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Micromachines, Volume 14, Issue 12 (December 2023) – 125 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Ferroelectret nanogenerators (FENGs) have gained attention for acoustic applications due to their high electromechanical conversion efficiency and low Young’s modulus. This paper reviews advancements in using FENGs for acoustics. It describes FENG operational mechanisms in acoustics, comparing fabrication methods and materials’ effects on properties. FENG acoustic applications are categorized into sensing, actuation, and energy harvesting. Implementations in these areas are detailed, with future directions and challenges outlined. FENG acoustic applications demonstrate adaptability to diverse needs. By showing FENGs’ wide applications range, this paper exhibits their potential to meet individual acoustic requirements through tailored fabrication and implementation. Further materials and design refinements may yield improved FENG acoustic performance. View this paper
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12 pages, 2645 KiB  
Article
An Automated Centrifugal Microfluidic Platform for Efficient Multistep Blood Sample Preparation and Clean-Up towards Small Ion-Molecule Analysis
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2257; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122257 (registering DOI) - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 696
Abstract
Sample preparation for mass spectroscopy typically involves several liquid and solid phase clean-ups, extractions, and other unit operations, which are labour-intensive and error-prone. We demonstrate a centrifugal microfluidic platform that automates the whole blood sample’s preparation and clean-up by combining traditional liquid-phase and [...] Read more.
Sample preparation for mass spectroscopy typically involves several liquid and solid phase clean-ups, extractions, and other unit operations, which are labour-intensive and error-prone. We demonstrate a centrifugal microfluidic platform that automates the whole blood sample’s preparation and clean-up by combining traditional liquid-phase and multiple solid-phase extractions for applications in mass spectroscopy (MS)-based small molecule detection. Liquid phase extraction was performed using methanol to precipitate proteins in plasma separated from a blood sample under centrifugal force. The preloaded solid phase composed of C18 beads then removed lipids with a combination of silica particles, which further cleaned up any remaining proteins. We further integrated the application of this sample prep disc with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS by using glancing angle deposition films, which further cleaned up the processed sample by segregating the electrolyte background from the sample salts. Additionally, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) MS was employed for detecting targeted free amino acids. Therefore, several representative ionic metabolites, including several amino acids and organic acids from blood samples, were analysed by both MALDI-MS and HILIC-MS to demonstrate the performance of this sample preparation disc. The fully automated blood sample preparation procedure only took 35 mins, with a throughput of three parallel units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section B:Biology and Biomedicine)
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7 pages, 2249 KiB  
Communication
Precise Focal Spot Positioning on an Opaque Substrate Based on the Diffraction Phenomenon in Laser Microfabrication
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2256; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122256 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 503
Abstract
The precise positioning of the laser focal spot on the substrate is an important issue for laser microfabrication. In this work, a diffraction pattern-based focal spot positioning method (DFSPM) is proposed to achieve the precise positioning of the laser focal spot on opaque [...] Read more.
The precise positioning of the laser focal spot on the substrate is an important issue for laser microfabrication. In this work, a diffraction pattern-based focal spot positioning method (DFSPM) is proposed to achieve the precise positioning of the laser focal spot on opaque substrates. A series of diffraction patterns of laser focus under-positioning, exact positioning and over-positioning were obtained to investigate the cross-section light distribution of the laser focal spot. According to the monotonic tendency of FWHM to exhibit light intensity at the focal spot cross-section away from the focal plane, the FWHM threshold of polynomial fitted curves was used to determine the exact positioning of laser focus. The ascending scanning method was used to obtain the diffraction patterns at various vertical positions and the FWHM threshold of light distribution at the exact position. The polynomial fitted curves verify the FWHM monotonic tendency of light intensity distribution at the focal spot cross-section along the optical axis. Precise positioning can be achieved with a 100 nm adjustment resolution. This work was expected to provide references for laser microfabrication on opaque materials. Full article
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15 pages, 12829 KiB  
Article
Magnetic-Field-Assisted Scratching Process of Single-Crystal Copper
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2255; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122255 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 474
Abstract
Energy-field-assisted cutting exhibits excellent ability to reduce cutting force and improve machining quality. In this study, a magnetic field was applied in an innovative way to aid in the cutting process, and magnetic-field-assisted scratching experiments of single-crystal copper were carried out. It was [...] Read more.
Energy-field-assisted cutting exhibits excellent ability to reduce cutting force and improve machining quality. In this study, a magnetic field was applied in an innovative way to aid in the cutting process, and magnetic-field-assisted scratching experiments of single-crystal copper were carried out. It was found that magnetic-field-assisted scratching increased the actual scratching force due to the additional Lorentz force in the cutting process. However, the friction coefficient of the magnetic-field-assisted scratching was reduced by 19.4% due to the tribological modification effect on tool/chip contact. Meanwhile, magnetic-field-assisted scratching was conducive to decreasing the degree of chip deformation, reducing microburrs on the machined surface, and obtaining a surface roughness reduction of an average of 26.8%. The possible reason for this effect was that the presence of a magnetic field in the cutting process promoted the dislocation slip of metal materials. The results indicated that magnetic-field-assisted cutting improves the machinability in the metal cutting process. Full article
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13 pages, 3967 KiB  
Article
Chameleon-Inspired Colorimetric Sensors for Real-Time Detections with Humidity
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122254 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 723
Abstract
In recent decades, vapor sensors have gained substantial attention for their crucial roles in environmental monitoring and pharmaceutical applications. Herein, we introduce a chameleon-inspired colorimetric (CIC) sensor, detailing its design, fabrication, and versatile applications. The sensor seamlessly combines a PEDOT:PSS vapor sensor with [...] Read more.
In recent decades, vapor sensors have gained substantial attention for their crucial roles in environmental monitoring and pharmaceutical applications. Herein, we introduce a chameleon-inspired colorimetric (CIC) sensor, detailing its design, fabrication, and versatile applications. The sensor seamlessly combines a PEDOT:PSS vapor sensor with a colorimetric display, using thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC). We further explore the electrical characteristics of the CIC sensor when doped with ethylene glycol (EG) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Comparative analyses of resistance change rates for different weight ratios of EG and PVA provide insights into fine-tuning the sensor’s responsiveness to varying humidity levels. The CIC sensor’s proficiency in measuring ambient humidity is investigated under a voltage input as small as 2.6 V, capturing resistance change rates and colorimetric shifts at relative humidity (RH) levels ranging from 20% to 90%. Notably, the sensor exhibits distinct resistance sensitivities of 9.7 mΩ (0.02% ∆R/R0)/%RH, 0.5 Ω (0.86% ∆R/R0)/%RH, and 5.7 Ω (9.68% ∆R/R0)/%RH at RH 20% to 30%, RH 30% to 80%, and RH 80% to 90%, respectively. Additionally, a linear temperature change is observed with a sensitivity of −0.04 °C/%RH. The sensor also demonstrates a colorimetric temperature sensitivity of −82,036 K/%RH at RH 20% to 30% and −514 K/%RH at RH 30% to 90%, per captured image. Furthermore, real-time measurements of ethanol vapor with varying concentrations showcase the sensor’s applicability in gas sensing applications. Overall, we present a comprehensive exploration of the CIC sensor, emphasizing its design flexibility, electrical characteristics, and diverse sensing capabilities. The sensor’s potential applications extend to real-time environmental monitoring, highlighting its promising role in various gas sensing fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Materials and Microdevices: Fabrications and Applications)
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59 pages, 7841 KiB  
Review
Preparation, Stimulus–Response Mechanisms and Applications of Micro/Nanorobots
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2253; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122253 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Micro- and nanorobots are highly intelligent and efficient. They can perform various complex tasks as per the external stimuli. These robots can adapt to the required functional form, depending on the different stimuli, thus being able to meet the requirements of various application [...] Read more.
Micro- and nanorobots are highly intelligent and efficient. They can perform various complex tasks as per the external stimuli. These robots can adapt to the required functional form, depending on the different stimuli, thus being able to meet the requirements of various application scenarios. So far, microrobots have been widely used in the fields of targeted therapy, drug delivery, tissue engineering, environmental remediation and so on. Although microbots are promising in some fields, few reviews have yet focused on them. It is therefore necessary to outline the current status of these microbots’ development to provide some new insights into the further evolution of this field. This paper critically assesses the research progress of microbots with respect to their preparation methods, stimulus–response mechanisms and applications. It highlights the suitability of different preparation methods and stimulus types, while outlining the challenges experienced by microbots. Viable solutions are also proposed for the promotion of their practical use. Full article
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12 pages, 3234 KiB  
Article
Development of Microrobot with Optical Magnetic Dual Control for Regulation of Gut Microbiota
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2252; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122252 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 693
Abstract
Microrobots have emerged as a promising precision therapy approach that has been widely used in minimally invasive treatments, targeted drug delivery, and wound cleansing, and they also offer a potential new method for actively modulating gut microbiota. Here, a double-faced microrobot was designed [...] Read more.
Microrobots have emerged as a promising precision therapy approach that has been widely used in minimally invasive treatments, targeted drug delivery, and wound cleansing, and they also offer a potential new method for actively modulating gut microbiota. Here, a double-faced microrobot was designed to carry gut bacteria via covalently immobilizing the antibodies, and a corresponding integrated optical and magnetic dual-driving control system was also developed for precise control of the microrobot. The microrobot utilizes magnetic microsphere as its core, with one side coated in gold, which serves as the optical receptor surface and the interface for bacterial attachment. The specific gut bacterium, S. cerevisiae, was immobilized on the gold-coated side using the corresponding antibodies. The dual-driving control system enables the precise modulation of gut bacteria by synergistically manipulating the microrobots’ movement via the optical field and magnetic field. The feasibility of independent and coordinated control using optical fields and magnetic fields was validated through experimental and numerical simulation approaches. This work introduces a novel method for the precise modulation of gut microbiota, providing a new avenue for disease treatments based on gut bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section B3: Nanoparticles in Biomedicine)
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15 pages, 6041 KiB  
Article
Theoretical Justification of Structural, Magnetoelectronic and Optical Properties in QFeO3 (Q = Bi, P, Sb): A First-Principles Study
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2251; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122251 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 612
Abstract
One of the primary objectives of scientific research is to create state-of-the-art multiferroic (MF) materials that exhibit interconnected properties, such as piezoelectricity, magnetoelectricity, and magnetostriction, and remain functional under normal ambient temperature conditions. In this study, we employed first-principles calculations to investigate how [...] Read more.
One of the primary objectives of scientific research is to create state-of-the-art multiferroic (MF) materials that exhibit interconnected properties, such as piezoelectricity, magnetoelectricity, and magnetostriction, and remain functional under normal ambient temperature conditions. In this study, we employed first-principles calculations to investigate how changing pnictogen elements affect the structural, electronic, magnetic, and optical characteristics of QFeO3 (Q = Bi, P, SB). Electronic band structures reveal that BiFeO3 is a semiconductor compound; however, PFeO3 and SbFeO3 are metallic. The studied compounds are promising for spintronics, as they exhibit excellent magnetic properties. The calculated magnetic moments decreased as we replaced Bi with SB and P in BiFeO3. A red shift in the values of ε2(ω) was evident from the presented spectra as we substituted Bi with Sb and P in BiFeO3. QFeO3 (Q = Bi, P, SB) showed the maximum absorption of incident photons in the visible region. The results obtained from calculating the optical parameters suggest that these materials have a strong potential to be used in photovoltaic applications. Full article
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16 pages, 5260 KiB  
Article
Thread-Embedded-in-PDMS Wearable Strain Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Human Joint Motion
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2250; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122250 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Real-time monitoring of human joint motion holds paramount importance in assessing joint health status, preventing and treating joint diseases, and evaluating physical flexibility and coordination. However, traditional strain sensors face limitations in meeting the substantial strain requirements associated with human joint motion. Recently, [...] Read more.
Real-time monitoring of human joint motion holds paramount importance in assessing joint health status, preventing and treating joint diseases, and evaluating physical flexibility and coordination. However, traditional strain sensors face limitations in meeting the substantial strain requirements associated with human joint motion. Recently, there has been considerable attention directed towards flexible strain sensors prepared using pliable substrates combined with silk and cotton fabrics. Nonetheless, these sensors exhibit insufficient linearity across the entire measurement range, thereby compromising the predictability of real joint motion based on the output signal. This paper introduced a flexible strain sensor designed to address this issue by offering an enhanced range and high linearity. Specifically, the core wire of the strain sensor was produced by coating a polybutylene terephthalate thread with conductive carbon ink integrated with carbon nanotubes, encapsulated in a thin layer of polydimethylsiloxane in an “S” configuration. The proposed strain sensor maintained excellent linearity within its strain range of 60%, along with advantages such as rapid response speed and robust durability. On-trial tests further affirmed the sensor’s capability to effectively monitor the motion of human joints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexible and Wearable Sensors, 2nd Edition)
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21 pages, 856 KiB  
Review
Sensors in the Detection of Abused Substances in Forensic Contexts: A Comprehensive Review
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2249; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122249 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 882
Abstract
Forensic toxicology plays a pivotal role in elucidating the presence of drugs of abuse in both biological and solid samples, thereby aiding criminal investigations and public health initiatives. This review article explores the significance of sensor technologies in this field, focusing on diverse [...] Read more.
Forensic toxicology plays a pivotal role in elucidating the presence of drugs of abuse in both biological and solid samples, thereby aiding criminal investigations and public health initiatives. This review article explores the significance of sensor technologies in this field, focusing on diverse applications and their impact on the determination of drug abuse markers. This manuscript intends to review the transformative role of portable sensor technologies in detecting drugs of abuse in various samples. They offer precise, efficient, and real-time detection capabilities in both biological samples and solid substances. These sensors have become indispensable tools, with particular applications in various scenarios, including traffic stops, crime scenes, and workplace drug testing. The integration of portable sensor technologies in forensic toxicology is a remarkable advancement in the field. It has not only improved the speed and accuracy of drug abuse detection but has also extended the reach of forensic toxicology, making it more accessible and versatile. These advancements continue to shape forensic toxicology, ensuring swift, precise, and reliable results in criminal investigations and public health endeavours. Full article
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21 pages, 19252 KiB  
Article
Methods to Improve Accuracy of Electronic Component Positioning in Thermoformed Electronics
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2248; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122248 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 664
Abstract
Three new methods for accurate electronic component positioning for thermoformed electronics are presented in this paper. To maintain the mechanical and electrical properties of printed-ink tracks, prevent deformation and stretching during thermoforming, and ensure reproducibility, the component positioning principle for all three proposed [...] Read more.
Three new methods for accurate electronic component positioning for thermoformed electronics are presented in this paper. To maintain the mechanical and electrical properties of printed-ink tracks, prevent deformation and stretching during thermoforming, and ensure reproducibility, the component positioning principle for all three proposed methods is based on keeping the temperature of some regions in the thermoplastic substrate less than the glass transition temperature of the thermoplastic carrier, to keep those regions resistant to plastic deformation. We have verified the accuracy of the different approaches by implementing these methods in a semi-sphere mold for positioning seven LEDs and one printed capacitive touch sensor. We compared the result of our fabrication processes with the typical fabrication process of in-mold electronics (direct printing on a thermoplastic foil and followed by a thermoforming step) and noticed that the sample produced by the typical process had tracks that were randomly stretched, tracks were not in a straight path after thermoforming and they were not electrically conductive. Furthermore, the final 3D position of the components was not reproducible sample by sample. However, with our proposed fabrication methods, the tracks and pads do not deform or expand during thermoforming and are electrically conductive after. Moreover, the round shape of the touch sensor remains the same as in the 2D design. Based on the results of the experiments, it appears that the proposed methods are capable of positioning electronic components with high precision in thermoformed electronics. Full article
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17 pages, 3832 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigations of Using Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) and Nano-Graphene Powder in the Electrical Discharge Machining of Titanium Alloy
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2247; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122247 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 731
Abstract
In the present study, a comprehensive parametric analysis was carried out using the electrical discharge machining of Ti6Al4V, using pulse-on time, current, and pulse-off time as input factors with output measures of surface roughness and material removal rate. The present study also used [...] Read more.
In the present study, a comprehensive parametric analysis was carried out using the electrical discharge machining of Ti6Al4V, using pulse-on time, current, and pulse-off time as input factors with output measures of surface roughness and material removal rate. The present study also used two different nanopowders, namely alumina and nano-graphene, to analyze their effect on output measures and surface defects. All the experimental runs were performed using Taguchi’s array at three levels. Analysis of variance was employed to study the statistical significance. Empirical relations were generated through Minitab. The regression model term was observed to be significant for both the output responses, which suggested that the generated regressions were adequate. Among the input factors, pulse-off time and current were found to have a vital role in the change in material removal rate, while pulse-on time was observed as a vital input parameter. For surface quality, pulse-on time and pulse-off time were recognized to be influential parameters, while current was observed to be an insignificant factor. Teaching–learning-based optimization was used for the optimization of output responses. The influence of alumina and nano-graphene powder was investigated at optimal process parameters. The machining performance was significantly improved by using both powder-mixed electrical discharge machining as compared to the conventional method. Due to the higher conductivity of nano-graphene powder, it showed a larger improvement as compared to alumina powder. Lastly, scanning electron microscopy was operated to investigate the impact of alumina and graphene powder on surface morphology. The machined surface obtained for the conventional process depicted more surface defects than the powder-mixed process, which is key in aeronautical applications. Full article
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11 pages, 1760 KiB  
Article
Design Optimization Method for Large-Size Sidewall-Driven Micromixer to Generate Powerful Swirling Flow
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2246; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122246 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 597
Abstract
Microfluidic devices, which miniaturize cell culture and chemical experiments from lab-scale to microchip dimensions, have gained significant attention in recent years. Extensive research has been conducted on microfluidic mixers, which facilitate the mixing and agitation of chemicals. The “Sidewall-Driven Micromixer” that we are [...] Read more.
Microfluidic devices, which miniaturize cell culture and chemical experiments from lab-scale to microchip dimensions, have gained significant attention in recent years. Extensive research has been conducted on microfluidic mixers, which facilitate the mixing and agitation of chemicals. The “Sidewall-Driven Micromixer” that we are currently developing employs a unique mechanism; it induces a swirling flow within the main chamber by vibrating the silicone wall situated between the main and driving chambers using pressure fluctuations. In an earlier study, we found that Sidewall-Driven Micromixers of a size suitable for small cells could indeed produce this swirling flow. Furthermore, we successfully established concentration gradients within each mixer. However, when attempting to upscale the mixer while maintaining conventional proportions to accommodate larger cell aggregates such as spheroids, the desired swirling flow was not achieved. To address this challenge, we made adjustments to the wall dimensions, aiming to amplify wall deformation and thereby enhance the mixer’s driving force. Concurrently, we modified the mixer’s shape to ensure that the increased wall deformation would not hinder the fluid flow. These alterations not only improved the mixer’s performance but also provided valuable insights for positioning the mixer’s neck channel, considering the extent of wall deformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Micromixers: Analysis, Design and Fabrication)
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17 pages, 15243 KiB  
Article
Reconstruction of Sparse-View X-ray Computed Tomography Based on Adaptive Total Variation Minimization
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2245; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122245 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Sparse-view reconstruction has garnered significant interest in X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging owing to its ability to lower radiation doses and enhance detection efficiency. Among current methods for sparse-view CT reconstruction, an algorithm utilizing iterative reconstruction based on full variational regularization demonstrates good [...] Read more.
Sparse-view reconstruction has garnered significant interest in X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging owing to its ability to lower radiation doses and enhance detection efficiency. Among current methods for sparse-view CT reconstruction, an algorithm utilizing iterative reconstruction based on full variational regularization demonstrates good performance. The optimized direction and number of computations for the gradient operator of the regularization term play a crucial role in determining not only the reconstructed image quality but also the convergence speed of the iteration process. The conventional TV approach solely accounts for the vertical and horizontal directions of the two-dimensional plane in the gradient direction. When projection data decrease, the edges of the reconstructed image become blurred. Exploring too many gradient directions for TV terms often comes at the expense of more computational costs. To enhance the balance of computational cost and reconstruction quality, this study suggests a novel TV computation model that is founded on a four-direction gradient operator. In addition, selecting appropriate iteration parameters significantly impacts the quality of the reconstructed image. We propose a nonparametric control method utilizing the improved TV approach as a solution to the tedious manual parameter optimization issue. The relaxation parameters of projection onto convex sets (POCS) are determined according to the scanning number and numerical proportion of the projection data; according to the image error before and after iterations, the gradient descent step of the TV item is adaptively adjusted. Compared with several representative iterative reconstruction algorithms, the experimental results show that the algorithm can effectively preserve edges and suppress noise in sparse-view CT reconstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Three-Dimensional Display Technologies)
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18 pages, 8792 KiB  
Article
A Low-Power SAR ADC with Capacitor-Splitting Energy-Efficient Switching Scheme for Wearable Biosensor Applications
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2244; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122244 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 642
Abstract
A low-power SAR ADC with capacitor-splitting energy-efficient switching scheme is proposed for wearable biosensor applications. Based on capacitor-splitting, additional reference voltage Vcm, and common-mode techniques, the proposed switching scheme achieves 93.76% less switching energy compared to the conventional scheme with common-mode [...] Read more.
A low-power SAR ADC with capacitor-splitting energy-efficient switching scheme is proposed for wearable biosensor applications. Based on capacitor-splitting, additional reference voltage Vcm, and common-mode techniques, the proposed switching scheme achieves 93.76% less switching energy compared to the conventional scheme with common-mode voltage shift in one LSB. With the switching scheme, the proposed SAR ADC can lower the dependency on the accuracy of Vcm and the complexity of digital control logic and DAC driver circuits. Furthermore, the SAR ADC employs low-noise and low-power dynamic comparators utilizing multi-clock control, low sampling error sampling switches based on the bootstrap technique, and dynamic SAR logic. The simulation results demonstrate that the ADC achieves a 61.77 dB SNDR and a 78.06 dB SFDR and consumes 4.45 μW of power in a 180 nm process with a 1 V power supply, a full-swing input signal frequency of 93.33 kHz, and a sampling rate of 200 kS/s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Biomedical and Environmental Applications, Volume 2)
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4 pages, 169 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for the Special Issue on Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Systems, 2nd Edition
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2243; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122243 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 497
Abstract
Advanced manufacturing technology and systems (AMTS) combine the principles of mechanical engineering with innovative design to create products and processes that are better, faster, and more precise [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Systems, 2nd Edition)
11 pages, 4797 KiB  
Article
A Method for Fast Au-Sn Bonding at Low Temperature Using Thermal Gradient
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2242; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122242 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Flip chip bonding technology on gold–tin (Au-Sn) microbumps for MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) and 3D packaging is becoming increasingly important in the electronics industry. The main advantages of Au-Sn microbumps are a low electrical resistance, high electrical reliability, and fine pitch. However, [...] Read more.
Flip chip bonding technology on gold–tin (Au-Sn) microbumps for MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) and 3D packaging is becoming increasingly important in the electronics industry. The main advantages of Au-Sn microbumps are a low electrical resistance, high electrical reliability, and fine pitch. However, the bonding temperature is relatively high, and the forming mechanism of an intermetallic compound (IMC) is complicated. In this study, Au-Sn solid-state diffusion (SSD) bonding is performed using the thermal gradient bonding (TGB) method, which lowers bonding temperature and gains high bonding strength in a short time. Firstly, Au-Sn microbumps with a low roughness are prepared by using an optimized process. Then, Au-Sn bonding parameters including bonding temperature, bonding time, and bonding pressure are optimized to obtain a higher bonding quality. The shear strength of 23.898 MPa is obtained when bonding in the HCOOH environment for 10 min at the gradient temperature of 150 °C/250 °C with a bonding pressure of more than 10 MPa. The IMC of Au-Sn is found to be Au-Sn and Au5Sn. The effect of annealing time on the IMC is also investigated. More and more Au5Sn is generated with an increase in annealing time, and Au5Sn is formed after Sn is depleted. Finally, the effect of annealing time on the IMC is verified by using finite element simulation, and the bonding strength of IMC was found to be higher when the bonding temperature is 150 °C at the cold side and 250 °C at the hot side. The temperature in the bonding area can reach 200 °C, which proves that the Au-Sn bonding process is solid-state diffusion because the temperature gradient reaches 2500 °C/cm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Packaging and Interconnection Technology)
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12 pages, 5218 KiB  
Article
Quality Factor Improvement of a Thin-Film Piezoelectric-on-Silicon Resonator Using a Radial Alternating Material Phononic Crystal
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2241; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122241 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 632
Abstract
This paper studies the radial alternating material phononic crystal (RAM-PnC). By simulating the band gap structure of the phononic crystal, a complete acoustic band gap was verified at the resonant frequency of 175.14 MHz, which can prevent the propagation of elastic waves in [...] Read more.
This paper studies the radial alternating material phononic crystal (RAM-PnC). By simulating the band gap structure of the phononic crystal, a complete acoustic band gap was verified at the resonant frequency of 175.14 MHz, which can prevent the propagation of elastic waves in a specific direction. The proposed alternately arranged radial phononic crystal structure is applied to the thin-film piezoelectric-on-silicon (TPOS) MEMS resonator. The finite element simulation method increases the anchor quality factor (Qanchor) from 60,596 to 659,536,011 at the operating frequency of 175.14 MHz, which is about 10,000 times higher. The motion resistance of the RAM-PnC resonator is reduced from 156.25 Ω to 48.31 Ω compared with the traditional resonator. At the same time, the insertion loss of the RAM-PnC resonator is reduced by 1.1 dB compared with the traditional resonator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Micromachines in 'Engineering and Technology' 2023)
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17 pages, 10107 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Surface Integrity Induced by Ultra-Precision Grinding and Scratching of Glassy Carbon
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2240; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122240 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 572
Abstract
Glassy carbon provides material characteristics that make it a promising candidate for use as a mould material in precision glass moulding. However, to effectively utilize glassy carbon, a thorough investigation into the machining of high-precision optical surfaces is necessary, which has not been [...] Read more.
Glassy carbon provides material characteristics that make it a promising candidate for use as a mould material in precision glass moulding. However, to effectively utilize glassy carbon, a thorough investigation into the machining of high-precision optical surfaces is necessary, which has not been thoroughly investigated. This research analyses the process of material removal and its resulting surface integrity through the use of nano-scratching and ultra-precision grinding. The nano-scratching process begins with ductile plastic deformation, then progresses with funnel-shaped breakouts in the contact zone, and finally concludes with brittle conchoidal breakouts when the cutting depth is increased. The influence of process factors and tool-related parameters resulting from grinding has discernible impacts on the ultimate surface roughness and topography. Enhancing the cutting speed during cross-axis kinematic grinding results in improved surface roughness. Increasing the size of diamond grains and feed rates leads to an increase in surface roughness. An achievable surface roughness of Ra < 5 nm together with ductile-regime grinding behaviour meet optical standards, which makes ultra-precision grinding a suitable process for optical surface generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Precision Machining of Difficult-to-Machine Materials)
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12 pages, 7874 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Discriminatory Capabilities of iEK Devices under DC and DC-Biased AC Stimulation Potentials
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2239; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122239 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 599
Abstract
There is a rising need for rapid and reliable analytical methods for separating microorganisms in clinical and biomedical applications. Microscale-insulator-based electrokinetic (iEK) systems have proven to be robust platforms for assessing a wide variety of microorganisms. Traditionally, iEK systems are usually stimulated with [...] Read more.
There is a rising need for rapid and reliable analytical methods for separating microorganisms in clinical and biomedical applications. Microscale-insulator-based electrokinetic (iEK) systems have proven to be robust platforms for assessing a wide variety of microorganisms. Traditionally, iEK systems are usually stimulated with direct-current (DC) potentials. This work presents a comparison between using DC potentials and using DC-biased alternating-current (AC) potentials in iEK systems for the separation of microorganisms. The present study, which includes mathematical modeling and experimentation, compares the separation of bacterial and yeast cells in two distinct modes by using DC and DC-biased AC potentials. The quality of both separations, assessed in terms of separation resolution (Rs), showed a complete separation (Rs = 1.51) with the application of a DC-biased low-frequency AC signal but an incomplete separation (Rs = 0.55) with the application of an RMS-equivalent DC signal. Good reproducibility between experimental repetitions (<10%) was obtained, and good agreement (~18% deviation) was observed between modeling and experimental retention times. The present study demonstrates the potential of extending the limits of iEK systems by employing DC-biased AC potentials to perform discriminatory separations of microorganisms that are difficult to separate with the application of DC potentials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrokinetic Phenomenon and Its Multiple Applications)
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14 pages, 5939 KiB  
Article
A 77 GHz Power Amplifier with 19.1 dBm Peak Output Power in 130 nm SiGe Process
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2238; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122238 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 678
Abstract
This article reports a two-stage differential structure power amplifier based on a 130 nm SiGe process operating at 77 GHz. By introducing a tunable capacitor for amplitude and phase balance at the center tap of the secondary coil of the traditional Marchand balun, [...] Read more.
This article reports a two-stage differential structure power amplifier based on a 130 nm SiGe process operating at 77 GHz. By introducing a tunable capacitor for amplitude and phase balance at the center tap of the secondary coil of the traditional Marchand balun, the balun achieves amplitude imbalance less than 0.5 dB and phase imbalance less than 1 degree within the operating frequency range of 70–85 GHz, which enables the power amplifier to exhibit comparable output power over a wide operating frequency band. The power amplifier, based on a designed 3-bit digital analog convertor (DAC)-controlled base bias current source, exhibits small signal gain fluctuation of less than 5 dB and saturation output power fluctuation of less than 2 dB near the 80 GHz frequency point when the ambient temperature varies in the range of −40 °C to 125 °C. Benefiting from the aforementioned design, the tested single-path differential power amplifier exhibits a small signal gain exceeding 16 dB, a saturation output power exceeding 18 dBm, and a peak saturation output power of 19.1 dBm in the frequency band of 70–85 GHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Microwave Components and Devices, 2nd Edition)
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0 pages, 5254 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Compressive Properties and Failure Mechanism of the Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Submicro-LaB6 Reinforced Ti-Based Composites
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2237; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122237 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 539
Abstract
In this study, lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) particle-reinforced titanium matrix composites (PRTMCs, TC4/LaB6) were successfully manufactured using the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process. Thereafter, the effect of the mass fraction of LaB6 on the microstructure and the dynamic [...] Read more.
In this study, lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) particle-reinforced titanium matrix composites (PRTMCs, TC4/LaB6) were successfully manufactured using the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process. Thereafter, the effect of the mass fraction of LaB6 on the microstructure and the dynamic compressive properties was investigated. The results show that the addition of LaB6 leads to significant grain refinement. Moreover, the general trend of grain size reveals a concave bend as the fraction increases from 0.2% to 1.0%. Furthermore, the texture intensity of prior β grains and α grains was found to be weakened in the composites. It was also observed that the TC4/LaB6 have higher quasi-static and dynamic compressive strengths but lower fracture strain when compared with the as-built TC4. The sample with 0.5 wt.% LaB6 was found to have the best strength–toughness synergy among the three groups of composites due to having the smallest grain size. Furthermore, the fracture mode of TC4/LaB6 was found to change from the fracture under the combined action of brittle and ductility to the cleavage fracture. This study was able to provide a theoretical basis for an in-depth understanding of the compressive properties of additive manufacturing of PRTMCs under high-speed loading conditions. Full article
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11 pages, 3793 KiB  
Article
An Accurate Electro-Thermal Coupling Model of a GaAs HBT Device under Floating Heat Source Disturbances
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2236; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122236 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Taking into consideration the inaccurate temperature predictions in traditional thermal models of power devices, we undertook a study on the temperature rise characteristics of heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) with a two-dimensional cross-sectional structure including a sub-collector region. We developed a current-adjusted polynomial electro-thermal [...] Read more.
Taking into consideration the inaccurate temperature predictions in traditional thermal models of power devices, we undertook a study on the temperature rise characteristics of heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) with a two-dimensional cross-sectional structure including a sub-collector region. We developed a current-adjusted polynomial electro-thermal coupling model based on investigating floating heat sources. This model was developed using precise simulation data acquired from SILVACO (Santa Clara, CA, USA). Additionally, we utilized COMSOL software (version 5.6) to simulate the temperature distribution within parallel power cells, examining further impacts resulting from thermal coupling. The research findings indicate that the rise in current induces modifications in the local carrier concentration, thereby prompting variations in the local electric field, including changes in the heat source’s peak location and intensity. The device’s peak temperature exhibits a non-linear trend regulated by the current, revealing an error margin of less than 1.5% in the proposed current-corrected model. At higher current levels, the drift of the heat source leads to an increase in the heat dissipation path and reduces the coupling strength between parallel devices. Experiments were performed on 64 GaAs (gallium arsenide) HBT-based power cells using a QFI infrared imaging system. Compared to the traditional temperature calculation model, the proposed model increased the accuracy by 6.84%, allowing for more precise predictions of transistor peak temperatures in high-power applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue III-V Optoelectronics and Semiconductor Process Technology)
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28 pages, 9956 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study of Flow Boiling Regimes Occurring in a Microfluidic T-Junction
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2235; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122235 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 587
Abstract
Microchannel flow boiling is an efficient cooling method for high-heat-flux electronic devices. To understand the flow boiling regime in a T-shaped microchannel, this paper prepared T-shaped microchannels of different sizes and designed an experimental platform for the visualization of flow boiling in microchannels, [...] Read more.
Microchannel flow boiling is an efficient cooling method for high-heat-flux electronic devices. To understand the flow boiling regime in a T-shaped microchannel, this paper prepared T-shaped microchannels of different sizes and designed an experimental platform for the visualization of flow boiling in microchannels, and aimed to study the evolution characteristics of two-phase flow patterns in T-shaped microchannels. The influences of the flow rate and channel size on the boiling flow pattern inside a T-shaped microchannel were experimentally observed and quantitatively described. The results indicate that the occurrence position of the vaporization core gradually migrates from branch channel to main channel as the wall temperature increases. The flow boiling at the bifurcation of the T-shaped microchannel mainly includes the extrusion fracture flow, bubble flow, plug–annular alternating flow and annular flow, in which the annular flow can be further divided into the intermittent annular flow and the stable annular flow. In addition, a high flow rate and small channel size can lead to the disappearance of the bubble flow, and the presence of the bubble flow delays the appearance of the annular flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Microstructures)
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41 pages, 8330 KiB  
Review
Review on Bubble Dynamics in Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolysis: Towards Optimal Green Hydrogen Yield
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2234; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122234 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2099
Abstract
Water electrolysis using a proton exchange membrane (PEM) holds substantial promise to produce green hydrogen with zero carbon discharge. Although various techniques are available to produce hydrogen gas, the water electrolysis process tends to be more cost-effective with greater advantages for energy storage [...] Read more.
Water electrolysis using a proton exchange membrane (PEM) holds substantial promise to produce green hydrogen with zero carbon discharge. Although various techniques are available to produce hydrogen gas, the water electrolysis process tends to be more cost-effective with greater advantages for energy storage devices. However, one of the challenges associated with PEM water electrolysis is the accumulation of gas bubbles, which can impair cell performance and result in lower hydrogen output. Achieving an in-depth knowledge of bubble dynamics during electrolysis is essential for optimal cell performance. This review paper discusses bubble behaviors, measuring techniques, and other aspects of bubble dynamics in PEM water electrolysis. It also examines bubble behavior under different operating conditions, as well as the system geometry. The current review paper will further improve the understanding of bubble dynamics in PEM water electrolysis, facilitating more competent, inexpensive, and feasible green hydrogen production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro Thermal Devices and Their Applications)
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13 pages, 3034 KiB  
Article
Coexisting Firing Patterns in an Improved Memristive Hindmarsh–Rose Neuron Model with Multi-Frequency Alternating Current Injection
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2233; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122233 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 926
Abstract
With the development of memristor theory, the application of memristor in the field of the nervous system has achieved remarkable results and has bright development prospects. Flux-controlled memristor can be used to describe the magnetic induction effect of the neuron. Based on the [...] Read more.
With the development of memristor theory, the application of memristor in the field of the nervous system has achieved remarkable results and has bright development prospects. Flux-controlled memristor can be used to describe the magnetic induction effect of the neuron. Based on the Hindmarsh–Rose (HR) neuron model, a new HR neuron model is proposed by introducing a flux-controlled memristor and a multi-frequency excitation with high–low frequency current superimposed. Various firing patterns under single and multiple stimuli are investigated. The model can exhibit different coexisting firing patterns. In addition, when the memristor coupling strength changes, the multiple stability of the model is eliminated, which is a rare phenomenon. Moreover, an analog circuit is built to verify the numerical simulation results. Full article
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13 pages, 17501 KiB  
Article
An Investigation in Sub-Millimeter Channel Fabrication by the Non-Aqueous Electrolyte Jet Machining of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2232; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122232 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 582
Abstract
Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have many unique properties. Due to their excellent performance and manufacturing process, they have become a research focus in the material science community. Electrolyte Jet Machining (EJM) is a non-contact electrochemical processing method with high surface integrity and [...] Read more.
Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have many unique properties. Due to their excellent performance and manufacturing process, they have become a research focus in the material science community. Electrolyte Jet Machining (EJM) is a non-contact electrochemical processing method with high surface integrity and high material removal rate (MRR). In this research, the sub-millimeter channels fabricated by EJM on Zr-based BMGs have been studied to explore the dissolution mechanisms and surface integrity under different scanning rates and voltages. The results show that, with other machining parameters holding constant, an increase in voltage leads to a substantial enhancement in both the depth and width of the channels machined on Zr-based BMGs. Notably, the influence of voltage on the depth of the channels is particularly pronounced. Additionally, an escalation in scanning rate correlates with a decrease in channel depth, with minimal variation in channel width. This study indicates that alcohol-based EJM is an effective method to fabricate sub-millimeter channels and modulate structures on Zr-based BMGs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section D:Materials and Processing)
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18 pages, 29595 KiB  
Communication
High Repetition Frequency Solid-State Green Laser with Large Stable Area for Water Jet Guided
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2231; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122231 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 516
Abstract
This paper presents the design and experimental results of a long cavity length Nd:YAG laser with a large stable zone for water jet-guided laser (WJGL) applications. The design is based on the light transmission matrix and resonator stability conditions, aiming to achieve a [...] Read more.
This paper presents the design and experimental results of a long cavity length Nd:YAG laser with a large stable zone for water jet-guided laser (WJGL) applications. The design is based on the light transmission matrix and resonator stability conditions, aiming to achieve a large stable zone and a short cut-off thermal focal length (CTFL). A folded concave resonator is researched to enhance the cavity length, and the influence of the tunable cavity arm length on the oscillating beam in the resonator and in the YAG crystal is theoretically studied. Moreover, the effects of the output mirror curvature and the cavity arm length on the range of the stable area and the cut-off thermal focal length are also investigated. Experimental results show that a stable green laser output is obtained after second harmonic generation (SHG) with a pulse width ranging from 43 to 143 ns within the laser operating frequency range of 5–20 kHz. At an operation frequency of 10 kHz, the output power is 21.33 W, and the instability of the output power within 400 min is 0.88%. The laser source achieves a maximum power of 25.7 W at 20 kHz, and the maximum single pulse energy reaches 2.7 mJ at 6 kHz. Finally, this is used as the laser source to couple with a water jet with a diameter of 100 microns, achieving a lossless water conductivity transmission over 60 mm length. These results demonstrate the suitability of the designed laser source for WJGL technology research. In precision machining applications, this technology exhibits processing advantages of low thermal damage (~2 μm) and large depth (>10 mm), for 7075 aluminum alloy. Full article
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10 pages, 4775 KiB  
Article
Performance Investigations of InAs/InP Quantum-Dash Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers with Different Numbers of Dash Layers
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2230; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122230 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 584
Abstract
We present here a performance comparison of quantum-dash (Qdash) semiconductor amplifiers (SOAs) with three, five, eight, and twelve InAs dash layers grown on InP substrates. Other than the number of Qdash layers, the structures were identical. The eight-layer Qdash SOA gave the highest [...] Read more.
We present here a performance comparison of quantum-dash (Qdash) semiconductor amplifiers (SOAs) with three, five, eight, and twelve InAs dash layers grown on InP substrates. Other than the number of Qdash layers, the structures were identical. The eight-layer Qdash SOA gave the highest amplified spontaneous emission power (4.3 dBm) and chip gain (26.4 dB) at 1550 nm, with a 300 mA CW bias current and at 25 °C temperature, while SOAs with fewer Qdash layers (for example, three-layer Qdash SOA), had a wider ASE bandwidth (90 nm) and larger 3 dB gain saturated output power (18.2 dBm) in a shorter wavelength range. The noise figure (NF) of the SOAs increased nearly linearly with the number of Qdash layers. The longest gain peak wavelength of 1570 nm was observed for the 12-layer Qdash SOA. The most balanced performance was obtained with a five-layer Qdash SOA, with a 25.4 dB small-signal chip gain, 15.2 dBm 3 dB output saturated power, and 5.7 dB NF at 1532 nm, 300 mA and 25 °C. These results are better than those of quantum well SOAs reported in a recent review paper. The high performance of InAs/InP Qdash SOAs with different Qdash layers shown in this paper could be important for many applications with distinct requirements under uncooled scenarios. Full article
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16 pages, 4813 KiB  
Article
On the Dependency of the Electromechanical Response of Rotary MEMS/NEMS on Their Embedded Flexure Hinges’ Geometry
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2229; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122229 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 557
Abstract
This paper investigates how the electromechanical response of MEMS/NEMS devices changes when the geometrical characteristics of their embedded flexural hinges are modified. The research is dedicated particularly to MEMS/NEMS devices which are actuated by means of rotary comb-drives. The electromechanical behavior of a [...] Read more.
This paper investigates how the electromechanical response of MEMS/NEMS devices changes when the geometrical characteristics of their embedded flexural hinges are modified. The research is dedicated particularly to MEMS/NEMS devices which are actuated by means of rotary comb-drives. The electromechanical behavior of a chosen rotary device is assessed by studying the rotation of the end effector, the motion of the comb-drive mobile fingers, the actuator’s maximum operating voltage, and the stress sustained by the flexure when the flexure’s shape, length, and width change. The results are compared with the behavior of a standard revolute joint. Outcomes demonstrate that a linear flexible beam cannot perfectly replace the revolute joint as it induces a translation that strongly facilitates the pull-in phenomenon and significantly increases the risk of ruptures of the comb-drives. On the other hand, results show how curved beams provide a motion that better resembles the revolute motion, preserving the structural integrity of the device and avoiding the pull-in phenomenon. Finally, results also show that the end effector motion approaches most precisely the revolute motion when a fine tuning of the beam’s length and width is performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section E:Engineering and Technology)
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12 pages, 3864 KiB  
Article
Determinant of Dynamics and Interfacial Forces in Ultraprecision Machining of Optical Freeform Surface through Simulation-Based Analysis
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2228; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122228 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 611
Abstract
This study delves into the intricacies of ultraprecision machining, particularly in the context of machining optical freeform surfaces using Diamond Turning Machines (DTMs). It underscores the dynamic relationship between toolpath generation, hydrostatic bearing in DTMs, and the machining process. Central to this research [...] Read more.
This study delves into the intricacies of ultraprecision machining, particularly in the context of machining optical freeform surfaces using Diamond Turning Machines (DTMs). It underscores the dynamic relationship between toolpath generation, hydrostatic bearing in DTMs, and the machining process. Central to this research is the innovative introduction of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) to replace the traditional materials used in designing linear bearings. This strategic substitution aims to dynamically enhance both the accuracy and the quality of the machined optical freeform surfaces. The study employs simulation-based analysis using ADAMS to investigate the interfacial cutting forces at the tooltip and workpiece surface and their impacts on the machining process. Through simulations of STS mode ultraprecision machining, the interfacial cutting forces and their relationship with changes in surface curvatures are examined. The results demonstrate that the use of MMC material leads to a significant reduction in toolpath pressure, highlighting the potential benefits of employing lightweight materials in improving the dynamic performance of the system. Additionally, the analysis of slideway joints reveals the direct influence of interfacial cutting forces on the linear slideways, emphasising the importance of understanding and controlling these forces for achieving higher-precision positioning and motion control. The comparative analysis between steel and MMC materials provides valuable insights into the effects of material properties on the system’s dynamic performance. These findings contribute to the existing body of knowledge and suggest a potential shift towards more advanced precision forms, possibly extending to pico-engineering in future systems. Ultimately, this research establishes a new standard in the field, emphasising the importance of system dynamics and interfacial forces in the evolution of precision manufacturing technologies. Full article
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