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Nutrients, Volume 15, Issue 22 (November-2 2023) – 148 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Vitamin D is crucial to athletes’ health and performance. This study aimed to determine whether an individual loading dose formula for vitamin D supplementation is more effective than a standardized one. In a 10-week supplementation study, 90 athletes were randomly assigned to receive either a universal dose of 2000 IU/day of vitamin D or a loading dose of 4000 IU/day, followed by a maintenance dose of 1000 IU/day. The total 25(OH)D concentration was measured from dried blood spots at three time points. On the day when 25(OH)D blood concentrations of 40 ng/mL were calculated to prevail, the individualized group had a significantly higher 25(OH)D level than the standardized group (41 ± 11 ng/mL vs. 33 ± 6 ng/mL, p < 0.001). This study indicates that a personalized approach is more effective than a one-size-fits-all approach in restoring adequate vitamin D levels in athletes. View this paper
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26 pages, 2548 KiB  
Article
Cooking with the Seasons for Health (CwS4H): An Innovative Intervention That Links Nutrition Education, Cooking Skills, and Locally Grown Produce to Increase Vegetable Intake among Limited-Resource Parent–Child Dyads in Rural Washington
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4851; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224851 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 890
Abstract
Although children from limited-resource families in rural areas are at great risk for nutrition-related chronic diseases, few hands-on programs have been implemented that simultaneously engage both parents and children and include local produce in a single program. This study reports on the development, [...] Read more.
Although children from limited-resource families in rural areas are at great risk for nutrition-related chronic diseases, few hands-on programs have been implemented that simultaneously engage both parents and children and include local produce in a single program. This study reports on the development, implementation, and evaluation of Cooking with the Seasons for Health (CwS4H). Parent–child pairs participated in six sessions (two weekly sessions during each of three growing seasons), which included food tasting, a spotlight vegetable, interactive mini nutrition lesson, a child-focused cooking lesson, hands-on meal preparation, distribution of materials as family guides, and a take-home bag of fresh produce. Pre- and postprogram survey data were collected from 23 parents and 22 children. Children reported improvements in nutrition knowledge, vegetable preference, and self-efficacy in food preparation and cooking. Parents reported gains in nutrition knowledge, nutritional behaviors, vegetable preference, attitude toward food preparation/cooking, involvement of the child in food preparation/cooking, confidence in preparing vegetables, and the child’s vegetable intake. Parents commented on the value children placed on food preparation and produce selection and how the program enhanced the parent–child relationship. By focusing CwS4H on a variety of fresh vegetables, this intervention helped to impact children’s vegetable intake behaviors by engaging children in preparing and choosing the food they eat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Lifestyle Intervention on Child Obesity)
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14 pages, 1168 KiB  
Article
Child and Maternal Factors Associated with Feeding Practices in Children with Poor Growth
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4850; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224850 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 847
Abstract
The development of adequate growth and healthy eating behaviors depends on nutritious food and responsive feeding practices. Our study examined (1) the relationship between maternal concern about child weight or perceived feeding difficulties and their feeding practices, and (2) the moderating role of [...] Read more.
The development of adequate growth and healthy eating behaviors depends on nutritious food and responsive feeding practices. Our study examined (1) the relationship between maternal concern about child weight or perceived feeding difficulties and their feeding practices, and (2) the moderating role of child temperament and maternal mental health on their feeding practices. A cross-sessional study included mother–child dyads (n = 98) from a tertiary growth and feeding clinic. Children had a mean age of 12.7 ± 5.0 months and a mean weight-for-age z-score of −2.0 ± 1.3. Responsive and controlling feeding practices were measured with the Infant Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Spearman correlation and moderation analysis were performed. Maternal concern about child weight and perceived feeding difficulties were negatively correlated with responsive feeding (r = −0.40, −0.48, p < 0.001). A greater concern about child weight or perceived feeding difficulties was associated with greater use of pressure feeding practices when effortful control was low (B = 0.49, t = 2.47, p = 0.01; B = −0.27, p = 0.008). Maternal anxiety had a significant moderation effect on the relationship between feeding difficulty and pressure feeding (B = −0.04, p = 0.009). Higher maternal concern about child weight and perceived feeding difficulties were associated with less responsive satiety feeding beliefs and behaviors. Both child effortful control and maternal anxiety influenced the relationship between weight and feeding concerns and the use of pressure feeding practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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15 pages, 2933 KiB  
Article
Dynamics and Crosstalk between Gut Microbiota, Metabolome, and Fecal Calprotectin in Very Preterm Infants: Insights into Feeding Intolerance
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4849; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224849 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 762
Abstract
Background: Feeding intolerance (FI) is a significant concern in the care of preterm infants, impacting their growth and development. We previously reported that FI is linked to lower fecal calprotectin (FC) levels. This study aims to explore the postnatal dynamics and interplay between [...] Read more.
Background: Feeding intolerance (FI) is a significant concern in the care of preterm infants, impacting their growth and development. We previously reported that FI is linked to lower fecal calprotectin (FC) levels. This study aims to explore the postnatal dynamics and interplay between microbiota, metabolic profiles, and host immunity in preterm infants with and without FI. Methods: Infants with gestational age <32 weeks or birth weight <1500 g were enrolled at the Children’s Hospital of Fudan University between January 2018 and October 2020. Weekly fecal samples were analyzed for bacterial profiling, metabolome, and calprotectin levels, exploring their longitudinal development and interrelationships. Results: Of the 118 very preterm infants studied, 48 showed FI. These infants experienced an interrupted microbial–immune trajectory, particularly at 3–4 weeks of age, marked by a reduced bacterial abundance, alpha diversity, and FC levels. Metabolic changes in FI were pronounced between 3 and 6 weeks. Pantothenic acid and two polyamine metabolites were closely associated with bacterial abundance and FC levels and negatively correlated with the duration to attain full enteral feeding. Conclusions: FI infants demonstrated compromised microbiome–immune interactions, potentially influenced by specific metabolites. This research underscored the importance of early microbial and metabolic development in the pathogenesis of FI in very preterm infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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11 pages, 775 KiB  
Article
Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Korean Adults with Obesity
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4848; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224848 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 857
Abstract
The increasing prevalence of obesity is a serious concern in Korea. However, there is currently no available food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for examining the dietary patterns of adults with obesity. This study aimed to develop a semi-quantitative FFQ tailored to Korean adults with obesity. [...] Read more.
