Topic Editors

Prof. Dr. Genxu Wang
State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, College of Water Resource and Hydropower, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
Institute of Tibet Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Dr. Bahman Naser
School of Engineering, Shippensburg University, Shippensburg, PA 17257, USA

Hydrology and Water Resources Management

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 October 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (30 March 2024)
Viewed by
63087

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Climatic warming is intensifying and complicating hydrological and associated processes worldwide, thereby affecting water security. The coupling of water, sediment, carbon, and nutrients in watersheds is a central challenging bottleneck that needs to be elucidated. The subsequent transport and transformation of waterborne materials can also affect river ecosystem health and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the mechanisms of these processes in response to environmental change is largely unknown. Addressing these problems will contribute to the rational management of water resources and effective response of water disasters in the world. Most countries are facing unprecedented pressure on water resources today. Water scarcity affects more than 40% of the global population, and a deficit of 40% continues to be present between water demand and available supply by 2030. Chronic water scarcity and extreme weather events (floods and droughts) have become the biggest threats to global prosperity and sustainability, associated with rapid economic development. Better understanding the effects of changing environment on water resources is therefore desired to strengthen water security against hydrological uncertainty and anthropogenic complexity.

In this Topic, innovative ideas and new modeling techniques are welcome for assisting hydrological and associated processes and sustainable water resources management from a multidisciplinary background. We encourage submissions on, but not limited to, surface and subsurface hydrological processes and coupled water–sediment modeling, riverine carbon–nitrogen transport, and riverine greenhouse emissions, Trade-off of water–grain–energy–ecological systems and coordinated development of ecology–water–economy, water resources conservation and optimization allocation, water policies adapting to extreme weather events, decision support systems and/or decision-making frameworks, risk assessment on water scarcity and flooding/drought disasters, information systems development for water resources monitoring, modeling, forecasting, and warning, as well as recycling and reuse schemes for storm water, wastewater, and non-conventional water sources are topics of interest.

Prof. Dr. Genxu Wang
Prof. Dr. Hongwei Lu
Prof. Dr. Lei Wang
Dr. Bahman Naser
Topic Editors

Keywords

  •  hydrological and associated processes
  •  sediment transport
  •  riverine carbon and nitrogen cycle
  •  trade-off of water–grain–energy–ecology
  •  eco-hydrology
  •  water sustainable policy
  •  water security
  •  risk assessment on water disasters
  •  monitoring and modeling

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Atmosphere
atmosphere
2.9 4.1 2010 17.7 Days CHF 2400
Hydrology
hydrology
3.2 4.1 2014 17.8 Days CHF 1800
Remote Sensing
remotesensing
5.0 7.9 2009 23 Days CHF 2700
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400
Water
water
3.4 5.5 2009 16.5 Days CHF 2600

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Published Papers (49 papers)

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17 pages, 6307 KiB  
Article
High Spatiotemporal Estimation of Reservoir Evaporation Water Loss by Integrating Remote-Sensing Data and the Generalized Complementary Relationship
by Yuran Li, Shiqiong Li, Lei Cheng, Lihao Zhou, Liwei Chang and Pan Liu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(8), 1320; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16081320 - 09 Apr 2024
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Accurately estimating the reservoir evaporation loss is crucial for water resources management. The existing research on reservoir evaporation loss estimates primarily focuses on large spatiotemporal scales and neglects the rapid dynamic changes to reservoirs’ surface area. For reservoirs essential for frequent flood control [...] Read more.
