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Metabolites, Volume 13, Issue 6 (June 2023) – 96 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study explores the relationship between metabolomic profiles, genetics, and lifestyle factors in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A total of 5923 individuals were included, and blood metabolomics was assessed using a nuclear magnetic resonance platform. Associations were studied using regression analyses. The results show that metabolomic profiles differ between AMD stages and mostly reflect lifestyle factors. The severity-specific profiles spur further interest in the systemic effects related to disease conversion. View this paper
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23 pages, 807 KiB  
Review
Gut Microbiota and Neuroinflammation in Acute Liver Failure and Chronic Liver Disease
by Lucia Giuli, Marta Maestri, Francesco Santopaolo, Maurizio Pompili and Francesca Romana Ponziani
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060772 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1714
Abstract
Acute liver failure and chronic liver disease are associated with a wide spectrum of neurological changes, of which the best known is hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Historically, hyperammonemia, causing astrocyte swelling and cerebral oedema, was considered the main etiological factor in the pathogenesis of [...] Read more.
Acute liver failure and chronic liver disease are associated with a wide spectrum of neurological changes, of which the best known is hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Historically, hyperammonemia, causing astrocyte swelling and cerebral oedema, was considered the main etiological factor in the pathogenesis of cerebral dysfunction in patients with acute and/or chronic liver disease. However, recent studies demonstrated a key role of neuroinflammation in the development of neurological complications in this setting. Neuroinflammation is characterized by activation of microglial cells and brain secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, which alter neurotransmission, leading to cognitive and motor dysfunction. Changes in the gut microbiota resulting from liver disease play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation. Dysbiosis and altered intestinal permeability, resulting in bacterial translocation and endotoxemia, are responsible for systemic inflammation, which can spread to brain tissue and trigger neuroinflammation. In addition, metabolites derived from the gut microbiota can act on the central nervous system and facilitate the development of neurological complications, exacerbating clinical manifestations. Thus, strategies aimed at modulating the gut microbiota may be effective therapeutic weapons. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of the gut–liver–brain axis in the pathogenesis of neurological dysfunction associated with liver disease, with a particular focus on neuroinflammation. In addition, we highlight emerging therapeutic approaches targeting the gut microbiota and inflammation in this clinical setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis: Role of Metabolism)
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23 pages, 3292 KiB  
Article
Atlantic Salmon Gill Epithelial Cell Line (ASG-10) as a Suitable Model for Xenobiotic Biotransformation
by Lada Ivanova, Christiane Kruse Fæste and Anita Solhaug
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060771 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1562
Abstract
Fish are exposed to xenobiotics in the water. Uptake occurs mainly through the gills, which function as an exchange point with the environment. The gills’ ability to detoxify harmful compounds by biotransformation is an essential protection mechanism. The enormous numbers of waterborne xenobiotics [...] Read more.
Fish are exposed to xenobiotics in the water. Uptake occurs mainly through the gills, which function as an exchange point with the environment. The gills’ ability to detoxify harmful compounds by biotransformation is an essential protection mechanism. The enormous numbers of waterborne xenobiotics requiring ecotoxicological assessment makes it necessary to replace in vivo fish studies with predictive in vitro models. Here, we have characterized the metabolic capacity of the ASG-10 gill epithelial cell line from Atlantic salmon. Inducible CYP1A expression was confirmed by enzymatic assays and immunoblotting. The activities of important cytochrome P450 (CYP) and uridine 5’-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes were established using specific substrates and metabolite analysis by liquid chromatography (LC) triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (TQMS). Metabolism of the fish anesthetic benzocaine (BZ) in ASG-10 confirmed esterase and acetyl transferase activities through the production of N-acetylbenzocaine (AcBZ), p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and p-acetaminobenzoic acid (AcPABA). Moreover, we were able to determine hydroxylamine benzocaine (BZOH), benzocaine glucuronide (BZGlcA) and hydroxylamine benzocaine glucuronide (BZ(O)GlcA) by LC high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS/MS) fragment pattern analysis for the first time. Comparison to metabolite profiles in hepatic fractions, and in plasma of BZ-euthanized salmon, confirmed the suitability of the ASG-10 cell line for investigating biotransformation in gills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Metabolism)
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18 pages, 3791 KiB  
Article
Coordinated Regulation of Central Carbon Metabolism in Pyroligneous Acid-Treated Tomato Plants under Aluminum Stress
by Raphael Ofoe, Raymond H. Thomas and Lord Abbey
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060770 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1218
Abstract
Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major threat to global crop production in acidic soils, which can be mitigated by natural substances such as pyroligneous acid (PA). However, the effect of PA in regulating plant central carbon metabolism (CCM) under Al stress is unknown. [...] Read more.
Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major threat to global crop production in acidic soils, which can be mitigated by natural substances such as pyroligneous acid (PA). However, the effect of PA in regulating plant central carbon metabolism (CCM) under Al stress is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of varying PA concentrations (0, 0.25 and 1% PA/ddH2O (v/v)) on intermediate metabolites involved in CCM in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., ‘Scotia’) seedlings under varying Al concentrations (0, 1 and 4 mM AlCl3). A total of 48 differentially expressed metabolites of CCM were identified in the leaves of both control and PA-treated plants under Al stress. Calvin–Benson cycle (CBC) and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) metabolites were considerably reduced under 4 mM Al stress, irrespective of the PA treatment. Conversely, the PA treatment markedly increased glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) metabolites compared to the control. Although glycolysis metabolites in the 0.25% PA-treated plants under Al stress were comparable to the control, the 1% PA-treated plants exhibited the highest accumulation of glycolysis metabolites. Furthermore, all PA treatments increased TCA metabolites under Al stress. Electron transport chain (ETC) metabolites were higher in PA-treated plants alone and under 1 mM, Al but were reduced under a higher Al treatment of 4 mM. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that CBC metabolites had a significantly strong positive (r = 0.99; p < 0.001) association with PPP metabolites. Additionally, glycolysis metabolites showed a significantly moderate positive association (r = 0.76; p < 0.05) with TCA metabolites, while ETC metabolites exhibited no association with any of the determined pathways. The coordinated association between CCM pathway metabolites suggests that PA can stimulate changes in plant metabolism to modulate energy production and biosynthesis of organic acids under Al stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics and Plant Defence)
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10 pages, 1694 KiB  
Article
Novel Metabolomic Approach for Identifying Pathology-Specific Biomarkers in Rare Diseases: A Case Study in Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy (OPMD)
by Pradeep Harish, Alberto Malerba, Rosemarie H. M. J. M. Kroon, Milad Shademan, Baziel van Engelan, Vered Raz, Linda Popplewell and Stuart G. Snowden
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060769 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 998
Abstract
The identification of metabolomic biomarkers relies on the analysis of large cohorts of patients compared to healthy controls followed by the validation of markers in an independent sample set. Indeed, circulating biomarkers should be causally linked to pathology to ensure that changes in [...] Read more.