The increasing prevalence of obesity is a serious concern in Korea. However, there is currently no available food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for examining the dietary patterns of adults with obesity. This study aimed to develop a semi-quantitative FFQ tailored to Korean adults with obesity. The dish/food items for the FFQ were extracted from the 24 h recall data of 8450 Korean adults (aged 19–64 years) with obesity who participated in the 2013–2019 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Among the 1709 dishes consumed, 475 were selected based on their high contribution to the intake or substantial between-individual variation in 11 nutrients: energy, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, sugar, fat, saturated fat, protein, sodium, vitamin A, vitamin E, and flavonoids. These dishes were subsequently categorized into 129 items based on their recipes and primary ingredients. The final 129 items included rice; noodles and dumplings; breads, rice cakes, and cereals; soups and stews; eggs, pulses, meat, and fish; vegetables and kimchi; fruit; snacks; beverages; milk/dairy products; alcohol; and water. The response options for intake frequency comprised nine options, and the intake amount response included three options (50%, 100%, and 150–200% of the standard intake). After validation, this FFQ is expected to be used in epidemiological studies to investigate the dietary patterns of Korean adults with obesity. Full article
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14 pages, 2889 KiB  
Article
The Role of Vitamin D in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Treated with Vedolizumab
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4847; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224847 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1071
Abstract
Background: Many clinical factors can contribute to the efficacy of medical therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). We assessed their effects on the efficacy of vedolizumab therapy in a cohort of patients with IBD. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study on patients between [...] Read more.
Background: Many clinical factors can contribute to the efficacy of medical therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). We assessed their effects on the efficacy of vedolizumab therapy in a cohort of patients with IBD. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study on patients between 18 and 80 years of age with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn’s disease (CD) who were seen in the IBD program at Houston Methodist in Houston, TX and treated with vedolizumab for at least 6 months from 2018 to 2022. We investigated factors prior to the initiation of therapy that best predicted treatment response, with an emphasis on vitamin D levels and examined several variables including patients’ demographics and clinical information on disease location and severity and nutritional status before and after the initiation of vedolizumab. Post-treatment data were gathered after a minimum of 6 months of vedolizumab therapy. The clinical parameters used for the study were the Harvey–Bradshaw Index for CD and the Activity Index for UC. Results: There were 88 patients included in our study of whom 44 had CD and 44 had UC.; median age was 39.5 (31.0, 53.25) years; 34% patients were male; and 80.7% were Caucasian. All patients received an induction dosing of 300 mg vedolizumab at 0, 2, and 6 weeks then maintenance dosing as standard of care every 8 weeks. Among UC patients with vitamin D ≥ 30 ng/mL at the initiation of vedolizumab therapy, UC Endoscopic Index of Severity (UCEIS) scores after 6 months of therapy were significantly lower than in those who had low pre-treatment vitamin D levels (1.5 vs. 3.87, p = 0.037). After treatment, vitamin D levels improved more significantly in the higher pre-treatment vitamin D group, with a median level of 56 ng/mL, than in the lower pre-treatment vitamin D group, with a median level of only 31 ng/mL (p = 0.007). In patients with CD with vitamin D ≥ 30 ng/mL at the initiation of vedolizumab therapy, we found higher iron saturation (12 vs. 25%, p = 0.008) and higher vitamin B12 levels (433.5 vs. 885 pg/mL, p = 0.003) than in those with vitamin D < 30 ng/mL. After treatment, CD patients with high pre-treatment vitamin D levels had significantly higher vedolizumab levels (27.35 vs. 14.35 μg/mL, p = 0.045) than those with low pre-treatment vitamin D. Post-treatment scores and inflammatory markers in CD patients (HBI, CRP, ESR, and SES-CD) were lower in those who had lower baseline vitamin D. Conclusions: Our results show higher pre-treatment vitamin D levels predicted significant endoscopic improvement in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Improving vitamin D levels lowered C-reactive protein levels significantly in CD patients. Higher vitamin D levels were seen after treatment in both UC and CD patients. Vitamin D can play a role in clinical and endoscopic outcomes and should be assessed routinely and optimized in patients with IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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14 pages, 2157 KiB  
Article
Lactate Conversion by Lactate Dehydrogenase B Is Involved in Beige Adipocyte Differentiation and Thermogenesis in Mice
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4846; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224846 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 715
Abstract
Adipose tissue (AT) is the primary reservoir of lipid, the major thermogenesis organ during cold exposure, and an important site for lactate production. However, the utilization of lactate as a metabolic substrate by adipocytes, as well as its potential involvement in the regulation [...] Read more.
Adipose tissue (AT) is the primary reservoir of lipid, the major thermogenesis organ during cold exposure, and an important site for lactate production. However, the utilization of lactate as a metabolic substrate by adipocytes, as well as its potential involvement in the regulation of adipocyte thermogenesis, remain unappreciated. In vitro experiments using primary stromal vascular fraction preadipocytes isolated from mouse inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) revealed that lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB), the key glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of lactate to pyruvate, is upregulated during adipocyte differentiation, downregulated upon chronic cold stimulation, and regained after prolonged cold exposure. In addition, the global knockout of Ldhb significantly reduced the masses of iWAT and epididymal WAT (eWAT) and impeded the utilization of iWAT during cold exposure. In addition, Ldhb loss of function impaired the mitochondrial function of iWAT under cold conditions. Together, these findings uncover the involvement of LDHB in adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lipids)
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15 pages, 2766 KiB  
Article
Vitamin D Attenuates Ulcerative Colitis by Inhibiting ACSL4-Mediated Ferroptosis
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4845; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224845 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Background: With environmental and lifestyle changes, recent epidemiological studies have shown that the prevalence of Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is on the rise, while treatment options are limited. There is an urgent need to explore the underlying mechanisms of vitamin D (VD) as an [...] Read more.
