Bio-Active Compounds in Food Production

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Process Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 23755

Special Issue Editors

Faculty of Food Technology, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Riga Street 22, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
Interests: food science; polyphenols; phenolic compounds; anthocyanins
Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnologies, University “Politehnica” of Bucharest, 011061 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: food; toxicology; natural products; phytochemistry; bio-active substances; antioxidants; volatile oils; chromatography; mass spectrometry; uv-vis spectroscopy; infrared spectroscopy
Department of Food Science, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Interests: sensory analysis of foods; consumer test; consumer attitudes; consumer preferences; food science; quality control of foods; antioxidant compounds; polyphenols; quality control of bee products (honey, bee pollen, propolis)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
1. National Institute of Research and Development for Food Bioresources - IBA Bucharest, 6 Dinu Vintila St., 021102 Bucharest, Romania
2. Department of Industrial Biotechnologies, Faculty of Biotechnologies, University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 59 Marasti Blvd., 011464 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: food integrity; food technology; nutrition; food biotechnology
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: analytical chemistry; analytical toxicology; chromatography; separation techniques; immunochemical assays

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As the saying goes, “we are what we eat”, meaning that the quality of the food we consume on a daily basis affects our general health.

Recent research efforts in the area of food production have thus been geared towards developing functional foods. These are foodstuffs, not dietary supplements, which, in addition to their regular nutritional value, have been demonstrated to benefit one or several functions of the body when given in amounts that are part of a normal diet. They improve health and well-being and can reduce the risk of certain ailments and diseases. The key components of such enhanced foods, which are responsible for these benefits, individually and synergistically, are bio-active compounds, such as phytosterols, terpenoids, polyphenols, flavonoids, stilbenoids, carotenoids, glucosinolates, capsaicin and taurine.

On the contrary, other classes of bio-active compounds, either found natively in foods or resulting from food production, processing or preservation technologies, may have negative outcomes on human health, e.g., chronic fatigue, various allergies, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes and many types of cancer. Among these are certain proteins, peptides or amino acids, sugars and sweeteners, mycotoxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hetero-aromatic amines, inorganics such as nitrates or nitrites and heavy metals. These compounds must be eliminated in foods to suit the special needs of already affected consumers, or at least reduced to mitigate their damaging potential by designing novel food production technologies or modifying traditional ones.

This Special Issue, “Bio-active Compounds in Food Production”, welcomes full research papers, short communications and review articles on topics such as those mentioned above, as well as any other subjects related to food bio-actives.

Dr. Zanda Kruma
Dr. Radu C. Racovita
Dr. Stan Laura
Dr. Nastasia Belc
Prof. Dr. Ivone Jakasa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bio-active compounds
  • bio-activity
  • phytochemicals
  • food production
  • food formulation
  • functional foods
  • recovery of bio-actives from food waste
  • antioxidants
  • allergens
  • toxics