The identification of metabolomic biomarkers relies on the analysis of large cohorts of patients compared to healthy controls followed by the validation of markers in an independent sample set. Indeed, circulating biomarkers should be causally linked to pathology to ensure that changes in the marker precede changes in the disease. However, this approach becomes unfeasible in rare diseases due to the paucity of samples, necessitating the development of new methods for biomarker identification. The present study describes a novel approach that combines samples from both mouse models and human patients to identify biomarkers of OPMD. We initially identified a pathology-specific metabolic fingerprint in murine dystrophic muscle. This metabolic fingerprint was then translated into (paired) murine serum samples and then to human plasma samples. This study identified a panel of nine candidate biomarkers that could predict muscle pathology with a sensitivity of 74.3% and specificity of 100% in a random forest model. These findings demonstrate that the proposed approach can identify biomarkers with good predictive performance and a higher degree of confidence in their relevance to pathology than markers identified in a small cohort of human samples alone. Therefore, this approach has a high potential utility for identifying circulating biomarkers in rare diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Biomarker Development and Application)
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19 pages, 3201 KiB  
Article
A GC-MS Chemotaxonomic Study on Lipophilic Compounds in the Bark of S. aucuparia subsp. sibirica Trees from the Population Growing in Akademgorodok, Novosibirsk (Russia)
by Asya R. Vasilieva, Nikolay M. Slynko, Ljudmila E. Tatarova, Vadim M. Efimov, Leonid V. Kuibida, Sergey V. Asbaganov and Sergey E. Peltek
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 768; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060768 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 922
Abstract
Determination of chemotypes and of their role in the polymorphism of populations is an important field in the research on secondary metabolites of plants. In the present study, by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, the composition of bark extracts from rowan S. [...] Read more.
Determination of chemotypes and of their role in the polymorphism of populations is an important field in the research on secondary metabolites of plants. In the present study, by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, the composition of bark extracts from rowan S. aucuparia subsp. sibirica was determined for 16 trees growing within Akademgorodok of Novosibirsk, with bark samples collected both in winter and summer. Among 101 fully or partially identified metabolites, there are alkanes, alkenes, linear alcohols, fatty acids and their derivatives, phenols and their derivatives, prunasin and its parent and derivative compounds, polyprenes and their derivatives, cyclic diterpenes, and phytosterols. These compounds were grouped according to their biosynthesis pathways. Cluster analysis revealed two groups among the bark samples collected in winter and three groups among bark samples collected in summer. The key determinants of this clustering are the biosynthesis of metabolites via the cyanogenic pathway (especially potentially toxic prunasin) and their formation via the phytosterol pathway (especially potentially pharmacologically useful lupeol). It follows from the results that the presence of chemotypes having sharply different profiles of metabolites in a population from a small geographic area invalidates the practice of general sampling to obtain averaged data when a population is described. From the standpoint of possible industrial use or plant selection based on metabolomic data, it is possible to select specific sets of samples containing a minimal amount of potentially toxic compounds and the largest amount of potentially useful substances. Full article
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10 pages, 454 KiB  
Review
Association of Selenium Intake and Selenium Concentrations with Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Adults: A Narrative Review
by Maha Alharithy and Nora Alafif
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060767 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
Several recent studies have suggested selenium (Se) as a potential risk factor for diabetes mellitus (DM); however, the relationship between high Se levels and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk remains unclear. This review article aimed to provide a comprehensive discussion to clarify [...] Read more.
Several recent studies have suggested selenium (Se) as a potential risk factor for diabetes mellitus (DM); however, the relationship between high Se levels and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk remains unclear. This review article aimed to provide a comprehensive discussion to clarify the association between high dietary Se intake and blood Se concentrations and the risk of T2DM among adults. We conducted searches in the PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases for the years 2016 to 2022 and evaluated 12 articles from systematic reviews, meta-analyses, cohort studies, and cross-sectional studies. This review found a controversial association between high blood Se concentrations and T2DM risk while demonstrating a positive correlation with DM risk. In contrast, there are conflicting results regarding the association between high dietary Se intake and T2DM risk. Thus, longitudinal studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to better elucidate the link. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metabolism and Nutrition Physiology)
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13 pages, 2178 KiB  
Article
The Selective LAT1 Inhibitor JPH203 Enhances Mitochondrial Metabolism and Content in Insulin-Sensitive and Insulin-Resistant C2C12 Myotubes
by Caroline N. Rivera, Carly E. Smith, Lillian V. Draper, Gabriela E. Ochoa, Rachel M. Watne, Andrew J. Wommack and Roger A. Vaughan
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060766 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
Population data have shown an association between higher circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and the severity of insulin resistance in people with diabetes. While several studies have assessed BCAA metabolism as a potential target for regulation, less attention has been paid to the [...] Read more.
Population data have shown an association between higher circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and the severity of insulin resistance in people with diabetes. While several studies have assessed BCAA metabolism as a potential target for regulation, less attention has been paid to the role of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), the primary transporter of BCAA in skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of JPH203 (JPH), a LAT1 inhibitor, on myotube metabolism in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant myotubes. C2C12 myotubes were treated with or without 1 μM or 2 μM JPH for 24 h with or without insulin resistance. Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to assess protein content and gene expression, respectively. Mitochondrial and glycolytic metabolism were measured via Seahorse Assay, and fluorescent staining was used to measure mitochondrial content. BCAA media content was quantified using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. JPH at 1 μM (but not 2 μM) increased mitochondrial metabolism and content without inducing changes in mRNA expression of transcripts associated with mitochondrial biogenesis or mitochondrial dynamics. Along with increased mitochondrial function, 1μM treatment also reduced extracellular leucine and valine. JPH at 2 μM reduced pAkt signaling and increased extracellular accumulation of isoleucine without inducing changes in BCAA metabolic genes. Collectively, JPH may increase mitochondrial function independent of the mitochondrial biogenic transcription pathway; however, high doses may reduce insulin signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insulin Signaling in Metabolic Homeostasis and Disease)
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21 pages, 6497 KiB  
Article
Exogenous TiO2 Nanoparticles Alleviate Cd Toxicity by Reducing Cd Uptake and Regulating Plant Physiological Activity and Antioxidant Defense Systems in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
by Anas Iqbal, Zhaowen Mo, Sheng-Gang Pan, Jian-Ying Qi, Tian Hua, Muhammad Imran, Meiyang Duan, Qichang Gu, Xiang-Bin Yao and Xiangru Tang