Background: With environmental and lifestyle changes, recent epidemiological studies have shown that the prevalence of Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is on the rise, while treatment options are limited. There is an urgent need to explore the underlying mechanisms of vitamin D (VD) as an effective treatment. Methods: Dextran sulfate sodium-induced mice and lipopolysaccharide-induced HCT116 cells were used to establish the classic UC models in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Typical symbols of inflammation (IL-6, COX-2), oxidative stress (MDA, MPO, GSH), and ferroptosis (ACSL4, GPX4, SLC7A11, and Iron) were analyzed by Western blot, Immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and relative assay kits. The inflammation factors and oxidative stress injury of cells transfected with ACSL4+/+ plasmids were tested by Western blot, MDA, and MPO methods. Results: Vitamin D attenuated the levels of COX-2, IL-6, Iron, MDA, and MPO and improved SOD1 and GSH contents in DSS + VD and LPS + VD groups, compared with model groups. Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) could relieve the levels of COX-2, IL-6, Iron, MDA, and MPO while increasing the contents of SOD1 and GSH in DSS + Fer-1 and LPS + Fer-1 compared to model groups. VD downregulated the expression of ACSL4 and upregulated GPX4 in tissues and cells. After transfected with ACSL4+/+ plasmids, we found VD’s role of downregulating inflammation and oxidative stress was relieved. Conclusions: Vitamin D can relieve UC by inhibiting ferroptosis both in mice and in cells through the negative regulation of ACSL4, providing new insight into the therapeutic function of VD on UC. Full article
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13 pages, 668 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Validity and Reliability of a German General and Sports Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire for Athletes and Coaches (GSNKQ-AC)
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4844; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224844 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 816
Abstract
Despite the availability of nutritional recommendations, studies have reported inadequate nutrition in athletes. The existing literature highlights the importance of the nutritional knowledge of both athletes and coaches in influencing athletes’ food choices and behavior, as well as its direct and indirect impact [...] Read more.
Despite the availability of nutritional recommendations, studies have reported inadequate nutrition in athletes. The existing literature highlights the importance of the nutritional knowledge of both athletes and coaches in influencing athletes’ food choices and behavior, as well as its direct and indirect impact on athletes’ performance and health. To adequately assess nutritional knowledge, monitoring via valid and reliable questionnaires is required. As no questionnaire tailored to German-speaking athletes and coaches exists, this study aimed at developing a new General and Sports Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire for Athletes and Coaches (GSNKQ-AC). The development followed a literature-based, ten-step validation approach. The initial questionnaire (63 items) was revised and reduced to 29 items in the final version after conducting construct verification in the target group (n = 84 athletes and coaches), evaluating content validity by a panel of nutrition experts (n = 8), verifying face validity by think-out-loud interviews in the target group (n = 7), and conducting classical test theory for item reduction analysis (n = 53). For the final GSNKQ-AC, internal consistency, calculated as Cronbach’s alpha, was 0.87. Students with a focus on sports nutrition (n = 31) scored significantly higher than athletes and coaches (n = 53), revealing good construct validity (77% vs. 62%, p < 0.001). Test–retest reliability (n = 42, matched pairs) showed a Spearman’s correlation coefficient of r = 0.61 (p < 0.01). The brief GSNKQ-AC can be used for status quo or longitudinal assessment of nutritional knowledge among athletes and coaches to reveal gaps and ensure purposeful planning of educational interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Considerations for Elite Athletes)
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12 pages, 2741 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Prebiotic Activity of Stellariae Radix Polysaccharides and Its Effects on Gut Microbiota
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4843; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224843 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 721
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the prebiotic potential of polysaccharides derived from Stellariae Radix (SRPs) and explore their influence on the gut microbiota composition in mice. Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum were cultivated in an MRS medium, while their growth kinetics, clumping behavior, [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the prebiotic potential of polysaccharides derived from Stellariae Radix (SRPs) and explore their influence on the gut microbiota composition in mice. Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum were cultivated in an MRS medium, while their growth kinetics, clumping behavior, sugar utilization, pH variation, growth density, and probiotic index were meticulously monitored. Additionally, the impact of crude Stellariae Radix polysaccharides (CSRP) on the richness and diversity of gut microbiota in mice was assessed via 16S rDNA sequencing. The results demonstrated the remarkable ability of CSRPs to stimulate the proliferation of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum. Moreover, the oral administration of CSRPs to mice led to a noticeable increase in beneficial bacterial populations and a concurrent decrease in detrimental bacterial populations within the intestinal flora. These findings provided an initial validation of CSRPs as a promising agent in maintaining the equilibrium of gut microbiota in mice, thereby offering a substantial theoretical foundation for developing Stellariae Radix as a prebiotic ingredient in various applications, including food, healthcare products, and animal feed. Furthermore, this study presented novel insights for the exploration and utilization of Stellariae Radix resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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12 pages, 2039 KiB  
Article
The Acute and Chronic Effects of Lion’s Mane Mushroom Supplementation on Cognitive Function, Stress and Mood in Young Adults: A Double-Blind, Parallel Groups, Pilot Study
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4842; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224842 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 11448
Abstract
Background: Given the bioactive properties and limited work to date, Hericium erinaceus (Lion’s mane) shows promise in improving cognitive function and mood. However, much of the human research has concentrated on chronic supplementation in cognitively compromised cohorts. Objective: The current pilot study investigated [...] Read more.
Background: Given the bioactive properties and limited work to date, Hericium erinaceus (Lion’s mane) shows promise in improving cognitive function and mood. However, much of the human research has concentrated on chronic supplementation in cognitively compromised cohorts. Objective: The current pilot study investigated the acute and chronic (28-day) cognitive and mood-enhancing effects of Hericium erinaceus in a healthy, young adult cohort. Design: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-groups design investigated the acute (60 min post dose) and chronic (28-day intervention) effects of 1.8 g Hericium erinaceus in 41 healthy adults aged 18–45 years. Results: Analysis revealed that following a single dose of Hericium erinaceus, participants performed quicker on the Stroop task (p = 0.005) at 60 min post dose. A trend towards reduced subjective stress was observed following 28-day supplementation (p = 0.051). Conclusions: The findings tentatively suggest that Hericium erinaceus may improve speed of performance and reduce subjective stress in healthy, young adults. However, null and limited negative findings were also observed. Given the small sample size, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Further investigation in larger sample sizes is crucial, however the findings of this trial offer a promising avenue of interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Association between Nutrition and Brain Health)
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10 pages, 847 KiB  
Article
The Effects of 24-h Fasting on Exercise Performance and Metabolic Parameters in a Pilot Study of Female CrossFit Athletes
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4841; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224841 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1921
Abstract
Many studies have tested intermittent fasting (IF) in athletes, but its effects on female CrossFit athletes remain relatively unexplored in the existing literature. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of 24-h IF on the physical performance of [...] Read more.