Published Papers (13 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

12 pages, 760 KiB  
Article
The Beneficial Effect of Selenium-Enriched Broccoli on the Quality Characteristics of Bread
Processes 2023, 11(10), 3037; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11103037 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 792
Abstract
Broccoli is one of the most valuable representatives of the Brassicaceae family, characterized by high levels of glucosinolates and fiber, antioxidant status and tolerance to high selenium (Se) concentrations. To evaluate the efficiency of Se-enriched broccoli utilization in bread production, 4% of dry [...] Read more.
Broccoli is one of the most valuable representatives of the Brassicaceae family, characterized by high levels of glucosinolates and fiber, antioxidant status and tolerance to high selenium (Se) concentrations. To evaluate the efficiency of Se-enriched broccoli utilization in bread production, 4% of dry broccoli powder was added to dough using non-fortified and Se-biofortified broccoli florets. The resulting functional products were characterized by enhanced porosity, crump acidity and a specific volume exceeding those of the control bread by 109–110%, 114–121% and 107–112%, respectively, with the lower levels typical to bread with broccoli non-fortified with Se. By supplying broccoli powder to bread, the dietary fiber content of the product was enhanced by 2.1 times. Selenium-enriched broccoli powder supply improved the ascorbic acid and total phenolic content in bread by 37.5 and 2.03 times compared with the control. The effect was less pronounced in case of non-fortified broccoli supplementation due to the beneficial effect of Se on broccoli florets’ antioxidant status. Selenium-enriched broccoli supply significantly decreased the intensity of bread crumb hardening during storage. High Se-biofortification level (5.6) and insignificant Se losses during bread baking (less than 4%) confirm high prospects of Se-enriched broccoli utilization in the production of new functional bread with elevated levels of antioxidants, Se and dietary fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds in Food Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2401 KiB  
Article
Sweet Potatoes Puree Mixed with Herbal Aqueous Extracts: A Novel Ready-to-Eat Product for Lactating Mothers
Processes 2023, 11(7), 2219; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11072219 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 646
Abstract
Worldwide, around 385 thousand babies are born each day. Many of them cannot be breastfed because of several physiological problems of the mothers. Galactogogues remain the most natural and prolific way to improve both milk quantity and quality. Various herbs are traditionally used [...] Read more.
Worldwide, around 385 thousand babies are born each day. Many of them cannot be breastfed because of several physiological problems of the mothers. Galactogogues remain the most natural and prolific way to improve both milk quantity and quality. Various herbs are traditionally used to increase lactation, but the best known are fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) and anise (Pimpinella anisum L.). The main objective of the present study was to obtain some special and nutritious ready-to-eat products from pureed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) fortified with aqueous extracts from the aforementioned galactogogues herbs. Two different types of thermal treatment, steaming and baking, were investigated to obtain healthy and safe-for-consumption purees. Steam convection had a lower impact, compared with hot air convection, on the content of bioactive compounds among all samples. Among all samples, sweet potato puree with fennel aqueous extract, processed by steaming, (EFCA) showed the highest content of β-carotene (1.27 ± 0.11 mg/g DW), lycopene (0.59 ± 0.07 mg/g DW), and total carotenoids (1.38 ± 0.11 mg/g DW); the cooking loss registered statistically significantly lower values in the case of steam convection. These reports might potentially generate novel ready-to-eat foods used as meals and as well as lactation adjuvants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds in Food Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1160 KiB  
Article
Enriching the Bioactive Components and Antioxidant Capacity of Concentrated Lime Juices Prepared by Cryogenic and Vacuum Processes
Processes 2023, 11(7), 1883; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11071883 - 23 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1092
Abstract
Lime juice is rich in bioactive components and exerts a wide range of therapeutic effects, especially antioxidant activity. Freeze concentration is considered an essential method to maintain the nutritional values and bioactives of fruit juices. This study aimed to compare the ability in [...] Read more.