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060765 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) is a potentially hazardous element with significant biological toxicity, negatively affecting plant growth and physio-biochemical metabolism. Thus, it is necessary to examine practical and eco-friendly approaches to reduce Cd toxicity. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are growth regulators that help [...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) is a potentially hazardous element with significant biological toxicity, negatively affecting plant growth and physio-biochemical metabolism. Thus, it is necessary to examine practical and eco-friendly approaches to reduce Cd toxicity. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are growth regulators that help in nutrient uptake and improve plant defense systems against abiotic and biological stress. A pot experiment was performed in the late rice-growing season (July—November) 2022 to explore the role of TiO2-NPs in relieving Cd toxicity on leaf physiological activity, biochemical attributes, and plant antioxidant defense systems of two different fragrant rice cultivars, i.e., Xiangyaxiangzhan (XGZ) and Meixiangzhan-2 (MXZ-2). Both cultivars were cultivated under normal and Cd-stress conditions. Different doses of TiO2-NPs with and without Cd-stress conditions were studied. The treatment combinations were: Cd−, 0 mg/kg CdCl2·2.5 H2O; Cd+, 50 mg/kg CdCl2·2.5 H2O; Cd + NP1, 50 mg/kg Cd + 50 TiO2-NPs mg/L; Cd + NP2, 50 mg/kg Cd + 100 TiO2-NPs mg/L; Cd + NP3, 50 mg/kg Cd + 200 TiO2-NPs mg/L; Cd + NP4, 50 mg/kg Cd + 400 TiO2-NPs mg/L. Our results showed that the Cd stress significantly (p < 0.05) decreased leaf photosynthetic efficiency, stomatal traits, antioxidant enzyme activities, and the expression of their encoding genes and protein content. Moreover, Cd toxicity destabilized plant metabolism owing to greater accretion of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels at vegetative and reproductive stages. However, TiO2-NPs application improved leaf photosynthetic efficacy, stomatal traits, and protein and antioxidant enzyme activities under Cd toxicity. Application of TiO2-NPs decreased the uptake and accumulation of Cd in plants and levels of H2O2 and MDA, thereby helping to relieve Cd-induced peroxidation damage of leaf membrane lipids by enhancing the activities of different enzymes like ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POS), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Average increases in SOD, APX, CAT, and POS activities of 120.5 and 110.4%, 116.2 and 123.4%, 41.4 and 43.8%, and 36.6 and 34.2% in MXZ-2 and XGZ, respectively, were noted in Cd + NP3 treatment across the growth stages as compared with Cd-stressed plants without NPs. Moreover, the correlation analysis revealed that the leaf net photosynthetic rate is strongly associated with leaf proline and soluble protein content, suggesting that a higher net photosynthetic rate results in higher leaf proline and soluble protein content. Of the treatments, the Cd + NP3 (50 mg/kg Cd + 200 mg/L TiO2-NPs) performed the best for both fragrant rice cultivars under Cd toxicity. Our results showed that TiO2-NPs strengthened rice metabolism through an enhanced antioxidant defense system across the growth stages, thereby improving plant physiological activity and biochemical characteristics under Cd toxicity. Full article
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28 pages, 26521 KiB  
Article
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Saussurea costus as Therapeutic Agents against a Diabetic Rat Model—Approaches to Investigate Pharmacophore Modeling of Human IkB Kinase and Molecular Interaction with Dehydrocostus Lactone of Saussurea costus
by Metab A. AlGeffari, Dina Mansour, Omar Ahmed-Farid, Einas Mohamed Yousef, Shereen A. Mohamed, Mahmoud M. A. Moustafa, Hassan Barakat and Khalid Abd El Ghany
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060764 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1377
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria is well-known as a vital strategy to alleviate or prevent diabetes. Similarly, the plant Saussurea costus (Falc) Lipsch is a preventive power against diabetes. Here, we aimed to determine whether lactic acid bacteria or Saussurea costus is more effective in [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria is well-known as a vital strategy to alleviate or prevent diabetes. Similarly, the plant Saussurea costus (Falc) Lipsch is a preventive power against diabetes. Here, we aimed to determine whether lactic acid bacteria or Saussurea costus is more effective in treating a diabetic rat model in a comparative study manner. An in vivo experiment was conducted to test the therapeutic activity of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (MW719476.1) and S. costus plants against an alloxan-induced diabetic rat model. Molecular, biochemical, and histological analyses were investigated to evaluate the therapeutic characteristics of different treatments. The high dose of S. costus revealed the best downregulated expression for the IKBKB, IKBKG, NfkB1, IL-17A, IL-6, IL-17F, IL-1β, TNF-α, TRAF6, and MAPK genes compared to Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and the control groups. The downregulation of IKBKB by S. costus could be attributed to dehydrocostus lactone as an active compound with proposed antidiabetic activity. So, we performed another pharmacophore modeling analysis to test the possible interaction between human IkB kinase beta protein and dehydrocostus lactone as an antidiabetic drug. Molecular docking and MD simulation data confirmed the interaction between human IkB kinase beta protein and dehydrocostus lactone as a possible drug. The target genes are important in regulating type 2 diabetes mellitus signaling, lipid and atherosclerosis signaling, NF-κB signaling, and IL-17 signaling pathways. In conclusion, the S. costus plant could be a promising source of novel therapeutic agents for treating diabetes and its complications. Dehydrocostus lactone caused the ameliorative effect of S. costus by its interaction with human IkB kinase beta protein. Further, future studies could be conducted to find the clinical efficacy of dehydrocostus lactone. Full article
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13 pages, 3677 KiB  
Article
Untargeted Metabolomics Approach for the Differentiation between Panax vietnamensis var. vietnamensis and Panax vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus
by Huy Truong Nguyen, Long Ke Phan, Kim-Long Vu Huynh, Thuc-Huy Duong, Huong Thuy Le, Nguyen Trang Hai-Yen, Nguyen Thi Hai Yen, Nguyen Phuoc Long and Minh Duc Nguyen
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060763 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2222
Abstract
Panax vietnamensis var. vietnamensis (PVV) and Panax vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus (PVF) both belong to Panax vietnamensis species and are chemically and morphologically similar, making it hard to distinguish for the consumer. Herein, 42 PVF and 12 PVV samples were collected in Quang Nam [...] Read more.
Panax vietnamensis var. vietnamensis (PVV) and Panax vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus (PVF) both belong to Panax vietnamensis species and are chemically and morphologically similar, making it hard to distinguish for the consumer. Herein, 42 PVF and 12 PVV samples were collected in Quang Nam and Lai Chau Province, respectively, and subsequently characterized by ITSr-DNA sequence data to verify their origins. Next, untargeted metabolomics combined with multivariate statistical analysis was developed to differentiate PVV and PVF. The metabolic profiles of PVV and PVF were found to be distinct and classified well using Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) in the training set. Among them, seven ginsenosides were of high abundance in PVV, while six were of high abundance in PVF. Next, the test set was used to validate 13 putative differential markers found in the training set, illustrating a complete match with the expression patterns of these ginsenosides in the training set. Finally, PLS-DA and linear Support Vector Machine models both indicated distinct ginsenoside profiles of PVV and PVF without misclassification in the test set. Conclusively, the developed untargeted metabolomics approach might serve as a powerful tool for the authentication of PVV and PVF at the metabolome level. Full article
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16 pages, 1886 KiB  
Article
Chemical Characterization and In Vitro Gas Production Kinetics of Alternative Feed Resources for Small Ruminants in the Maltese Islands
by Grazia Pastorelli, Kalliroi Simeonidis, Massimo Faustini, Angelo Le Mura, Mariagrazia Cavalleri, Valentina Serra and Everaldo Attard
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060762 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
The ever-increasing human population, the problem associated with climate change and recent crises—COVID-19 disease and trade conflicts—all impacted on the availability and cost of animal feed raw materials. This is clearly visible in realities which heavily rely on importation such as islands and [...] Read more.
