Bioinspired Materials and Microdevices: Fabrications and Applications

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "D2: Biomaterial Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2024 | Viewed by 6011

Special Issue Editors

Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan
Interests: MEMS; microfluidics; bioengineering; bioinspired materials
Department of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
Interests: cancer biology; angiogenesis; lysophosphatidic acid; lysophosphatidic acid receptors; aryl hydrocarbon receptor; cell aging; bioengineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Engineered materials and microdevices inspired by Nature have played a crucial role in science and industry for decades. Bioinspired engineering always offers a simple and highly efficient scenario to overcome extreme environments that some of us encounter daily. For example, an ongoing study in water-harvesting mechanisms learned from Stenocara beetles living in the Namib Desert has evolved into bioinspired materials of patterned wettability, greatly improving the collection of limited water in arid regions. Another example mimicking chameleons has proved to be able to achieve more advanced and natural camouflage realization. Combined with active control systems and color-sensing units, the anonymity device can be further applied for military purposes, as an auxiliary military force. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, communications, and review articles that focus on (1) the novel design and fabrication of bioinspired materials and/or their derived microdevices; and (2) emerging applications for improving human life based on any kind of bioinspired materials and microdevices.

We look forward to receiving your outstanding submissions.

Dr. Ching-Te Kuo
Dr. Hsinyu Lee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioinspiration
  • bioinspired materials
  • bioinspired microdevice
  • micro- and nano-fabrication

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 2385 KiB  
Article
In Vivo Characterization of Intracortical Probes with Focused Ion Beam-Etched Nanopatterned Topographies
Micromachines 2024, 15(2), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15020286 - 17 Feb 2024
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Abstract
(1) Background: Intracortical microelectrodes (IMEs) are an important part of interfacing with the central nervous system (CNS) and recording neural signals. However, recording electrodes have shown a characteristic steady decline in recording performance owing to chronic neuroinflammation. The topography of implanted devices has [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Intracortical microelectrodes (IMEs) are an important part of interfacing with the central nervous system (CNS) and recording neural signals. However, recording electrodes have shown a characteristic steady decline in recording performance owing to chronic neuroinflammation. The topography of implanted devices has been explored to mimic the nanoscale three-dimensional architecture of the extracellular matrix. Our previous work used histology to study the implant sites of non-recording probes and showed that a nanoscale topography at the probe surface mitigated the neuroinflammatory response compared to probes with smooth surfaces. Here, we hypothesized that the improvement in the neuroinflammatory response for probes with nanoscale surface topography would extend to improved recording performance. (2) Methods: A novel design modification was implemented on planar silicon-based neural probes by etching nanopatterned grooves (with a 500 nm pitch) into the probe shank. To assess the hypothesis, two groups of rats were implanted with either nanopatterned (n = 6) or smooth control (n = 6) probes, and their recording performance was evaluated over 4 weeks. Postmortem gene expression analysis was performed to compare the neuroinflammatory response from the two groups. (3) Results: Nanopatterned probes demonstrated an increased impedance and noise floor compared to controls. However, the recording performances of the nanopatterned and smooth probes were similar, with active electrode yields for control probes and nanopatterned probes being approximately 50% and 45%, respectively, by 4 weeks post-implantation. Gene expression analysis showed one gene, Sirt1, differentially expressed out of 152 in the panel. (4) Conclusions: this study provides a foundation for investigating novel nanoscale topographies on neural probes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Materials and Microdevices: Fabrications and Applications)
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13 pages, 3967 KiB  
Article
Chameleon-Inspired Colorimetric Sensors for Real-Time Detections with Humidity
Micromachines 2023, 14(12), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14122254 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 731
Abstract
In recent decades, vapor sensors have gained substantial attention for their crucial roles in environmental monitoring and pharmaceutical applications. Herein, we introduce a chameleon-inspired colorimetric (CIC) sensor, detailing its design, fabrication, and versatile applications. The sensor seamlessly combines a PEDOT:PSS vapor sensor with [...] Read more.
In recent decades, vapor sensors have gained substantial attention for their crucial roles in environmental monitoring and pharmaceutical applications. Herein, we introduce a chameleon-inspired colorimetric (CIC) sensor, detailing its design, fabrication, and versatile applications. The sensor seamlessly combines a PEDOT:PSS vapor sensor with a colorimetric display, using thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC). We further explore the electrical characteristics of the CIC sensor when doped with ethylene glycol (EG) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Comparative analyses of resistance change rates for different weight ratios of EG and PVA provide insights into fine-tuning the sensor’s responsiveness to varying humidity levels. The CIC sensor’s proficiency in measuring ambient humidity is investigated under a voltage input as small as 2.6 V, capturing resistance change rates and colorimetric shifts at relative humidity (RH) levels ranging from 20% to 90%. Notably, the sensor exhibits distinct resistance sensitivities of 9.7 mΩ (0.02% ∆R/R0)/%RH, 0.5 Ω (0.86% ∆R/R0)/%RH, and 5.7 Ω (9.68% ∆R/R0)/%RH at RH 20% to 30%, RH 30% to 80%, and RH 80% to 90%, respectively. Additionally, a linear temperature change is observed with a sensitivity of −0.04 °C/%RH. The sensor also demonstrates a colorimetric temperature sensitivity of −82,036 K/%RH at RH 20% to 30% and −514 K/%RH at RH 30% to 90%, per captured image. Furthermore, real-time measurements of ethanol vapor with varying concentrations showcase the sensor’s applicability in gas sensing applications. Overall, we present a comprehensive exploration of the CIC sensor, emphasizing its design flexibility, electrical characteristics, and diverse sensing capabilities. The sensor’s potential applications extend to real-time environmental monitoring, highlighting its promising role in various gas sensing fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Materials and Microdevices: Fabrications and Applications)
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11 pages, 1793 KiB  
Article
Liposome Deformation Induced by Membrane-Binding Peptides
Micromachines 2023, 14(2), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14020373 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
This paper presents an investigation of liposome deformation and shape distortion using four membrane-binding peptides: TAT and C105Y as cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), and melittin and ovispirin as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Liposome deformation was monitored utilizing fluorescent microscopy, while the binding of peptides to [...] Read more.
This paper presents an investigation of liposome deformation and shape distortion using four membrane-binding peptides: TAT and C105Y as cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), and melittin and ovispirin as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Liposome deformation was monitored utilizing fluorescent microscopy, while the binding of peptides to the DOPC membrane was estimated through capacitance measurements. The degree of liposome deformation and shape distortion was found to be higher for the CPPs compared to the AMPs. Additionally, it was observed that C105Y did not induce liposome rupture, unlike the other three peptides. We propose that these variations in liposome distortion may be attributed to differences in secondary structure, specifically the presence of an α-helix or random coil. Our studies offer insight into the use of peptides to elicit control of liposome architecture and may offer a promising approach for regulating the bodies of liposomal molecular robots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Materials and Microdevices: Fabrications and Applications)
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13 pages, 4727 KiB  
Article
Potential Universal Engineering Component: Tetracycline Response Nanoswitch Based on Triple Helix-Graphene Oxide
Micromachines 2022, 13(12), 2119; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13122119 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
The overuse of antibiotics can lead to the emergence of drug resistance, preventing many common diseases from being effectively treated. Therefore, based on the special composite platform of P1/graphene oxide (GO) and DNA triple helix, a programmable DNA nanoswitch for the quantitative detection [...] Read more.
The overuse of antibiotics can lead to the emergence of drug resistance, preventing many common diseases from being effectively treated. Therefore, based on the special composite platform of P1/graphene oxide (GO) and DNA triple helix, a programmable DNA nanoswitch for the quantitative detection of tetracycline (TC) was designed. The introduction of GO as a quenching agent can effectively reduce the background fluorescence; stabilizing the trigger strand with a triplex structure minimizes errors. It is worth mentioning that the designed model has been verified and analyzed by both computer simulation and biological experiments. NUPACK predicts the combined mode and yield of each strand, while visual DSD flexibly predicts the changes in components over time during the reaction. The feasibility analysis preliminarily confirmed the realizability of the designed model, and the optimal reaction conditions were obtained through optimization, which laid the foundation for the subsequent quantitative detection of TC, while the selective experiments in different systems fully demonstrated that the model had excellent specificity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Materials and Microdevices: Fabrications and Applications)
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13 pages, 2018 KiB  
Article
Double-Sided Sapphire Optrodes with Conductive Shielding Layers to Reduce Optogenetic Stimulation Artifacts
Micromachines 2022, 13(11), 1836; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13111836 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
Optrodes, which are single shaft neural probes integrated with microelectrodes and optical light sources, offer a remarkable opportunity to simultaneously record and modulate neural activities using light within an animal’s brain; however, a common problem with optrodes is that stimulation artifacts can be [...] Read more.
Optrodes, which are single shaft neural probes integrated with microelectrodes and optical light sources, offer a remarkable opportunity to simultaneously record and modulate neural activities using light within an animal’s brain; however, a common problem with optrodes is that stimulation artifacts can be observed in the neural recordings of microelectrodes when the light source on the optrode is activated. These stimulation artifacts are undesirable contaminants, and they cause interpretation complexity when analyzing the recorded neural activities. In this paper, we tried to mitigate the effects of the stimulation artifacts by developing a low-noise, double-sided optrode integrated with multiple Electromagnetic Shielding (EMS) layers. The LED and microelectrodes were constructed separately on the top epitaxial and bottom substrate layers, and EMS layers were used to separate the microelectrodes and LED to reduce signal cross-talks. Compared with conventional single-sided designs, in which the LED and microelectrodes are constructed on the same side, our results indicate that double-sided optrodes can significantly reduce the presence of stimulation artifacts. In addition, the presence of stimulation artifacts can further be reduced by decreasing the voltage difference and increasing the rise/fall time of the driving LED pulsed voltage. With all these strategies, the presence of stimulation artifacts was significantly reduced by ~76%. As well as stimulation suppression, the sapphire substrate also provided strong mechanical stiffness and support to the optrodes, as well as improved electronic stability, thus making the double-sided sapphire optrodes highly suitable for optogenetic neuroscience research on animal models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Materials and Microdevices: Fabrications and Applications)
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