Next Issue
Volume 15, November-2
Previous Issue
Volume 15, October-2
 
 
nutrients-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Nutrients, Volume 15, Issue 21 (November-1 2023) – 214 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Vegetables are an essential component of a healthy dietary pattern in children; however, their consumption is often insufficient due to lack of preference. To address this, the influence of combining vegetables (mixed peas and carrots—MPACs) with potatoes, a generally liked food, on overall vegetable consumption among children aged 7–13 years was explored. The research involved a cross-over study design with 65 participants who completed five lunchtime meal conditions, each with different combinations of MPACs and potatoes versus a control (MPACs with a wheat roll). The meals were provided in a cafeteria setting, and plate waste was used to measure vegetable consumption. Anthropometric data and other variables were also measured. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
21 pages, 7140 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Relationship between Vegetarian Diet and Sports Performance: A Systematic Review
by Juan Hernández-Lougedo, José Luis Maté-Muñoz, Pablo García-Fernández, Edurne Úbeda-D’Ocasar, Juan Pablo Hervás-Pérez and Blanca Pedauyé-Rueda
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4703; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214703 - 06 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 7530
Abstract
Introduction: In recent years, the vegetarian diet has increased in popularity among athletes. The aim of this review is to ascertain the differences in variables related to performance, nutritional intake, and health in athletes according to whether they are omnivores or vegetarians. Methodology: [...] Read more.
Introduction: In recent years, the vegetarian diet has increased in popularity among athletes. The aim of this review is to ascertain the differences in variables related to performance, nutritional intake, and health in athletes according to whether they are omnivores or vegetarians. Methodology: A literature search was carried out in different databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Dialnet, and Cochrane. The keywords used were “vegetarian diet”, “vegan diet”, “exercise”, “sport”, and “performance”. After applying different inclusion criteria, six studies were included in the review. Results: No significant differences were obtained in variables related to physical performance (adherence exercise, Vo2Máx, muscle power, and sprint test) or health (body composition, psychological well-being, and social relationships), but dietary intake was significantly higher in carbohydrates and lower in proteins in vegetarian athletes (p < 0.05). Conclusions: It cannot be affirmed that vegetarian subjects have a higher sports performance, for which more research should be carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetarian Nutrition in Health Improvement)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1518 KiB  
Article
Iron Levels and Markers of Inflammation in a Population of Adults with Severe Obesity, a Cross-Sectional Study
by Daniela Laudisio, Giulia de Alteriis, Claudia Vetrani, Sara Aprano, Gabriella Pugliese, Francesca Zumbolo, Annamaria Colao and Silvia Savastano
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4702; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214702 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Low-grade chronic inflammation linked to obesity can lead to alterations in biomarkers of iron status. The aim of this study was to investigate the primary determinant of serum iron levels among anthropometric measurements, body fat, and serum biomarkers of low-grade chronic inflammation in [...] Read more.
Low-grade chronic inflammation linked to obesity can lead to alterations in biomarkers of iron status. The aim of this study was to investigate the primary determinant of serum iron levels among anthropometric measurements, body fat, and serum biomarkers of low-grade chronic inflammation in a group of adult individuals with severe obesity. We enrolled 114 individuals (84 females; 30 males) aged 40.96 ± 12.54 years. Weight and body mass index (BMI) were 121.20 ± 22.33 kg and 44.94 ± 7.29 kg/m2, respectively. Some 30% of individuals had class-II obesity (BMI ≥ 35 ≤ 39.9 kg/m2) and 70% had class-III obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2). A weak, albeit significant, inverse correlation was found between serum iron levels and c-reactive protein (CRP) (r = −0.259, p = 0.008), fibrinogen (r = −0.261, p = 0.006), BMI (r = −0.186, p = 0.04), waist circumference (WC) (r = −0.265, p = 0.004), and fat mass % (r = −0.285, p = 0.003). With multiple linear regression analysis including CRP, fibrinogen, BMI, WC, and fat mass % as independent variables and serum iron levels as dependent variable, WC was entered in the first step (p = 0.001), which was followed by fat mass % (p = 0.047) and CRP (p = 0.047). Grouping the individuals according to the interquartile range of BMI, WC, and fat mass % (Q1–Q4), the lowest serum iron levels were found in Q4 groups of WC and fat mass % (p = 0.02), while no significant differences were found between groups in BMI quartiles. In conclusion, in our study, population serum iron levels were inversely associated with BMI, visceral obesity, fat mass %, CRP, and fibrinogen, but WC was the major negative predictor of serum iron level. These results supported the fact that visceral distribution of body fat, more than obesity per se, was associated with low serum iron levels in adult individuals with severe obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Nutritional Aspect on Obesity and Hypertension)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2774 KiB  
Article
Microbiota-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Immunity and Intestinal Maturation in Suckling Rats
by Sergio Martínez-Ruiz, Laura Sáez-Fuertes, Sergi Casanova-Crespo, María J. Rodríguez-Lagunas, Francisco J. Pérez-Cano, Josefa Badia and Laura Baldoma
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4701; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214701 - 06 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1349
Abstract
Microbiota–host communication is primarily achieved by secreted factors that can penetrate the mucosal surface, such as extracellular membrane vesicles (EVs). The EVs released by the gut microbiota have been extensively studied in cellular and experimental models of human diseases. However, little is known [...] Read more.
Microbiota–host communication is primarily achieved by secreted factors that can penetrate the mucosal surface, such as extracellular membrane vesicles (EVs). The EVs released by the gut microbiota have been extensively studied in cellular and experimental models of human diseases. However, little is known about their in vivo effects in early life, specifically regarding immune and intestinal maturation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of daily administration of EVs from probiotic and commensal E. coli strains in healthy suckling rats during the first 16 days of life. On days 8 and 16, we assessed various intestinal and systemic variables in relation to animal growth, humoral and cellular immunity, epithelial barrier maturation, and intestinal architecture. On day 16, animals given probiotic/microbiota EVs exhibited higher levels of plasma IgG, IgA, and IgM and a greater proportion of Tc, NK, and NKT cells in the spleen. In the small intestine, EVs increased the villi area and modulated the expression of genes related to immune function, inflammation, and intestinal permeability, shifting towards an anti-inflammatory and barrier protective profile from day 8. In conclusion, interventions involving probiotic/microbiota EVs may represent a safe postbiotic strategy to stimulate immunity and intestinal maturation in early life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1879 KiB  
Article
Bifidobacterium breve CCFM1025 Improves Sleep Quality via Regulating the Activity of the HPA Axis: A Randomized Clinical Trial
by Yuming Lan, Junjie Lu, Guohong Qiao, Xuhua Mao, Jianxin Zhao, Gang Wang, Peijun Tian and Wei Chen
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4700; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214700 - 06 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2340
Abstract
Psychobiotics, a newly identified category of probiotics primarily targeting the gut–brain axis, exhibit tremendous potential in improving sleep quality. In this study, the clinical trial was registered in advance (identifier: NO. ChiCTR2300067806). Forty participants who were diagnosed with stress-induced insomnia were chosen and [...] Read more.