Lime juice is rich in bioactive components and exerts a wide range of therapeutic effects, especially antioxidant activity. Freeze concentration is considered an essential method to maintain the nutritional values and bioactives of fruit juices. This study aimed to compare the ability in enriching ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, and major flavonoids and the antioxidant activity (DPPH) of concentrated lime juices prepared by vacuum and freeze-concentrations. The ascorbic acid in the juices was analyzed using the HPLC-PDA method. The total phenolic content and DPPH inhibition ability were measured by the colorimetric method. The polyphenol profiles of two lime varieties (C. latifolia and C. limonia) were qualitatively analyzed using LC-TOF MS/MS; then, the major juices’ flavonoids were analyzed by HPLC-PDA against/based on commercial standards. The results showed that C. latifolia was superior to C. limonia in ascorbic acid, TPC, major flavonoids, and antioxidants. C. latifolia was also more diverse than C. limonia in its polyphenol profile through the identified compounds (18 vs. 15). Freeze-concentrated lime juices were significantly higher than the vacuum-concentrated counterparts in ascorbic acid (mean difference from 9.41 to 22.01 mg, p < 0.01), and TPC (from 60.76 to 149.88 mgGAE). The quantification of major flavonoids showed that the freeze-concentrated lime juices retained high levels of hesperidin, eriocitrin, and rutin (p < 0.01) whereas the vacuum concentration preserved higher ones in diosmin and naringin (p < 0.01). The freeze-concentrated lime juice was significantly higher than vacuum-concentrated lime juices in the DPPH scavenging activity by at least 15% (p < 0.01). Overall, freeze concentration enriched bioactive compounds in lime juices almost threefold and improved antioxidants at least twofold. Thus, freeze concentration is promising for the industry in producing high-quality lime juice to preserve its thermal liable bioactive component. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds in Food Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 2658 KiB  
Article
Corn Extrudates Enriched with Health-Promoting Ingredients: Physicochemical, Nutritional, and Functional Characteristics
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041108 - 05 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1597
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of powder additions on the properties of corn extrudates. The following ingredients, which are good sources of bioactive compounds, were used to substitute corn flour: legume protein sources (2% pea, [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of powder additions on the properties of corn extrudates. The following ingredients, which are good sources of bioactive compounds, were used to substitute corn flour: legume protein sources (2% pea, 5% broccoli, and 5% lucerne), plants (15% beetroot and 15% rosehip), and condiments (2% chili, 2% turmeric, 2% paprika, and 2% basil). The total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AA) increased when the corn flour was replaced with the different types of ingredients. The highest TPC was found for rosehip followed by the beet, basil, and broccoli additions. Compared to the raw formulations, all the extrudates, except the rosehip extrudate, showed a decrease in the TPC ranging from 11 to 41%, with the smallest loss (11%) occurring for basil and the highest loss (41%) occurring for the control extrudate, respectively. The same observation was recorded for the AA. For the extrudate enriched with rosehip, the TPC and AA increased by 20% and 16%, respectively. The highest level of protein digestibility was in the corn extrudate with the pea addition followed by broccoli and lucerne. The extruded corn samples with condiment additions had a lower glycemic index than the control extrudate. This study demonstrated the potential for the production of gluten-free corn extrudates enriched with ingredients from different sources with improved nutritional properties, conferring also a natural color in the final extrudates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds in Food Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 2921 KiB  
Article
Effect of Rosehip Powder Addition on Dough Extensographic, Amylographic and Rheofermentographic Properties and Sensory Attributes of Bread
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1088; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041088 - 04 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1001
Abstract
One of the improvers used in breadmaking is ascorbic acid (AA), a chemical compound that strengthens the dough and extends the shelf life of bread. This work investigates the suitability of replacing the synthetic AA with rosehip powder (Rp) rich in this bioactive [...] Read more.
One of the improvers used in breadmaking is ascorbic acid (AA), a chemical compound that strengthens the dough and extends the shelf life of bread. This work investigates the suitability of replacing the synthetic AA with rosehip powder (Rp) rich in this bioactive compound. Thus, a comprehensive study of wheat flour (WF) replaced with 0.5–2.5% w/w Rp regarding the extensographic, amylographic and rheofermentographic properties of dough and sensory attributes of bread was performed. WF without RP or AA addition of 2 mg/100 g was used as a control. A sample with an AA addition of 2 mg/100 g was also used. The Rp addition positively influenced the extensographic, amylographic and rheofermentographic properties of the dough. The dough resistance to extension, R, in Brabender Units (BU), increased from 330 ± 1.41 BU (control) to 995 ± 1.41 BU (2.5% w/w Rp) for a resting time of 90 min. The gelatinization temperature of the dough increased from 61.0 °C (control) to 62.9 °C (2.5% w/w Rp). The volume of gases retained in the dough increased in bread with up to 2.0% w/w Rp and afterwards decreased. The sensory properties of the bread, e.g., external appearance, volume, flavor, and taste, were appreciated by the sensory panel and received higher total scores than the control bread. According to the results presented in this work, the optimum concentration of Rp was 1.5% w/w. However, because the concentration of AA in Rp at the moment of use could vary, it would be better to consider an optimum range, e.g., 1.0–2.0% w/w Rp. The study showed that the Rp is appropriate for breadmaking as an alternative to synthetic AA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds in Food Production)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 598 KiB  
