Advances in Ceramic Processing and Application of Ceramic Materials

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 February 2024) | Viewed by 5288

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Ceramics and Refractories, Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Moscow 125047, Russia
Interests: refractories for non-ferrous metallurgy; carbon materials; non-oxygen ceramics; fracture of ceramics

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Guest Editor
Department of Functional Nanosystems, National University of Science and Technology "MISiS", Leninsky Prospect 4, Moscow 119049, Russia
Interests: nanotmaterials; nanotechnologies; high-temperature materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Ceramics and Refractories, Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Moscow 125047, Russia
Interests: structural ceramics; traditional ceramics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ceramics can be considered significant constituents of world technical and scientific progress. Modern ceramic materials, made using advanced methods and from specially synthesized and prepared starting powders, are used in space engines, aviation, electronics, metallurgy, chemistry, medicine and surgery. Oxide ceramic materials found their applications somewhat earlier, but their excellent properties still excite designers and engineers.

Nitride- and SiAION-based ceramics attracted attention between 1970–1990, but nowadays the interest to nitride-based compounds is growing. Carbide- and boride-based ceramics are waiting to be implemented in the future jets and space vehicles. Yet, all these excellent materials only find their applications through advanced processing, because the extreme properties of ceramic materials may only be reached through precise processing.

The Special Issue is devoted to:

  • Advances in Ceramic Materials
  • Advances in Ceramic Processing
  • Application of Ceramic Materials

Dr. Andrey Yurkov
Dr. Denis Kuznetsov
Dr. Maria Vartanyan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • structural ceramics
  • ceramic processing
  • sol–gel
  • nanotechnology
  • evaluation of properties
  • nitrides
  • carbides
  • corrosion resistance