The ever-increasing human population, the problem associated with climate change and recent crises—COVID-19 disease and trade conflicts—all impacted on the availability and cost of animal feed raw materials. This is clearly visible in realities which heavily rely on importation such as islands and small states, where producers involved in the agricultural sector were strongly affected by the sharp increase in prices. To deal with these global issues, alternative resources are perceived to replace conventional ingredients. This work aimed at assessing the nutritive value of different resources (sheep feed, mature carob, Maltese bread, wild asparagus, prickly lettuce, and loquat) for small ruminants present in the Maltese Islands, analyzing their chemical composition, gas production kinetics and antioxidant properties. In general, the variation in chemical composition resulted in different rumen fermentation kinetics (p < 0.007). The ratio between GP-24 h and GP-48 h was higher in Maltese bread than other substrates; loquat, prickly lettuce and wild asparagus showed lower fermentation kinetics in accordance with their high NDF and ADF contents. The antioxidant activity may be partially related to the polyphenolic content that was higher in wild asparagus, prickly lettuce and loquat. All feed characteristic confirmed their potential to be included as ingredients in ruminant diets and as a source of fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feedlot Ruminant Nutrition and Metabolism)
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10 pages, 3135 KiB  
Article
Non-Targeted Metabolomic Study of Fetal Growth Restriction
by Fang Chen, Zhi Li, Yanwen Xu, Shuang Huang, Yanqiu Li and Weiying Jiang
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060761 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1649
Abstract
We aimed to explore the differential metabolites in amniotic fluid and its cells from fetuses with fetal growth restriction (FGR). A total of 28 specimens of amniotic fluid were collected, including 18 with FGR and 10 controls. Differential metabolites in all samples were [...] Read more.
We aimed to explore the differential metabolites in amniotic fluid and its cells from fetuses with fetal growth restriction (FGR). A total of 28 specimens of amniotic fluid were collected, including 18 with FGR and 10 controls. Differential metabolites in all samples were detected by chromatography–mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to analyze the differences in metabolic spectra between the FGR and control groups through multidimensional and single-dimensional statistical analysis. The KEGG database was used for metabolic pathway enrichment analysis. Both PCA and OPLS-DA models showed a clear separation trend between FGR and control groups. We identified 27 differentially expressed metabolites in the amniotic fluid supernatant of the two groups (p < 0.05), of which 14 metabolites were up-regulated in the FGR group, and 13 metabolites, such as glutamate, phenylalanine, valine and leucine, were down-regulated. We also identified 20 differentially expressed metabolites in the amniotic fluid cell (p < 0.05), of which 9 metabolites, including malic acid, glycolic acid and D-glycerate, were up-regulated significantly and 11 metabolites, including glyceraldehyde, were down-regulated. Pathway analysis showed that most of the identified differential metabolites were involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), ABC transport, amino acid metabolism pathways and so on. The results indicated that many metabolic changes associated with FGR, which are mainly manifested by abnormal metabolism of amino acid in amniotic fluid and abnormal glucose metabolism including TCA cycle in amniotic fluid cells, respectively. Our findings provide more data for exploring the mechanism of FGR and the potential therapy targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic Profiles and Biomarkers in Pregnancy)
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27 pages, 3516 KiB  
Review
Dietary Patterns, Gut Microbiota Remodeling, and Cardiometabolic Disease
by Letizia Guiducci, Giuseppina Nicolini and Francesca Forini
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060760 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2000
Abstract
The cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, collectively known as cardiometabolic disease (CMD), are high morbidity and mortality pathologies associated with lower quality of life and increasing health-care costs. The influence of the gut microbiota (GM) in dictating the interpersonal variability in CMD susceptibility, progression [...] Read more.
The cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, collectively known as cardiometabolic disease (CMD), are high morbidity and mortality pathologies associated with lower quality of life and increasing health-care costs. The influence of the gut microbiota (GM) in dictating the interpersonal variability in CMD susceptibility, progression and treatment response is beginning to be deciphered, as is the mutualistic relation established between the GM and diet. In particular, dietary factors emerge as pivotal determinants shaping the architecture and function of resident microorganisms in the human gut. In turn, intestinal microbes influence the absorption, metabolism, and storage of ingested nutrients, with potentially profound effects on host physiology. Herein, we present an updated overview on major effects of dietary components on the GM, highlighting the beneficial and detrimental consequences of diet–microbiota crosstalk in the setting of CMD. We also discuss the promises and challenges of integrating microbiome data in dietary planning aimed at restraining CMD onset and progression with a more personalized nutritional approach. Full article
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25 pages, 3139 KiB  
Article
Differences in the Production of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) and Other Metabolites of Plenodomus (Leptosphaeria) Infecting Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)
by Artur Nowak, Mateusz Kutyła, Joanna Kaczmarek, Jolanta Jaroszuk-Ściseł and Małgorzata Jędryczka
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060759 - 17 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1407
Abstract
Species of the genus Plenodomus (Leptosphaeria) are phytopathogens of the Brassicaceae family, which includes oilseed rape. The spores of these fungi spread by airborne transmission, infect plants, and cause crop losses. The secondary metabolism of P. lingam and P. biglobosus was [...] Read more.
Species of the genus Plenodomus (Leptosphaeria) are phytopathogens of the Brassicaceae family, which includes oilseed rape. The spores of these fungi spread by airborne transmission, infect plants, and cause crop losses. The secondary metabolism of P. lingam and P. biglobosus was studied and compared, with the main focus being on the ability to produce Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS). In spite of the 1.5–2-fold faster growth rate of P. biglobosus on Czapek-Dox and other screening media, the average yield of EPS in this fungus was only 0.29 g/L, compared to that of P. lingam (0.43 g/L). In turn, P. biglobosus showed a higher capacity to synthesise IAA, i.e., 14 µg/mL, in contrast to <1.5 µg/mL produced by P. lingam. On the other hand, the P. lingam strains showed higher β-glucanase activity (350–400 mU/mL), compared to 50–100 mU/mL in P. biglobosus. Invertase levels were similar in both species (250 mU/mL). The positive correlation between invertase activity and EPS yield contrasted with the absence of a correlation of EPS with β-glucanase. Plenodomus neither solubilised phosphate nor used proteins from milk. All strains showed the ability to synthesise siderophores on CAS agar. P. biglobosus exhibited the highest efficiency of amylolytic and cellulolytic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Secondary Metabolites in Fungi-Plant Interactions)
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14 pages, 1666 KiB  
Article
Hecogenin a Plant Derived Small Molecule as an Antagonist to BACE-1: A Potential Target for Neurodegenerative Disorders
by Deepthi Padmanabhan, Manzer H. Siddiqui, Purushothaman Natarajan and Senthilkumar Palanisamy
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060758 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1626
Abstract
The field of drug discovery has recognized the significance of computer-aided drug design. Recent advancements in structure identification and characterization, bio-computational science and molecular biology have significantly contributed to the development of novel treatments for various diseases. Alzheimer’s disease is prevalent in over [...] Read more.