Many studies have tested intermittent fasting (IF) in athletes, but its effects on female CrossFit athletes remain relatively unexplored in the existing literature. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of 24-h IF on the physical performance of female CrossFit practitioners. Eleven female CrossFit athletes (age: 30.91 ± 3.42, weight: 65.26 ± 7.55 kg, height: 1.66 ± 0.05 m) participated in the study. The study used a crossover design with fasting and eating conditions. Participants completed an exercise test, standing long jump, and handgrip strength assessment. Hydration status, heart rate, blood lactate, blood glucose, rates of perceived exertion, and hunger were measured. Results showed significant differences in blood lactate concentration (F = 5.435, p = 0.042, η2p = 0.352). Resting blood lactate concentration was significantly lower in the fasting trial than in the eating trial (p < 0.001), but post-exercise blood lactate concentrations were higher in the fasting trial than in the eating trial (p < 0.001). No differences were found in performance times (p > 0.05). In conclusion, this pilot study of females suggests that 24-h fasting does not impair exercise performance or negatively affect physiological parameters in CrossFit athletes. Full article
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15 pages, 3950 KiB  
Article
Apolipoprotein A-IV-Deficient Mice in 129/SvJ Background Are Susceptible to Obesity and Glucose Intolerance
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4840; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224840 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 817
Abstract
Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV), synthesized by enterocytes, is potentially involved in regulating lipid absorption and metabolism, food intake, and glucose metabolism. In this study, we backcrossed apoA-IV knockout (apoA-IV−/−) mice onto the 129/SvJ background for eight generations. Compared to the wild-type (WT) [...] Read more.
Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV), synthesized by enterocytes, is potentially involved in regulating lipid absorption and metabolism, food intake, and glucose metabolism. In this study, we backcrossed apoA-IV knockout (apoA-IV−/−) mice onto the 129/SvJ background for eight generations. Compared to the wild-type (WT) mice, the 129/SvJ apoA-IV−/− mice gained more weight and exhibited delayed glucose clearance even on the chow diet. During a 16-week high-fat diet (20% by weight of fat) study, apoA-IV−/− mice were more obese than the WT mice, which was associated with their increased food intake as well as reduced energy expenditure and physical activity. In addition, apoA-IV−/− mice developed significant insulin resistance (indicated by HOMA-IR) with severe glucose intolerance even though their insulin levels were drastically higher than the WT mice. In conclusion, we have established a model of apoA-IV−/− mice onto the 129/SvJ background. Unlike in the C57BL/6J strain, apoA-IV−/− 129/SvJ mice become significantly more obese and insulin-resistant than WT mice. Our current investigations of apoA-IV in the 129/SvJ strain and our previous studies in the C57BL/6J strain underline the impact of genetic background on apoA-IV metabolic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Fatty Acids on Cancer, Obesity, and Atherosclerosis)
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11 pages, 308 KiB  
Article
Are Supplements Consumed by Middle-Distance Runners Evidence-Based? A Comparative Study between Level of Competition and Sex
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4839; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224839 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
Background: Middle-distance running events have special physiological requirements from a training and competition point of view. Therefore, many athletes choose to take sport supplements (SS) for different reasons. To date, few studies have been carried out that review supplementation patterns in middle-distance running. [...] Read more.
Background: Middle-distance running events have special physiological requirements from a training and competition point of view. Therefore, many athletes choose to take sport supplements (SS) for different reasons. To date, few studies have been carried out that review supplementation patterns in middle-distance running. The aim of the present study is to analyze the consumption of SS in these runners with respect to their level of competition, sex and level of scientific evidence. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, data was collected from 106 middle-distance runners using a validated questionnaire. Results: Of the total sample, 85.85% responded that they consumed SS; no statistical difference was found regarding the level of competition or sex of the athletes. With respect to the level of competition, differences were observed in the total consumption of SS (p = 0.012), as well as in that of medical supplements (p = 0.005). Differences were observed between sexes in the consumption of medical supplements (p = 0.002) and group C supplements (p = 0.029). Conclusions: Higher-level athletes consume SS that have greater scientific evidence. On the other hand, although the most commonly consumed SS have evidence for the performance or health of middle-distance runners, runners should improve both their sources of information and their places of purchase. Full article
13 pages, 1140 KiB  
Systematic Review
Does Co-Supplementation with Beetroot Juice and Other Nutritional Supplements Positively Impact Sports Performance?: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4838; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224838 - 19 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
In the pursuit of enhanced athletic prowess in different disciplines, athletes constantly look for strategies to increase their physical performance, encompassing technical skills and dietary components, which inevitably, in most cases, include the incorporation of sports supplements. In recent years, there has been [...] Read more.
In the pursuit of enhanced athletic prowess in different disciplines, athletes constantly look for strategies to increase their physical performance, encompassing technical skills and dietary components, which inevitably, in most cases, include the incorporation of sports supplements. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of athletes using ergogenic aids. In this context, scientific evidence must play a prominent role in either endorsing or warning against the use of these products, ensuring the preservation of health while promoting the theoretically established positive benefits. In this vein, beetroot juice (BJ) stands out as a key supplement as an ergogenic aid to improve sports performance, given its demonstrated influence on both aerobic and anaerobic exercise. However, despite widespread global demand, there remains a lack of understanding regarding the potential synergistic effects of combining BJ with other supplements. Consequently, our study aims to determine whether the combination of BJ with another nutritional supplement can enhance its beneficial effects and, therefore, optimize physical performance in humans. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in two major databases—Web of Science and PubMed—from 1 January 2018 to 29 January 2023, using specific keywords. After the exclusion criteria, six articles were selected for analysis. Therefore, our study shows that the effectiveness of combining BJ with another supplement mainly depends on the duration of the chronic intervention, which is where the greatest benefits have been observed. Full article
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14 pages, 719 KiB  
Article
The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 Adapted for Mexican Pregnant Women: Psychometric Properties and Influence of Sociodemographic Variables
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4837; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224837 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 747
Abstract
A weight-inclusive approach to health involves the promotion of intuitive eating, i.e., the individual’s ability to be aware of their physiological hunger and satiety cues to determine when and how much to eat, while paying attention to how certain foods affect their body. [...] Read more.