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 2934 KiB  
Article
In Situ Formation of Titanium Diboride/Magnesium Titanate Composites by Magnesiothermic-Based Combustion Synthesis
by Chun-Liang Yeh and Chen Chen
Processes 2024, 12(3), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12030459 - 24 Feb 2024
Viewed by 379
Abstract
In situ formation of TiB2–Mg2TiO4 composites was investigated by combustion synthesis involving the solid-state reaction of Ti with boron and magnesiothermic reduction of B2O3. Certain amounts of MgO and TiO2 were added to [...] Read more.
In situ formation of TiB2–Mg2TiO4 composites was investigated by combustion synthesis involving the solid-state reaction of Ti with boron and magnesiothermic reduction of B2O3. Certain amounts of MgO and TiO2 were added to the reactant mixtures of Ti/B/Mg/B2O3 to act as the moderator of highly exothermic combustion and a portion of the precursors to form Mg2TiO4. Two combustion systems were designed to ensure that synthesis reactions were sufficiently energetic to carry on self-sustainably, that is, in the mode of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). Consistent with thermodynamic analyses, experimental results indicated that the increase in pre-added MgO and TiO2 decreased the combustion temperature and propagation velocity of the flame front. MgO was shown to have a stronger dilution effect on combustion exothermicity than TiO2, because the extent of magnesiothermic reduction of B2O3 was reduced in the MgO-added samples. In situ formation of the TiB2–Mg2TiO4 composite was achieved from both types of samples. It is believed that, in the course of the SHS progression, Mg2TiO4 was produced through a combination reaction between MgO and TiO2, both of which were entirely or partially generated from the metallothermic reduction of B2O3. The microstructure of the products exhibited fine TiB2 crystals in the shape of short rods and thin platelets that existed within the gaps of Mg2AlO4 grains. Both constituent phases were well distributed. A novel and efficient synthesis route, which is energy- and time-saving, for producing Mg2TiO4-containing composites was demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramic Processing and Application of Ceramic Materials)
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13 pages, 6410 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Microsilica as a Raw Material for Obtaining Mullite–Silica Refractories
by Bagdaulet Kenzhaliyev, Alla Biryukova, Tolebi Dzhienalyev, Alexander Panichkin, Akerke Imbarova, Alma Uskenbaeva and Abdul Hafidz Yusoff
Processes 2024, 12(1), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010200 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 668
Abstract
The possibility of using microsilica in the production of mullite–silica refractories was assessed. The chemical and mineralogical compositions of the raw materials, refractory Arkalyk clay and microsilica, were studied. It has been found that primary mullite and quartz formation occurs due to dehydration [...] Read more.
The possibility of using microsilica in the production of mullite–silica refractories was assessed. The chemical and mineralogical compositions of the raw materials, refractory Arkalyk clay and microsilica, were studied. It has been found that primary mullite and quartz formation occurs due to dehydration of kaolinite with the formation of intermediate metakaolinite. The introduction of alumina and microsilica into the charge composition promotes the formation of secondary mullite due to the interaction of aluminum oxide and highly dispersed chemically active microsilica. Free silica in compositions undergoes polymorphic transformations with the formation of cristobalite and tridymite. Mullite–silica refractories with an open porosity of 21%, a compressive strength of 42 MPa, and a thermal deformation temperature under the load of 0.2 MPa–1350 °C were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramic Processing and Application of Ceramic Materials)
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12 pages, 4817 KiB  
Article
Effects of MgO and Rare-Earth Oxides (Y2O3, Yb2O3, Dy2O3) on the Structural Characteristics and Electrical Properties of BaTiO3
by Jae Hoon Park and Eung Soo Kim
Processes 2023, 11(11), 3235; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11113235 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 668
Abstract
This study investigated the impact of MgO and rare-earth oxides (Y2O3, Yb2O3, and Dy2O3) on the structural characteristics and electrical properties of BaTiO3. Specimens sintered at 1350 °C for [...] Read more.
This study investigated the impact of MgO and rare-earth oxides (Y2O3, Yb2O3, and Dy2O3) on the structural characteristics and electrical properties of BaTiO3. Specimens sintered at 1350 °C for durations ranging from 1 to 5 h in air exhibited a single phase of BaTiO3 with a tetragonal structure. This was observed for pure BaTiO3 and specimens co-doped with MgO-Y2O3 and/or MgO-Dy2O3. However, a pseudo-cubic structure of BaTiO3 was detected for specimens doped with MgO or co-doped with MgO-Yb2O3. The unit-cell volume of the sintered specimens was found to be dependent on the type of substitution ion for the A/B site of BaTiO3 (ABO3). The dielectric constant (εr) of the sintered specimens decreased with the substitution of MgO and rare-earth oxides due to a decrease in tetragonality (c/a). The electrical resistivities of the sintered specimens were influenced not only by their microstructural characteristics but also by the secondary phases of the sintered specimens. The BaTiO3 specimens co-doped with MgO-Yb2O3 and/or doped with MgO met the EIA X7R and X8R specifications (−55 to 125~150 °C, ΔC/C = ±15% or less), respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramic Processing and Application of Ceramic Materials)
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23 pages, 62179 KiB  
Article
Oxide Strontium-Barium Perovskites Ceramics: Examinations of Structural Phase Transitions and Potential Application as Oxygen Carriers
by Ewelina Ksepko, Rafal Lysowski and Miratul Alifah
Processes 2023, 11(7), 2144; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11072144 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 947
Abstract
The structural properties of selected (Ba1−xSrx)PbO3 ceramics were examined at 14–1148 K using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). These materials are attractive due to their variety of applications, such as, for example, high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion. Attention was paid [...] Read more.
The structural properties of selected (Ba1−xSrx)PbO3 ceramics were examined at 14–1148 K using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). These materials are attractive due to their variety of applications, such as, for example, high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion. Attention was paid to this paper as a continuation of the previous examinations of higher Sr2+ concentrations. The type of perovskite distortion and temperatures of the structural phase transitions (SPTs) were determined from the splitting of certain pseudocubic lines. At this point, for example (Ba0.3Sr0.7)PbO3 showed three temperature-induced SPTs. When the amount of Sr increased in the samples, no phase transition was observed, which is contrary to the data previously demonstrated in the literature. The quality of the ceramics was examined by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), demonstrating their homogeneity and uniform elements dispersion. As a result of profound crystal investigations, confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis and quadrupole mass spectroscopy (TGA-QMS), a phase diagram was prepared for the (Ba1−xSrx)PbO3 system based on our former and recent study. Also, the investigation of a new application for the (Ba1−xSrx)PbO3 family is presented in this paper for the first time. The TGA analysis was conducted on Illinois#6 hard coal to evaluate the capability of perovskites to be used in the chemical looping combustion (CLC) process in a range of temperatures 1073–1173 K. Due to its thermal stability and reactivity, Ba0.9Sr0.1PbO3 is the material with the greatest potential to be applied as an oxygen carrier. The combination of strontium and barium offers encouraging results compared to the pure barium and strontium lead oxide perovskites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramic Processing and Application of Ceramic Materials)
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14 pages, 6933 KiB  
Article
Silicon Carbide–Silicon Nitride Refractory Materials: Part 1 Materials Science and Processing
by Andrey Yurkov
Processes 2023, 11(7), 2134; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11072134 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
Silicon carbide and silicon nitride materials were intensively studied in the end of the past century, yet some aspects of its physical chemistry require investigation. The strength characteristics of Si3N4-SiC refractories are moderate; however, these materials sometimes demonstrate “stress–strain” [...] Read more.
Silicon carbide and silicon nitride materials were intensively studied in the end of the past century, yet some aspects of its physical chemistry require investigation. The strength characteristics of Si3N4-SiC refractories are moderate; however, these materials sometimes demonstrate “stress–strain” behavior, more typical for composite materials than for the brittle ceramics. These materials may be considered to be ceramic composites because they consist of big grains of silicon carbide surrounded by small grains of silicon nitride, with strict interfaces between them. There is no direct certainty whether Si3N4-SiC compositions may be called composite materials or brittle ceramic materials from the viewpoint of mechanics and strength. The balance of α/β modifications of silicon nitride in Si3N4-SiC composite material and, the occurrence and the role of silicon oxynitride Si2ON2 are also a matter of scientific interest in processing of Si3N4-SiC composite material. The same may be said about the particles of silicon nitride between the grains of silicon carbide—there is no direct understanding whether silicon nitride grains will be isometric grains or needle-like crystals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramic Processing and Application of Ceramic Materials)
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13 pages, 7716 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Polytitanocarbosilane and Preparation of Si–C–Ti–B Fibers
by Qingyu Zhang, Tianxie Chen, Weifeng Kang, Xin Xing, Shuang Wu and Yanzi Gou
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041189 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1011
Abstract
Continuous SiC fiber is a kind of high–performance ceramic fiber that combines many advantages, such as high strength, high modulus, high hardness and low density. It has excellent mechanical properties, high–temperature and oxidation resistance, which could be applied as essential reinforcement in advanced [...] Read more.
Continuous SiC fiber is a kind of high–performance ceramic fiber that combines many advantages, such as high strength, high modulus, high hardness and low density. It has excellent mechanical properties, high–temperature and oxidation resistance, which could be applied as essential reinforcement in advanced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) in the fields of aerospace and advanced weaponry. Melt–spinnable polytitanocarbosilane (PTCS) is an important precursor, which can be used to prepare continuous SiC fibers through a precursor–derived method. In this work, low–softening–point polycarbosilane (LPCS) and tetrabutyl titanate were used to prepare polytitanocarbosilane with a ceramic yield of 67.5 wt% at 1000 °C. FT–IR, TGA, GPC, 1H NMR, 29Si NMR, and elemental analysis were used to analyze the composition and structure of the PTCS precursor. Finally, Si–C–Ti–B fibers with an average tensile strength of 1.93 GPa were successfully prepared by melt spinning, pre–oxidation, pyrolysis, and high–temperature sintering of the PTCS precursor. The strength retention rates were 71.5% and 79.8% after heat treatment at 1900 °C and 2000 °C under an argon atmosphere for 1 h, respectively. The strength retention rates of Si–C–Ti–B fibers are higher than those of commercial Hi–Nicalon fibers, Tyranno ZMI fibers and Hi–Nicalon S fibers. This work can lay a theoretical foundation and technical support for developing high-performance SiC ceramic fibers containing titanium and their ceramic matrix composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramic Processing and Application of Ceramic Materials)
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