The field of drug discovery has recognized the significance of computer-aided drug design. Recent advancements in structure identification and characterization, bio-computational science and molecular biology have significantly contributed to the development of novel treatments for various diseases. Alzheimer’s disease is prevalent in over 50 million affected people, with the pathological condition of amyloidal plaque formation by the beta-amyloidal peptide that results in lesions of the patient’s brain, thus making the target prediction and treatment a hurdle. In this study, we evaluated the potential of 54 bioactive compounds from Justicia adhatoda L. and Sida cordifolia L. identified through LC-MS/MS against the β-site amyloid precursor cleaving enzyme (beta-secretase) that results in the formation of amyloidal plaques. To study the drug-likeness of the phytocompounds, Lipinski’s rule of five for ADME profiling and toxicity prediction was performed. Molecular docking was performed using auto-dock tool of PyRx software; molecular dynamic simulations were performed using the Schrodinger suite. Molecular docking against BACE-1 protein revealed that hecogenin, identified from S. cordifolia has a broad spectrum of pharmacological applications and a binding affinity score of −11.3 kcal/Mol. The Hecogenin–BACE-1 protein complex was found to be stable after 30 ns of MD simulation, resulting in its substantial stability. Further studies focusing on the in vivo neuroprotective activity of hecogenin against the disease will pave the way for efficient drug discovery from natural sources in a precise manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Metabolomic Analysis in Medicinal Plants)
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17 pages, 791 KiB  
Review
Metabolic-Associated Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance: A Review of Complex Interlinks
by Thomas M. Barber, Stefan Kabisch, Andreas F. H. Pfeiffer and Martin O. Weickert
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060757 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1681
Abstract
Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) has now surpassed alcohol excess as the most common cause of chronic liver disease globally, affecting one in four people. Given its prevalence, MAFLD is an important cause of cirrhosis, even though only a small proportion of patients [...] Read more.
Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) has now surpassed alcohol excess as the most common cause of chronic liver disease globally, affecting one in four people. Given its prevalence, MAFLD is an important cause of cirrhosis, even though only a small proportion of patients with MAFLD ultimately progress to cirrhosis. MAFLD suffers as a clinical entity due to its insidious and often asymptomatic onset, lack of an accurate and reliable non-invasive diagnostic test, and lack of a bespoke therapy that has been designed and approved for use specifically in MAFLD. MAFLD sits at a crossroads between the gut and the periphery. The development of MAFLD (including activation of the inflammatory cascade) is influenced by gut-related factors that include the gut microbiota and intactness of the gut mucosal wall. The gut microbiota may interact directly with the liver parenchyma (through translocation via the portal vein), or indirectly through the release of metabolic metabolites that include secondary bile acids, trimethylamine, and short-chain fatty acids (such as propionate and acetate). In turn, the liver mediates the metabolic status of peripheral tissues (including insulin sensitivity) through a complex interplay of hepatokines, liver-secreted metabolites, and liver-derived micro RNAs. As such, the liver plays a key central role in influencing overall metabolic status. In this concise review, we provide an overview of the complex mechanisms whereby MAFLD influences the development of insulin resistance within the periphery, and gut-related factors impact on the development of MAFLD. We also discuss lifestyle strategies for optimising metabolic liver health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insulin Signaling in Metabolic Homeostasis and Disease)
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20 pages, 877 KiB  
Review
Maternal and Child Health, Non-Communicable Diseases and Metabolites
by Marlon E. Cerf
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060756 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1639
Abstract
Mothers influence the health and disease trajectories of their children, particularly during the critical developmental windows of fetal and neonatal life reflecting the gestational–fetal and lactational–neonatal phases. As children grow and develop, they are exposed to various stimuli and insults, such as metabolites, [...] Read more.
Mothers influence the health and disease trajectories of their children, particularly during the critical developmental windows of fetal and neonatal life reflecting the gestational–fetal and lactational–neonatal phases. As children grow and develop, they are exposed to various stimuli and insults, such as metabolites, that shape their physiology and metabolism to impact their health. Non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and mental illness, have high global prevalence and are increasing in incidence. Non-communicable diseases often overlap with maternal and child health. The maternal milieu shapes progeny outcomes, and some diseases, such as gestational diabetes and preeclampsia, have gestational origins. Metabolite aberrations occur from diets and physiological changes. Differential metabolite profiles can predict the onset of non-communicable diseases and therefore inform prevention and/or better treatment. In mothers and children, understanding the metabolite influence on health and disease can provide insights for maintaining maternal physiology and sustaining optimal progeny health over the life course. The role and interplay of metabolites on physiological systems and signaling pathways in shaping health and disease present opportunities for biomarker discovery and identifying novel therapeutic agents, particularly in the context of maternal and child health, and non-communicable diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fetal–Maternal–Neonatal Metabolomics)
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14 pages, 2698 KiB  
Article
Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Detection and Quantification of Meloxicam and 5′-Carboxymeloxicam in Oral Fluid Samples
by Gabriela Moraes Oliveira, Thiago José Dionísio, Viviane Silva Siqueira-Sandrin, Leticia Alves de Lima Ferrari, Bella Luna Colombini-Ishikiriama, Flávio Augusto Cardoso Faria, Carlos Ferreira Santos and Adriana Maria Calvo
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060755 - 15 Jun 2023
Viewed by 962
Abstract
A sensitive, selective and particularly fast method of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination of meloxicam and its main metabolite, 5′-carboxymeloxicam, in oral fluid samples. Meloxicam and its major metabolite were separated using a Shim-Pack XR-ODS 75 [...] Read more.