Psychobiotics, a newly identified category of probiotics primarily targeting the gut–brain axis, exhibit tremendous potential in improving sleep quality. In this study, the clinical trial was registered in advance (identifier: NO. ChiCTR2300067806). Forty participants who were diagnosed with stress-induced insomnia were chosen and randomly divided into two groups: one received CCFM1025 at a dose of 5 × 109 CFU (n = 20), while the other was administered a placebo (n = 20), over a period of four weeks. The results revealed that compared to the placebo group (pre: M = 10.10, SD = 2.292; post: M = 8.650, SD = 2.793; pre vs. post: F (1, 38) = 15.41, p = 0.4316), the CCFM1025-treated group exhibited a significant decrease in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores from baseline (pre: M = 11.60, SD = 3.169; post: M = 7.750, SD = 3.697, F (1, 38) = 15.41, p = 0.0007). Furthermore, the administration of CCFM1025 was associated with a more pronounced reduction in stress marker concentrations. This effect could potentially be linked to changes in serum metabolites induced by the probiotic treatment, notably daidzein. In conclusion, B. breve CCFM1025 demonstrates promise as a psychobiotic strain for enhancing sleep quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Disease Development: Mechanisms, Prevention and Treatment)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

26 pages, 1309 KiB  
Review
Uncovering the Hidden Dangers and Molecular Mechanisms of Excess Folate: A Narrative Review
by Ali M. Fardous and Ahmad R. Heydari
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4699; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214699 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 3466
Abstract
This review delves into the intricate relationship between excess folate (vitamin B9) intake, especially its synthetic form, namely, folic acid, and its implications on health and disease. While folate plays a pivotal role in the one-carbon cycle, which is essential for DNA synthesis, [...] Read more.
This review delves into the intricate relationship between excess folate (vitamin B9) intake, especially its synthetic form, namely, folic acid, and its implications on health and disease. While folate plays a pivotal role in the one-carbon cycle, which is essential for DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation, concerns arise about its excessive intake. The literature underscores potential deleterious effects, such as an increased risk of carcinogenesis; disruption in DNA methylation; and impacts on embryogenesis, pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment, and disease risk. Notably, these consequences stretch beyond the immediate effects, potentially influencing future generations through epigenetic reprogramming. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects were examined, including altered one-carbon metabolism, the accumulation of unmetabolized folic acid, vitamin-B12-dependent mechanisms, altered methylation patterns, and interactions with critical receptors and signaling pathways. Furthermore, differences in the effects and mechanisms mediated by folic acid compared with natural folate are highlighted. Given the widespread folic acid supplementation, it is imperative to further research its optimal intake levels and the molecular pathways impacted by its excessive intake, ensuring the health and well-being of the global population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1576 KiB  
Article
Influence of Enteral Nutrition on Quality of Life in Head and Neck Cancer and Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer Patients within a Pair-Matched Sample
by Elwira Gliwska, Dominika Głąbska, Zuzanna Zaczek, Jacek Sobocki and Dominika Guzek
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4698; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214698 - 06 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1237
Abstract
Patients with cancers of the head and neck and upper gastrointestinal tract are particularly susceptible to malnutrition, which worsens both their prognosis and quality of life and may result in the need for enteral or parenteral nutrition. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Patients with cancers of the head and neck and upper gastrointestinal tract are particularly susceptible to malnutrition, which worsens both their prognosis and quality of life and may result in the need for enteral or parenteral nutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of enteral nutrition on the quality of life in a paired sample. This study included 50 patients with cancer in two paired subgroups: with enteral nutrition (studied group) and without enteral nutrition (matched group). This study was based on self-reports collected with the EORTC QLQ C30 questionnaire and retrospective analysis of medical records. The analysis revealed that weight loss, group type, and age were the primary factors influencing patients’ quality of life. Compared with all cancer patients and the general Polish population, the scores of patients in both groups were below reference values for functional scales and exceeded reference values or were similar for fatigue and vomiting/nausea. Patients who received enteral nutrition more frequently scored lower on the functional scales and higher on the symptomatic scales than the control group. These findings emphasize the complex relationship between cancer, nutritional status, and quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition: When and How Is Appropriate?)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 7064 KiB  
Article
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Provides Benefits in Vitiligo Based on Modulation of CD8+ T Cell Glycolysis and Function
by Yujia Wei, Tingmei Wang, Xiaoqi Nie, Zeqi Shi, Zhong Liu, Ying Zeng, Ronghua Pan, Ri Zhang, Yunhua Deng and Dong Li
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4697; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214697 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1249
Abstract
Vitiligo is a common autoimmune skin disease caused by autoreactive CD8+ T cells. The diverse effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ [1,25(OH)₂D₃] on immune cell metabolism and proliferation have made it an interesting candidate as a supporting therapeutic option in various autoimmune diseases. This study [...] Read more.
Vitiligo is a common autoimmune skin disease caused by autoreactive CD8+ T cells. The diverse effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ [1,25(OH)₂D₃] on immune cell metabolism and proliferation have made it an interesting candidate as a supporting therapeutic option in various autoimmune diseases. This study aimed to elucidate the immunomodulatory effects of 1,25(OH)₂D₃ in vitiligo. Cross-sectional relationships between serum 1,25(OH)₂D₃ levels and disease characteristics were investigated in 327 patients with vitiligo. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of 1,25(OH)₂D₃ were then investigated in vivo and in vitro, respectively. We found that 1,25(OH)₂D₃ deficiency was associated with hyperactivity of CD8+ T cells in the vitiligo cohort. In addition, 1,25(OH)₂D₃ suppressed glycolysis by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting the proliferation, cytotoxicity and aberrant activation of CD8+ T cells. Finally, the in vivo administration of 1,25(OH)₂D₃ to melanocyte-associated vitiligo (MAV) mice reduced the infiltration and function of CD8+ T cells and promoted repigmentation. In conclusion, 1,25(OH)₂D₃ may serve as an essential biomarker of the progression and severity of vitiligo. The modulation of autoreactive CD8+ T cell function and glycolysis by 1,25(OH)₂D₃ may be a novel approach for treating vitiligo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Metabolism with Molecular Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2163 KiB  
Article
Effects of a High-Fat Diet and Docosahexaenoic Acid during Pregnancy on Fatty Acid Composition in the Fetal Livers of Mice
by Daniela Álvarez, Macarena Ortiz, Gabriel Valdebenito, Nicolás Crisosto, Bárbara Echiburú, Rodrigo Valenzuela, Alejandra Espinosa and Manuel Maliqueo
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4696; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214696 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1172
Abstract
A high-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy promotes fat accumulation and reduces docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels in the liver of the offspring at postnatal ages, which can depend on fetal sex. However, the prenatal mechanisms behind these associations are still unclear. Thus, we analyzed [...] Read more.