Article
Cytotoxicity Assessment and Nutritional Profiling of Bio-Active Compounds Obtained from Food Waste
Processes 2023, 11(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11010089 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2016
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the properties of by-products obtained from the oil industry, to identify the content of bioactive compounds and to test the safety of their reintroduction in the food industry. Three sunflower meals obtained after cold-pressing of [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the properties of by-products obtained from the oil industry, to identify the content of bioactive compounds and to test the safety of their reintroduction in the food industry. Three sunflower meals obtained after cold-pressing of whole (WSM), partially dehulled (PSM) and total dehulled (TSM) sunflower seeds were used. A higher protein, ash and fiber content was obtained for WSM, followed by PSM, and TSM meals. Conversely, the lipid content was higher in TSM and PSM, and lower in WSM meals. Sunflower meals are important sources of unsaturated fatty acids (more linoleic than oleic acid), the content ranging between 82.74 and 86.72%. Additionally, sunflower meals represent a significant source of compounds with antioxidant activity. TSM showed the highest concentration of total polyphenols and total flavonoids, while WSM the lowest. The values of antioxidant activity were higher for TSM compared to PSM and WSM. The weak cytotoxic activity at concentrations lower than 6.25 mg/mL, as well as cell viability which is not affected by the action of PSM and TSM but even increases in the case of WSM, give sunflower meals the potential to be added as ingredients in the production of functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds in Food Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 557 KiB  
Article
Valorization Potential of Oil Industry By-Products as Sources of Essential Fatty Acids
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2373; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112373 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
The oil industry generates a high number of by-products which have the potential to be used in food formulation after they are properly treated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional potential of 14 different vegetable by-products from the oil [...] Read more.
The oil industry generates a high number of by-products which have the potential to be used in food formulation after they are properly treated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional potential of 14 different vegetable by-products from the oil industry (flour, meals, and groats) in terms of fatty acid composition and to investigate the effect of theoretical fortification of the bakery products with by-products high in ω-3. Results showed that some of the analyzed samples contain significant amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Organic walnut flour and grape seed flour had a linoleic acid content higher than 60%. By-products obtained from thistle and sesame had a linoleic acid content ranging between 47.32% and 54.72%. Higher linolenic content was obtained for hemp flour (33.22%), red grape seeds meals (33.62%), and golden flax meals (64.65%). By theoretical fortification of wheat and wholemeal flours with high ω-3 by-products in a proportion of 5, 10, and 15%, the ω-3 content increased (2.2- to 22-fold higher) while the ω-6/ω-3 ratio decreased from 5.22 to 0.52–2.86 for wheat flour, and from 16.80 to 0.81–5.53 for wholemeal flour. These vegetable by-products from the oil industry could represent valuable sources of essential fatty acids for the food application, representing valuable ingredients that could be added for the production of functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds in Food Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 7601 KiB  
Article
Combined Effect of Ultrasound and Microwave Power in Tangerine Juice Processing: Bioactive Compounds, Amino Acids, Minerals, and Pathogens
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2100; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102100 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2177
Abstract
The inhibition of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 (S. aureus), Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076 (S. Enteritidis), and Listeria monocytogenes DSM12464 (L. monocytogenes) is one of the main aims of the food [...] Read more.
The inhibition of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 (S. aureus), Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076 (S. Enteritidis), and Listeria monocytogenes DSM12464 (L. monocytogenes) is one of the main aims of the food industry. This study was the first in which the use of ultrasound and microwave power were applied to optimize the values of the bioactive components, amino acids, and mineral compositions of tangerine juice and to inhibit Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to describe the inactivation kinetics, and the effects of ultrasound treatment time (X1: 12–20 min), ultrasound amplitude (X2:60–100%), microwave treatment time (X3: 30–40 s), and microwave power (X4:200–700 W). The optimum parameters applied to a 5-log reduction in E. coli were determined as ultrasound (12 min, 60%) and microwave (34 s, 700 W). The optimum condition ultrasound–microwave treatment was highly effective in tangerine juice, achieving up to 5.27, 5.12, and 7.19 log reductions for S. aureus, S. Enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. Ultrasound–microwave treatment increased the total phenolic compounds and total amino acids. While Cu, K, Mg, and Na contents were increased, Fe and Ca contents were lower in the UM-TJ (ultrasound–microwave-treated tangerine juice) sample. In this case, significant differences were detected in the color values of ultrasound–microwave-treated tangerine juice (UM-TJ) (p < 0.05). The results of this study showed that ultrasound–microwave treatment is a potential alternative processing and preservation technique for tangerine juice, resulting in no significant quality depreciation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds in Food Production)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 2229 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant and Sensorial Properties: Meat Analogues versus Conventional Meat Products
Processes 2022, 10(9), 1864; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10091864 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
Meat-product alternatives have become more popular among consumers, mainly due to concern for animal welfare and demand for more eco-friendly production. This study focused on the comparison between the antioxidant capacities of selected types of meat products and those of their plant-based alternatives. [...] Read more.
Meat-product alternatives have become more popular among consumers, mainly due to concern for animal welfare and demand for more eco-friendly production. This study focused on the comparison between the antioxidant capacities of selected types of meat products and those of their plant-based alternatives. The analogues of the following products were analyzed: minced meat, burger, steak, Hungarian sausages, Frankfurter sausages and salami. Total polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacities and sensory profiles of the products were determined. The highest polyphenol content (1.85 mg Gallic acid/g) and antioxidant capacity values (DPPH: 41.80% inhibition, CUPRAC: 9.21 Trolox mmol/kg, FRAP: 7.51 mmol/g, ABTS: 7.45% inhibition) were observed in the analogue samples of Hungarian sausages due to the oat flour presence in these products. The results indicated that antioxidant properties of meat analogue products (plant sources) were superior compared to conventional meat products (produced from animal sources). The sensorial attributes indicated no significant (p > 0.05) differences in taste (except the Frankfurter sausages). The novelty of the study can be seen in the fact that it confirmed that the sensory properties of meat analogue products can be close to those of traditional meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds in Food Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 14894 KiB  
Article
Modeling Study of a Microbial Spray-Drying Process Based on Real-Time Sampling
Processes 2022, 10(9), 1789; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10091789 - 05 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1182
Abstract
The process of microbial spray-drying has inherent defects such as short time, complexity, and non-visualization of particle trajectory. However, there has been a lack of effective methods for real-time sampling, rehydration, and non-destructive storage of dried particles, as well as mathematical modeling of [...] Read more.
The process of microbial spray-drying has inherent defects such as short time, complexity, and non-visualization of particle trajectory. However, there has been a lack of effective methods for real-time sampling, rehydration, and non-destructive storage of dried particles, as well as mathematical modeling of the drying process of yeast particles based on sampling and measurement data. Therefore, firstly, a real-time sampling system was developed which completed real-time sampling, rehydration, and non-destructive storage of spray-dried particles, and realized the real reproduction of the changes of yeast particles in the process of spray drying. The laws that the motion trajectory of microbial particles during spray drying are divided into the first cycle region and the reflux cycle region were concluded, and the partition mechanism was explored. Then, based on the sampling data and the law of heat and mass transfer, a mathematical model of porous media was established to predict the variation of moisture content and rehydration survival rate of dried microbial particles with drying time. Finally, the mathematical model was tested by a microbial spray drying experiment, and the maximum errors between the predicted value and the test value of moisture content and rehydration survival rate were Xmax1=0.027(d.b) and Qvmax1=1.06%, respectively, both were less than 5% which proved the correctness of the mathematical model of porous media and laid a foundation for the study of the damage mechanism of microbial spray drying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds in Food Production)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research

23 pages, 8116 KiB  
Review
Polyphenols as Antioxidant/Pro-Oxidant Compounds and Donors of Reducing Species: Relationship with Human Antioxidant Metabolism
Processes 2023, 11(9), 2771; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11092771 - 16 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
In this review, we have focused mainly on the study of their antioxidant and pro-oxidant capacity, and the analysis of the oxidation of the catechol group to o-quinone. The redox balance established between the different oxidase and reductase enzymes generates reducing species, H [...] Read more.
In this review, we have focused mainly on the study of their antioxidant and pro-oxidant capacity, and the analysis of the oxidation of the catechol group to o-quinone. The redox balance established between the different oxidase and reductase enzymes generates reducing species, H+ and e, and allows the oxidation of polyphenolic groups to quinones to be reversible. This continuous balance between these nucleophilic and electrophilic substances allows the activation of the NRF2/ARE axis, which regulates cellular antioxidant responses against oxidative stress, as well as cell proliferation. Understanding the ambivalent character of polyphenols, which can act simultaneously as antioxidants and pro-oxidants, will allow the design of specific therapies that can serve science and medicine in their tasks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds in Food Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1058 KiB  
Review
Formation of Oxidative Compounds during Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Byproducts of the Seafood Industry
Processes 2023, 11(2), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020543 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
There is a significant potential to increase the sustainability of the fishing and aquaculture industries through the maximization of the processing of byproducts. Enzymatic hydrolysis provides an opportunity to valorize downstream fish industry byproducts for the production of protein hydrolysates (FPH) as a [...] Read more.
There is a significant potential to increase the sustainability of the fishing and aquaculture industries through the maximization of the processing of byproducts. Enzymatic hydrolysis provides an opportunity to valorize downstream fish industry byproducts for the production of protein hydrolysates (FPH) as a source of bioactive peptides (BAP) with health benefits. Deteriorative oxidative reactions may occur during the enzymatic hydrolysis of byproducts, influencing the safety or bioactivities of the end product. Lipid oxidation, autolysis mediated by endogenous enzymes in viscera, protein degradation, and formation of low-molecular-weight metabolites are the main reactions that are expected to occur during hydrolysis and need to be controlled. These depend on the freshness, proper handling, and the type of byproducts used. Viscera, frames, trimmings, and heads are the byproducts most available for enzymatic hydrolysis. They differ in their composition, and, thus, require standardization of both the hydrolysis procedures and the testing methods for each source. Hydrolysis conditions (e.g., enzyme type and concentration, temperature, and time) also have a significant role in producing FPH with specific structures, stability, and bioactivity. Protein hydrolysates with good safety and quality should have many applications in foods, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. This review discusses the oxidative reactions during the enzymatic hydrolysis of byproducts from different fish industry sectors and possible ways to reduce oxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds in Food Production)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 1065 KiB  
Review
Bioactive Compounds from Elderberry: Extraction, Health Benefits, and Food Applications
Processes 2022, 10(11), 2288; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10112288 - 04 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5791
Abstract
Elderberries are appreciated for their antioxidant properties. Sambucus nigra L. is an extremely abundant plant in the wild flora of Romania, but it is underutilized. Elderberry is used in modern and traditional medicine due to the complex chemical composition of the fruit. The [...] Read more.
Elderberries are appreciated for their antioxidant properties. Sambucus nigra L. is an extremely abundant plant in the wild flora of Romania, but it is underutilized. Elderberry is used in modern and traditional medicine due to the complex chemical composition of the fruit. The content of phenolic compounds is high (516–8974 mg/100 g DW), of which the most abundant are anthocyanins. Phenolic compounds are known for their beneficial effects on the body. Numerous studies have demonstrated the antioxidant capacity, antibacterial, antiviral, antidiabetic, and anticancer properties of the fruit. It is considered that most of the therapeutic properties of elderberries can be correlated with the antioxidant activity they have. S. nigra fruits are also used in the food industry. Some studies have shown that the therapeutic properties of elderberries can also be found in the products obtained from them. Therefore, this review aimed to describe the chemical composition of elderberries and products obtained from them, the positive effects on the body, and the methods by which the bioactive compounds can be extracted from the fruits and analyzed. This manuscript is useful for extraction optimization and characterization in order to valorize new functional foods, food supplements, and also in new pharmaceutical products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Active Compounds in Food Production)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop