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Processes, Volume 11, Issue 10 (October 2023) – 238 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Almost all of the 5.4 million tons of used face masks in 2021 were consigned to landfills or discarded. Batch low-pressure hydrothermal processing (LP-HTP) methods have been developed to convert disposable face masks to oils (82 wt.%) and gases (17 wt.%), with minimal char (~1 wt.%). LP-HTP has higher oil yields than pyrolysis does and lower operating pressures than supercritical water liquefaction does. It also has 3.4 times higher energy returns and produces 95% fewer GHG emissions than incineration does. LP-HTP can divert 5.4 million tons of masks from landfills and produce approximately 4.4 million tons of oils annually. View this paper
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16 pages, 5848 KiB  
Article
Research of the Performance of a Hydraulic Actuator Based on an Acoustic Power Analysis
by Dawid Szurgacz
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3047; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103047 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 771
Abstract
The powered roof support in a mining complex protects machines and people from the harmful effects of the rockmass. The design of the powered roof support should be strictly prepared for adverse working conditions. This especially applies to the construction of the hydraulic [...] Read more.
The powered roof support in a mining complex protects machines and people from the harmful effects of the rockmass. The design of the powered roof support should be strictly prepared for adverse working conditions. This especially applies to the construction of the hydraulic actuator, which is designed to transfer uncontrolled load relief. The hydraulic actuators and an adequately selected safety valve determine the requirements for safe work. The study analyses the hydraulic actuators based on the signal obtained from the dynamic impact. The signal obtained from the load of the powered roof support in the bench tests allowed us to determine the opening time of the safety valve, which is not much different than the time of the pressure increase. Until now, the valve’s operation has been primarily analysed regarding pressure increase. This research was intended to determine whether introducing the sound power method for developing powered roof support research in the near future would be helpful. The sub-piston pressure increased during bench testing, generating a dynamic impact signal. The analysed results of the sound power tests in terms of their suitability for the development of standards related to powered roof support. This paper describes a new approach to research on powered roof support. Determining the acoustic power based on bench tests for the hydraulic actuator of a powered longwall support is ground-breaking research. The research results pave the way for new technologies based on acoustic information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development Processes for Renewable Energy Technology II)
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19 pages, 551 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Controllability in Cyber–Physical Power Systems under a Novel Load-Capacity Model
by Yaodong Ge, Yan Li, Tianqi Xu, Zhaolei He and Quancong Zhu
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3046; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103046 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 906
Abstract
In cyber–physical power systems (CPPSs), system collapse can occur as a result of a failure in a particular component. In this paper, an approach is presented to build the load-capacity model of CPPSs using the concept of electrical betweenness and information entropy, which [...] Read more.
In cyber–physical power systems (CPPSs), system collapse can occur as a result of a failure in a particular component. In this paper, an approach is presented to build the load-capacity model of CPPSs using the concept of electrical betweenness and information entropy, which takes into account real-time node loads and the allocation of power and information flows within CPPSs. By introducing an innovative load redistribution strategy and comparing it with conventional load distribution strategies, the superior effectiveness of the proposed strategy in minimizing system failures and averting system collapses has been demonstrated. The controllability of the system after cascading failures under different coupling strategies and capacity parameters is investigated through the analysis of different information network topologies and network parameters. It was observed that CPPSs constructed using small-world networks, which couple high-degree nodes from the information network to high-betweenness nodes from the power grid, exhibit improved resilience. Furthermore, increasing the capacity parameter of the power network yields more favorable results compared to increasing the capacity parameter of the information network. In addition, our research results are validated using the IEEE 39-node system and the Chinese 132-node system. Full article
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13 pages, 2200 KiB  
Article
Storage Duration and Added Docosahexaenoic Acid Modify the Rates of Esterified and Free Oxylipin Formation in Infant Milk Formula
by Fernanda Furlan Gonçalves Dias, Bianca Ferraz Teixeira, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza Vieira, Juliana Maria Leite Nobrega de Moura Bell and Ameer Y. Taha
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3045; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103045 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 934
Abstract
Infant milk formulas often contain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a highly unsaturated fatty acid that is prone to oxidation. Previously, we reported in oil that the esterified lipid pool is more prone to lipid oxidation than the free pool. However, it is unknown whether [...] Read more.
Infant milk formulas often contain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a highly unsaturated fatty acid that is prone to oxidation. Previously, we reported in oil that the esterified lipid pool is more prone to lipid oxidation than the free pool. However, it is unknown whether added DHA modifies lipid oxidation in infant formula. In the present study, we quantified lipid oxidation rates in infant milk formula containing canola oil (F1) or canola oil supplemented with DHA-ethyl ester (F2). Lipid oxidation kinetics were determined by quantifying esterified and free oxylipins using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) during storage for 21 days at 4 °C. Esterified oxylipins increased in concentration within 3 and 7 days of storage in F2 (with DHA) and F1, respectively. Free oxylipins appeared 7 and 14 days later in F2 and F1, respectively. The kinetic estimates revealed that esterified oxylipins formed at a faster rate in both formulas compared to free oxylipins. Surprisingly, in F2 (which contains DHA), the rates of formation of both esterified and free linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid-derived oxylipins were higher than in F1. This study demonstrated that in food systems, DHA promotes the oxidation of other PUFAs, and that triacylglycerol/esterified lipids are preferentially oxidized over free fatty acids, highlighting the role of triacylglycerols in lipid oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Lipid Chemistry: Extraction, Process and Analysis)
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15 pages, 8940 KiB  
Article
Polyethylene Composite Particles as Novel Water Plugging Agent for High-Temperature and High-Salinity Reservoirs
by Bo Deng, Ning Yang, Jiangang Li, Chenwei Zou, Yunpu Tang, Jianwei Gu, Yifei Liu and Wei Liu
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3044; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103044 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 891
Abstract
Water channeling has always been one of the urgent problems during oilfield development. Especially for fractured reservoirs with high temperature, high salinity, and severe heterogeneity (e.g., deep carbonate reservoirs), it is difficult for the existing plugging agents to realize effective water plugging. In [...] Read more.
Water channeling has always been one of the urgent problems during oilfield development. Especially for fractured reservoirs with high temperature, high salinity, and severe heterogeneity (e.g., deep carbonate reservoirs), it is difficult for the existing plugging agents to realize effective water plugging. In this paper, chemically stable polyethylene (PE) was selected as the main component to prepare multiscale PE composite particles that can be easily dispersed in water as a novel water plugging agent for fractured reservoir with high temperature and high salinity. The characteristics of the prepared PE composite particles, including thermal stability, salinity resistance, dispersibility, coalescence properties, and microscopic morphology, were systematically studied. Finally, the plugging performance of the particles was evaluated through visual physical simulation experiments. The prepared PE composite particles can be pulverized to a minimum of 6 μm, and the particle size is controllable within 6 μm to 3 mm by adjusting the pulverization parameters. The PE composite particles are easily dispersed in water by adding the dispersant, which is conducive to injectivity during the field application process. The particle size remains unchanged under the condition of salinity of 0–3.0 × 105 mg/L, which indicates that the prepared particles have good salt-resistant stability. After high-temperature aging, the particles adhere to each other, and the size of the agglomerations reach a size dozens of times larger than the initial size of the particle, which is conducive to effective plugging in fractures. Thermal degradation behavior analysis shows that the PE composite particles could theoretically withstand a temperature of 434.4 °C. It can be seen from the SEM images that after high-temperature melting and kneading with other components, the microstructure changes from a fibrous structure to a dense flake structure. Physical simulation experiments show that the PE composite particles accumulate in fracture after injection and form effective plugging through coalescence and adhesion of the particles, thereby realizing water flow diversion. Full article
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14 pages, 1612 KiB  
Article
Multi-Phase Equilibrium Model of Oxygen-Enriched Lead Oxidation Smelting Process Based on Chemical Equilibrium Constant Method
by Xinzhou Chen, Mingzhou Li, Fupeng Liu, Jindi Huang and Minghao Yang
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3043; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103043 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 826
Abstract
With the increasingly complicated sources of lead smelting materials, it is becoming more difficult to optimize process parameters during the bottom-blowing lead oxidation smelting process. Building a bottom-blowing lead smelting thermodynamic model has significant importance for the green production of the lead smelting [...] Read more.
With the increasingly complicated sources of lead smelting materials, it is becoming more difficult to optimize process parameters during the bottom-blowing lead oxidation smelting process. Building a bottom-blowing lead smelting thermodynamic model has significant importance for the green production of the lead smelting process. In this study, we built a multi-phase equilibrium thermodynamic model and simulation system for the oxygen-enriched bottom-blowing lead oxidation smelting process using the MetCal software platform (MetCal v7.81) according to the chemical equilibrium constant method. The equilibrium products composition and important technical indicators were calculated under factory operating conditions. Compared with the industrial data, the calculation results demonstrated that the average relative error of the calculation value of the mass fraction in the crude lead, lead-rich slag, and dust was 3.76%. The average relative error of important technical indicators, including dust rate, crude lead yield, lead-rich slag temperature, slag iron–silica ratio (RFe/SiO2), and slag calcium–silica ratio (RCaO/SiO2), was 6.39%. As a result, the developed modeling and simulation system was able to reflect the current state of the oxygen-enriched bottom-blowing lead smelting. It also demonstrated the potential to enhance the smelting process and optimize the process parameters. Therefore, it is expected to provide a useful tool for thermodynamic analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Process Modelling and Simulation)
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13 pages, 13043 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Performance of Micro Deep Drawing through the Application of TiO2 Nanolubricant and Graphene Lubricants on SUS 301 Stainless Steel Foil
by Di Pan, Guangqing Zhang, Fanghui Jia, Yao Lu, Jun Wang, Zhou Li, Lianjie Li, Ming Yang and Zhengyi Jiang
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3042; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103042 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 797
Abstract
In recent years, the quest for effective lubrication in micro deep drawing (MDD) has seen promising advancements. In this study, the influence of TiO2 nanolubricants and graphene lubricants on the performance of 301 stainless steel foil in MDD is examined. The MDD [...] Read more.
In recent years, the quest for effective lubrication in micro deep drawing (MDD) has seen promising advancements. In this study, the influence of TiO2 nanolubricants and graphene lubricants on the performance of 301 stainless steel foil in MDD is examined. The MDD undergoes an extensive evaluation of various lubrication conditions, including dry, TiO2 nanolubricant, graphene lubricant at concentrations of 2.5 mg/mL, 5.0 mg/mL, and 10.0 mg/mL, as well as combined applications of TiO2 and graphene lubricants. Utilising a 5.0 mg/mL graphene lubricant together with TiO2 nanolubricants led to a significant reduction in drawing force, highlighting the synergistic efficacy of this combined lubricant. A pronounced enhancement in the consistency of the produced microcups was also attained. These results emphasise the promise of TiO2 nanolubricant and graphene lubricants in optimising the MDD process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing, Manufacturing and Properties of Metal and Alloys)
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13 pages, 3564 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Stabilized by Liposoluble Extract of Artemisia terrae-albae
by Moldyr A. Dyusebaeva, Dmitriy A. Berillo, Alya E. Berganayeva, Gulzat E. Berganayeva, Nailya A. Ibragimova, Saltanat M. Jumabayeva, Nurbolat Z. Kudaibergenov, Fatima M. Kanapiyeva, Aray A. Kirgizbayeva and Gulzira K. Vassilina
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3041; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103041 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 904
Abstract
The global spread of multi-resistant pathogenic microorganisms has significantly complicated the treatment of chronic wounds. The development of novel drugs requires a substantial time investment. Hybrid materials such as nanoparticles stabilized by plant extracts are considered the best for creating efficient antiseptic substances. [...] Read more.
The global spread of multi-resistant pathogenic microorganisms has significantly complicated the treatment of chronic wounds. The development of novel drugs requires a substantial time investment. Hybrid materials such as nanoparticles stabilized by plant extracts are considered the best for creating efficient antiseptic substances. This paper is the first to discuss quantitative and qualitative analyses of the phytochemical constituents of the medicinal plant Artemisia terrae-albae, collected in Kazakhstan. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts, as well as of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized by Artemisia terrae-albae extract, were evaluated. AgNPs were characterized by an average size of 82 nm or larger with a negative surface charge. TEM analysis of the obtained suspension showed a nonuniform structure of particles synthesized at a low concentration of ethyl acetate solvent in water. The SPR peak of AgNPs@Art aq. extract was detected at 420 nm, while any clear SPR peak was observed for AgNPs@Art ethylacetate extract. Diluted Artemisia terrae-albae extracts did not exhibit pronounced antimicrobial activity due to the poor solubility of compounds in water. Nevertheless, the AgNPs@Art aq. and AgNPs@Art EtAc. extracts possessed antimicrobial activity against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739), and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Extraction, Synthesis and Application of Bioactive Components)
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19 pages, 5013 KiB  
Article
Optimization of the Parameters for Gravity Heat Pipes in Coal Gangue Hills by Measuring Thermal Power Generation
by Xiaogang Zhang, Xinghua Zhang, Shaocheng Ge and Bailin Zhang
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3040; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103040 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 818
Abstract
In order to effectively control high temperatures inside coal gangue hills, gravity heat pipes with specific spacings are vertically installed in coal gangue hills. Heat extracted from these heat pipes can be utilized for power generation through energy conversion. In this study, an [...] Read more.
In order to effectively control high temperatures inside coal gangue hills, gravity heat pipes with specific spacings are vertically installed in coal gangue hills. Heat extracted from these heat pipes can be utilized for power generation through energy conversion. In this study, an equivalent model of gravity heat pipes in coal gangue hills was established and, in a laboratory setting, experimental research and optimization were conducted on power generation per unit area using the temperature difference of gravity heat pipes for electricity generation. To facilitate real-time testing of different heat pipe parameters and to display the experimental results, a multi-parameter measurement system was designed and constructed. This study systematically investigated the effects of various structural parameters such as inclination angle, heating temperature, initial absolute pressure, and working fluid height. Through single-factor experiments, it was determined that the inclination angle had no significant impact. The range of values for heating temperature, initial absolute pressure, and working fluid height were confirmed based on six sets of experiments. To maximize the performance of the thermoelectric generator, a response surface analysis experiment was conducted using the Design-Expert software. The optimal conditions were determined to be a working fluid height of 200.001 mm, an initial absolute pressure of 0.002 MPa, and a heating temperature of 413.15 K. Under these conditions, the power generation per unit area of the thermoelectric generator reached 0.122981 W/(m2·K). The accuracy of the theoretical experiments was verified through on-site industrial experiments. By calculations, it was determined that the maximum temperature difference power generation capacity per gravity heat pipe was 42.39 W. This provides a new solution for the management of coal mine gangue hills and the secondary utilization of waste energy. Full article
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18 pages, 8041 KiB  
Article
Formulation and Characterization of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with Troxerutin
by Yahya F. Jamous, Najla A. Altwaijry, Mohamed T. S. Saleem, Aljoharah F. Alrayes, Sara M. Albishi and Mashael A. Almeshari
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3039; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103039 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Troxerutin (TXR), a naturally derived compound with diverse therapeutic potential, faces limitations in clinical efficacy due to poor bioavailability and rapid plasma clearance. This study focuses on troxerutin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (TXR-SLNs) and their physicochemical properties, intending to enhance drug release. TXR-SLNs were [...] Read more.
Troxerutin (TXR), a naturally derived compound with diverse therapeutic potential, faces limitations in clinical efficacy due to poor bioavailability and rapid plasma clearance. This study focuses on troxerutin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (TXR-SLNs) and their physicochemical properties, intending to enhance drug release. TXR-SLNs were prepared via high-shear homogenization followed by ultrasonication, yielding optimized nanoparticles with an average size of 140.5 ± 1.02 nm, a uniform distribution (polydispersity index: 0.218 ± 0.01), and a stable emulsion (zeta potential: 28 ± 8.71 mV). The formulation exhibited 83.62% entrapment efficiency, indicating improved drug-loading capacity and extended drug release. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic analyses confirmed component compatibility. Despite a decline in entrapment efficiency induced by temperature after one month of storage at 23 °C, the formulation may retain acceptable stability. This study provides insight into SLNs as effective carriers for enhancing troxerutin’s release profile, motivating further in vivo investigations to optimize therapeutic interventions. Full article
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25 pages, 8120 KiB  
Article
Investigation on the Performance of Fire and Smoke Suppressing Asphalt Materials for Tunnels
by Jiaquan Li, Fei Liu, Mingjun Hu, Changjun Zhou, Liujingyuan Su and Peng Cao
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3038; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103038 - 23 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 825
Abstract
The volatilization of asphalt fumes not only affects the health of construction workers, but also damages the environment. It even affects the construction quality of asphalt pavement in tunnels. This article focuses on solving the emission of asphalt fumes to better protect human [...] Read more.
The volatilization of asphalt fumes not only affects the health of construction workers, but also damages the environment. It even affects the construction quality of asphalt pavement in tunnels. This article focuses on solving the emission of asphalt fumes to better protect human health and the environment, while satisfying the use of asphalt pavement. A flame retardant and smoke suppressant (compound) with Mg(OH)2 as the main component was developed, and flame retardant asphalt mixture and asphalt mastics were prepared to evaluate the flame retardant and smoke suppressant properties and performance effects. Firstly, its low- and high-temperature performances were investigated with BBR and DSR, respectively. Then, the indoor combustion test and the cone calorimeter test were used to evaluate the fire retardant smoke suppression effect of the asphalt mastic. Thirdly, the flame retardant effect of asphalt mastic mixed with the compound was further analyzed by the TG test and SEM. The pyrolysis temperature, mass loss, and microscopic state of the asphalt surface were used to verify and explain the flame retardant reaction effect and process of the compound. Finally, the asphalt mixture performance was evaluated, as well as the flame retardant smoke suppression effect by asphalt mixture combustion tests. The results showed that the flame retardant smoke suppression time of the flame retardant asphalt mixture was reduced by 66%, and the smoke emission area was reduced by 20%. The flame retardant smoke suppression effect of the asphalt mixture was improved by 44%. It is proven that this kind of fire retardant and smoke suppressing asphalt mastic and mixture met performance needs in use, and the fire retardant and smoke suppressing effect was obvious. This solution addresses the issue of asphalt smoke generated during the construction of asphalt pavement, providing better support for the construction of asphalt pavement in tunnels. Full article
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12 pages, 760 KiB  
Article
The Beneficial Effect of Selenium-Enriched Broccoli on the Quality Characteristics of Bread
by Vladimir V. Martirosyan, Marina N. Kostyuchenko, Tatyana I. Kryachko, Valentina D. Malkina, Elena V. Zhirkova and Nadezhda A. Golubkina
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3037; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103037 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 889
Abstract
Broccoli is one of the most valuable representatives of the Brassicaceae family, characterized by high levels of glucosinolates and fiber, antioxidant status and tolerance to high selenium (Se) concentrations. To evaluate the efficiency of Se-enriched broccoli utilization in bread production, 4% of dry [...] Read more.
Broccoli is one of the most valuable representatives of the Brassicaceae family, characterized by high levels of glucosinolates and fiber, antioxidant status and tolerance to high selenium (Se) concentrations. To evaluate the efficiency of Se-enriched broccoli utilization in bread production, 4% of dry broccoli powder was added to dough using non-fortified and Se-biofortified broccoli florets. The resulting functional products were characterized by enhanced porosity, crump acidity and a specific volume exceeding those of the control bread by 109–110%, 114–121% and 107–112%, respectively, with the lower levels typical to bread with broccoli non-fortified with Se. By supplying broccoli powder to bread, the dietary fiber content of the product was enhanced by 2.1 times. Selenium-enriched broccoli powder supply improved the ascorbic acid and total phenolic content in bread by 37.5 and 2.03 times compared with the control. The effect was less pronounced in case of non-fortified broccoli supplementation due to the beneficial effect of Se on broccoli florets’ antioxidant status. Selenium-enriched broccoli supply significantly decreased the intensity of bread crumb hardening during storage. High Se-biofortification level (5.6) and insignificant Se losses during bread baking (less than 4%) confirm high prospects of Se-enriched broccoli utilization in the production of new functional bread with elevated levels of antioxidants, Se and dietary fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds in Food Production)
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33 pages, 3425 KiB  
Review
Advancing Eco-Sustainable Bioremediation for Hydrocarbon Contaminants: Challenges and Solutions
by Bothaina A. Alaidaroos
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3036; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103036 - 22 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1279
Abstract
In an era of rising population density and industrialization, the environment confronts growing challenges. Soil, agricultural land, and water bodies are becoming increasingly polluted by petroleum waste and hydrocarbons. While hydrocarbons are naturally present in crude oil, refining processes compound the complexity and [...] Read more.
In an era of rising population density and industrialization, the environment confronts growing challenges. Soil, agricultural land, and water bodies are becoming increasingly polluted by petroleum waste and hydrocarbons. While hydrocarbons are naturally present in crude oil, refining processes compound the complexity and toxicity of hydrocarbons. This is particularly evident in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in the air and soil, known for their carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic properties. In response, biodegradation emerges as an eco-friendly, cost-effective solution, especially in petroleum-contaminated settings. Biodiverse microbial communities play a pivotal role in managing hydrocarbon contamination, contingent on location, toxicity, and microbial activity. To optimize biodegradation, understanding its mechanisms is essential. This review delves into varied bioremediation techniques, degradation pathways, and the contributions of microbial activities to efficiently removing hydrocarbon pollutants. Recent research spotlights specific microorganisms like bacteria, microalgae, and fungi adept at hydrocarbon degradation, offering a contemporary perspective on petroleum hydrocarbon pollutant bioremediation. These microorganisms efficiently break down petroleum hydrocarbons, with enzymatic catalysis markedly accelerating pollutant breakdown compared to conventional methods. Given the intricate nature of hydrocarbon contamination, cooperative bacterial consortia are instrumental in effective cleanup, driven by specific genes guiding bacterial metabolism. For cost-effective and efficient removal from compromised environments, it is advisable to adopt an integrated approach that combines biostimulation and bioaugmentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bioremediation and Biosorption Processes)
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12 pages, 2917 KiB  
Article
Electrocatalytic Ni-Co Metal Organic Framework for Efficient Urea Oxidation Reaction
by Hua Yu, Wei Xu, Hongchao Chang, Guangyao Xu, Lecong Li, Jiarong Zang, Rong Huang, Luxia Zhu and Binbin Yu
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3035; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103035 - 22 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Energy shortage and environmental pollution have become the most serious problems faced by human beings in the 21st century. Looking for advanced clean energy technology to achieve sustainable development of the ecological environment has become a hot spot for researchers. Nitrogen-based substances represented [...] Read more.
Energy shortage and environmental pollution have become the most serious problems faced by human beings in the 21st century. Looking for advanced clean energy technology to achieve sustainable development of the ecological environment has become a hot spot for researchers. Nitrogen-based substances represented by urea are environmental pollutants but ideal energy substances. The efficiency of urea-based energy conversion technology mainly depends on the choice of catalyst. The development of new catalysts for urea oxidation reaction (UOR) has important application value in the field of waste energy conversion and pollution remediation based on UOR. In this work, four metal–organic framework materials (MOFs) were synthesized using ultrasound (NiCo-UMOFs) and hydrothermal (NiCo-MOFs, Ni-MOFs and Co-MOFs) methods to testify the activity toward UOR. Materials prepared using the hydrothermal method mostly form large and unevenly stacked block structures, while material prepared using ultrasound forms a layer-by-layer two-dimensional and thinner structure. Electrochemical characterization shows NiCo-UMOFs has the best electrocatalytic performance with an onset potential of 0.32 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), a Tafel slope of 51 mV dec−1, and a current density of 13 mA cm−2 at 0.5 V in a 1 M KOH electrolyte with 0.7 M urea. A prolonged urea electrolysis test demonstrates that 45.4% of urea is removed after 24 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of the Art of Waste Utilization and Resource Recovery)
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13 pages, 2369 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Pressing of Coconut Oil and Evaluation of Its Lubricant Properties
by Čestmír Mizera, Zdeněk Aleš, David Herák, Petr Hrabě, Abraham Kabutey, Richard A. M. Napitupulu and Nicoleta Ungureanu
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3034; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103034 - 22 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2495
Abstract
Vegetable oils represent an important element in protecting a sustainable environment. The pursuit of environmentally friendly solutions and the ever-increasing costs of synthetic oil production are increasing the interest in natural vegetable oils. This paper presents and discusses the possibilities of using the [...] Read more.
Vegetable oils represent an important element in protecting a sustainable environment. The pursuit of environmentally friendly solutions and the ever-increasing costs of synthetic oil production are increasing the interest in natural vegetable oils. This paper presents and discusses the possibilities of using the oils obtained from coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) harvested in Indonesia (North Sumatra region), with three maturity levels (green, yellow, and brown), as lubricants. The specific mechanical energy for linear pressing of the green, yellow, and brown types was 22.3, 20.7, and 18.5 J·goil−1, respectively. The water content of the oils obtained from the green, yellow, and brown types was 1786, 2033, and 1902 mg H2O·g−1, respectively. The mathematical models for linear pressing were established. The sizes of the wear area for the green, yellow, and brown types were 25.7, 24.4, and 34.3 mm2, respectively. The UV–visible spectral curves of the oils, in the range of 180–320 nm, were determined. The results of the lubrication properties of the Reichert test showed that better lubrication properties were exhibited by the green and yellow types, which are comparable to the lubricating properties of engine oils. The results from the SEM images also showed a better structure of the worn surface and fewer traces of abrasive wear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Processes and Systems)
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17 pages, 900 KiB  
Article
Production Waste Management: Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics and the Calculation of the Hazard Class of Phosphogypsum
by Natalya Seraya, Vadim Litvinov, Gulzhan Daumova, Nursultan Zhusipov, Zhanat Idrisheva and Roza Aubakirova
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3033; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103033 - 21 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1224
Abstract
Phosphogypsum (PG: CaSO4·2H2O) is a waste product (or by-product) from the production of phosphoric acid, the main component in the production of concentrated simple and complex fertilizers. The world production of phosphogypsum exceeds 200 million tons per year. PG [...] Read more.
Phosphogypsum (PG: CaSO4·2H2O) is a waste product (or by-product) from the production of phosphoric acid, the main component in the production of concentrated simple and complex fertilizers. The world production of phosphogypsum exceeds 200 million tons per year. PG discharged into water bodies (seas, rivers) or disposed of in land dumps may contain elements (including heavy metals and radionuclides) in forms and concentrations that are toxic to ecosystems and human health, which raises concerns about its impact on the environment. The concentrations of these elements vary depending on the region where the raw material is mined and the process used to produce phosphoric acid. Given the significant volumes of phosphogypsum formed, an urgent problem is not only the development of methods for its disposal, but also a special, specific control over its composition after the release of PG and during its use for removal, transportation, and storage in dumps and sludge storages. This article presents the results of comprehensive studies on the determination of the chemical and mineralogical composition of by-products from an experimental plant for the processing of phosphate raw materials of the designed chemical complex of the EuroChem-Karatau company (Republic of Kazakhstan). Based on the conducted studies, it was established that, in terms of the total toxicity index, the studied wastes belong to the fourth hazard class (low-hazardous) with the possibility of processing for the purpose of their further use. Full article
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16 pages, 1797 KiB  
Article
Efficient Solutions for Electronic Chip Cooling: Multi-Objective Optimization Using Evolutionary Algorithms with Boron Nitride Nanotube-Based Nanofluid
by Mohammed R. A. Alrasheed
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3032; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103032 - 21 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1024
Abstract
Optimization algorithms have significantly evolved because of advancements in computational capacity. This increase aids in the availability of data to train various artificial intelligence models and can be used in optimizing solutions for electronic chip cooling. In the current study, such a microchannel [...] Read more.
Optimization algorithms have significantly evolved because of advancements in computational capacity. This increase aids in the availability of data to train various artificial intelligence models and can be used in optimizing solutions for electronic chip cooling. In the current study, such a microchannel heat sink (MCHS) is optimized using a Boron Nitride Nanotube (BNN)-based nanofluid as a coolant. Thermal resistance and pumping power are chosen as the objective functions, while geometric parameters such as the channel aspect and width ratio are used as the design variables. Multi-objective multiverse optimizer (MOMVO), an evolutionary algorithm, is used to optimize both objective functions, which are minimized simultaneously. The primary objective of this study is to study the applicability of such advanced multi-objective optimization algorithms, which have not previously been implemented for such a thermal design problem. Based on the study, it is found that the optimal results are obtained with a population size of only 50 and within 100 iterations. Using the MOMVO optimization, it is also observed that thermal resistance and pumping power do not vary significantly with respect to the channel aspect ratio, while pumping power varies linearly with the channel width ratio. An optimum thermal resistance of 0.0177 °C/W and pumping power of 10.65 W are obtained using the MOMVO algorithm. Full article
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15 pages, 5505 KiB  
Article
Research on the Damage Model of Cold Recycled Mixtures with Asphalt Emulsion under Freeze-Thaw Cycles
by Ye Yang, Zongguang Sun, Yanhai Yang, Chonghua Wang and Lin Qi
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3031; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103031 - 21 Oct 2023
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Cold recycled mixtures with asphalt emulsion (CRME) suffer the majority of damage from freezing and thawing cycles in seasonal freezing regions. However, an effective model for describing the internal damage evolution behavior of the CRME is still lacking. The objective of this study [...] Read more.
Cold recycled mixtures with asphalt emulsion (CRME) suffer the majority of damage from freezing and thawing cycles in seasonal freezing regions. However, an effective model for describing the internal damage evolution behavior of the CRME is still lacking. The objective of this study is to explore the performance of the destroy and damage model of the CRME subjected to freezing and thawing cycles with various water contents. The damage degree of performance at 60 °C and −10 °C, as well as the mechanical properties, were first analyzed in the laboratory. Then, the damage evolution models were established based on macroscopic properties, reliability, and damage theory. The results showed that the performance of the CRME decreased obviously as the number of freezing and thawing cycles increased; after 20 freezing and thawing cycles, the damage degree of 60 °C shear strength and 15 °C and −10 °C indirect tensile strength were 21.5%, 20.6%, and 19.8% at dry condition, but they were 34.9%, 31.8%, and 44.8% at half water saturation condition and 51.5%, 49.1%, and 56.1% at complete water saturation condition; the existence of water and the phase transition of water changed the failure characteristics of the CRME; the correlation coefficient of the damage model parameters was more than 0.98, so the damage evolution model could reveal the internal damage evolution law. Clearly, the freezing and thawing cycles accelerated the damage caused by CRME. Full article
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16 pages, 1671 KiB  
Article
Kinetic Modeling of Cornstalk Cellulose Hydrolysis in Supercritical Water: A Comparative Study of the Effects of Temperature and Residence Time on Derivative Production
by Muhammad Muzamal Ashfaq, Oksana Zholobko and Xiang-Fa Wu
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3030; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103030 - 21 Oct 2023
Viewed by 890
Abstract
Kinetic modeling is essential in understanding and controlling the process of cellulose hydrolysis for producing value-added cellulose derivatives. This study aims to adopt a set of dominate kinetic ordinary differential equations of cornstalk cellulose hydrolysis in supercritical water for mechanism-based prediction of the [...] Read more.
Kinetic modeling is essential in understanding and controlling the process of cellulose hydrolysis for producing value-added cellulose derivatives. This study aims to adopt a set of dominate kinetic ordinary differential equations of cornstalk cellulose hydrolysis in supercritical water for mechanism-based prediction of the production of cellulose, glucose, fructose, glyceraldehyde, erythrose, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, glycolaldehyde, threose, aldose, and other cellulose derivatives from cornstalks under processing conditions with a pressure of 89 MPa and a temperature of 378 °C, as considered in a recent experimental study in the literature. The yield rates of several cellulose derivatives, e.g., glucose, fructose, 5-HMF, and erythrose as predicted by the present model, are close to those of experimental measurements. The model is further used to predict the yield rates of a few new cellulose derivatives, e.g., glycolaldehyde, threose, and aldose, that are potentially generated in cornstalk cellulose hydrolysis in supercritical water. The present model and computational simulations can be utilized as a rational tool to predict, control, and optimize the derivative yields in cellulose hydrolysis in supercritical water via tuning the process parameters, and, therefore, are useful for the optimal production of targeted bio-based fuels and chemicals from cornstalks and other agricultural and municipal wastes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Biomass Conversion)
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21 pages, 2310 KiB  
Review
Review of SHPB Dynamic Load Impact Test Characteristics and Energy Analysis Methods
by Yuchen Yang, Qingwen Li and Lan Qiao
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3029; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103029 - 21 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Since the split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test technology was proposed, it has played an important role in the study of dynamic mechanical properties of materials under the impact of dynamic load. It is a major test technology for the study of dynamic mechanical [...] Read more.
Since the split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test technology was proposed, it has played an important role in the study of dynamic mechanical properties of materials under the impact of dynamic load. It is a major test technology for the study of dynamic mechanical properties of materials. The expansion of the range of materials studied has also posed a challenge to the SHPB test technique, requiring some improvements to the conventional SHPB test apparatus and analysis methods to meet the test conditions and ensure the accuracy of its results. Based on a systematic review of the development of the SHPB test technique and the test principles, the main factors that influence the test’s ability to meet the two basic assumptions at this stage are analyzed, and the ways to handle them are summarized. The stress wave dispersion phenomenon caused by the transverse inertia effect of the pressure bar means that the test no longer satisfies the one-dimensional stress wave assumption, while the pulse-shaping technique effectively reduces the wave dispersion phenomenon and also has the effect of achieving constant strain rate loading and promoting the dynamic stress equilibrium of the specimen. Impedance matching between the pressure bar and specimen effectively solves the problem of the test’s difficulty because the transmitted signal is weak, and the assumption that the stress/strain is uniformly distributed along the length of the specimen is not satisfied when studying low-wave impedance material with the conventional SHPB test device. The appropriate pressure bar material can be selected according to the value of the wave impedance of the test material. According to the wave impedance values of different materials, the corresponding suggestions for the selection of pressure bar materials are given. Moreover, a new pressure bar material (modified gypsum) for materials with very-low-wave impedance is proposed. Finally, for some materials (foamed concrete, aluminum honeycomb, porous titanium, etc.) that cannot meet the two basic assumptions of the test, the Lagrangian analysis method can be combined with SHPB test technology application. Based on the analysis and calculation of the energy conservation equation, the dynamic constitutive relationship of the materials can be obtained without assuming the constitutive relationship of the experimental materials. Full article
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24 pages, 4029 KiB  
Article
Metabolomic Profiling (LC–MS2) of Flowers and Bee Honey of Dzidzilche (Gymnopodium floribundum Rolfe) and Jabin (Piscidia piscipula L. Sarg.) from Yucatán, México
by Andrea Elizabeth Mendoza-Osorno, Kevin Alejandro Avilés-Betanzos, Alberto Uc-Varguez, Rommel Carballo-Castañeda, Aldo Moreno-Ulloa, Manuel Octavio Ramírez-Sucre and Ingrid Mayanin Rodríguez-Buenfil
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3028; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103028 - 20 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1139
Abstract
Yucatan, Mexico, is renowned for its rich plant diversity, with ~40% melliferous plants. Yucatan bee honey (BH) constitutes ~15.83% of Mexico’s annual BH production, giving high international value. Major melliferous families in Yucatan include Fabaceae, with Piscidia piscipula (“Jabin”) as an example, and [...] Read more.
Yucatan, Mexico, is renowned for its rich plant diversity, with ~40% melliferous plants. Yucatan bee honey (BH) constitutes ~15.83% of Mexico’s annual BH production, giving high international value. Major melliferous families in Yucatan include Fabaceae, with Piscidia piscipula (“Jabin”) as an example, and Polygonaceae, with Gymnopodium floribundum (“Dzidzilche”), crucial for BH production. This study aimed to profile the metabolome of Jabin and Dzidzilche flowers and their associated BH to identify metabolites for each flower coming from two regions (Tahdziu and Acanceh) of Yucatán. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS2), total polyphenol content (TPC), and antioxidant capacity (AC) were implemented. As many as 101 metabolites (69 in flowers, 55 in BH) were tentatively identified using spectral libraries and in silico predictions, predominantly flavonoids, which accounted for 50.7% of the total identified metabolites in flower and 16.4% in BH. Samples exhibited variations in TPC, AC, secondary metabolites, and chemical classes depending on geography and botanical origin. Dzidzilche flowers from Acanceh displayed the highest total polyphenol content (TPC, 1431.24 ± 15.38 mg GAE/100 g dry matter) and antioxidant capacity (AC, 93.63% inhibition). Among the metabolites detected in flowers (Piscidia piscipula, Gymnopodium floribundum), 50.7% were found to be part of the flavonoid chemical class, whereas in their respective honey samples, only 16.4% of the identified metabolites were categorized as flavonoids. Vanillin and vitexin were tentatively identified as potential markers for the botanical origin identification of honey from Piscidia piscipula and Gymnopodium floribundum, respectively. Recognizing botanical and geographic BH origin is important for product authentication, identification, and traceability. This study offers chemical insights that can be valuable and complementary to melissopalynology, aiding in determining the origin and quality of Yucatan BH. Full article
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22 pages, 2734 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Effects of Infrared and Hot Air Oven Drying Methods on Drying Behaviour and Colour Parameters of Red Delicious Apple Slices
by Oldřich Dajbych, Abraham Kabutey, Čestmír Mizera and David Herák
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3027; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103027 - 20 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 938
Abstract
This present study investigated thin-layer drying characteristics of dried apple slices for a range of temperatures from 40 °C to 80 °C at a constant drying time of 10 h under infrared (IR) and hot air oven (OV) drying methods. The fresh apples [...] Read more.
This present study investigated thin-layer drying characteristics of dried apple slices for a range of temperatures from 40 °C to 80 °C at a constant drying time of 10 h under infrared (IR) and hot air oven (OV) drying methods. The fresh apples were cut into a cylindrical size of thickness of 8.07 ± 0.05 mm and a diameter of 66.27 ± 3.13 mm. Fourteen thin-layer mathematical models available in the literature were used to predict the drying process. The goodness of fit of the drying models was assessed by the root mean square error (RMSE), chi-square (χ2), coefficient of determination (R2) and modelling efficiency (EF). The results showed that the lightness and greenness/redness of the dried sample, total colour change, chroma change, colour index, whiteness index, bulk density, final surface area and final volume significantly (p-value < 0.05) correlated with the drying temperature under IR. Under OV, however, only the final surface area and bulk density of the dried samples showed significant (p-value < 0.05) with the drying temperature. Shrinkage values for OV and IR methods showed both increasing and decreasing trends along with the drying temperatures. The Weibull distribution model proved most suitable for describing the drying processes based on the statistical validation metrics of the goodness of fit. In future studies, the combined effect of the above-mentioned drying methods and other drying techniques on apple slices among other agricultural products should be examined to obtain a better insight into the drying operations and quality improvement of the final product for preservation and consumer acceptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-thermal Technologies in Food Science, Volume II)
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20 pages, 1802 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Computational Efficiency for Deadlock Recovery of Flexible Manufacturing Systems Using Improved Generating and Comparing Aiding Matrix Algorithms
by Yen-Liang Pan, Ching-Yun Tseng and Ju-Chin Chen
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3026; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103026 - 20 Oct 2023
Viewed by 641
Abstract
After the fourth industrial evolution, precision and automatic manufacturing have become increasingly widely accepted in production. With highly variable productivity and flexibility, flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) lower production costs and increase efficiency. Due to its resource shareability, unexpected system deadlock may occur in [...] Read more.
After the fourth industrial evolution, precision and automatic manufacturing have become increasingly widely accepted in production. With highly variable productivity and flexibility, flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) lower production costs and increase efficiency. Due to its resource shareability, unexpected system deadlock may occur in some specific situations. Many existing works use deadlock prevention as the primary control methodology in research on system deadlock control, while this type of control policy would constrain the transportation resources and reduce the system’s liveness. This paper adopts a new transition-based deadlock recovery policy as the direct control strategy, which uses generating and comparing aiding matrix (GCAM) to determine the optimal control transition. We also improve the existing GCAM-based method by reducing the computational redundancy. This kind of control strategy and its benefit could be demonstrated through two typical systems of simple sequential processes with resource (S3PR) nets and their Petri nets model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Control of Flexible Manufacturing Systems)
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17 pages, 8987 KiB  
Article
A Database Extension for a Safety Evaluation of a Hydrogen Refueling Station with a Barrier Using a CFD Analysis and a Machine Learning Method
by Hyung-Seok Kang, Ji-Won Hwang and Chul-Hee Yu
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3025; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103025 - 20 Oct 2023
Viewed by 823
Abstract
A methodology is proposed to extend datasets in a database suitable for use as a reference tool to support an evaluation of damage mitigation by a barrier wall in a hydrogen refueling station (HRS) during a vapor cloud explosion (VCE) accident. This is [...] Read more.
A methodology is proposed to extend datasets in a database suitable for use as a reference tool to support an evaluation of damage mitigation by a barrier wall in a hydrogen refueling station (HRS) during a vapor cloud explosion (VCE) accident. This is realized with a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis and machine learning (ML) technology because measured data from hydrogen explosion tests with various installed barrier models usually require considerable amounts of time, a secured space, and precise measurements. A CFD sensitivity calculation was conducted using the radXiFoam v1.0 code and the established analysis methodology with an error range of approximately ±30% while changing the barrier height from that was used in an experiment conducted by the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) to investigate the effect of the barrier height on the reduction in peak overpressures from an explosion site to far fields in an open space. The radXiFoam code was developed based on the open-source CFD software OpenFOAM-v2112 to simulate a VCE accident in a humid air environment at a compressed gaseous or liquefied HRS. We attempted to extend the number of datasets in the VCE database through the use of the ML method on the basis of pressure data predicted by a CFD sensitivity calculation, also uncovering the possibility of utilizing the ML method to extend the VCE database. The data produced by the CFD sensitivity calculation and the ML method will be examined to confirm their validity and applicability to hypothetical VCE accident simulations if the related test data can be produced during experimental research. The database constructed using core data from the experiment and extended data from the CFD analysis and the ML method will be used to increase the credibility of radXiFoam analysis results for VCE accident scenarios at HRSs, ultimately contributing to safety assurances of HRSs in Republic of Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD Applications in Renewable Energy Systems)
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24 pages, 2999 KiB  
Review
The Progress of the Interfacial Diffusion between Virgin and Aged Asphalt Based on Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A Review
by Yanhai Yang, Chonghua Wang and Ye Yang
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3024; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103024 - 20 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1122
Abstract
The utilization rate of reclaimed asphalt pavement is significantly low in the sustainable design process of asphalt roads. Numerous researchers have extensively investigated the recycling and utilization of reclaimed asphalt pavements from various perspectives. Molecular dynamics simulations could elucidate the diffusion phenomenon occurring [...] Read more.
The utilization rate of reclaimed asphalt pavement is significantly low in the sustainable design process of asphalt roads. Numerous researchers have extensively investigated the recycling and utilization of reclaimed asphalt pavements from various perspectives. Molecular dynamics simulations could elucidate the diffusion phenomenon occurring at the molecular scale between virgin and aged asphalt interfaces. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the simulation methods and applications of molecular dynamics simulation in the interface diffusion problem between virgin and aged asphalt. Diffusion theory and model testing methods are discussed. The review proposes the basic steps of molecular dynamics simulation and summarizes the molecular models with the corresponding parameter settings of virgin asphalt and aged asphalt. Moreover, the current influencing factors on the interfacial diffusion problem of virgin and aged asphalt are discussed. The paper explores the validation parameters including density, viscosity, radial distribution function (RDF), glass transition temperature, and solubility parameters based on the existing research. Molecular dynamics simulation could simulate interface diffusion at a micro-scale and clarify the diffusion depth and influence range of different asphalts. The purpose of the study of molecular dynamics is to solve interface issues and advance optimization of reclaimed materials. Full article
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5 pages, 179 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial Overview of the Special Issue “Innovation in Chemical Plant Design”
by Paolo Trucillo and Roberta Campardelli
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3023; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103023 - 20 Oct 2023
Viewed by 723
Abstract
Innovation in chemical plant design stands at the forefront of transformative advancements in the dynamic field of chemical engineering [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation in Chemical Plant Design)
21 pages, 4956 KiB  
Article
A Semi-Analytical Model for Production Prediction of Deep CBM Wells Considering Gas-Water Two-Phase Flow
by Suran Wang, Dongjun Li and Wenlan Li
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3022; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103022 - 20 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 721
Abstract
The productivity prediction of deep coalbed methane (CBM) wells is significantly influenced by gas-water two-phase flow characteristics and seepage parameters of the fracture network. While numerical simulations offer a comprehensive approach, analytical models are favored for their faster and broader applicability. However, conventional [...] Read more.
The productivity prediction of deep coalbed methane (CBM) wells is significantly influenced by gas-water two-phase flow characteristics and seepage parameters of the fracture network. While numerical simulations offer a comprehensive approach, analytical models are favored for their faster and broader applicability. However, conventional analytical models often oversimplify the complex problem of two-phase seepage equations, leading to substantial errors in dynamic analysis outcomes. Addressing this shortcoming, we establish a gas-water two-phase productivity prediction model for deep CBM reservoirs. This model takes into account the two-phase flow characteristics within the reservoir and fracture network, as well as the stress sensitivity of the reservoir and fractures. Additionally, a modified trilinear flow model characterizes the fractured modification body. By integrating the flowing material balance equation with the Newton Iteration method, we gradually update the seepage model’s nonlinear parameters using the average formation pressure. We also linearize the gas-water two-phase model through successive iterations to derive a semi-analytical solution. The accuracy of the model was verified through comparison with commercial numerical simulation software results and field application. The model also enabled us to scrutinize the influence of reservoir and fracture network parameters on productivity. Our research findings suggest that the semi-analytical solution approach can efficiently address the nonlinear seepage problem of gas-water two-phase flow, enabling quick and accurate prediction of deep CBM well productivity. Moreover, appropriate fracture network parameters are paramount for enhancing the productivity of deep CBM wells. Lastly, during the development of deep CBM reservoirs, it is crucial to control the production pressure difference appropriately to minimize the stress sensitivity impact on production capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Enhancing Unconventional Oil/Gas Recovery)
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3 pages, 171 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue on “CFD Based Researches and Applications for Fluid Machinery and Fluid Device, Volume II”
by Jin-Hyuk Kim, Joon Ahn, Sung-Min Kim, Lei Tan, Ji Pei and Bin Huang
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3021; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103021 - 20 Oct 2023
Viewed by 660
Abstract
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based advanced numerical optimization techniques are essential as practical tools used to enhance the performance of various fluid machines and fluid devices for realizing carbon neutrality [...] Full article
10 pages, 1450 KiB  
Article
Toxicity Assessment of a Biolubricant Exposed to Eisenia fetida
by Paola T. Vázquez-Villegas, Maritza del C. Hernández-Cruz, Anayancy Lam-Gutiérrez, Ludwi Rodríguez-Hernández, Mariana Valdespino-León, Adalberto Zenteno-Rojas, Rocío Meza-Gordillo, Abumalé Cruz-Salomón, Rocío del P. Serrano-Ramírez and Rosa I. Cruz-Rodríguez
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3020; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103020 - 20 Oct 2023
Viewed by 732
Abstract
In the current search for products that are friendly to the environment, the intent is to reduce the use of domestic, food and industrial waste of mineral origin, thereby creating new products that are functional in industrial and agricultural processes. That is why [...] Read more.
In the current search for products that are friendly to the environment, the intent is to reduce the use of domestic, food and industrial waste of mineral origin, thereby creating new products that are functional in industrial and agricultural processes. That is why the use of raw chicken skin fat was evaluated for the creation of a biolubricant with possible applications in the operation of heavy machinery, such as agricultural tractors. The acute toxicity of the biolubricant made from transesterified fatty acids obtained from chicken skin fat was determined experimentally, using bioassays with Eisenia fetida as a test organism, by means of the median lethal concentration (LC50) using the probit method (p < 0.05) on the filter paper at 48 h and on an artificial substrate at 14 days, resulting in an LC50 of 878.675 mg mL−1 or 0.0268 mg cm−2 and 35.2348 mg kg−1, respectively. Likewise, the physiological damage was determined by means of histology, and it could be observed that there was no damage on the Eisenia fetida cell tissue. This indicates that the biolubricant is suitable for use in agricultural machinery since, in the event of an accidental spill, it does not cause damage to the soil or the organisms that live in it, as well as to the people who handle this type of product in their daily work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Processes: Women's Special Issue Series)
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13 pages, 1324 KiB  
Article
Determination of Five Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitors in Multiple Honey-Based Consumer Products by Chromatographic Technique in Rat Plasma
by Wael Abu Dayyih, Ammar A. Rasras, Mohammad Hailat, Rawan Karaki, Ahmad A. Deeb, Israa Al-Ani, Lina N. AlTamimi, Zainab Zakaraya, Sina M. Matalqah, Basim Mareekh, Enas Alkhader and Eyad S. M. Abu-Nameh
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3019; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103019 - 20 Oct 2023
Viewed by 824
Abstract
This study aimed to develop and verify a simple HPLC-based quantitative approach to simultaneously determine the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) sildenafil, vardenafil, udenafil, avanafil, and tadalafil in a tablet dosage form mixed with honey obtained form Jordanian market in rat plasma. PDE5Is block phosphodiesterase-5 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to develop and verify a simple HPLC-based quantitative approach to simultaneously determine the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) sildenafil, vardenafil, udenafil, avanafil, and tadalafil in a tablet dosage form mixed with honey obtained form Jordanian market in rat plasma. PDE5Is block phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5). This blockage, in turn, triggers vasodilation by phosphorylating downstream effector molecules. Chromatographic separation was performed on a HypersilTM C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm, Thermo Fisher Inc., Waltham, MA, USA). An acetonitrile:10% Triethylamine solution (57:43) at pH 5.5 (adjusted with orthophosphoric acid), 20 µL injection volume, 1 mL/min flow rate, 25 °C temperature, and eluent monitoring at 250 nm was used to execute the current approach. Linearity was observed in the 9.6–14.4 µg/mL concentration ranges for sildenafil, udenafil, avanafil, and tadalafil, and 2.4–3.6 µg/mL for vardenafil. Each dosage form was recovered within acceptable limits at three distinct concentrations, and the assay selectivity indicated no interference from the inactive substances in the formulation. Sildenafil, vardenafil, udenafil, avanafil, and tadalafil had retention times of 3.5, 4.3, 6.2, 9.7, and 12.8 min, respectively, and tadalafil was 12.8 min. The present analytical method is comprehensive and universal for measuring the five drugs. Such an analytical method can be routinely used to detect the combination of these drugs. Full article
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13 pages, 19126 KiB  
Article
Effects of Aluminium Oxide Content on the Regenerated Magnesia-Calcium Bricks for Cement Rotary Kiln
by Gui-Bo Qiu, Yi-Dang Hao, Jia Hou, Hui-Gang Wang, Xuan-Hao Zhang, Ben Peng and Mei Zhang
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3018; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103018 - 20 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 631
Abstract
Regenerated magnesia-calcium brick samples with different aluminium oxide (Al2O3) contents were prepared using spent magnesia-calcium bricks and fused magnesia as the main raw materials and Al2O3 powders as the additive. The phase compositions, microstructures, room temperature, [...] Read more.
Regenerated magnesia-calcium brick samples with different aluminium oxide (Al2O3) contents were prepared using spent magnesia-calcium bricks and fused magnesia as the main raw materials and Al2O3 powders as the additive. The phase compositions, microstructures, room temperature, hot flexural strength, and kiln coating adherence of the regenerated samples were investigated. This indicates that the Al2O3 content increased, mainly resulting in the content of tetracalcium aluminoferrite (C4AF) and tricalcium aluminate (C3A) increasing in the regenerated samples. The bulk density, room temperature flexural strength, and kiln coating adherence all increased, whereas the hot flexural strength and corrosion resistance to cement clinker both deteriorated with an increase in the Al2O3 content. This was because, on the one hand, the low melting point phases of C4AF and C3A improved the sinterability of the regenerated samples during the burning stage, and on the other hand, they melted or existed in the liquid phase at the experimental temperature, which degraded the hot flexural strength and corrosion resistance but enhanced the kiln coating adherence as the wettability of the liquid phase. The content of Al2O3 in the regenerated magnesia-calcium brick should not be higher than 1.1 wt.%, considering its comprehensive performance for cement rotary kiln. Full article
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