A sensitive, selective and particularly fast method of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination of meloxicam and its main metabolite, 5′-carboxymeloxicam, in oral fluid samples. Meloxicam and its major metabolite were separated using a Shim-Pack XR-ODS 75 L × 2.0 column and C18 pre-column at 40 °C using a mixture of methanol and 10 mM ammonium acetate (80:20, v/v) with an injection flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The total time of the analytical run was 5 min. Sixteen volunteers had oral fluid samples collected sequentially before and after taking a meloxicam tablet (15 mg) for up to 96 h. With the concentrations obtained, the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using the Phoenix WinNonlin software. The parameters evaluated for meloxicam and 5′-carboxymeloxicam in the oral fluid samples showed linearity, accuracy, precision, medium-quality control (MQC-78.12 ng/mL), high-quality control (HQC-156.25 ng/mL), lower limits of quantification (LLOQ-0.6103 ng/mL), low-quality control (LQC-2.44 ng/mL), stability and dilution. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was also detected and quantified in the oral fluid samples, demonstrating the possibility of a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) study with this methodology. All the parameters evaluated in the validation of the methodology in the oral fluid samples proved to be stable and within the possible variations in each of the described parameters. Through the data presented, the possibility of a PK/PD study was demonstrated, detecting and quantifying meloxicam, its main metabolite and PGE2 in oral fluid samples using LC-MS/MS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salivary Fingerprint in Metabolomics Era: Potential and Challenges)
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12 pages, 930 KiB  
Review
Subclinical Reactive Hypoglycemia with Low Glucose Effectiveness—Why We Cannot Stop Snacking despite Gaining Weight
by Ichiro Kishimoto
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060754 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1849
Abstract
Obesity has grown worldwide owing to modern obesogenic lifestyles, including frequent snacking. Recently, we studied continuous glucose monitoring in obese/overweight men without diabetes and found that half of them exhibit glucose levels less than 70 mg/dL after a 75-g oral glucose load without [...] Read more.
Obesity has grown worldwide owing to modern obesogenic lifestyles, including frequent snacking. Recently, we studied continuous glucose monitoring in obese/overweight men without diabetes and found that half of them exhibit glucose levels less than 70 mg/dL after a 75-g oral glucose load without notable hypoglycemic symptoms. Interestingly, people with “subclinical reactive hypoglycemia (SRH)” snack more frequently than those without it. Since the ingestion of sugary snacks or drinks could further induce SRH, a vicious cycle of “Snacking begets snacking via SRH” can be formed. Glucose effectiveness (Sg) is an insulin-independent mechanism that contributes to most of the whole-body glucose disposal after an oral glucose load in people without diabetes. Our recent data suggest that both higher and lower Sg are associated with SRH, while the latter but not the former is linked to snacking habits, obesity, and dysglycemia. The present review addresses the possible role of SRH in snacking habits in people with obesity/overweight, taking Sg into account. It is concluded that, for those with low Sg, SRH can be regarded as a link between snacking and obesity. Prevention of SRH by raising Sg might be key to controlling snacking habits and body weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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12 pages, 1253 KiB  
Article
Biliary Amino Acids and Telocytes in Gallstone Disease
by Jolanta Bugajska, Joanna Berska, Artur Pasternak and Krystyna Sztefko
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060753 - 14 Jun 2023
Viewed by 978
Abstract
The role of amino acids in cholesterol gallstone formation is not known. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the amino acid profile in the bile of patients with and without cholecystolithiasis in relation to bile lithogenicity and telocyte numbers within [...] Read more.
The role of amino acids in cholesterol gallstone formation is not known. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the amino acid profile in the bile of patients with and without cholecystolithiasis in relation to bile lithogenicity and telocyte numbers within the gallbladder wall. The study included 23 patients with cholecystolithiasis and 12 gallstone-free controls. The levels of free amino acids in the bile were measured, and telocytes were identified and quantified in the gallbladder muscle wall. The mean values of valine, isoleucine, threonine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, glutamic acid, serine alanine, proline and cystine were significantly higher in the study group than in the controls (p from 0.0456 to 0.000005), and the mean value of cystine was significantly lower in patients with gallstone disease than in the controls (p = 0.0033). The relationship between some of the amino acids, namely alanine, glutamic acid, proline, cholesterol saturation index (CSI) and the number of telocytes was significant (r = 0.5374, p = 0.0051; r = 0.5519, p = 0.0036; and r = 0.5231, p = 0.0071, respectively). The present study indicates a potential relationship between the altered amino acid composition of bile and the reduced number of telocytes in the gallbladder muscle wall in cholelithiasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology and Clinical Metabolic Research)
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1 pages, 168 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Maynard et al. Notes from the 2022 Folate, Vitamin B12, and One-Carbon Metabolism Conference. Metabolites 2023, 13, 486
by Adam G. Maynard, Boryana Petrova and Naama Kanarek
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060752 - 14 Jun 2023
Viewed by 612
Abstract
Thanks to feedback from several speakers, text was amended, and citations updated, in the original article [...] Full article
12 pages, 959 KiB  
Review
Modes of Action of 1,8-Cineol in Infections and Inflammation
by Ralph Pries, Stephanie Jeschke, Anke Leichtle and Karl-Ludwig Bruchhage
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060751 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2554
Abstract
The monoterpene 1,8-Cineol is a natural plant-based therapeutic agent that is commonly applied to treat different inflammatory diseases due to its mucolytic, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties. It has become increasingly clear in the recent years that 1,8-Cineol spreads almost everywhere in the human [...] Read more.
The monoterpene 1,8-Cineol is a natural plant-based therapeutic agent that is commonly applied to treat different inflammatory diseases due to its mucolytic, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties. It has become increasingly clear in the recent years that 1,8-Cineol spreads almost everywhere in the human body after its oral administration, from the gut to the blood to the brain. Its anti-microbial potential and even its anti-viral effects have been observed to include numerous bacteria and fungi species. Many recent studies help to better understand the cellular and molecular immunological consequences of 1,8-Cineol treatment in inflammatory diseases and further provide information concerning the mechanistic modes of action in the regulation of distinct inflammatory biosynthetic pathways. This review aims to present a holistic and understandable overview of the different aspects of 1,8-Cineol in infections and inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Metabolites from Natural Sources)
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15 pages, 1125 KiB  
Article
In Vitro and In Silico Anti-Picornavirus Triterpene Alkanoic Acid Ester from Saudi Collection of Rhazya stricta Decne
by Maged S. Abdel-Kader, Fahad S. Almutib, Abdullah F. Aldosari, Gamal A. Soliman, Hisham Y. Elzorba, Mohammed H. Alqarni, Reham S. Ibrahim and Hala H. Zaatout
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060750 - 13 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1415
Abstract
The total alcohol extract obtained from the aerial parts of R. stricta and fractions of the liquid–liquid fractionation process were tested against picornavirus-causing foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) based on the traditional use of the plant in Saudi Arabia. The most active petroleum ether soluble [...] Read more.
The total alcohol extract obtained from the aerial parts of R. stricta and fractions of the liquid–liquid fractionation process were tested against picornavirus-causing foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) based on the traditional use of the plant in Saudi Arabia. The most active petroleum ether soluble fraction was subjected to chromatographic purification, and nine compounds were isolated, identified using various chemical and spectroscopic methods, and tested for their anti-viral potential. The new ester identified as α-Amyrin 3-(3′R-hydroxy)-hexadecanoate (1) was the most active compound with 51% inhibition of the viral growth and was given the name Rhazyin A. Compounds with ursane skeleton were more active than those with lupane skeleton except in the case of the acid derivatives where betulenic acid showed 26.1% inhibition against the viral growth, while ursolic acid showed only 16.6% inhibition. Moreover, molecular docking analysis using a glide extra-precision module was utilized for investigating the possible molecular interactions accounting for anti-viral activity against picornavirus of the nine isolated compounds. Molecular docking studies revealed a strong binding of the discovered hits within the active site of FMDV 3Cpro. Compound 1 showed the lowest docking score within the nine isolated compounds comparable to the two known anti-viral drugs; glycyrrhizic acid and ribavirin. The results of this research will provide lead candidates from natural origin with potential safety and efficacy compared to the synthetic ones with lower production costs for managing FMVD. Full article
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12 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
Maternal and Cord Blood Serum Metabolite Associations with Childhood Adiposity and Body Composition Outcomes
by Monica E. Bianco, My H. Vu, James R. Bain, Michael J. Muehlbauer, Olga R. Ilkayeva, Denise M. Scholtens, Jami Josefson and William L. Lowe, Jr.
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060749 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Maternal metabolites influence the size of newborns independently of maternal body mass index (BMI) and glycemia, highlighting the importance of maternal metabolism on offspring outcomes. This study examined associations of maternal metabolites during pregnancy with childhood adiposity, and cord blood metabolites with childhood [...] Read more.
Maternal metabolites influence the size of newborns independently of maternal body mass index (BMI) and glycemia, highlighting the importance of maternal metabolism on offspring outcomes. This study examined associations of maternal metabolites during pregnancy with childhood adiposity, and cord blood metabolites with childhood adiposity using phenotype and metabolomic data from the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study and the HAPO Follow-Up Study. The maternal metabolites analyses included 2324 mother–offspring pairs, while the cord blood metabolites analyses included 937 offspring. Multiple logistic and linear regression were used to examine associations between primary predictors, maternal or cord blood metabolites, and childhood adiposity outcomes. Multiple maternal fasting and 1 hr metabolites were significantly associated with childhood adiposity outcomes in Model 1 but were no longer significant after adjusting for maternal BMI and/or maternal glycemia. In the fully adjusted model, fasting lactose levels were negatively associated with child BMI z-scores and waist circumference, while fasting urea levels were positively associated with waist circumference. One-hour methionine was positively associated with fat-free mass. There were no significant associations between cord blood metabolites and childhood adiposity outcomes. Few metabolites were associated with childhood adiposity outcomes after adjusting for maternal BMI and glucose, suggesting that maternal BMI accounts for the association between maternal metabolites and childhood adiposity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fetal–Maternal–Neonatal Metabolomics)
19 pages, 2616 KiB  
Article
Pseudobombax parvifolium Hydroalcoholic Bark Extract: Chemical Characterisation and Cytotoxic, Mutagenic, and Preclinical Aspects Associated with a Protective Effect on Oxidative Stress
by Tiago Felipe de Senes-Lopes, Jefferson Romáryo Duarte da Luz, Zaira da Rosa Guterres, Eder A. Barbosa, Débora Batista, Ony Araújo Galdino, Marcela Abbott Galvão Ururahy, Elizabeth Cristina Gomes dos Santos, Jorge A. López, Gabriel Araujo-Silva and Maria das Graças Almeida
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060748 - 13 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1128
Abstract
Plants have long been used in traditional medicine to treat illnesses. Nevertheless, their chemical diversity requires studies to establish the extract dosage and its safe use. Pseudobombax parvifolium, an endemic species of the Brazilian Caatinga biome, is commonly used in folk medicine, [...] Read more.
Plants have long been used in traditional medicine to treat illnesses. Nevertheless, their chemical diversity requires studies to establish the extract dosage and its safe use. Pseudobombax parvifolium, an endemic species of the Brazilian Caatinga biome, is commonly used in folk medicine, due to its anti-inflammatory properties related to cellular oxidative stress; however, its biological properties have scarcely been studied. In this study, we chemically characterized the P. parvifolium hydroalcoholic bark extract (EBHE) and evaluated its cytotoxic, mutagenic, and preclinical aspects, as well as its antioxidant effect. Our phytochemical analysis revealed a significative total polyphenol content and identified loliolide for the first time in this species. Cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and acute oral and repeated dose indicated no toxic effects on cell culture, Drosophila melanogaster, and Wistar rat exposure to different EBHE concentrations, respectively. Furthermore, we observed a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation and a mild hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect with repeated oral dosing of EBHE. Although there were no significant changes in glutathione content, we did observe a significant increase in superoxide dismutase at a dose of 400 mg/kg and in glutathione peroxidase at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg. These findings suggest that EBHE has potential as a source of bioactive molecules, and it can be used safely in traditional medicine and in the development of herbal medicines for application in the public health system. Full article
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15 pages, 2120 KiB  
Article
Multiple Metabolic Engineering Strategies to Improve Shikimate Titer in Escherichia coli
by Taidong Bo, Chen Wu, Zeting Wang, Hao Jiang, Feiao Wang, Ning Chen and Yanjun Li
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060747 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
Shikimate is a valuable chiral precursor for synthesizing oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) and other chemicals. High production of shikimate via microbial fermentation has attracted increasing attention to overcome the unstable and expensive supply of shikimate extracted from plant resources. The current cost of [...] Read more.
Shikimate is a valuable chiral precursor for synthesizing oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) and other chemicals. High production of shikimate via microbial fermentation has attracted increasing attention to overcome the unstable and expensive supply of shikimate extracted from plant resources. The current cost of microbial production of shikimate via engineered strains is still unsatisfactory, and thus more metabolic strategies need to be investigated to further increase the production efficiency. In this study, we first constructed a shikimate E. coli producer through the application of the non-phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (non-PTS) glucose uptake pathway, the attenuation of the shikimate degradation metabolism, and the introduction of a mutant of feedback-resistant 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase. Inspired by the natural presence of bifunctional 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase (DHD)-shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme in plants, we then designed an artificial fusion protein of DHD-SDH to decrease the accumulation of the byproduct 3-dehydroshikimate (DHS). Subsequently, a repressed shikimate kinase (SK) mutant was selected to promote shikimate accumulation without the supplementation of expensive aromatic substances. Furthermore, EsaR-based quorum sensing (QS) circuits were employed to regulate the metabolic flux distribution between cell growth and product synthesis. The final engineered strain dSA10 produced 60.31 g/L shikimate with a yield of 0.30 g/g glucose in a 5 L bioreactor. Full article
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14 pages, 450 KiB  
Article
Dietary Inflammatory and Insulinemic Potentials, Plasma Metabolome and Risk of Colorectal Cancer
by Dong Hoon Lee, Qi Jin, Ni Shi, Fenglei Wang, Alaina M. Bever, Jun Li, Liming Liang, Frank B. Hu, Mingyang Song, Oana A. Zeleznik, Xuehong Zhang, Amit Joshi, Kana Wu, Justin Y. Jeon, Jeffrey A. Meyerhardt, Andrew T. Chan, A. Heather Eliassen, Clary B. Clish, Steven K. Clinton, Edward L. Giovannucci and Fred K. Tabungadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060744 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1607
Abstract
The inflammatory and insulinemic potentials of diets have been associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, it is unknown whether the plasma metabolite profiles related to inflammatory diets, or to insulinemic diets, underlie this association. The aim of this study was to evaluate the [...] Read more.
The inflammatory and insulinemic potentials of diets have been associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, it is unknown whether the plasma metabolite profiles related to inflammatory diets, or to insulinemic diets, underlie this association. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between metabolomic profile scores related to the food-based empirical dietary inflammatory patterns (EDIP), the empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH), and plasma inflammation (CRP, IL-6, TNFα-R2, adiponectin) and insulin (C-peptide) biomarkers, and colorectal cancer risk. Elastic net regression was used to derive three metabolomic profile scores for each dietary pattern among 6840 participants from the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study, and associations with CRC risk were examined using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, in a case-control study of 524 matched pairs nested in both cohorts. Among 186 known metabolites, 27 were significantly associated with both the EDIP and inflammatory biomarkers, and 21 were significantly associated with both the EDIH and C-peptide. In men, odds ratios (ORs) of colorectal cancer, per 1 standard deviation (SD) increment in metabolomic score, were 1.91 (1.31–2.78) for the common EDIP and inflammatory-biomarker metabolome, 1.12 (0.78–1.60) for EDIP-only metabolome, and 1.65 (1.16–2.36) for the inflammatory-biomarkers-only metabolome. However, no association was found for EDIH-only, C-peptide-only, and the common metabolomic signatures in men. Moreover, the metabolomic signatures were not associated with colorectal cancer risk among women. Metabolomic profiles reflecting pro-inflammatory diets and inflammation biomarkers were associated with colorectal cancer risk in men, while no association was found in women. Larger studies are needed to confirm our findings. Full article
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25 pages, 378 KiB  
Review
The Relationship between Phthalates and Diabetes: A Review
by Melissa Mariana and Elisa Cairrao
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060746 - 11 Jun 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1807
Abstract
Since the beginning of their production, in the 1930s, phthalates have been widely used in the plastics industry to provide durability and elasticity to polymers that would otherwise be rigid, or as solvents in hygiene and cosmetic products. Taking into account their wide [...] Read more.
Since the beginning of their production, in the 1930s, phthalates have been widely used in the plastics industry to provide durability and elasticity to polymers that would otherwise be rigid, or as solvents in hygiene and cosmetic products. Taking into account their wide range of applications, it is easy to understand why their use has been increasing over the years, making them ubiquitous in the environment. This way, all living organisms are easily exposed to these compounds, which have already been classified as endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC), affecting hormone homeostasis. Along with this increase in phthalate-containing products, the incidence of several metabolic diseases has also been rising, namely diabetes. That said, and considering that factors such as obesity and genetics are not enough to explain this substantial increase, it has been proposed that the exposure to environmental contaminants may also be a risk factor for diabetes. Thus, the aim of this work is to review whether there is an association between the exposure to phthalates and the development of the several forms of diabetes mellitus, during pregnancy, childhood, and adulthood. Full article
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14 pages, 441 KiB  
Review
Metabolomic Analysis in Neurocritical Care Patients
by Maged Kharouba, Dimple D. Patel, Rami H. Jaber and Sherif Hanafy Mahmoud
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060745 - 11 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1088
Abstract
Metabolomics is the analytical study of metabolites in biological matrices using high-throughput profiling. Traditionally, the metabolome has been studied to identify various biomarkers for the diagnosis and pathophysiology of disease. Over the last decade, metabolomic research has grown to include the identification of [...] Read more.
Metabolomics is the analytical study of metabolites in biological matrices using high-throughput profiling. Traditionally, the metabolome has been studied to identify various biomarkers for the diagnosis and pathophysiology of disease. Over the last decade, metabolomic research has grown to include the identification of prognostic markers, the development of novel treatment strategies, and the prediction of disease severity. In this review, we summarized the available evidence on the use of metabolome profiling in neurocritical care populations. Specifically, we focused on aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, and intracranial hemorrhage to identify the gaps in the current literature and to provide direction for future studies. A primary literature search of the Medline and EMBASE databases was conducted. Upon removing duplicate studies, abstract screening and full-text screening were performed. We screened 648 studies and extracted data from 17 studies. Based on the current evidence, the utility of metabolomic profiling has been limited due to inconsistencies amongst studies and a lack of reproducible data. Studies identified various biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment modification. However, studies evaluated and identified different metabolites, resulting in an inability to compare the study results. Future research towards addressing the gaps in the current literature, including reproducing data on the use of specific metabolite panels, is needed. Full article
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15 pages, 1077 KiB  
Article
Influence of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts on Blood Aminothiols in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease
by Alexander Vladimirovich Ivanov, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Popov, Arkady Andreevich Metelkin, Valery Vasil’evich Aleksandrin, Evgeniy Gennad’evich Agafonov, Maria Petrovna Kruglova, Ekaterina Vladimirovna Silina, Victor Aleksandrovich Stupin, Ruslan Andreevich Maslennikov and Aslan Amirkhanovich Kubatiev
Metabolites 2023, 13(6), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13060743 - 10 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1095
Abstract
Coronary artery disease (CAD) and the coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) are associated with a decreased blood glutathione (bGSH) level. Since GSH metabolism is closely related to other aminothiols (homocysteine and cysteine) and glucose, the aim of this study was to reveal the [...] Read more.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) and the coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) are associated with a decreased blood glutathione (bGSH) level. Since GSH metabolism is closely related to other aminothiols (homocysteine and cysteine) and glucose, the aim of this study was to reveal the associations of bGSH with glucose and plasma aminothiols in CAD patients (N = 35) before CABG and in the early postoperative period. Forty-three volunteers with no history of cardiovascular disease formed the control group. bGSH and its redox status were significantly lower in CAD patients at admission. CABG had no significant effect on these parameters, with the exception of an increase in the bGSH/hemoglobin ratio. At admission, CAD patients were characterized by negative associations of homocysteine and cysteine with bGSH. All these associations disappeared after CABG. An association was found between an increase in oxidized GSH in the blood in the postoperative period and fasting glucose levels. Thus, CAD is associated with the depletion of the intracellular pool and the redox status of bGSH, in which hyperhomocysteinemia and a decrease in the bioavailability of the extracellular pool of cysteine play a role. The present study indicates that CABG causes disruptions in aminothiol metabolism and induces the synthesis of bGSH. Moreover, glucose becomes an important factor in the dysregulation of GSH metabolism in CABG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cardiometabolic Research)
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