A weight-inclusive approach to health involves the promotion of intuitive eating, i.e., the individual’s ability to be aware of their physiological hunger and satiety cues to determine when and how much to eat, while paying attention to how certain foods affect their body. The second version of the Intuitive Eating Scale (IES-2) evaluates four interrelated traits of intuitive eating: Unconditional Permission to Eat (UPE), Eating for Physical rather than emotional Reasons (EPR), Reliance on internal Hunger/Satiety Cues (RHSC), and Body–Food Choice Congruence (BFCC). In this study, our aim was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a Mexican Spanish adaptation of the IES-2 for pregnant women and examine the relationship between intuitive eating traits and maternal sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 514 pregnant women answered our IES-2 adaptation and a sociodemographic questionnaire. We determined the quality, validity, and reliability of our adaptation through descriptive measures, frequency distributions, intra-class correlations, and extreme answer group comparison for each item, eliminating those with weak technical properties. We then performed an exploratory principal component analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis. Last, we analyzed the association between intuitive eating and maternal sociodemographic and reproductive variables through correlation tests and multivariable linear regressions. Psychometric tests confirmed the validity and reliability of our IES-2 adaptation, which comprised 18 out of the 23 original items. Notably, both the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded not four but five factors, due to the EPR subscale splitting in two (the “emotional” and “physical” components of EPR). We attribute this novel finding to the emotional manifestations that naturally accompany pregnancy, which may incline pregnant women to base their eating behaviors more on the emotional than the physical component that would otherwise dominate their EPR trait. Further research is also needed about the UPE subscale during pregnancy, due to item removal and subtle changes in meaning. Finally, the influence of sociodemographic variables on the IES-2 score was extremely low, suggesting that other variables, possibly of a psychological nature, may have greater influence on a pregnant woman’s intuitive eating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition in Women)
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12 pages, 3338 KiB  
Article
Effects of Diet Macronutrient Composition on Weight Loss during Caloric Restriction and Subsequent Weight Regain during Refeeding in Aging Mice
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4836; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224836 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1130
Abstract
Caloric restriction (CR) induces weight loss, but is associated with rapid weight regain upon return to ad libitum feeding. Our aim was to investigate effects of the macronutrient composition of the diet on weight loss and regain in elderly mice. Males, 18 months [...] Read more.
Caloric restriction (CR) induces weight loss, but is associated with rapid weight regain upon return to ad libitum feeding. Our aim was to investigate effects of the macronutrient composition of the diet on weight loss and regain in elderly mice. Males, 18 months old, of the C57BL/6J strain were subjected to 4-week 30% CR followed by 4 weeks of ad libitum refeeding on either high-carb (HC), high-fat (HF) or high-protein (HP) diets (n = 22 each). Mice (n = 11) fed a chow diet ad libitum served as a control group (CON). Body mass and food intake were monitored daily. Twenty-four-hour indirect calorimetry was used to assess energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. Muscle and fat mass were evaluated with dissection of the tissues. Serum leptin and ghrelin levels were also measured. CR-induced weight loss did not differ between the diets. Weight regain was particularly fast for HF as mice overshot their initial weight by 12.8 ± 5.7% after 4-week refeeding when HC and HP mice reached the weight of the CON group. Weight regain strongly correlated with energy intake across the groups. The respiratory exchange ratio was lower in HF mice (0.81 ± 0.03) compared to HC (0.94 ± 0.06, p < 0.001), HP (0.89 ± 0.04, p < 0.001) and CON mice (0.91 ± 0.06, p < 0.01) during the refeeding. Serum leptin levels were higher in HF mice (1.03 ± 0.50 ng/mL) compared to HC (0.46 ± 0.14, p < 0.001), HP (0.63 ± 0.28, p < 0.05) or CON mice (0.41 ± 0.14, p < 0.001). Thus, CR induces similar weight loss in aging mice irrespective of the diet’s macronutrient composition. An HF diet leads to excessive energy intake and pronounced gain in body fat in spite of increased fat oxidation and serum leptin during the refeeding after CR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Strategies to Prevent Weight Gain and Obesity)
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14 pages, 823 KiB  
Article
Carnosine Did Not Affect Vascular and Metabolic Outcomes in Patients with Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes: A 14-Week Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4835; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224835 - 19 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1183
Abstract
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Carnosine has been suggested as a potential approach to reduce ASCVD risk factors. However, there is a paucity of human data. [...] Read more.
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Carnosine has been suggested as a potential approach to reduce ASCVD risk factors. However, there is a paucity of human data. Hence, we performed a 14-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial to determine whether carnosine compared with placebo improves vascular and metabolic outcomes in individuals with prediabetes and T2DM. In total, 49 patients with prediabetes and T2DM with good glycemic control were randomly assigned either to receive 2 g/day carnosine or matching placebo. We evaluated endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness, lipid parameters, blood pressure, heart rate, hepatic and renal outcomes before and after the intervention. Carnosine supplementation had no effect on heart rate, peripheral and central blood pressure, endothelial function (logarithm of reactive hyperemia (LnRHI)), arterial stiffness (carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (CF PWV)), lipid parameters, liver fibroscan indicators, liver transient elastography, liver function tests, and renal outcomes compared to placebo. In conclusion, carnosine supplementation did not improve cardiovascular and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with prediabetes and T2DM with good glycemic control. Therefore, it is improbable that carnosine supplementation would be a viable approach to mitigating the ASCVD risk in these populations. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02917928). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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17 pages, 4819 KiB  
Article
Compromised NHE8 Expression Is Responsible for Vitamin D-Deficiency Induced Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4834; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224834 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 801
Abstract
Objectives: Vitamin D (VitD) and Vitamin D receptor (VDR) are suggested to play protective roles in the intestinal barrier in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Evidence demonstrates that Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 8 (NHE8, SLC9A8) [...] Read more.
Objectives: Vitamin D (VitD) and Vitamin D receptor (VDR) are suggested to play protective roles in the intestinal barrier in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Evidence demonstrates that Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 8 (NHE8, SLC9A8) is essential in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, regarded as a promising target for UC therapy. Thus, this study aims to investigate the effects of VitD/VDR on NHE8 in intestinal protection. Methods: VitD-deficient mice, VDR−/− mice and NHE8−/− mice were employed in this study. Colitis mice were established by supplementing DSS-containing water. Caco-2 cells and 3D-enteroids were used for in vitro studies. VDR siRNA (siVDR), VDR over-expression plasmid (pVDR), TNF-α and NF-κb p65 inhibitor QNZ were used for mechanical studies. The expression of interested proteins was detected by multiple techniques. Results: In colitis mice, paricalcitol upregulated NHE8 expression was accompanied by restoring colonic mucosal injury. In VitD-deficient and VDR−/− colitis mice, NHE8 expression was compromised with more serious mucosal damage. Noteworthily, paricalcitol could not prevent intestinal barrier dysfunction and histological destruction in NHE8−/− mice. In Caco-2 cells and enteroids, siVDR downregulated NHE8 expression, further promoted TNF-α-induced NHE8 downregulation and stimulated TNF-α-induced NF-κb p65 phosphorylation. Conversely, QNZ blocked TNF-α-induced NHE8 downregulation in the absence or presence of siVDR. Conclusions: Our study indicates depressed NHE8 expression is responsible for VitD-deficient-induced colitis aggravation. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of VitD/VDR in intestine protection in UC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Vitamin D in Chronic Diseases)
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16 pages, 328 KiB  
Article
Dietary Habits and Oral Hygiene as Determinants of the Incidence and Intensity of Dental Caries—A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4833; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224833 - 19 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1051
Abstract
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of dietary and hygiene habits on the prevalence and intensity of dental caries. A group of 148 adults participated in the study. Methods: A self-administered nutrition and oral hygiene questionnaire was used [...] Read more.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of dietary and hygiene habits on the prevalence and intensity of dental caries. A group of 148 adults participated in the study. Methods: A self-administered nutrition and oral hygiene questionnaire was used to assess dietary habits and oral hygiene routine. A preventive diet index (PDI), a cariogenic diet index (CDI), and an oral health hygiene and prevention index (OHHPI) were created based on part of the questions. The intensity of dental caries among the respondents was investigated by the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (DMFT), which was estimated on the basis of data obtained during the dental examination. Results: The study showed that 97% of the respondents had filled carious cavities, while untreated carious cavities were observed in up to 78% of the study participants. The respondents had an average consumption of preventive products and a low consumption of caries-stimulating foods. The preventive dietary index (PDI) value was higher in the female group than in the male group. A more frequent consumption of caries-inhibiting products was demonstrated by those declaring that they took various types of dietary supplements. The use of health-promoting sugar substitutes by the respondents was associated with a lower intensity of dental caries and a more frequent consumption of preventive products. Conclusions: The analysis of the survey results indicates the need to implement educational activities aimed at increasing public awareness of the prevalence of dental caries among adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
16 pages, 778 KiB  
Review
Interplay between Vitamin D and Adipose Tissue: Implications for Adipogenesis and Adipose Tissue Function
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4832; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224832 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1238
Abstract
Adipose tissue encompasses various types, including White Adipose Tissue (WAT), Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT), and beige adipose tissue, each having distinct roles in energy storage and thermogenesis. Vitamin D (VD), a fat-soluble vitamin, maintains a complex interplay with adipose tissue, exerting significant effects [...] Read more.
Adipose tissue encompasses various types, including White Adipose Tissue (WAT), Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT), and beige adipose tissue, each having distinct roles in energy storage and thermogenesis. Vitamin D (VD), a fat-soluble vitamin, maintains a complex interplay with adipose tissue, exerting significant effects through its receptor (VDR) on the normal development and functioning of adipocytes. The VDR and associated metabolic enzymes are widely expressed in the adipocytes of both rodents and humans, and they partake in the regulation of fat metabolism and functionality through various pathways. These encompass adipocyte differentiation, adipogenesis, inflammatory responses, and adipokine synthesis and secretion. This review primarily appraises the role and mechanisms of VD in different adipocyte differentiation, lipid formation, and inflammatory responses, concentrating on the pivotal role of the VD/VDR pathway in adipogenesis. This insight furnishes new perspectives for the development of micronutrient-related intervention strategies in the prevention and treatment of obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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10 pages, 495 KiB  
Article
Association of Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acid Intake with Low Birth Weight in the Second Trimester: The Japan Pregnancy Eating and Activity Cohort Study
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4831; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224831 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1099
Abstract
This study examined the association of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake during the second trimester with low birth weight (LBW) in pregnant Japanese women and was conducted in conjunction with the Japan Pregnancy Eating and Activity Cohort (J-PEACH) study. The [...] Read more.
This study examined the association of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake during the second trimester with low birth weight (LBW) in pregnant Japanese women and was conducted in conjunction with the Japan Pregnancy Eating and Activity Cohort (J-PEACH) study. The study included 504 pregnant women from four Japanese sites. During the second trimester (14–27 weeks), the participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire assessing the frequency of DHA and EPA supplement intake in the past month, as well as a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). The analysis involved data from two time points: responses to the BDHQ and infant data at birth. In total, 471 and 33 participants were classified into the normal birth weight and LBW groups, respectively. The participants were divided into high-, medium-, and low-intake groups based on their total dietary and EPA and DHA supplementary intakes. The Cochran–Armitage trend test was used to analyze the data; the prevalence of LBW was higher in the low-intake group (p = 0.04). There was no significant sex-based trend (p = 0.27 and p = 0.35). In Japanese women, low dietary and supplementary EPA and DHA intake until the second trimester were risk factors for LBW. Full article
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19 pages, 1015 KiB  
Review
Variability in the Clinical Effects of the Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids DHA and EPA in Cardiovascular Disease—Possible Causes and Future Considerations
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4830; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224830 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2032
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) that includes myocardial infarction and stroke, is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis, the primary underlying cause of CVD, can be controlled by pharmacological and dietary interventions, including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation. n-3 PUFA supplementation, [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) that includes myocardial infarction and stroke, is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis, the primary underlying cause of CVD, can be controlled by pharmacological and dietary interventions, including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation. n-3 PUFA supplementation, primarily consisting of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has shown promise in reducing atherosclerosis by modulating risk factors, including triglyceride levels and vascular inflammation. n-3 PUFAs act by replacing pro-inflammatory fatty acid types in cell membranes and plasma lipids, by regulating transcription factor activity, and by inducing epigenetic changes. EPA and DHA regulate cellular function through shared and differential molecular mechanisms. Large clinical studies on n-3 PUFAs have reported conflicting findings, causing confusion among the public and health professionals. In this review, we discuss important factors leading to these inconsistencies, in the context of atherosclerosis, including clinical study design and the differential effects of EPA and DHA on cell function. We propose steps to improve clinical and basic experimental study design in order to improve supplement composition optimization. Finally, we propose that understanding the factors underlying the poor response to n-3 PUFAs, and the development of molecular biomarkers for predicting response may help towards a more personalized treatment. Full article
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21 pages, 2330 KiB  
Review
Dietary and Nutritional Interventions in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Pediatrics
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4829; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224829 - 18 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is pediatrics’ most common chronic liver disease. The incidence is high in children and adolescents with obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of disease progression. Currently, there is no effective drug therapy in pediatrics; therefore, lifestyle [...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is pediatrics’ most common chronic liver disease. The incidence is high in children and adolescents with obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of disease progression. Currently, there is no effective drug therapy in pediatrics; therefore, lifestyle interventions remain the first line of treatment. This review aims to present an updated compilation of the scientific evidence for treating this pathology, including lifestyle modifications, such as exercise and dietary changes, highlighting specific nutritional strategies. The bibliographic review was carried out in different databases, including studies within the pediatric population where dietary and/or nutritional interventions were used to treat NAFLD. Main interventions include diets low in carbohydrates, free sugars, fructose, and lipids, in addition to healthy eating patterns and possible nutritional interventions with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPA and DHA), amino acids (cysteine, L-carnitine), cysteamine, vitamins, and probiotics (one strain or multi-strain). Lifestyle changes remain the main recommendation for children with NAFLD. Nevertheless, more studies are required to elucidate the effectiveness of specific nutrients and bioactive compounds in this population. Full article
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19 pages, 846 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Breastfeeding and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus on Body Mass Composition and the Levels of Selected Hormones after Childbirth
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4828; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224828 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 867
Abstract
Breastfeeding may have a positive effect on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, which may reduce the risk of developing diabetes following gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of breastfeeding and GDM on the body mass composition of the [...] Read more.
Breastfeeding may have a positive effect on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, which may reduce the risk of developing diabetes following gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of breastfeeding and GDM on the body mass composition of the studied women, the levels of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin, and insulin, and weight loss during the 6–8-week postpartum period and 1 year after childbirth. Materials and methods: The study group included 42 women with a singleton pregnancy, diagnosed with GDM between the 24th and 28th week of gestation. The control group consisted of 28 non-diabetic women with a singleton pregnancy. This study was carried out at 6–8 weeks as well as at 1 year postpartum. The women were subjected to body weight measurements and body composition analysis performed using a professional body composition analyzer TANITA DC-430 S MA. Waist circumference and subcutaneous fat was measured. Blood for laboratory tests was taken in the morning, on an empty stomach. Results: It was shown that, regardless of diabetes, exclusive breastfeeding had a significant impact on weight loss at 6–8 weeks postpartum (p = 0.014785) and lower insulin levels (p = 0.047). However, there was no effect of breastfeeding on the women’s anthropometric measurements or hormone levels one year after delivery, except for the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue, which was significantly lower in breastfeeding women (p = 0.03). One year after delivery, breastfeeding women had a lower BMI (p = 0.0014), less-thick subcutaneous adipose tissue (p < 0.001), and a lower risk of obesity (p = 0.016). There were also higher insulin and ghrelin levels in both breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding women (p < 0.001), and lower resistin levels in non-breastfeeding women (p = 0.004). Women who had diabetes during pregnancy had a significantly reduced waist circumference and subcutaneous fat thickness after one year (p < 0.001 and p = 0.05, respectively). Conclusions: Having diabetes during pregnancy did not significantly affect the results of anthropometric measurements and hormone levels noted at 6–8 weeks after delivery (the only exception was the thickness of subcutaneous fat tissue, which was greater in women without GDM). This may indicate normalization of carbohydrate metabolism after childbirth; however, the observation period is too short to elucidate long-term metabolic effects. This suggests the need for further research related to GDM and breastfeeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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26 pages, 1217 KiB  
Review
Beneficial Effects of Plant Oils Supplementation on Multiple Sclerosis: A Comprehensive Review of Clinical and Experimental Studies
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4827; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224827 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1964
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis disease (MS) is a 38.5 chronic neurological autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system, and its incidence is increasing globally. At present, there is no cure for this disease, and with its severity and disabling variety, it is important to search [...] Read more.
Multiple sclerosis disease (MS) is a 38.5 chronic neurological autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system, and its incidence is increasing globally. At present, there is no cure for this disease, and with its severity and disabling variety, it is important to search for possibilities that could help to slow its progression. It is recognized that the mechanisms of MS pathology, its development and degree of activity can be affected by dietary factors. In this review, the beneficial health effects of 10 plants oils—mainly seed oils, including pomegranate seed oil, sesame oil, acer truncatum bunge seed oil, hemp seeds oil, evening primrose seed oil, coconut oil, walnut oil, essential oil from Pterodon emarginatus seeds, flaxseed oil and olive oil—on MS are discussed. The literature data indicate that plant oils could be effective for the treatment of MS and its related symptoms primarily through reducing inflammation, promoting remyelination, immunomodulation and inhibiting oxidative stress. Plant oils may potentially reduce MS progression. Longitudinal research including a larger sample size with a longer duration is essential to confirm the findings from the selected plant oils. Moreover, new plant oils should be studied for their potential MS benefit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Neurons and Disease)
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11 pages, 833 KiB  
Systematic Review
Examining the Role of Vitamin D in Caries Susceptibility in Children’s Deciduous Teeth: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4826; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224826 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 810
Abstract
The global prevalence of dental caries in deciduous teeth remains a significant health concern, affecting almost 70% of children by the age of six in specific regions. This systematic review aspired to methodically investigate the association between vitamin D levels and susceptibility to [...] Read more.
The global prevalence of dental caries in deciduous teeth remains a significant health concern, affecting almost 70% of children by the age of six in specific regions. This systematic review aspired to methodically investigate the association between vitamin D levels and susceptibility to caries in children’s deciduous teeth. A detailed search, guided by the PRISMA and PROSPERO guidelines, was conducted across three prominent electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus, culminating in August 2023. The search integrated various keywords related to vitamin D and dental caries in primary dentition, yielding an initial pool of 1678 articles. After meticulous scrutiny, seven studies with a total of 7655 participants were deemed suitable for inclusion. The studies represented diverse geographical regions, showcasing varied vitamin D levels and sun exposure. Patient habits like brushing frequency, dental visits, and vitamin consumption also varied across studies. The analysis pinpointed vitamin D deficiency as a potential risk factor in some of the studies, with Odds Ratios (OR) ranging from 0.68 to 2.15. Statistically significant associations between vitamin D deficiency and caries susceptibility were documented in three studies (ORs of 2.15, 1.98, and 1.70). This comprehensive review elucidates the complex relationship between vitamin D levels and dental caries in children’s deciduous teeth. While some studies spotlight vitamin D’s pivotal role in dental health, inconsistencies across studies and regional differences necessitate more in-depth, globally representative investigations. Ensuring optimal vitamin D levels may play an integral role in dental health strategies. However, it is important to highlight that the roles of these studied factors might differ in deciduous teeth compared to permanent teeth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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9 pages, 473 KiB  
Article
Carbohydrate Counting, Empowerment and Glycemic Outcomes in Adolescents and Young Adults with Long Duration of Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4825; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224825 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 834
Abstract
The complex treatment for diabetes type 1 (T1D) includes insulin dosing for every meal, which requires education and experience to achieve optimal outcomes. Advanced carbohydrate counting (ACC) is the recommended method. We studied ACC as part of a standard treatment with the aim [...] Read more.