A high-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy promotes fat accumulation and reduces docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels in the liver of the offspring at postnatal ages, which can depend on fetal sex. However, the prenatal mechanisms behind these associations are still unclear. Thus, we analyzed if an HFD alters DHA content and the expression of molecules related to fatty acid (FA) metabolism in the fetal liver. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet or HFD for 4–6 weeks before pregnancy until the gestational day (GD) 17.5. A subgroup of each diet received DHA (100 mg/Kg) orally from GD 6.5 until 16.5. On GD 17.5, maternal livers, placentas, and livers from male and female fetuses were collected for FA profiling with gas-chromatography and gene expression of molecules related to FA metabolism using qPCR. PPAR-α protein expression was evaluated using Western blot. The gene expression of placental FA transporters was also assessed. An HFD increased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and decreased DHA levels and protein expression of PPAR-α in the fetal livers of both sexes. DHA increased the gene expression of Ppara, Cpt1, and Acsl1 in the livers of female fetuses. Therefore, an HFD reduces DHA levels and PPAR-α, a master regulator of gene expression, in the fetal liver. In turn, the livers of female fetuses seem to be more sensitive to DHA action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acid, Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 619 KiB  
Article
See Me, Hear Me, Know Me: Perspectives on Diet and Physical Activity Influences among Teens Living in Rural Texas Communities
by Debbe Thompson, Julie Miranda, Chishinga Callender, Jayna M. Dave, Godlove Appiah and Salma M. A. Musaad
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4695; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214695 - 06 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
Teens in rural communities are at greater risk of obesity than teens in urban areas. Diet and physical activity influence obesity risk. Understanding their perspectives is an important step in intervention design. This qualitative investigation explored teen perspectives on how living in a [...] Read more.
Teens in rural communities are at greater risk of obesity than teens in urban areas. Diet and physical activity influence obesity risk. Understanding their perspectives is an important step in intervention design. This qualitative investigation explored teen perspectives on how living in a rural community influenced their diet and physical activity choices. Forty parent–teen pairs were recruited. Data collection included surveys and telephone interviews. This paper reports teen perspectives identified in the first interview. Thematic analysis was used to code and analyze the data. Findings revealed that the primary factor driving teens’ diet and physical activity behaviors was the teens themselves. They clearly understood their role in the choices they made, although they acknowledged not always making the healthiest choice. This belief was driven by their motivation to engage in healthy behaviors, which was influenced by the perceived benefits derived from making healthy choices and from the synergistic relationship between diet and physical activity. Diet and physical activity, in turn, were influenced by the environment, particularly the home, social, and community environments. Family and friends were particularly influential, as well as resource availability. These findings can serve as a foundation for designing interventions tailored to this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Physical Activity and Chronic Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 2803 KiB  
Article
Height with Age Affects Body Mass Index (BMI) Assessment of Chronic Disease Risk
by Peter R. Holt, Osama Altayar and David H. Alpers
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4694; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214694 - 06 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1504
Abstract
Body mass index (BMI) is a function of weight and height, but changing height has not been emphasized. Using the Framingham Heart Study with 5 decades of data on anthropomorphic measurements and disease states, changing height with age was extracted, and BMI was [...] Read more.
Body mass index (BMI) is a function of weight and height, but changing height has not been emphasized. Using the Framingham Heart Study with 5 decades of data on anthropomorphic measurements and disease states, changing height with age was extracted, and BMI was calculated using current and “young” height (calculated as height at age < 40 years). Decreased height began at age 40, with a mean loss from ages 40 to 80 of 4.8 cm for women and 3.6 cm for men. Using cutoff values of 25 and 30 for overweight and obesity, ~12.5% of women and ~10% of men were misclassified. Comparable figures for obesity classification were ~10 and 8%. At age 70, ~20% of women and ~15% of men were misclassified. Using the BMI corrected to “young” height, obese subjects had an increased risk for developing pre-diabetes and diabetes, with a higher risk for women than men. Using corrected BMI, obese subjects had a higher risk for developing hypertension, lower than for diabetes and higher for men than for women. These data do not establish whether the increased disease risk is clinically important but demonstrate that there is an advantage to using BMI corrected for “young” height when compared with BMI using current age-related height. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 593 KiB  
Article
FODMAPs—Unknowns for Consumers: First Survey in Serbia
by Aleksandra Torbica, Vesna Vujasinović, Miloš Radosavljević, Goran Radivojević and Ilija Milovanović
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4693; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214693 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1084
Abstract
According to unofficial data, every fifth person in Serbia suffers from some form of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Compounds classified as FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, and Monosaccharides and Polyols) are newly found potential triggers of IBS and a number of associated gastrointestinal disorders. [...] Read more.
According to unofficial data, every fifth person in Serbia suffers from some form of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Compounds classified as FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, and Monosaccharides and Polyols) are newly found potential triggers of IBS and a number of associated gastrointestinal disorders. Cereals, predominantly in their wholegrain form, represent the key contributors to the high contents of FODMAPs in wholegrain (high-fiber) bakery products. The current work was structured in a way to systematically evaluate the consumer’s knowledge and preferences toward wholegrain and low-FODMAP bakery products. The questionnaire was filled out by 725 respondents, aged from 18 to 86 years. They were informed about the aim of the research and management of anonymous data. The present study is the first detailed survey in this region of Europe, aiming to improve the familiarity with and attitude toward FODMAPs and a low-FODMAP diet by analyzing the different dietary habits regarding wholegrain-cereal-based products among consumers of various ages, genders, places of residence, and education. The results suggest that the respondents are, to some degree, aware of the health benefits of consuming foods with high fiber content while indicating a low level of knowledge about FODMAP compounds and connected topics. Education about contemporary scientific findings and the potentially harmful effects of consuming FODMAP compounds for a population with gastrointestinal disorders and diseases will be imperative in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Policies and Education for Health Promotion)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

10 pages, 429 KiB  
Article
The Development of Text Messages to Support People at Risk of Diabetes in Low-Resourced Communities: The South African Diabetes Prevention Programme
by Jillian Hill, Mieke Faber, Cindy George, Nasheeta Peer, Tshavhuyo Mulabisano, Sonja Mostert, Eugene Sobngwi and Andre P. Kengne
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4692; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214692 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 965
Abstract
Emerging evidence suggests that the addition of text messages to standard healthy lifestyle interventions may improve the outcomes of diabetes prevention programs (DPP). This paper describes the process of developing text messages targeting behavior change in people at risk of developing diabetes in [...] Read more.
Emerging evidence suggests that the addition of text messages to standard healthy lifestyle interventions may improve the outcomes of diabetes prevention programs (DPP). This paper describes the process of developing text messages targeting behavior change in people at risk of developing diabetes in low-resourced communities as part of the South African DPP (SA-DPP). The development comprised multiple steps led by nutrition and physical activity experts. The steps included the following: (1) text message development based on the existing SA-DPP curriculum and its formative research; (2) text message evaluation for readability/understandability in terms of content, language, and quality, with 75 participants from two low-resourced areas in Cape Town; (3) text message refinement by the expert panel; (4) evaluation of the refined text messages by participants from Step 2; and (5) text bank finalization. Based on the readability survey, 37 of the 67 formulated text messages [24 of the 44 encouraged healthy eating, and 13 of the 23 promoted physical activity] were refined. Based on focused discussions with participants, seven more messages were refined to consider alternative terminology. The final text bank includes a total of 67 messages comprising topics related to fruit and vegetable consumption as well as the importance of having variety in the diet (n = 15), limiting fat intake (n = 10), avoiding sugar (n = 11), avoiding salt (n = 5), promoting fiber-rich foods (n = 1), messages promoting physical activity (n = 21), and general check-in messages (n = 4). Most of the text messages were acceptable, understandable, and largely feasible to all participants, with some of the nutrition-related messages being less feasible for participants due to their socioeconomic position. The next step is to assess the text messages in the SA-DPP intervention trial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention of Obesity in the Lifecycle: Risks and Determinants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 5271 KiB  
Article
Multi-Omics Data Integration Reveals Sex-Dependent Hippocampal Programming by Maternal High-Fat Diet during Lactation in Adult Mouse Offspring
by Thibaut Gauvrit, Hamza Benderradji, Alexandre Pelletier, Soulaimane Aboulouard, Emilie Faivre, Kévin Carvalho, Aude Deleau, Emmanuelle Vallez, Agathe Launay, Anna Bogdanova, Mélanie Besegher, Stéphanie Le Gras, Anne Tailleux, Michel Salzet, Luc Buée, Fabien Delahaye, David Blum and Didier Vieau
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4691; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214691 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1526
Abstract
Early-life exposure to high-fat diets (HF) can program metabolic and cognitive alterations in adult offspring. Although the hippocampus plays a crucial role in memory and metabolic homeostasis, few studies have reported the impact of maternal HF on this structure. We assessed the effects [...] Read more.
Early-life exposure to high-fat diets (HF) can program metabolic and cognitive alterations in adult offspring. Although the hippocampus plays a crucial role in memory and metabolic homeostasis, few studies have reported the impact of maternal HF on this structure. We assessed the effects of maternal HF during lactation on physiological, metabolic, and cognitive parameters in young adult offspring mice. To identify early-programming mechanisms in the hippocampus, we developed a multi-omics strategy in male and female offspring. Maternal HF induced a transient increased body weight at weaning, and a mild glucose intolerance only in 3-month-old male mice with no change in plasma metabolic parameters in adult male and female offspring. Behavioral alterations revealed by a Barnes maze test were observed both in 6-month-old male and female mice. The multi-omics strategy unveiled sex-specific transcriptomic and proteomic modifications in the hippocampus of adult offspring. These studies that were confirmed by regulon analysis show that, although genes whose expression was modified by maternal HF were different between sexes, the main pathways affected were similar with mitochondria and synapses as main hippocampal targets of maternal HF. The effects of maternal HF reported here may help to better characterize sex-dependent molecular pathways involved in cognitive disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Diet, Lifestyle on Maternal and Offspring Obesity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

32 pages, 873 KiB  
Review
The Effects of Oral Probiotics on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM): A Clinical Trial Systematic Literature Review
by Simon Paquette, Sean C. Thomas, Krishnan Venkataraman, Vasu D. Appanna and Sujeenthar Tharmalingam
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4690; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214690 - 05 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3581
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains a global health concern. Emerging clinical trial (CT) evidence suggests that probiotic intervention may promote a healthy gut microbiome in individuals with T2DM, thereby improving management of the disease. This systematic literature review summarizes thirty-three CTs investigating [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains a global health concern. Emerging clinical trial (CT) evidence suggests that probiotic intervention may promote a healthy gut microbiome in individuals with T2DM, thereby improving management of the disease. This systematic literature review summarizes thirty-three CTs investigating the use of oral probiotics for the management of T2DM. Here, twenty-one studies (64%) demonstrated an improvement in at least one glycemic parameter, while fifteen studies (45%) showed an improvement in at least one lipid parameter. However, no article in this review was able to establish a uniform decrease in glycemic, lipid, or blood pressure profiles. The lack of consistency across the studies may be attributed to differences in probiotic composition, duration of probiotic consumption, and probiotic dose. An interesting finding of this literature review was the beneficial trend of metformin and probiotic co-administration. Here, patients with T2DM taking metformin demonstrated enhanced glycemic control via the co-administration of probiotics. Taken together, the overall positive findings reported across the studies in combination with minimal adverse effects constitute ground for further quality CTs. This review provides recommendations for future CTs that may address the shortcomings of the current studies and help to extract useful data from future investigations of the use of probiotics in T2DM management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3743 KiB  
Article
Heptanoate Improves Compensatory Mechanism of Glucose Homeostasis in Mitochondrial Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Defect
by Siti Nurjanah, Albert Gerding, Marcel A. Vieira-Lara, Bernard Evers, Miriam Langelaar-Makkinje, Ute Spiekerkoetter, Barbara M. Bakker and Sara Tucci
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4689; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214689 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Defects in mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) impair metabolic flexibility, which is an essential process for energy homeostasis. Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCADD; OMIM 609575) deficiency is the most common long-chain mitochondrial FAO disorder presenting with hypoglycemia as a common clinical manifestation. To prevent [...] Read more.
Defects in mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) impair metabolic flexibility, which is an essential process for energy homeostasis. Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCADD; OMIM 609575) deficiency is the most common long-chain mitochondrial FAO disorder presenting with hypoglycemia as a common clinical manifestation. To prevent hypoglycemia, triheptanoin—a triglyceride composed of three heptanoates (C7) esterified with a glycerol backbone—can be used as a dietary treatment, since it is metabolized into precursors for gluconeogenesis. However, studies investigating the effect of triheptanoin on glucose homeostasis are limited. To understand the role of gluconeogenesis in the pathophysiology of long-chain mitochondrial FAO defects, we injected VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD−/−) mice with 13C3-glycerol in the presence and absence of heptanoate (C7). The incorporation of 13C3-glycerol into blood glucose was higher in VLCAD−/− mice than in WT mice, whereas the difference disappeared in the presence of C7. The result correlates with 13C enrichment of liver metabolites in VLCAD−/− mice. In contrast, the C7 bolus significantly decreased the 13C enrichment. These data suggest that the increased contribution of gluconeogenesis to the overall glucose production in VLCAD−/− mice increases the need for gluconeogenesis substrate, thereby avoiding hypoglycemia. Heptanoate is a suitable substrate to induce glucose production in mitochondrial FAO defect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Metabolic Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 265 KiB  
Article
Assessment of School Contributions to Healthy Eating, Physical Activity Education, and Support for Weight-Loss Attempts among Adolescents from Jazan, Saudi Arabia
by Ibrahim M. Gosadi
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4688; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214688 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 985
Abstract
This study evaluates the contribution of schools in Saudi Arabia towards the provision of education and support concerning weight management among adolescents. It also identifies adolescents who have attempted to lose weight and examines their preferred weight-loss methods and their sources of weight-loss [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the contribution of schools in Saudi Arabia towards the provision of education and support concerning weight management among adolescents. It also identifies adolescents who have attempted to lose weight and examines their preferred weight-loss methods and their sources of weight-loss support. This study is a cross-sectional investigation that targets adolescents in intermediate and secondary schools in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire that looked at the involvement of the school in the provision of education pertaining to weight control and the weight-loss experiences of students who had attempted to lose weight. The study involved 501 adolescents, 45% of whom had attempted to lose weight, where the most common methods for weight loss being reducing food consumption (77%), exercising (75%), and fasting (49%). The assessment of the schools’ contributions indicated its suboptimal role in the provision of education concerning physical activity compared to education about eating habits. The most commonly reported sources of weight-loss support were the students’ families (54%), followed by community facilities (44%). The least common sources were the students’ schools (24%). These findings indicate that schools need to enhance their contribution to encouraging adolescents to adopt a healthy lifestyle, while also ensuring multi-sectorial collaboration with families and community members. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Determinants of Health, Diet, and Health Outcome)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 295 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Eating Disorders and Their Association with Social Media Addiction among Youths
by Tehreem Mushtaq, Seemab Ashraf, Huma Hameed, Ali Irfan, Maria Shahid, Rabbia Kanwal, Muhammad Arslan Aslam, Hijab Shahid, Koh-E-Noor, Gamal A. Shazly, Mahtab Ahmad Khan and Yousef A. Bin Jardan
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4687; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214687 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 3858
Abstract
Eating disorders and excessive attachment to social media are a matter of great concern among youths. This study assessed the prevalence of eating disorders and their association with social media addiction among youths. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 350 participants aged [...] Read more.
Eating disorders and excessive attachment to social media are a matter of great concern among youths. This study assessed the prevalence of eating disorders and their association with social media addiction among youths. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 350 participants aged 14–25 years. Two pre-validated tools were used, i.e., the Eating Attitude Test and the Social Networking Addiction Scale. SPSS was used to analyze the data. Out of the 350 students, 42% had probable eating disorders, and 41.7% had social media addictions. The findings revealed that the chances of having eating disorders were significantly higher among youths who lived in separate places, smoked, and had a family history of eating disorders (p ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the dieting domain displayed notably higher scores for youths living separately (p ≤ 0.05) and smokers (p ≤ 0.01). Moreover, the scores for bulimia and food preoccupation were significantly higher among participants who were married (p = 0.038), were smokers (p = 0.027), and had a family history of eating disorders (p = 0.001). Higher scores in the oral control domain were reported by females (p ≤ 0.05) and severely obese youths (p ≤ 0.01). Moreover, social media addiction was significantly higher among students aged 18–21 (p ≤ 0.01). Spearman’s correlation revealed that social media addiction has a weak positive relationship with eating disorders (r = 0.133, p ≤ 0.01), particularly bulimia and food preoccupation (r = 0.173, p ≤ 0.001). This reflects the need to address the harmful consequences of social media addiction that might raise the likelihood of developing eating disorders, particularly bulimia nervosa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
14 pages, 1473 KiB  
Review
Role of Fisetin in Selected Malignant Neoplasms in Women
by Anna Markowska, Michał Antoszczak, Karol Kacprzak, Janina Markowska and Adam Huczyński
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4686; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214686 - 05 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1526
Abstract
A promising therapeutic window and cost-effectiveness are just two of the potential advantages of using naturally derived drugs. Fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonoid of the flavonol group, commonly found in fruit and vegetables. In recent years, fisetin has gained wide attention across [...] Read more.
A promising therapeutic window and cost-effectiveness are just two of the potential advantages of using naturally derived drugs. Fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonoid of the flavonol group, commonly found in fruit and vegetables. In recent years, fisetin has gained wide attention across the scientific community because of its broad spectrum of pharmacological properties, including cytotoxic activity against most abundant cancers. By stimulating or inhibiting selected molecular targets or biochemical processes, fisetin could affect the reduction of metastasis or cancer progression, which indicates its chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive role. In this review, we have summarized the results of studies on the anticancer effects of fisetin on selected female malignancies, both in in vitro and in vivo tests, i.e., breast, cervical, and ovarian cancer, published over the past two decades. Until now, no article dedicated exclusively to the action of fisetin on female malignancies has appeared. This review also describes a growing number of nanodelivery systems designed to improve the bioavailability and solubility of this natural compound. The reported low toxicity and activity of fisetin on cancer cells indicate its valuable potential, but large-scale clinical trials are urgently needed to assess real chemotherapeutic efficacy of this flavonoid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Strategy for Cancer—from Prevention to Aftercare)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 700 KiB  
Article
Effect of Nutrition Education on Health Science University Students to Improve Cardiometabolic Profile and Inflammatory Status
by Miguel López-Moreno, Marta Garcés-Rimón, Marta Miguel-Castro, Elia Fernández-Martínez and María Teresa Iglesias López
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4685; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214685 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1717
Abstract
The inadequate lifestyle associated with university life may have a negative impact on various cardiometabolic factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a one-year nutrition education course on cardiometabolic parameters in undergraduate health science students. During the 2021–22 [...] Read more.
The inadequate lifestyle associated with university life may have a negative impact on various cardiometabolic factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a one-year nutrition education course on cardiometabolic parameters in undergraduate health science students. During the 2021–22 academic year, 1.30 h nutrition sessions were conducted twice a week. Capillary blood samples were collected and centrifuged to measure cardiometabolic and inflammatory biomarkers in serum. The sample studied consisted of 49 students: 20.4% male and 79.6% female. The nutritional intervention resulted in changes in dietary patterns, with increased consumption of vegetables, nuts and legumes. After the course, females showed an increase in HDL-cholesterol levels (p = 0.007) and no change in LDL-cholesterol levels (p = 0.189). On the other hand, males showed significant changes in HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.001) and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.043) levels. The atherogenic index was also significantly reduced (p < 0.001) in both males (p = 0.009) and females (p = 0.002). Differences were also observed in the increase in vitamin D levels in both males and females, although the magnitude of the increase was greater in the men (Δ = 7.94, p = 0.016 in men vs. Δ = 4.96, p = 0.001 in women). The monocyte-to-HDL ratio (MHR) showed a significant reduction, although these differences were only significant in males. Students with low vitamin D levels had higher LDL-cholesterol values (p = 0.01) and atherogenic index (p = 0.029). Adjusted linear regression analysis showed a significant association between post-course vitamin D MHR (β = −0.42, IC: −0.29, −0.06, p < 0.01). These findings suggest the importance of including nutrition education programs during the university stage for the prevention of long-term health problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Mediterranean Diet on Gut Microbiota)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 748 KiB  
Article
Reducing In-Hospital and 60-Day Mortality in Critically Ill Patients after Surgery with Strict Nutritional Supplementation: A Prospective, Single-Labeled, Randomized Controlled Trial
by Kyoung Moo Im and Eun Young Kim
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4684; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214684 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1147
Abstract
Malnutrition in critically ill patients is a global concern, especially those who undergo abdominal surgery, as it is associated to higher infectious complications, prolonged hospital stays, and increased morbidity. Despite the importance of proper nutrition, guidelines remain broad, and practical implementation is often [...] Read more.
Malnutrition in critically ill patients is a global concern, especially those who undergo abdominal surgery, as it is associated to higher infectious complications, prolonged hospital stays, and increased morbidity. Despite the importance of proper nutrition, guidelines remain broad, and practical implementation is often inadequate. We aimed to assess the effects of strict nutritional provision and investigate the appropriate target for nutrition support. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units following abdominal surgery. The intervention group received targeted protein and calories, with consultation from a nutritional support team upon admission. In total, 181 patients in the intervention and 144 in the control group were analyzed. The intervention group demonstrated improved nutrition provision and subsequently better clinical outcomes, including a reduced 60-day mortality (4.4 versus 15.3, p = 0.001), postoperative complications (24.9 versus 47.2, p < 0.001), and in-hospital mortality (5 versus 17.4, p < 0.001). High modified nutrition risk in the critically ill scores [odds ratio (OR) = 2.658, 95% CI = 1.498–4.716] were associated with increased 60-day mortality, while active nutritional intervention (OR = 0.312, 95% CI = 0.111–0.873) was associated with lower mortality rates. Notably, the provision of targeted energy and protein alone did not exhibit a significant association with mortality outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malnutrition in Hospitalized Patients)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1716 KiB  
Article
The Role of Intestinal Barrier Function in Overweight Patients with IBS with Diarrhea Undergoing a Long-Term Low Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, and Monosaccharide and Polyol Diet
by Michele Linsalata, Giuseppe Riezzo, Antonella Orlando, Benedetta D’Attoma, Laura Prospero, Antonia Ignazzi, Giuseppe Losurdo, Alfredo Di Leo, Gianluigi Giannelli and Francesco Russo
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4683; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214683 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
Overweight and obesity have been suggested as significant factors in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) development. However, the relationship between overweight/obesity and IBS is unclear. It is known that a modified intestinal barrier, especially the permeability of the small intestine (s-IP), can play a [...] Read more.
Overweight and obesity have been suggested as significant factors in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) development. However, the relationship between overweight/obesity and IBS is unclear. It is known that a modified intestinal barrier, especially the permeability of the small intestine (s-IP), can play a significant role in the pathogenesis of both obesity and IBS. Moreover, dietary interventions are essential for treating both pathologies. We evaluated the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and the urinary and circulating markers of GI barrier function and integrity, the markers of intestinal dysbiosis and bacterial translocation, in 40 IBS patients with predominant diarrhea (IBS-D) (32 females and 8 males; mean age = 43.5 ± 1.4 years), categorized using their Body Mass Index levels as normal (NW) and overweight (OW). Evaluations were performed before and after 12 weeks of a Low FODMAP Diet (LFD). At the baseline, OW patients showed a significantly higher s-IP than NW. After an LFD, a significant improvement of s-IP in OW patients occurred, along with a significant decrease in markers of epithelial integrity and bacterial translocation. Our findings highlight the close relationship between overweight and the intestinal barrier and support their involvement in IBS-D pathophysiology. Furthermore, the positive role of an LFD in managing overweight IBS-D was highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2969 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Lockdown and Changes in Dietary and Lifestyle Behaviors in a French Longitudinal Cohort
by Antoine de Reviers, Agnès Helme-Guizon, Christophe Moinard and Catherine Féart
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4682; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214682 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed local lockdowns resulting in strong disruptions in our lifestyles and dietary behaviors. This study aimed to determine how the lockdown in France affected these behaviors and weight during the lockdown and in a one month follow up [...] Read more.
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed local lockdowns resulting in strong disruptions in our lifestyles and dietary behaviors. This study aimed to determine how the lockdown in France affected these behaviors and weight during the lockdown and in a one month follow up period of time after the end of the lockdown. Methods: The study design was a longitudinal cohort, among French adults. A total of 593 participants (68.6% female), with a mean age of 42.2 years (SD = 15.2) completed a self-reported questionnaire on four occasions spaced one month apart, from the beginning of the lockdown starting 17 March 2020, until one month after its end (mid-June 2020). Clusters of participants were formed using the non-supervised k-means algorithm. Results: The mean weight gain after one month of lockdown was 0.56 kg (SD = 0.6). The cluster analysis exposed three different patterns of behavioral changes, despite no significant differences in age or BMI between clusters. These three groups have experienced different weight change dynamics over the follow-up duration. The first cluster (n = 210) reported fewer changes in sleep quality and quantity and less change in snacking frequency (p ≤ 0.001). The second cluster (n = 200) reported significantly lower levels of stress than the other clusters (p ≤ 0.001). The third cluster (n = 183) differed from the others, with a more degraded quality of sleep reported throughout the lockdown (p ≤ 0.01). However, changes in eating behaviors and body weight were not significant. Conclusions: During the lockdown, behavioral changes occurred, both health-favorable and non-health-favorable, yet they had a minor impact on eating behaviors and reported body weight once the restrictive measures were lifted. The identification of three patterns suggests that, in such constraining situations, personalized recommendations should be provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Habits and Nutritional Aspects during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 991 KiB  
Review
Diet’s Impact on Post-Traumatic Brain Injury Depression: Exploring Neurodegeneration, Chronic Blood–Brain Barrier Destruction, and Glutamate Neurotoxicity Mechanisms
by Matthew Boyko, Benjamin F. Gruenbaum, Anna Oleshko, Igor Merzlikin and Alexander Zlotnik
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4681; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214681 - 04 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1893
Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has a profound impact on cognitive and mental functioning, leading to lifelong impairment and significantly diminishing the quality of life for affected individuals. A healthy blood–brain barrier (BBB) plays a crucial role in guarding the brain against elevated levels [...] Read more.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has a profound impact on cognitive and mental functioning, leading to lifelong impairment and significantly diminishing the quality of life for affected individuals. A healthy blood–brain barrier (BBB) plays a crucial role in guarding the brain against elevated levels of blood glutamate, making its permeability a vital aspect of glutamate regulation within the brain. Studies have shown the efficacy of reducing excess glutamate in the brain as a treatment for post-TBI depression, anxiety, and aggression. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the involvement of dietary glutamate in the development of depression after TBI. We performed a literature search to examine the effects of diets abundant in glutamate, which are common in Asian populations, when compared to diets low in glutamate, which are prevalent in Europe and America. We specifically explored these effects in the context of chronic BBB damage after TBI, which may initiate neurodegeneration and subsequently have an impact on depression through the mechanism of chronic glutamate neurotoxicity. A glutamate-rich diet leads to increased blood glutamate levels when contrasted with a glutamate-poor diet. Within the context of chronic BBB disruption, elevated blood glutamate levels translate to heightened brain glutamate concentrations, thereby intensifying neurodegeneration due to glutamate neurotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Therapies for Mental Disorders)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 5284 KiB  
Article
Aqueous Fraction from Cucumis sativus Aerial Parts Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction In Vivo by Activating Akt
by Celeste Trejo-Moreno, Zimri Aziel Alvarado-Ojeda, Marisol Méndez-Martínez, Mario Ernesto Cruz-Muñoz, Gabriela Castro-Martínez, Gerardo Arrellín-Rosas, Alejandro Zamilpa, Jesús Enrique Jimenez-Ferrer, Juan Carlos Baez Reyes, Gladis Fragoso and Gabriela Rosas Salgado
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4680; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214680 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 938
Abstract
Background: Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is a marker of vascular damage and a precursor of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, which involve inflammation and organ damage. Nitric oxide (NO), produced by eNOS, which is induced by pAKT, plays a crucial role in the function [...] Read more.
Background: Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is a marker of vascular damage and a precursor of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, which involve inflammation and organ damage. Nitric oxide (NO), produced by eNOS, which is induced by pAKT, plays a crucial role in the function of a healthy endothelium. Methods: A combination of subfractions SF1 and SF3 (C4) of the aqueous fraction from Cucumis sativus (Cs-Aq) was evaluated to control endothelial dysfunction in vivo and on HMEC-1 cells to assess the involvement of pAkt in vitro. C57BL/6J mice were injected daily with angiotensin II (Ang-II) for 10 weeks. Once hypertension was established, either Cs-AqC4 or losartan was orally administered along with Ang-II for a further 10 weeks. Blood pressure (BP) was measured at weeks 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20. In addition, serum creatinine, inflammatory status (in the kidney), tissue damage, and vascular remodeling (in the liver and aorta) were evaluated. Cs-AqC4 was also tested in vitro on HMEC-1 cells stimulated by Ang-II to assess the involvement of Akt phosphorylation. Results: Cs-AqC4 decreased systolic and diastolic BP, reversed vascular remodeling, decreased IL-1β and TGF-β, increased IL-10, and decreased kidney and liver damage. In HMEC-1 cells, AKT phosphorylation and NO production were increased. Conclusions: Cs-AqC4 controlled inflammation and vascular remodeling, alleviating hypertension; it also improved tissue damage associated with ED, probably via Akt activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Foods and Ingredients for Cardiovascular Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 9509 KiB  
Article
Longan Polysaccharides with Covalent Selenylation Combat the Fumonisin B1-Induced Cell Toxicity and Barrier Disruption in Intestinal Epithelial (IEC-6) Cells
by Ya-Hui Yu and Xin-Huai Zhao
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4679; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214679 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1023
Abstract
In this study, the soluble, but non-digestible, longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) polysaccharides (LP) were extracted from dried longan fruits and then chemically selenylated to produce two selenylated products, namely SeLP1 and SeLP2, with different selenylation extents. The aim was to investigate [...] Read more.
In this study, the soluble, but non-digestible, longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) polysaccharides (LP) were extracted from dried longan fruits and then chemically selenylated to produce two selenylated products, namely SeLP1 and SeLP2, with different selenylation extents. The aim was to investigate their protective effects on rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells exposed to the food toxin fumonisin B1 (FB1). LP only contained total Se content of less than 0.01 g/kg, while SeLP1 and SeLP2 were measured with respective total Se content of up to 1.46 and 4.79 g/kg. The cell viability results showed that these two selenylated products were more efficient than LP in the IEC-6 cells in alleviating FB1-induced cell toxicity, suppressing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and decreasing the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). These two selenylated products were also more effective than LP in combating FB1-induced barrier disruption via increasing the transepithelial electric resistance (TEER), reducing the paracellular permeability, decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss, and maintaining cell barrier integrity by upregulating the tight-junction-related genes and proteins. FB1 caused cell oxidative stress and barrier dysfunction by activating the MAPK and mitochondrial apoptosis signaling pathways, while SeLP1 and SeLP2 could regulate the tMAPK- and apoptosis-related proteins to suppress the FB1-mediated activation of the two pathways. Overall, SeLP2 was observed to be more active than SeLP1 in the IEC-6 cells. In conclusion, the chemical selenylation of LP caused an activity enhancement to ameliorate the FB1-induced cell cytotoxicity and intestinal barrier disruption. Meanwhile, the increased selenylation of LP would endow the selenylated product SeLP2 with more activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbohydrates)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 606 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of an Environmental Nutrition Intervention at the 2018 Commonwealth Games
by Fiona E. Pelly and Rachael L. Thurecht
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4678; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214678 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 889
Abstract
There has been an increasing expectation that the food provided for athletes at major competition events meets the specific dietary and performance needs of athletes. The aim of this study was to map the range of food service nutrition schemes that were implemented [...] Read more.
There has been an increasing expectation that the food provided for athletes at major competition events meets the specific dietary and performance needs of athletes. The aim of this study was to map the range of food service nutrition schemes that were implemented prior to and during a major competition event (2018 Commonwealth Games) and evaluate these schemes through staff training satisfaction, athlete feedback, and quality assurance checks. This study followed a case study design with nutrition schemes as follows: informing (nutrition labelling), enabling (staff training, nutrition service), and engineering (modification to menus and recipes). Overall, participants reported that they easily found items on the menu that met their nutritional/dietary needs. When asked how useful the schemes were in helping them to identify items that meet their needs, the majority of participants found the nutrition cards (n = 227, 71%) and serving staff (n = 212, 66%) ‘useful/very useful’. ‘Good/very good’ ratings were received by >90% of respondents for speed of service, staff politeness, and knowledge of the menu. Participants (n = 316) who rated the nutrition staff as ‘useful/very useful’ gave a higher median rating for the menu. Past events have focused on the impact of a single component in the food environment; however, taking a whole systems approach resulted in more suitable food provision to meet the dietary needs of athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Eating and Determinants of Food Choice)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1149 KiB  
Article
Impact of Caloric Restriction in Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: A Prospective Case Control Study
by Isabella Castellano, Francesco Gallo, Paola Durelli, Taira Monge, Maurizio Fadda, Jasna Metovic, Paola Cassoni, Fulvio Borella, Carlo Raucci, Monica Menischetti, Alessandra Beano, Giuseppe Migliaretti and Concetta Finocchiaro
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4677; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214677 - 04 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2247
Abstract
Background and aims: It is well established that caloric restriction (CR) may influence metabolic and hormonal factors involved in cancer development and progression. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that CR may have a favorable impact on the response to systemic therapy in breast [...] Read more.
Background and aims: It is well established that caloric restriction (CR) may influence metabolic and hormonal factors involved in cancer development and progression. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that CR may have a favorable impact on the response to systemic therapy in breast cancer (BC) patients. However, there is a lack of data regarding the influence of CR during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Our study’s primary aim was to evaluate CR’s impact on BC patients undergoing NACT. Secondly, we investigated the nutritional efficacy and safety of this intervention. Methods: We performed a prospective, case–control study in two breast units. A diet group consisting of 39 patients undergoing NACT and CR was enrolled in our study at the same time. CR consisted of a 30% reduction in caloric intake, which increased to 50% on the days before, during, and after the administration of chemotherapy. A control group of 60 patients that underwent the same treatment approach only followed the general dietary recommendations for BC according to WCRF guidelines. The diet group was monitored during the study for both dietary adequacy and weight trends. Results: CR combined with NACT showed a statistically significant therapeutic response in tumor size (OR 2.94, IC 1.07–8.01, p = 0.009) and lymph node status (OR 3.22, IC 1.22–8.56, p = 0.001) compared to NACT alone, even after the adjustment for all biological parameters. Our data also showed the efficacy and safety of this intervention in both anthropometric and biochemical analyses. Conclusions: Patients who adhered to CR showed a better response to NACT, both in the breast and in the axillary lymph nodes, compared to the patients in the control group. Furthermore, the CR diet combined with NACT showed good tolerance and safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer and Nutrition: From Epidemiology to Medical Nutrition Therapy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1087 KiB  
Article
Treatment of Active Crohn’s Disease in Children Using Partial Enteral Nutrition Combined with a Modified Crohn’s Disease Exclusion Diet: A Pilot Prospective Cohort Trial on Clinical and Endoscopic Outcomes
by Darja Urlep, Rok Orel, Patricija Kunstek and Evgen Benedik
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4676; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214676 - 04 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1814
Abstract
Background: Partial enteral nutrition (PEN) coupled with the Crohn’s disease (CD) exclusion diet (CDED) was shown to be effective in inducing clinical remission in paediatric CD. There are currently no robust data on the endoscopic outcomes of PEN. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Background: Partial enteral nutrition (PEN) coupled with the Crohn’s disease (CD) exclusion diet (CDED) was shown to be effective in inducing clinical remission in paediatric CD. There are currently no robust data on the endoscopic outcomes of PEN. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and endoscopic rates of remission after PEN combined with a modified CDED (mCDED) adjusted to the local cuisine in comparison with exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) for the induction of remission. Methods: Between June 2017 and February 2021, a prospective cohort study on children with active CD, treated with PEN + mCDED or EEN, was performed at a single tertiary centre. Results: During the study period, 54 patients were screened and 15 were excluded according to the exclusion criteria, with six patients excluded in the first two days due to intolerance of the enteral formula. Fourteen patients were included in the PEN and 19 in the EEN group. They were assessed at Weeks 0, 1, 3 and 6, using clinical and laboratory parameters. Endoscopy was performed at Weeks 0 and 6. Clinical remission rates per protocol analysis were 84.6% in the PEN group and 81.3% in the EEN group (p = 0.99). At Week 6, an endoscopic response (a decline in the Simple Endoscopic Score for CD (SES-CD) > 50%) was observed in 84.6% of patients on PEN and in 68.8% on EEN treatment (p = 0.41). Endoscopic remission (SES-CD ≤ 2) was achieved in 53.8% of patients in the PEN group and in 50.0% in the EEN group (p = 0.99), while the mucosal healing rates (SES-CD = 0) were 38.5% with PEN and 43.8% with EEN (p = 0.99). A significant decline in the clinical and endoscopic activity scores was observed in both groups. Conclusion: Our study suggests that PEN + mCDED could be effective in inducing endoscopic remission and mucosal healing in active paediatric CD patients. Here, we present an analysis of the data from our cohort of patients and our real-world experience with PEN + mCDED. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Management for Crohn's Disease)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 2347 KiB  
Article
Oral Zinc-Rich Oyster Supplementation Corrects Anemia in Rats
by Yen-Hua Chen, Hui-Lin Feng, Yu-Cheng Lu and Sen-Shyong Jeng
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4675; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214675 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2743
Abstract
This study investigates the impact of various zinc supplementation methods on anemia in rats induced by phenylhydrazine (PHZ) and in 5/6-nephrectomized anemic rats. We compare oral zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) supplementation, oyster Crassostrea gigas supplementation, and hard clam Meretrix lusoria supplementation on [...] Read more.
This study investigates the impact of various zinc supplementation methods on anemia in rats induced by phenylhydrazine (PHZ) and in 5/6-nephrectomized anemic rats. We compare oral zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) supplementation, oyster Crassostrea gigas supplementation, and hard clam Meretrix lusoria supplementation on red blood cell (RBC) levels. Oral zinc-rich oyster supplementation (2.70 mg Zn (30 g oyster)/day/rat) effectively corrects anemia in both experimental groups. Rats orally fed oysters for four days exhibit similar effectiveness as those receiving a single ZnSO4 injection (0.95 mg Zn (4.18 mg ZnSO4⋅7H2O)/rat). In contrast, oral ZnSO4 supplementation (2.70 mg Zn (11.88 mg ZnSO4⋅7H2O)/day/rat) does not significantly increase RBC levels, suggesting better zinc absorption from oysters. A placebo group of anemic rats supplemented with hard clams, similar in composition to oysters but much lower in zinc, did not change RBC counts. This supports oysters’ high zinc content as the key to correcting anemia. Oysters also contain high iron levels, offering a potential solution for iron-deficiency anemia while supporting bone marrow erythropoiesis. In summary, oral oyster supplementation emerges as an effective strategy to correct anemia in rats with added zinc and iron support for erythropoiesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zinc Supplementation and Anemia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1712 KiB  
Article
Gastrointestinal Tolerance of an Infant Formula Manufactured from Extensively Hydrolysed Protein in Healthy Term Infants
by Lindsey Otten, Elisabeth Schelker, Hanna Petersen, Antonia Nomayo, Romy Conzade, Julia Günther, Andrea Grieger, Frank Jochum and on behalf of the HASI Study Group
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4674; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214674 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1220
Abstract
The evaluation of secondary parameters of a prospective, randomised, controlled, multicentre intervention trial aimed to analyse gastrointestinal tolerance of an infant formula manufactured from extensively hydrolysed whey protein (eHF) compared to intact cow’s milk protein (control formula, CF) in healthy term infants. Infants [...] Read more.
The evaluation of secondary parameters of a prospective, randomised, controlled, multicentre intervention trial aimed to analyse gastrointestinal tolerance of an infant formula manufactured from extensively hydrolysed whey protein (eHF) compared to intact cow’s milk protein (control formula, CF) in healthy term infants. Infants ≤ 25 days of age, who were exclusively formula-fed, were randomised to receive eHF or CF for at least three months up to 120 days of age. An exclusively breastfed reference group (BF) was included for descriptive comparison. Infants’ gastrointestinal tolerance was evaluated based on stool parameters, the Amsterdam Infant Stool Scale (AISS), the Infant Gastrointestinal Symptom Questionnaire (IGSQ), and sleeping patterns. Of 359 infants included, 297 randomised (eHF: n = 149, CF: n = 148) and 41 BF infants completed the study per protocol. All tolerance parameters were comparable between eHF and CF. Stool was predominantly soft and yellow in colour. Stool was more frequently green in eHF than CF. BF infants had more frequent stools, which were mainly watery or soft and yellow, and comparable IGSQ scores (descriptive). Irrespective of group, all gastrointestinal and sleep parameters showed signs of maturation with increasing age. In conclusion, eHF showed gastrointestinal tolerance as good as CF in healthy infants. Both formulae were well-tolerated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop