electrodes is one of the key processes for manufacturing electrodes with high surface homogeneity and is one of the most energy-consuming stages. The choice of the drying parameters has a significant impact on the electrode properties and the production efficiency. In response to these issues, this study establishes the non-steady-state drying kinetic equation for the electrodes, revealing the comprehensive effects of various dominant factors on the drying process. The drying rate is closely related to the electrode surface temperature, thickness, and other factors. Furthermore, this study proposes a coupled model of hot air drying field and capillary porous electrode solvent evaporation. The results showed that approximately 90% of the solvent was removed in less than half of the drying time. Then, the mechanism and control factors of electrode solvent evaporation are analyzed. During the preheating phase, the drying rate is controlled by electrode heating and temperature rise. In the constant velocity phase, it is regulated by the heat transfer from the surface airflow, while in the deceleration phase, it is affected by the mass transfer from the electrodes. Additionally, the effects of different thicknesses, temperatures, and airflow speeds on the drying process were investigated. Finally, experimental verification demonstrated the optimal parameters within the scope of the study: a temperature of 363.15 K and airflow speeds of 2.3 m/s result in a higher drying rate, as well as favorable mechanical performance. Full article
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12 pages, 4817 KiB  
Article
Effects of MgO and Rare-Earth Oxides (Y2O3, Yb2O3, Dy2O3) on the Structural Characteristics and Electrical Properties of BaTiO3
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3235; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113235 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 546
Abstract
This study investigated the impact of MgO and rare-earth oxides (Y2O3, Yb2O3, and Dy2O3) on the structural characteristics and electrical properties of BaTiO3. Specimens sintered at 1350 °C for [...] Read more.
This study investigated the impact of MgO and rare-earth oxides (Y2O3, Yb2O3, and Dy2O3) on the structural characteristics and electrical properties of BaTiO3. Specimens sintered at 1350 °C for durations ranging from 1 to 5 h in air exhibited a single phase of BaTiO3 with a tetragonal structure. This was observed for pure BaTiO3 and specimens co-doped with MgO-Y2O3 and/or MgO-Dy2O3. However, a pseudo-cubic structure of BaTiO3 was detected for specimens doped with MgO or co-doped with MgO-Yb2O3. The unit-cell volume of the sintered specimens was found to be dependent on the type of substitution ion for the A/B site of BaTiO3 (ABO3). The dielectric constant (εr) of the sintered specimens decreased with the substitution of MgO and rare-earth oxides due to a decrease in tetragonality (c/a). The electrical resistivities of the sintered specimens were influenced not only by their microstructural characteristics but also by the secondary phases of the sintered specimens. The BaTiO3 specimens co-doped with MgO-Yb2O3 and/or doped with MgO met the EIA X7R and X8R specifications (−55 to 125~150 °C, ΔC/C = ±15% or less), respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramic Processing and Application of Ceramic Materials)
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11 pages, 3200 KiB  
Article
A New Fracturing Method to Improve Stimulation Effect of Marl Tight Oil Reservoir in Sichuan Basin
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3234; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113234 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 441
Abstract
China’s argillaceous limestone reservoir has a lot of oil and gas resources, and hydraulic fracturing of the argillaceous limestone reservoir faces many difficulties. The first problem is that the heterogeneity of the argillaceous limestone reservoir is strong, and it is difficult to optimize [...] Read more.
China’s argillaceous limestone reservoir has a lot of oil and gas resources, and hydraulic fracturing of the argillaceous limestone reservoir faces many difficulties. The first problem is that the heterogeneity of the argillaceous limestone reservoir is strong, and it is difficult to optimize fracturing parameters. The second problem is that there are a lot of natural fractures in the argillaceous limestone reservoir, which leads to a lot of fracturing fluid loss. The third problem is that the closure pressure of the argillaceous limestone reservoir is high, and the conductivity of fractures decreases rapidly under high closure pressure. The last problem is that the fracture shape of the argillaceous limestone reservoir is complex, and the law of proppant migration is unclear. The main research methods in this paper include reservoir numerical simulation, fluid-loss-reducer performance evaluation, flow conductivity tests and proppant migration visualization. To solve the above problems, this paper establishes the fracturing productivity prediction model of complex lithology reservoirs and defines the optimal hydraulic fracturing parameters of the argillous limestone reservoir in the Sichuan Basin. The 70/140 mesh ceramide was selected as the fluid loss additive after an evaluation of the sealing properties of different mesh ceramides. At the same time, the hydraulic fracture conductivity test is carried out in this paper, and it is confirmed that the fracture conductivity of 70/140 mesh and 40/70 mesh composite particle-size ceramics mixed according to the mass ratio of 5:5 is the highest. When the closure pressure is 40 MPa, the conductivity of a mixture of 70/140 mesh ceramic and 40/70 mesh ceramic is 35.6% higher than that of a mixture of 70/140 mesh ceramic and 30/50 mesh ceramic. The proppant migration visualization device is used to evaluate the morphology of the sand dike formed by the ceramsite, and it is clear that the shape of the sand dike is the best when the mass ratio of 70/140 mesh ceramsite and 40/70 mesh ceramsite is 6:4. The research results achieved a good stimulation effect in the SC1 well. The daily oil production of the SC1 well is 20 t, and the monitoring results of the wide-area electromagnetic method show that the fracturing fracture length of the SC1 well is up to 129 m. Full article
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21 pages, 4807 KiB  
Article
Improving Accuracy and Interpretability of CNN-Based Fault Diagnosis through an Attention Mechanism
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3233; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113233 - 16 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 627
Abstract
This study aims to enhance the accuracy and interpretability of fault diagnosis. To address this objective, we present a novel attention-based CNN method that leverages image-like data generated from multivariate time series using a sliding window processing technique. By representing time series data [...] Read more.
This study aims to enhance the accuracy and interpretability of fault diagnosis. To address this objective, we present a novel attention-based CNN method that leverages image-like data generated from multivariate time series using a sliding window processing technique. By representing time series data in an image-like format, the spatiotemporal dependencies inherent in the raw data are effectively captured, which allows CNNs to extract more comprehensive fault features, consequently enhancing the accuracy of fault diagnosis. Moreover, the proposed method incorporates a form of prior knowledge concerning category-attribute correlations into CNNs through the utilization of an attention mechanism. Under the guidance of thisprior knowledge, the proposed method enables the extraction of accurate and predictive features. Importantly, these extracted features are anticipated to retain the interpretability of the prior knowledge. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified on the Tennessee Eastman chemical process dataset. The results show that proposed method achieved a fault diagnosis accuracy of 98.46%, which is significantly higher than similar existing methods. Furthermore, the robustness of the proposed method is analyzed by sensitivity analysis on hyperparameters, and the interpretability is revealed by visually analyzing its feature extraction process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence in the Process Industry)
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19 pages, 3167 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Latin Hypercube Sampling for a Surrogate-Based Optimization with Artificial Neural Network
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3232; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113232 - 16 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 804
Abstract
A significant number of sample points are often required for surrogate-based optimization when utilizing process simulations to cover the entire system space. This necessity is particularly pronounced in complex simulations or high-dimensional physical experiments, where a large number of sample points is essential. [...] Read more.
A significant number of sample points are often required for surrogate-based optimization when utilizing process simulations to cover the entire system space. This necessity is particularly pronounced in complex simulations or high-dimensional physical experiments, where a large number of sample points is essential. In this study, we have developed an adaptive Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) method that generates additional sample points from areas with the highest output deviations to optimize the required number of samples. The surrogate model used for the optimization problem is artificial neural networks (ANNs). The standard for measuring solution accuracy is the percent error of the optimal solution. The outcomes of the proposed algorithm were compared to those of random sampling for validation. As case studies, we chose three different chemical processes to illustrate problems of varying complexity and numbers of variables. The findings indicate that for all case studies, the proposed LHS optimization algorithm required fewer sample points than random sampling to achieve optimal solutions of similar quality. To extend the application of this methodology, we recommend further applying it to fields beyond chemical engineering and higher-dimensional problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Process System Engineering)
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22 pages, 8979 KiB  
Article
3D Printed, Single-Use Bioreactor with Integrated Inline Sensors for Microbial and Mammalian Cell Cultivation—A Case Study
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3231; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113231 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1420
Abstract
The development of upstream bioprocesses necessitates small, instrumented bioreactors for investigating and optimizing production processes in a cost-effective manner. Due to advances in both the equipment and the materials used in additive manufacturing, 3D printing of customized bioreactors is now in the realm [...] Read more.
The development of upstream bioprocesses necessitates small, instrumented bioreactors for investigating and optimizing production processes in a cost-effective manner. Due to advances in both the equipment and the materials used in additive manufacturing, 3D printing of customized bioreactors is now in the realm of possibilities. In this study, a small-scale 3D printed bioreactor suitable for mammalian and microbial cultivations was developed, featuring a working volume of 90 mL, inline pH and dissolved oxygen probes and a levitating magnetic stirrer. Aeration channels and a sampling port were printed directly into the vessel walls. Additionally, the vessel was equipped with a 3D printed customizable optical biomass-sensor. The bioreactor’s performance was evaluated through technical characterization and proof of concept cultivations, demonstrating that mixing time and oxygen mass transfer were sufficient for cultivating mammalian as well as microbial cells at high cell densities. Specifically, an Escherichia coli fed-batch cultivation achieved a maximum OD600 of 204. Furthermore, a fed-batch cultivation of an IgG antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary cell line reached a peak viable cell density of 10.2 × 106 cells mL−1 and a maximum product titer of 2.75 g L−1. Using a three-parameter fit, the inline biomass signal could be correlated to the corresponding offline values with satisfactory accuracy, making it possible to monitor cell growth in real-time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmaceutical Processes)
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16 pages, 3485 KiB  
Article
Aspergillus fumigatus Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase AfLPMO9D: Biochemical Properties and Photoactivation of a Multi-Domain AA9 Enzyme
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3230; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113230 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 697
Abstract
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are critical players in enzymatic deconstruction of cellulose. A number of LPMOs have been identified at a genomics level; however, they still need to be characterized and validated for use in industrial processes aimed at cellulose deconstruction. In the [...] Read more.
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are critical players in enzymatic deconstruction of cellulose. A number of LPMOs have been identified at a genomics level; however, they still need to be characterized and validated for use in industrial processes aimed at cellulose deconstruction. In the present study, we biochemically characterized a new LPMO, a member of auxiliary activities family 9 (AA9) from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus (AfLPMO9D). This LPMO demonstrated higher efficiency against amorphous cellulose as compared to more recalcitrant forms of cellulose such as bacterial cellulose and Avicel. AfLPMO9D has a capacity to oxidize the substrate at either the C1 or C4 positions, with pH-dependent regioselectivity. Photoactivation experiments demonstrated that light-stimulated chlorophyllin triggers AfLPMO9D activation without requirements of an external electron donor. AfLPMO9D is capable of boosting phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose depolymerization via GH7 endoglucanase and cellobiohydrolase. The results of the present study might help to elucidate the role of different LPMOs in cellulosic fiber deconstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biological Processes and Systems)
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24 pages, 15749 KiB  
Article
Optimal Degradation-Aware Control Using Process-Controlled Sparse Bayesian Learning
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3229; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113229 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Efficient production planning hinges on reducing costs and maintaining output quality, with machine degradation management as a key factor. The traditional approaches to control this degradation face two main challenges: high costs associated with physical modeling and a lack of physical interpretability in [...] Read more.
Efficient production planning hinges on reducing costs and maintaining output quality, with machine degradation management as a key factor. The traditional approaches to control this degradation face two main challenges: high costs associated with physical modeling and a lack of physical interpretability in machine learning methods. Addressing these issues, our study presents an innovative solution focused on controlling the degradation, a common cause of machine failure. We propose a method that integrates machine degradation as a virtual state within the system model, utilizing relevance vector machine-based identification designed in a way that offers physical interpretability. This integration maximizes the machine’s operational lifespan. Our approach merges a physical machine model with a physically interpretable data-driven degradation model, effectively tackling the challenges in physical degradation modeling and accessibility to the system disturbance model. By embedding degradation into the system’s state-space model, we simplify implementation and address stability issues. The results demonstrate that our method effectively controls degradation and significantly increases the machine’s mean time to failure. This represents a significant advancement in production planning, offering a cost-effective and interpretable method for managing machine degradation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics Analysis and Intelligent Control in Industrial Engineering)
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17 pages, 5640 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Gas Recovery in Tight Dolomite Reservoirs: A Study of Water-Lock Damage and Chemical Drainage
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3228; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113228 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 567
Abstract
The Lower Paleozoic Ordovician strata within the Ordos Basin harbor dolomite gas reservoirs are characterized by low porosity (0.98% to 14.2%) and low permeability (0.001 mD to 2.8 mD). Gas extraction from these reservoirs is frequently impeded by water lock due to the [...] Read more.
The Lower Paleozoic Ordovician strata within the Ordos Basin harbor dolomite gas reservoirs are characterized by low porosity (0.98% to 14.2%) and low permeability (0.001 mD to 2.8 mD). Gas extraction from these reservoirs is frequently impeded by water lock due to the intrusion of water-based drilling fluids and the accumulation of formation water, which increase water saturation near the wellbore and significantly decrease gas permeability. This research is pivotal in elucidating water-lock mechanisms and developing water-unlocking strategies for such tight gas reservoirs. Comprehensive analysis through wettability tests, spontaneous imbibition, high-speed centrifugal drainage, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that Jingbian gas field rocks are predominantly water-wet with a spontaneous imbibition water saturation of 60% to 80%, indicating a high propensity for water lock. The pore structure, mainly within the 200 to 300 nm range, presents challenges as high-speed centrifugation achieves only 70% to 80% water saturation displacement, with a drainage rate of about 20% to 30% and a drastic decline in gas permeability by several orders of magnitude. This study identifies the surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as an optimal agent for enhancing water displacement and gas production. At a 0.1% concentration, SDBS improves drainage rate and permeability by 58.5% and 69.42%, respectively, demonstrating its efficacy in mitigating water lock and enhancing recoverability in tight dolomite reservoirs. These findings serve as a scientific guide for augmenting production in similar geological settings. Full article
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18 pages, 2302 KiB  
Article
Ericaria amentacea Algae Extracts: A Sustainable Approach for the Green Synthesis of Silver Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Effectiveness against Leishmaniasis
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3227; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113227 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 701
Abstract
In this study, anti-leishmanial activities were performed on silver oxide nanoparticles green synthesized from hexane, ethereal, chloroform, and methanolic extracts of the Ericaria amentacea seaweed. The extracts were obtained using a soxhlet extraction system, and the silver oxide nanoparticles were synthesized through a [...] Read more.
In this study, anti-leishmanial activities were performed on silver oxide nanoparticles green synthesized from hexane, ethereal, chloroform, and methanolic extracts of the Ericaria amentacea seaweed. The extracts were obtained using a soxhlet extraction system, and the silver oxide nanoparticles were synthesized through a simple and environmentally friendly method. Physicochemical characterizations, including UV spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and zeta potential analysis (ZPA), were conducted to confirm the formation of silver oxide particles. The anti-leishmanial activity was evaluated in vitro using the MTT assay against the Leishmania infantum, Leishmania tropica, and Leishmania major strains. Additionally, a brine shrimp cytotoxicity test was performed on Artemia salina larvae to assess the toxicity of the products. The results showed that the anti-leishmanial activity of the synthesized silver oxide nanoparticles was significant, with inhibitory concentration values ranging from 27.16 μg/mL to 38.18 μg/mL. The lethal doses in the cytotoxicity activities were higher than 17.08 μg/mL, indicating low toxicity. These findings suggest that silver oxide nanoparticles derived from Ericaria amentacea seaweed have potential applications in the treatment of leishmaniasis. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of action and assess the in vivo efficacy of these nanoparticles. Moreover, comprehensive toxicity studies are necessary before considering their clinical use in leishmaniasis treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biological Processes and Systems)
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