Ultra-Precision Machining of Difficult-to-Machine Materials

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "D:Materials and Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 June 2024 | Viewed by 6242

Special Issue Editor

School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
Interests: ultra-precision machining; grinding; cutting; nanoscratch; brittle material

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Difficult-to-machine materials, such as semiconductor, laser crystal, engineering ceramics, optical glass, superalloys, and composite materials, have been widely used in aerospace, 5G networks, and new energy vehicles owing to their excellent mechanical properties and steady chemical properties. For these advanced applications, these materials must be shaped into smooth substrates with high surface integrity using precision and ultra-precision machining technologies such as grinding, lapping, polishing, cutting, etc. However, these materials have high brittleness, high hardness, and high elasticity which pose great challenges for efficient machining. Severe surface and subsurface damage and cutting tool wear are easily generated during the machining process, which inevitably shortens the accuracy and service life of the components and increases the production costs. Understanding the mechanical properties, revealing the damage evolution and material removal mechanism in micro- and nanoscales, exploring innovative machining technology, and optimizing machining process parameters are of great significance to realize the high-efficiency and precision machining of difficult-to-machine materials. This collection aims at summarizing the frontier research on processing and surface integrity characterization of difficult-to-machine materials. The scope of this Special Issue includes but is not limited to:

  • Precision machining technology of difficult-to-machine materials, such as grinding, polishing, lapping, cutting, etc.;
  • In-depth characterization to reveal damage evaluation and removal behaviors that involved in machining processes;
  • Numerical simulation of the material deformation and removal process;
  • Surface engineering when it relates specifically to a manufacturing process;
  • Design of cutting tools.

Dr. Chen Li
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • ultra-precision machining
  • grinding
  • polishing
  • cutting
  • nanoscratch
  • material removal mechanism
  • difficult-to-machine material
  • brittle material

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 3071 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Chemical–Mechanical Synergistic Preparation for Cemented Carbide Insert Cutting Edge
by Changjiang Qin, Jian Pan, Lei Guo, Chi Zhang, Wanli Chen, Zihua Hu, Shengqiang Jiang, Xiaogao Chen and Meijiao Mao
Micromachines 2024, 15(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15010017 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 628
Abstract
Typical edge defects in the edge region of a new cemented carbide insert without edge preparation include burrs, poor surface quality, micro-breakages, and irregularities along the edge. To address the problems in new cemented carbide inserts without edge preparations, a chemical–mechanical synergistic preparation [...] Read more.
Typical edge defects in the edge region of a new cemented carbide insert without edge preparation include burrs, poor surface quality, micro-breakages, and irregularities along the edge. To address the problems in new cemented carbide inserts without edge preparations, a chemical–mechanical synergistic preparation (CMSP) method for the cemented carbide insert cutting edge was proposed. Firstly, the CMSP device for the insert cutting edge was constructed. Then, the polishing slurry of the CMSP for the insert cutting edge was optimized using the Taguchi method combined with a grey relation analysis and fuzzy inference. Finally, orthogonal experiments, the Taguchi method, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to investigate the effect of the polishing plate’s rotational speed, swing angle, and input frequency of the controller on the edge preparation process, and the parameters were optimized. The results showed that the best parameter combination for the polishing slurry for the cemented carbide inserts was the mass concentration of the abrasive particle of 10 wt%, the mass concentration of the oxidant of 10 wt%, the mass concentration of the dispersant of 2 wt%, and the pH of 8. The CMSP process parameter combination for the linear edge had the polishing plate’s rotational speed of 90 rpm, the swing angle of 6°, and the input frequency of the controller of 5000 Hz. The optimum CMSP process parameter combination for the circular edge had the polishing plate’s rotational speed of 90 rpm, the swing angle of 6°, and the input frequency of the controller of 7000 Hz. The polishing plate’s rotational speed had the most significant impact on the edge preparation process, followed by the swing angle, and the effect of the input frequency of the controller was the smallest. This study demonstrated that CMSP is a potential way to treat the cemented carbide insert cutting edge in a tool enterprise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Precision Machining of Difficult-to-Machine Materials)
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17 pages, 10107 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Surface Integrity Induced by Ultra-Precision Grinding and Scratching of Glassy Carbon
by Kirk Jahnel, Robert Michels, Dennis Patrick Wilhelm, Tim Grunwald and Thomas Bergs
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2240; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122240 - 14 Dec 2023
Viewed by 828
Abstract
Glassy carbon provides material characteristics that make it a promising candidate for use as a mould material in precision glass moulding. However, to effectively utilize glassy carbon, a thorough investigation into the machining of high-precision optical surfaces is necessary, which has not been [...] Read more.
Glassy carbon provides material characteristics that make it a promising candidate for use as a mould material in precision glass moulding. However, to effectively utilize glassy carbon, a thorough investigation into the machining of high-precision optical surfaces is necessary, which has not been thoroughly investigated. This research analyses the process of material removal and its resulting surface integrity through the use of nano-scratching and ultra-precision grinding. The nano-scratching process begins with ductile plastic deformation, then progresses with funnel-shaped breakouts in the contact zone, and finally concludes with brittle conchoidal breakouts when the cutting depth is increased. The influence of process factors and tool-related parameters resulting from grinding has discernible impacts on the ultimate surface roughness and topography. Enhancing the cutting speed during cross-axis kinematic grinding results in improved surface roughness. Increasing the size of diamond grains and feed rates leads to an increase in surface roughness. An achievable surface roughness of Ra < 5 nm together with ductile-regime grinding behaviour meet optical standards, which makes ultra-precision grinding a suitable process for optical surface generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Precision Machining of Difficult-to-Machine Materials)
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15 pages, 15918 KiB  
Article
Influence of Diamond Wire Saw Processing Parameters on the Sawn Surface Characteristics of Silicon Nitride Ceramics
by Siyuan Zhang, Yufei Gao, Xingchun Zhang and Yufeng Guo
Micromachines 2023, 14(9), 1660; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14091660 - 25 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1139
Abstract
For the slicing of superhard silicon nitride ceramics, diamond wire sawing technology has great potential for application, and its slicing surface characteristics are an important indicator of cutting quality. In this paper, the sawing experiments of silicon nitride ceramics were carried out within [...] Read more.
For the slicing of superhard silicon nitride ceramics, diamond wire sawing technology has great potential for application, and its slicing surface characteristics are an important indicator of cutting quality. In this paper, the sawing experiments of silicon nitride ceramics were carried out within the range of industrial processing parameters of diamond wire sawing (saw wire speed: 800–1600 m/min, workpiece feed speed 0.1–0.4 mm/min). The effects of cutting parameters on the surface morphology, surface roughness and waviness of the as-sawn slices were analyzed. The results show that within the range of sawing parameters for industrial applications, the material on the diamond wire as-sawn surface of silicon nitride ceramics is removed mainly in a brittle mode, with the slice morphology showing brittle pits and regularly distributed wire marks in the 20–55 μm scale range. The surface roughness of the slices along the workpiece feed direction ranges from 0.27 to 0.38 μm and decreases with increasing saw wire speed and decreasing feed rate. The surface waviness ranges from 0.09 to 0.21 μm, which is in good agreement with the changing trend of the sliced-surface roughness. The results of the study provide an experimental reference for promoting the engineering application of diamond wire sawing technology to the processing of silicon nitride ceramic slices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Precision Machining of Difficult-to-Machine Materials)
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17 pages, 10541 KiB  
Article
Longitudinal–Torsional Ultrasonic Grinding of GCr15: Development of Longitudinal–Torsional Ultrasonic System and Prediction of Surface Topography
by Huan Zhang, Ying Niu, Xiaofeng Jia, Shuaizhen Chu and Jingjing Niu
Micromachines 2023, 14(8), 1626; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14081626 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
The common material of bearing rings is GCr15 bearing steel which is a typical difficult-to-machine material. As an important working surface of the bearing, the inner surface of the raceway plays a vital role in the performance of the bearing. As an important [...] Read more.
The common material of bearing rings is GCr15 bearing steel which is a typical difficult-to-machine material. As an important working surface of the bearing, the inner surface of the raceway plays a vital role in the performance of the bearing. As an important means to solve the high-performance manufacturing of difficult-to-machine materials, longitudinal–torsional ultrasonic processing is widely used in various types of processing. In the presented work, the basic size of the horn is obtained from the wave equation of the forced vibration, and the modal analysis and amplitude test are carried out to verify the rationality of the LUTG structure. Then, according to the probability density function of cutting thickness and the overlapping effect of adjacent abrasive trajectories, the LUTG surface topography prediction model is established by using the height formula of the surface residual material, and the model reliability is verified by using the orthogonal test. The error between the test results and the prediction model is within 13.2%. Finally, based on the response surface method, the optimal process parameters that can meet the requirements of low roughness (Ra) and high material removal rate (MRR) are screened, and the optimal combination of process parameters is obtained as follows: A = 4.5 μm, n = 6493.3 r/min, ap = 28.4 μm, and vf = 21.1 mm/min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Precision Machining of Difficult-to-Machine Materials)
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19 pages, 188415 KiB  
Article
Process Analysis and Topography Evaluation for Monocrystalline Silicon Laser Cutting-Off
by Fei Liu, Aiwu Yu, Chongjun Wu and Steven Y. Liang
Micromachines 2023, 14(8), 1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14081542 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1027
Abstract
Due to the characteristics of high brittleness and low fracture toughness of monocrystalline silicon, its high precision and high-quality cutting have great challenges. Aiming at the urgent need of wafer cutting with high efficiency, this paper investigates the influence law of different laser [...] Read more.
Due to the characteristics of high brittleness and low fracture toughness of monocrystalline silicon, its high precision and high-quality cutting have great challenges. Aiming at the urgent need of wafer cutting with high efficiency, this paper investigates the influence law of different laser processes on the size of the groove and the machining affected zone of laser cutting. The experimental results show that when laser cutting monocrystalline silicon, in addition to generating a groove, there will also be a machining affected zone on both sides of the groove and the size of both will directly affect the cutting quality. After wiping the thermal products generated by cutting on the material surface, the machining affected zone and the recast layer in the cutting seam can basically be eliminated to generate a wider cutting seam and the surface after wiping is basically the same as that before cutting. Increasing the laser cutting times will increase the width of the material’s machining affected zone and the groove width after chip removal. When the cutting times are less than 80, increasing the cutting times will increase the groove width at the same time; but, after the cutting times exceed 80, the groove width abruptly decreases and then slowly increases. In addition, the lower the laser scanning speed, the larger the width of the material’s machining affected zone and the width of the groove after chip removal. The increase in laser frequency will increase the crack width and the crack width after chip removal but decrease the machining affected zone width. The laser pulse width has a certain effect on the cutting quality but it does not show regularity. When the pulse width is 0.3 ns the cutting quality is the best and when the pulse width is 0.15 ns the cutting quality is the worst. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Precision Machining of Difficult-to-Machine Materials)
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15 pages, 12051 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Cutting Force and the Material Removal Mechanism in the Ultrasonic Vibration-Assisted Scratching of 2D-SiCf/SiC Composites
by Hao Lin, Ming Zhou, Haotao Wang and Sutong Bai
Micromachines 2023, 14(7), 1350; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14071350 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
Ultrasonic-assisted grinding (UAG) is widely used in the manufacture of hard and brittle materials. However, the process removal mechanism was never elucidated and its potential is yet to be fully exploited. In this paper, the mechanism of material removal is analyzed by ultrasonic-assisted [...] Read more.
Ultrasonic-assisted grinding (UAG) is widely used in the manufacture of hard and brittle materials. However, the process removal mechanism was never elucidated and its potential is yet to be fully exploited. In this paper, the mechanism of material removal is analyzed by ultrasonic-assisted scratching. Three distinct surfaces (S1, S2, and S3) were selected on the basis of the braided and laminated structure of fiber bundles. The ultrasonic-assisted scratching experiment is carried out under different conditions, and the scratching force (SF) of the tested surface will fluctuate periodically. Under the conditions of different feed speeds, depths, and ultrasonic amplitudes, the normal scratching force (SFn) is greater than the tangential scratching force (SFt), and the average scratching force on the three surfaces is generally S3 > S2 >S1. Among the three processing parameters, the speed has the most significant influence on the scratching force, while the scratching depth has little influence on the scratching force. Under the same conditions and surface cutting mode, the ultrasonic vibration-assisted scratching force is slightly lower than the conventional scratching force. The scratching force decreases first and then increases with the amplitude of ultrasonic vibration. Because the fiber undergoes a brittle fracture in the ultrasonic-assisted scratching process, the matrix is torn, and the surface residues are discharged in time; therefore, the surface roughness is improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-Precision Machining of Difficult-to-Machine Materials)
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