The complex treatment for diabetes type 1 (T1D) includes insulin dosing for every meal, which requires education and experience to achieve optimal outcomes. Advanced carbohydrate counting (ACC) is the recommended method. We studied ACC as part of a standard treatment with the aim to explore its associations with glycemic control and empowerment in adolescents and young adults. We used national registry data on glycemic outcomes, a study-specific questionnaire regarding the use of ACC and the Gothenburg Young Persons Empowerment Scale (GYPES) to measure empowerment. A total of 111 participants (10–28 years of age, diabetes duration >9 years, mean HbA1c of 55.4 mmol/mol) answered the questionnaire. We found that most participants (79.3%) who learn ACC, at onset or later, continue to use the method. A higher level of empowerment was associated with lower HbA1c (p = 0.021), making patient empowerment an important factor in achieving optimal glycemic outcomes. No associations were found between ACC and empowerment or glycemic outcomes. A mixed strategy, only using ACC sometimes when insulin dosing for meals, was associated with the lowest empowerment score and highest HbA1c and should warrant extra education and support from the diabetes team to reinforce a dosing strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Managing in Pediatric Diabetes: Aspects and Challenges)
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15 pages, 1372 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Dietary and Alcohol Drinking Patterns in Patients with Excess Body Weight in a Spanish Cohort: Impact on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4824; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224824 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1118
Abstract
Unhealthy dietary habits and sedentarism coexist with a rising incidence of excess weight and associated comorbidities. We aimed to analyze the dietary and drinking patterns of patients with excess weight, their main characteristics, plausible gender differences and impact on cardiometabolic risk factors, with [...] Read more.
Unhealthy dietary habits and sedentarism coexist with a rising incidence of excess weight and associated comorbidities. We aimed to analyze the dietary and drinking patterns of patients with excess weight, their main characteristics, plausible gender differences and impact on cardiometabolic risk factors, with a particular focus on the potential contribution of beer consumption. Data from 200 consecutive volunteers (38 ± 12 years; 72% females) living with overweight or class I obesity attending the obesity unit to lose weight were studied. Food frequency questionnaires and 24 h recalls were used. Reduced-rank regression (RRR) analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns (DPs). Anthropometry, total and visceral fat, indirect calorimetry, physical activity level, comorbidities and circulating cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed. Study participants showed high waist circumference, adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, pro-inflammatory adipokines and low anti-inflammatory factors like adiponectin and interleukin-4. A low-fiber, high-fat, energy-dense DP was observed. BMI showed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) correlation with energy density (r = 0.80) as well as percentage of energy derived from fat (r = 0.61). Excess weight was associated with a DP low in vegetables, legumes and whole grains at the same time as being high in sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, fat spreads, and processed meats. RRR analysis identified a DP characterized by high energy density and saturated fat exhibiting negative loadings (>−0.30) for green leafy vegetables, legumes, and fruits at the same time as showing positive factor loadings (>0.30) for processed foods, fat spreads, sugar-sweetened beverages, and sweets. Interestingly, for both women and men, wine represented globally the main source of total alcohol intake (p < 0.05) as compared to beer and distillates. Beer consumption cannot be blamed as the main culprit of excess weight. Capturing the DP provides more clinically relevant and useful information. The focus on consumption of single nutrients does not resemble real-world intake behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Association of Dietary Intake with Chronic Disease and Human Health)
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34 pages, 951 KiB  
Review
Dietary Polyphenols—Natural Bioactive Compounds with Potential for Preventing and Treating Some Allergic Conditions
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4823; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224823 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1057
Abstract
In light of the constantly increasing prevalence of allergic diseases, changes in dietary patterns have been suggested as a plausible environmental explanation for the development and progression of these diseases. Nowadays, much attention has been paid to the development of dietary interventions using [...] Read more.
In light of the constantly increasing prevalence of allergic diseases, changes in dietary patterns have been suggested as a plausible environmental explanation for the development and progression of these diseases. Nowadays, much attention has been paid to the development of dietary interventions using natural substances with anti-allergy activities. In this respect, dietary polyphenols have been studied extensively as one of the most prominent natural bioactive compounds with well-documented anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties. This review aims to discuss the mechanisms underlying the potential anti-allergic actions of polyphenols related to their ability to reduce protein allergenicity, regulate immune response, and gut microbiome modification; however, these issues need to be elucidated in detail. This paper reviews the current evidence from experimental and clinical studies confirming that various polyphenols such as quercetin, curcumin, resveratrol, catechins, and many others could attenuate allergic inflammation, alleviate the symptoms of food allergy, asthma, and allergic rhinitis, and prevent the development of allergic immune response. Conclusively, dietary polyphenols are endowed with great anti-allergic potential and therefore could be used either for preventive approaches or therapeutic interventions in relation to allergic diseases. Limitations in studying and widespread use of polyphenols as well as future research directions are also discussed. Full article
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13 pages, 1547 KiB  
Article
The Real-Life Use of a Protein-Sparing Modified Fast Diet by Nasogastric Tube (ProMoFasT) in Adults with Obesity: An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4822; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224822 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1012
Abstract
Background: Protein-sparing modified fast (PSMF) diet is a very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet administered to patients with obesity, which preserves lean mass and suppresses appetite as well as continuous enteral feeding. Thus, we aim to evaluate the effect of the PSMF diet administered continuously by [...] Read more.
Background: Protein-sparing modified fast (PSMF) diet is a very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet administered to patients with obesity, which preserves lean mass and suppresses appetite as well as continuous enteral feeding. Thus, we aim to evaluate the effect of the PSMF diet administered continuously by nasogastric tube (NGT) or orally. Methods: Patients with a body mass index (BMI) > 34.9 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to receive a whey protein PSMF formula through NGT (ProMoFasT) or orally. Data were collected at baseline and after 150 days. The endpoints were assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Results: We enrolled 20 patients in the ProMoFasT group and 24 in the oral group. No differences in body weight, BMI or waist circumference between the two groups were found after 150 days. At follow-up, FFM (%) and MM (%) results were higher in the ProMoFasT group than the oral group (63.1% vs. 52.9%, p = 0.012 and 45.0% vs. 36.1%, p = 0.009, respectively) and FM (kg) and FM (%) were significantly lower in the ProMoFasT group (36.9 kg vs. 44.0 kg, p = 0.033 and 37.4% vs. 44.9%, p = 0.012, respectively). Insulin levels were lower in the ProMoFasT group than the oral group at follow-up (11.8 mU/L vs. 28.0 mU/L, p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: The ProMoFasT is more effective in improving body composition and glucometabolic markers than the same diet administered orally. Full article
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