Accurately estimating the reservoir evaporation loss is crucial for water resources management. The existing research on reservoir evaporation loss estimates primarily focuses on large spatiotemporal scales and neglects the rapid dynamic changes to reservoirs’ surface area. For reservoirs essential for frequent flood control and regular water supply, high spatiotemporal evaporation data are crucial. By integrating remote sensing and the evaporation model, this study proposes a new method for the high spatiotemporal estimation of the evaporation losses from reservoirs. The proposed method is applied to the largest artificial freshwater lake in Asia, i.e., Danjiangkou (DJK) Reservoir. The daily reservoir water surface area is extracted at a spatial resolution of 30 m during the period 2014–2018 based on the Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (ESTARFM). The daily evaporation rate is estimated at a spatial resolution of 100 m using the generalized complementary relationship (GCR). The results show that the water surface area of the DJK Reservoir exhibits rapid and frequent fluctuations from 2015 to 2018, with a multi-year average area of 731.9 km2 and a maximum and minimum difference of 304 km2. Significant seasonal variations are observed in both the evaporation rate and volume, with a multi-year average evaporation rate of 806 mm and evaporation volume of 595 million m3. The estimated results align well with three other independent estimates, indicating that the GCR is capable of water surface evaporation estimation. Further analysis suggests that the data resolution has a great influence on the evaporative water loss from the reservoir. The estimated mean annual evaporation volume based on the 1000 m resolution water surface area data is 14% lower than that estimated using the 30 m resolution water surface area data. This study not only provides a new method for the high spatiotemporal estimation of reservoir evaporation by integrating remote-sensing data and the GCR method but also highlights that reservoir evaporation water loss should be quantified using the volume rather than the rate and that the estimated loss is noticeably affected by the estimation spatial resolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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18 pages, 2438 KiB  
Article
Runoff Simulation of the Upstream Watershed of the Feiling Hydrological Station in the Qinhe River Based on the SWAT Model
by Kun Wang, Dafen Yue and Huadong Zhang
Water 2024, 16(7), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16071044 - 04 Apr 2024
Viewed by 508
Abstract
This study examined the impacts of climate change and human activities on runoff within the Feiling Hydrological Station watershed in the Qinhe River basin, utilizing the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. Several climate change and extreme land-use scenarios were evaluated for [...] Read more.
This study examined the impacts of climate change and human activities on runoff within the Feiling Hydrological Station watershed in the Qinhe River basin, utilizing the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. Several climate change and extreme land-use scenarios were evaluated for their effects on runoff. Results demonstrated the SWAT model’s suitability for runoff simulation in the watershed, revealing a negative correlation between runoff and temperature changes, and a positive correlation with precipitation changes. Significantly, runoff responses to precipitation variations of ±10% and ±20% were more marked than those to temperature changes of ±1 °C and ±2 °C. In scenarios of extreme woodland and fallow land, runoff decreased, whereas in scenarios of extreme cropland and grassland, it increased, particularly in the extreme farmland scenario. The study’s findings are important for the sensible management of soil and water resources and the enhancement of the natural environment in the studied area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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18 pages, 8267 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Runoff Components in the Mingyong Glacier Basin, Meili Snow Mountains
by Zichen Zhang, Lihua Wu, Jun Feng, Zhiwen Dong, Xiong Zhao, Yi Sun, Xiping Cheng, Liqin Dong and Tingting Liu
Water 2024, 16(7), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16070937 - 24 Mar 2024
Viewed by 559
Abstract
As an important hydrological ecosystem component, the glacier basin has great significance for climate and environment, and it is also linked to regional water sustainability. In this paper, the sampling and isotope analysis of glacial ice, ice-melt water, river water (river midstream and [...] Read more.
As an important hydrological ecosystem component, the glacier basin has great significance for climate and environment, and it is also linked to regional water sustainability. In this paper, the sampling and isotope analysis of glacial ice, ice-melt water, river water (river midstream and river downstream), groundwater (spring), and precipitation were carried out in a hydrological year of the Mingyong Glacier basin, which is located at the Meili Snow Mountains, Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. At the same time, the hydrograph separation of the recharge sources of the lower mountain pass is studied. The results show that the range of δD, δ18O, and d-excess (deuterium excess) in natural water bodies are significantly different, and the precipitation is the most obvious. The high values of δD and δ18O in the water samples all appeared in spring and summer, and the low values appeared in autumn and winter, while glacial ice showed opposite trends. Meanwhile, the local meteoric water line (LMWL) of the Mingyong Glacier basin is δD = 8.04δ18O + 13.06. The End-Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA) was adopted to determine the sources proportion of river water (river downstream) according to the δD, δ18O, and d-excess ratio relationships. The results showed that the proportion of ice-melt water, groundwater, and precipitation in the ablation period was 80.6%, 17.2%, and 2.2% as well as 19.2%, 73.1%, and 7.7% in the accumulation period, respectively. Ice-melt water has a higher conversion recharge rate to groundwater and indirectly recharges river water, especially in nonmonsoon seasons. In other words, the main recharge source of river water in the lower reaches of the Mingyong Glacier basin during the ablation period is ice-melt water. In the accumulation period, the main recharge source of river water in the lower reaches of the Mingyong Glacier basin is groundwater, while nearly half of the recharge of groundwater comes from ice-melt water. Therefore, regardless of the ablation period or the accumulation period, ice-melt water is sustainable and important to this region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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16 pages, 1044 KiB  
Article
Territorial Pluralism in China: Local Water Users’ Adaptation Strategies in the South–North Water Transfer Project
by Chengting Zhou, Jing Chen, Chen Li and Bo Bi
Water 2024, 16(6), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16060885 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 586
Abstract
China’s South–North Water Transfer Project has been questioned as it has resulted in significantly negative issues. Drawing on the notion of hydrosocial territories, this article examines the contested hydraulic configuration and counter-imaginaries from local water users’ perspectives and their specific adaptation strategies in [...] Read more.
China’s South–North Water Transfer Project has been questioned as it has resulted in significantly negative issues. Drawing on the notion of hydrosocial territories, this article examines the contested hydraulic configuration and counter-imaginaries from local water users’ perspectives and their specific adaptation strategies in the South–North Water Transfer Project. This article argues that local water users in a Chinese context can only adopt adaptation strategies that are determined by their socio-economic backgrounds. This has led to significant social and environmental injustice. Addressing these issues is crucial for tackling inequities in the South–North Water Transfer Project and achieving the ambitious development goals of the project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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26 pages, 23951 KiB  
Article
Propagation Dynamics from Meteorological Drought to GRACE-Based Hydrological Drought and Its Influencing Factors
by Aihong Cui, Jianfeng Li, Qiming Zhou, Honglin Zhu, Huizeng Liu, Chao Yang, Guofeng Wu and Qingquan Li
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(6), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16060976 - 10 Mar 2024
Viewed by 566
Abstract
Gaining a comprehensive understanding of the characteristics and propagation of precipitation-based meteorological drought to terrestrial water storage (TWS)-derived hydrological drought is of the utmost importance. This study aims to disentangle the frequency–time relationship between precipitation-derived meteorological and TWS-based hydrological drought from June 2002 [...] Read more.
Gaining a comprehensive understanding of the characteristics and propagation of precipitation-based meteorological drought to terrestrial water storage (TWS)-derived hydrological drought is of the utmost importance. This study aims to disentangle the frequency–time relationship between precipitation-derived meteorological and TWS-based hydrological drought from June 2002 to June 2017 based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Terrestrial Water Storage Index (STI) by employing wavelet coherence rather than a traditional correlation coefficient. The possible influencing factors on drought propagation in 28 regions across the world are examined. The results show that the number of drought months detected by the STI is higher than that detected by the SPI worldwide, especially for slight and moderate drought. Generally, TWS-derived hydrological drought is triggered by and occurs later than precipitation-based meteorological drought. The propagation characteristics between meteorological and hydrological droughts vary by region across the globe. Apparent intra-annual and interannual scales are detected by wavelet analysis in most regions, but not in the polar climate region. Drought propagation differs in phase lags in different regions. The phase lag between hydrological and meteorological drought ranges from 0.5 to 4 months on the intra-annual scale and from 1 to 16 months on the interannual scale. Drought propagation is influenced by multiple factors, among which the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and potential evapotranspiration are the most influential when considering one, two, or three factors, respectively. The findings of this study improve scientific understanding of drought propagation mechanisms over a global scale and provide support for water management in different subregions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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21 pages, 4842 KiB  
Article
Soil Salt and Water Regulation in Saline Agriculture Based on Physical Measures with Model Analysis
by Wenyuan Fu, Jinyi Yu, Qiuli Hu, Haixia Wang and Ying Zhao
Water 2024, 16(5), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16050719 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 658
Abstract
Enhancing crop production in the saline regions of the Yellow River Delta (YRD), where shallow saline groundwater is prevalent, hinges on optimizing water and salt conditions in the root zone. This study explored the effects of various physical methods on soil water and [...] Read more.
Enhancing crop production in the saline regions of the Yellow River Delta (YRD), where shallow saline groundwater is prevalent, hinges on optimizing water and salt conditions in the root zone. This study explored the effects of various physical methods on soil water and salt dynamics during the cotton growing season in these saline areas. Three approaches were tested: plastic film mulching (FM), plastic film mulching with an added compacted soil layer (FM+CL), and ridge-furrow planting (RF). The HYDRUS-2D model (Version 3.02) was used to analyze changes in soil water and salt content in the root zone over time. The results showed that subsoil compaction significantly lowered salt build-up in the root zone, especially in the top 20 cm. Film mulching was crucial for reducing water loss in the Yellow River Delta. Crop transpiration increased by 7.0% under FM and 10.5% under FM+CL compared to RF planting. Additionally, FM+CL reduced soil salinity in the top 10 cm by 11.5% at cotton harvest time compared to FM alone. The study concludes that combining film mulching with a soil compaction layer is a promising strategy for local farmers, addressing soil water retention, salt management, and boosting cotton yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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15 pages, 1937 KiB  
Article
Catchment-Scale Challenges for Water Resources Management: Assessing ‘Reasonable’ Peak Needs for Irrigated Agriculture in a Humid Climate
by Jerry W. Knox and Keith Weatherhead
Hydrology 2024, 11(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11030033 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
Rising demands and competition for water resources within all sectors are placing increasing pressure on the environment. Almost all direct abstractions in England require a licence (permit) from the regulatory authority, the Environment Agency. Assessing and setting ‘reasonable’ peak quantities of water that [...] Read more.
Rising demands and competition for water resources within all sectors are placing increasing pressure on the environment. Almost all direct abstractions in England require a licence (permit) from the regulatory authority, the Environment Agency. Assessing and setting ‘reasonable’ peak quantities of water that can be legally abstracted in an environmentally sustainable manner is central to the whole licence determination process. To protect environmental flows and other abstractors within each catchment, the regulatory authority needs to be able to set sensible limits in the licence conditions, including total seasonal volumes and peak rates of water use, particularly for abstractions from hydrologically sensitive surface water sources. This paper describes the development of a methodology to assess the ‘reasonable’ peak rates of water use for agricultural irrigation in support of catchment water resources management and planning. A daily time step water balance model was used to simulate peak monthly and daily water requirements for irrigation using long-term historical weather records for agroclimatically contrasting sites. The model-simulated outputs were then compared against observed data from selected case study farms, and against data reported in a national water abstraction database. Guidelines were then developed for setting peak monthly, daily, hourly, and absolute abstraction rates for irrigation, taking into account the environmental sensitivity of different types of water source. The application of the procedure and its relevance in other countries where catchment water resources are under intense pressure from agriculture are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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12 pages, 4336 KiB  
Communication
Ocean Temperatures Do Not Account for a Record-Setting Winter in the U.S. West
by Matthew D. LaPlante, Liping Deng, Luthiene Dalanhese and Shih-Yu Wang
Atmosphere 2024, 15(3), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15030284 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 856
Abstract
The record-setting winter of 2022–2023 came as an answer to both figurative and literal prayers for political leaders, policy makers, and water managers reliant on snowpacks in the Upper Colorado River Basin, a vital source of water for tens of millions of people [...] Read more.
The record-setting winter of 2022–2023 came as an answer to both figurative and literal prayers for political leaders, policy makers, and water managers reliant on snowpacks in the Upper Colorado River Basin, a vital source of water for tens of millions of people across the Western United States. But this “drought-busting” winter was not well-predicted, in part because while interannual patterns of tropical ocean temperatures have a well-known relationship to precipitation patterns across much of the American West, the Upper Colorado is part of a liminal region where these connections tend to be comparatively weak. Using historical sea surface temperature and snowpack records, and leveraging a long-term cross-basin relationship to extend the timeline for evaluation, this analysis demonstrates that the 2022–2023 winter did not present in accordance with other high-snowpack winters in this region, and that the associative pattern of surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific, and snow water equivalent in the regions that stored and supplied most of the water to the Colorado River during the 2022–2023 winter, was not substantially different from a historically incoherent arrangement of long-term correlation. These findings suggest that stochastic variability plays an outsized role in influencing water availability in this region, even in extreme years, reinforcing the importance of other trends to inform water policy and management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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23 pages, 9605 KiB  
Article
Development of a Model to Evaluate Water Conservation Function for Various Tree Species
by Toshiharu Kojima, Ryoma Shimono, Takahiro Ota, Hiroshi Hashimoto and Yasuhiro Hasegawa
Water 2024, 16(4), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16040588 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 680
Abstract
The ecosystem services of forests, such as the water conservation function, are the combined results of diverse processes, and the modification of one part of a forest affects each ecosystem service separately via complex processes. It is necessary to develop an ecosystem service [...] Read more.
The ecosystem services of forests, such as the water conservation function, are the combined results of diverse processes, and the modification of one part of a forest affects each ecosystem service separately via complex processes. It is necessary to develop an ecosystem service assessment model for various tree species to ensure proper forest management. In this study, a model to evaluate three ecosystem services, namely, the water supply, wood supply, and carbon sink, for various tree species in Japan is developed using many observation data from the previous literature. The integrated evaluation model consists of the forest model, hydrological model, and carbon stock assessment model. The forest model consists of the forest growth model and LAI estimation model, based on allometry. The results of the simulations for the major tree species yield the following findings: (1) Water supply varies with tree species but decreases until about 40 years of age, after which it is near constant. (2) Although beech has a larger LAI than needleleaf forests, water supply is not significantly different. (3) Broadleaf forests are more affected by thinning than needleleaf forests and tend to receive increased water supply as a result of processes such as thinning. This study enabled the evaluation of water conservation function in watersheds containing various tree species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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23 pages, 18880 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Recharge Area Delineation for Small- to Medium-Sized Groundwater Systems through Coupling Methods and Numerical Modeling: A Case Study of Linfen City, China
by Kewei Lyu, Qiulan Zhang, Yali Cui, Yaobin Zhang, Yan Zhou, Lu Lyu, Yihan Dong and Jingli Shao
Sustainability 2024, 16(4), 1465; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16041465 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 536
Abstract
In previous investigations, the demarcation of capture zones within a specific research area predominantly relied on a singular method, leading to pronounced limitations and uncertainties. To address this challenge, an extensive field survey was conducted, focusing on the systematic classification of water sources [...] Read more.
In previous investigations, the demarcation of capture zones within a specific research area predominantly relied on a singular method, leading to pronounced limitations and uncertainties. To address this challenge, an extensive field survey was conducted, focusing on the systematic classification of water sources in the Linfen City region. Building upon this classification, an intricate fusion of a hydrogeological analysis and formulaic methodology was employed. This integrated approach, coupled with independent numerical simulation methods, was applied to delineate recharge areas for both alluvial fan pore water in piedmont regions and exposed karst water in small- to medium-sized water sources. Simultaneously, precise spatial interpolation was carried out on water quality monitoring data from supply wells within the water source area for the year 2020. This meticulous analysis facilitated the determination of the spatial distribution characteristics of hydrochemical elements. To assess the water quality within the capture zone, the class III groundwater quality standards of China were employed as a pivotal tool for validating the results of the delineation of water source recharge areas. In the final analysis, a comparative study between the integrated coupling method and numerical simulation outcomes revealed the successful delineation of the boundaries for the water supply areas of Tumen and Caojiapo in Linfen City, covering areas of 5.5 km2 and 22.29 km2, respectively. Simultaneously, the combination of the three methods accurately outlined the boundary of the Hexi water supply area, encompassing an area of 2.5224 km2. These results vividly illustrate that the amalgamation of various methodologies proves more beneficial for the precise delineation of capture zones, particularly in diverse types and scales of groundwater sources. The synergy exhibited by these three methods underscores their collective efficacy, providing a more comprehensive and intuitive delineation of the recharge areas for small- to medium-sized water sources. Consequently, these findings significantly enhance the practical application value of the study and hold promise in making substantial contributions to local groundwater security and management initiatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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14 pages, 3532 KiB  
Article
Quantifying Uncertainty in Runoff Simulation According to Multiple Evaluation Metrics and Varying Calibration Data Length
by Ghaith Falah Ziarh, Jin Hyuck Kim, Jae Yeol Song and Eun-Sung Chung
Water 2024, 16(4), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16040517 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 745
Abstract
In this study, the uncertainty in runoff simulations using hydrological models was quantified based on the selection of five evaluation metrics and calibration data length. The calibration data length was considered to vary from 1 to 11 years, and runoff analysis was performed [...] Read more.
In this study, the uncertainty in runoff simulations using hydrological models was quantified based on the selection of five evaluation metrics and calibration data length. The calibration data length was considered to vary from 1 to 11 years, and runoff analysis was performed using a soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). SWAT parameter optimization was then performed using R-SWAT. The results show that the uncertainty was lower when using a calibration data length of five to seven years, with seven years achieving the lowest uncertainty. Runoff simulations using a calibration data length of more than seven years yielded higher uncertainty overall but lower uncertainty for extreme runoff simulations compared to parameters with less than five years of calibration data. Different uncertainty evaluation metrics show different levels of uncertainty, which means it is necessary to consider multiple evaluation metrics rather than relying on any one single metric. Among the evaluation metrics, the Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE) and normalized root-mean-squared error (NRMSE) had large uncertainties at short calibration data lengths, whereas the Kling–Gupta efficiency (KGE) and Percent Bias (Pbias) had large uncertainties at long calibration data lengths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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20 pages, 2385 KiB  
Article
The Socioeconomic Dimensions of Water Scarcity in Urban and Rural Mexico: A Comprehensive Assessment of Sustainable Development
by Silvana Pacheco-Treviño and Mario G. Manzano-Camarillo
Sustainability 2024, 16(3), 1011; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16031011 - 24 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1114
Abstract
Mexico faces severe water scarcity due to population growth, industrial activities, and climate change. The arid and semidesert conditions prevalent in northern Mexico, particularly in Nuevo Leon, significantly accentuate the challenges associated with water scarcity. This region is vulnerable to water scarcity due [...] Read more.
Mexico faces severe water scarcity due to population growth, industrial activities, and climate change. The arid and semidesert conditions prevalent in northern Mexico, particularly in Nuevo Leon, significantly accentuate the challenges associated with water scarcity. This region is vulnerable to water scarcity due to minimal rainfall, recurrent droughts, and the increasing pressure of water demand from the densely populated Monterrey. We examined the disparities that contribute to water poverty by comparing water scarcity between rural and urban populations in Nuevo Leon. The results revealed significant contrasts in water scarcity between the two populations, indicating that different factors contribute to water poverty based on regional, territorial, and cultural characteristics. We selected the water poverty index (WPI) as an evaluation metric due to its inherent compatibility with available data sources, which facilitates its application to stakeholders and ensures comparability with other regions. This study contributes to studies on water scarcity assessment by addressing a critical limitation of the WPI. We compared three weighting methods—equal weight, principal component analysis (PCA), and analytic hierarchy process (AHP)—and identified that PCA and AHP demonstrated a superior performance compared to the standard methodology. These findings underscore the importance of considering region-specific conditions, as well as socioeconomic disparities between rural and urban populations and their role in vulnerability to water scarcity in calculating water poverty. These insights provide valuable information for customized solutions to regional challenges, representing leading actions toward sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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18 pages, 19548 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Multi-Source Precipitation Products in the Hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau
by Min Sun, Aili Liu, Lin Zhao, Chong Wang and Yating Yang
Atmosphere 2024, 15(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15010138 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 812
Abstract
High-resolution precipitation products have been crucial for hydrology, meteorology, and environmental ecosystems over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). However, these products are usually subject to systematic errors, which may vary with time and topographic conditions. The study evaluated the suitability of four satellite-derived products [...] Read more.
High-resolution precipitation products have been crucial for hydrology, meteorology, and environmental ecosystems over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). However, these products are usually subject to systematic errors, which may vary with time and topographic conditions. The study evaluated the suitability of four satellite-derived products (GPM IMERG, GSMaP, CMORPH, and PERSIANN-CDR) and four fusion precipitation products (ERA5-Land, CHIRPS, CMFD, and TPHiPr) by comparing with 22 rain gauges at a daily scale from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2018 over the hinterland of the TP. The main findings are as follows: (1) TPHiPr and CMFD are better than the satellite-derived products, while the performance of CHIRPS is worse; (2) among the satellite-derived products, the quality of GPM IMERG is the highest on different time scales, and PERSIANN-CDR is better in the months of June to October, while GSMaP and CMORPH have poor performance; (3) the eight precipitation products have weaker detection capability for heavy precipitation events, and the quality of each product decreases with the increase in the precipitation threshold, while the rate of descent of fusion precipitation products is slower than that of satellite-derived products. This study demonstrates the performance of eight precipitation products over the hinterland of the TP, which is expected to provide valuable information for hydrometeorology applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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18 pages, 3116 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Multiple Machine Learning Methods for Correcting Groundwater Levels Predicted by Physics-Based Models
by Guanyin Shuai, Yan Zhou, Jingli Shao, Yali Cui, Qiulan Zhang, Chaowei Jin and Shuyuan Xu
Sustainability 2024, 16(2), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/su16020653 - 11 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 551
Abstract
Accurate groundwater level (GWL) prediction is crucial in groundwater resource management. Currently, it relies mainly on physics-based models for prediction and quantitative analysis. However, physics-based models used for prediction often have errors in structure, parameters, and data, resulting in inaccurate GWL predictions. In [...] Read more.
Accurate groundwater level (GWL) prediction is crucial in groundwater resource management. Currently, it relies mainly on physics-based models for prediction and quantitative analysis. However, physics-based models used for prediction often have errors in structure, parameters, and data, resulting in inaccurate GWL predictions. In this study, machine learning algorithms were used to correct the prediction errors of physics-based models. First, a MODFLOW groundwater flow model was created for the Hutuo River alluvial fan in the North China Plain. Then, using the observed GWLs from 10 monitoring wells located in the upper, middle, and lower parts of the alluvial fan as the test standard, three algorithms—random forest (RF), extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), and long short-term memory (LSTM)—were compared for their abilities to correct MODFLOW’s predicted GWLs of these 10 wells under two sets of feature variables. The results show that the RF and XGBoost algorithms are not suitable for correcting predicted GWLs that exhibit continuous rising or falling trends, but the LSTM algorithm has the ability to correct them. During the prediction period, the LSTM2 model, which incorporates additional source–sink feature variables based on MODFLOW’s predicted GWLs, can improve the Pearson correlation coefficient (PR) for 80% of wells, with a maximum increase of 1.26 and a minimum increase of 0.02, and can reduce the root mean square error (RMSE) for 100% of the wells with a maximum decrease of 1.59 m and a minimum decrease of 0.17 m. And it also outperforms the MODFLOW model in capturing the long-term trends and short-term seasonal fluctuations of GWLs. However, the correction effect of the LSTM1 model (using only MODFLOW’s predicted GWLs as a feature variable) is inferior to that of the LSTM2 model, indicating that multiple feature variables are superior to a single feature variable. Temporally and spatially, the greater the prediction error of the MODFLOW model, the larger the correction magnitude of the LSTM2 model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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17 pages, 4249 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Variability and Impact Factors of Domestic Water Prices in China
by Xing Xie, Xinjun Tu, Jinglei Zhu, Vijay P. Singh and Yuanyuan Chai
Water 2024, 16(1), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010115 - 28 Dec 2023
Viewed by 791
Abstract
Given China’s status as one of the most water-scarce countries globally, its rapid development of urbanization and sustained economic growth have led to increasing pressure on the urban water supply. Water pricing is also receiving increasing attention as an important tool for water [...] Read more.
Given China’s status as one of the most water-scarce countries globally, its rapid development of urbanization and sustained economic growth have led to increasing pressure on the urban water supply. Water pricing is also receiving increasing attention as an important tool for water resource management. This study analyzes the spatial and temporal characteristics of domestic water prices in China and their drivers. To this end, domestic water price data from 285 cities in China were collected. Spatial statistical analysis and geodetector were used to examine the spatial distribution and temporal patterns of domestic water prices from 2007 to 2020, as well as to identify the primary factors influencing these prices. The following results are noted: (1) The national average domestic water price has increased from 2 RMB/m3 to 3.12 RMB/m3, where the northeast and eastern regions have higher prices than the national average, while the central and western regions have lower prices. (2) The spatial distribution of urban domestic water prices presents clear differences characteristic of north–south and spatial agglomeration effects; the high-value area of domestic water prices is mainly concentrated in Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei. (3) On a national and regional scale, the price of domestic water is closely related to economic development, water resources, and resident’s income level. Furthermore, this study revealed that the interaction between pairwise factors played a more significant role in influencing domestic water prices compared with the individual impact of each factor. This finding contributes to a deeper understanding of the spatiotemporal heterogeneity in domestic water pricing and offers valuable insights and guidance for water pricing reform in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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13 pages, 3165 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of High-Intensity Precipitation Prediction Using Convolutional Long Short-Term Memory with U-Net Structure Based on Clustering
by Taeyong Kwon, Seong-Sim Yoon, Hongjoon Shin and Sanghoo Yoon
Water 2024, 16(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010097 - 26 Dec 2023
Viewed by 817
Abstract
Recently, Asia has experienced significant damage from extreme precipitation events caused by climate change. Improving the accuracy of quantitative precipitation forecasts over wide regions is essential to mitigate the damage caused by precipitation-related natural disasters. This study compared the predictive performances of a [...] Read more.
Recently, Asia has experienced significant damage from extreme precipitation events caused by climate change. Improving the accuracy of quantitative precipitation forecasts over wide regions is essential to mitigate the damage caused by precipitation-related natural disasters. This study compared the predictive performances of a global model trained on the entire dataset and a clustered model that clustered precipitation types. The precipitation prediction model was constructed by combining convolutional long short-term memory with a U-Net structure. Research data consisted of precipitation events recorded at 10 min intervals from 2017 to 2021, utilizing radar data covering the entire Korean Peninsula. The model was trained on radar precipitation data from 30 min before the current time (t − 30 min, t − 20 min, t − 10 min, and t − 0 min) to predict the precipitation after 10 min (t + 10 min). The prediction performance was assessed using the root mean squared error and mean absolute error for continuous precipitation data and precision, recall, F1 score, and accuracy for the presence or absence of precipitation. The research findings indicate that, with sufficient training data for each precipitation type, models trained on clustered precipitation types outperform those trained on the entire dataset, particularly for predicting high-intensity precipitation events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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25 pages, 33171 KiB  
Article
Spatial Estimation of Snow Water Equivalent for Glaciers and Seasonal Snow in Iceland Using Remote Sensing Snow Cover and Albedo
by Andri Gunnarsson and Sigurdur M. Gardarsson
Hydrology 2024, 11(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology11010003 - 26 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1959
Abstract
Efficient water resource management in glacier- and snow-dominated basins requires accurate estimates of the snow water equivalent (SWE) in late winter and spring and melt onset timing and intensity. To understand the high spatio-temporal variability of snow and glacier ablation, a spatially distributed [...] Read more.
Efficient water resource management in glacier- and snow-dominated basins requires accurate estimates of the snow water equivalent (SWE) in late winter and spring and melt onset timing and intensity. To understand the high spatio-temporal variability of snow and glacier ablation, a spatially distributed energy balance model combining satellite-based retrievals of albedo and snow cover was applied. Incoming short-wave energy, contributing to daily estimates of melt energy, was constrained by remotely sensed surface albedo for snow-covered surfaces. Fractional snow cover was used for non-glaciated areas, as it provides estimates of snow cover for each pixel to better constrain snow melt. Thus, available daily estimates of melt energy in a given area were the product of the possible melt energy and the fractional snow cover of the area or pixel for non-glaciated areas. This provided daily estimates of melt water to determine seasonal snow and glacier ablation in Iceland for the period 2000–2019. Observations from snow pits on land and glacier summer mass balance were used for evaluation, and observations from land and glacier-based automatic weather stations were used to evaluate model inputs for the energy balance model. The results show that the interannual SWE variability was generally high both for seasonal snow and glaciers. For seasonal snow, the largest SWE (>1000 mm) was found in mountainous and alpine areas close to the coast, notably in the East- and Westfjords, Tröllaskaga, and in the vicinity of glacier margins. Lower SWE values were observed in the central highlands, flatter inland areas, and at lower elevations. For glaciers, more SWE (glacier ablation) was associated with lower glacier elevations while less melt was observed at higher elevations. For the impurity-rich bare-ice areas that are exposed annually, observed SWE was more than 3000 mm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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16 pages, 2952 KiB  
Article
Effects of Seasonal and Diel Variations in Thermal Stratification on Phytoplankton in a Regulated River
by Eunsong Jung, Gea-Jae Joo, Hyo Gyeom Kim, Dong-Kyun Kim and Hyun-Woo Kim
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16330; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316330 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1454
Abstract
Thermal stratification is an important driver shaping phytoplankton community and their habitat condition in freshwater ecosystems. However, studies on river stratification have been restricted to rivers below dams or reservoirs affected by their water release and lacked examination of diel stratification and its [...] Read more.
Thermal stratification is an important driver shaping phytoplankton community and their habitat condition in freshwater ecosystems. However, studies on river stratification have been restricted to rivers below dams or reservoirs affected by their water release and lacked examination of diel stratification and its impact on phytoplankton, in particular. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the degree of thermal stratification, its environmental drivers, and the response of water quality and phytoplankton community against stratification in the mid-lower reach of the Nakdong River, whose morphology has been highly modified, including the construction of eight weirs. We implemented vertical temperature profiling at three study sites, both seasonally and diurnally. From this data, we calculated three stratification indices: relative water column stability (RWCS), Schmidt stability (S), and maximum temperature gradient (Max). These indices showed that most sites experienced diel stratification during summer (mean = RWCS 74.3, S 41.5 J m−2, Max 0.9 °C m−1). Principal component analysis showed that stratification significantly led to seasonal and diel variations in the water environment. Solar radiation and air temperature were positive controllers, while a negative controller (in this case, the river flow rate) existed only for diel variation in the stratification. The seasonal shifts in phytoplankton community structure were either insensitive or showed a limited response to the stratification indices. In summer, Microcystis cell abundance and accumulation into the surface water was positively affected by the diel variations in the stratification indices and thermocline instead of with other temperature and nutrient variables. Overall, the results suggest that the river has summer stratification, which is involved in amplifying cyanobacterial bloom intensity. Without a suppressing factor, summer stratification is expected to be recurrent in the river, and thus mitigating the developed stratification is needed by promptly regulating the river flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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19 pages, 9240 KiB  
Article
Study on the Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on the Perspective of Water Rights Trading
by Guangyao Wang, Xinyue Zhang, Lijuan Du, Bo Lei and Zhenghe Xu
Sustainability 2023, 15(23), 16214; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152316214 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 672
Abstract
Water rights trading plays an important role in the market mechanism to optimize the allocation of water resources. This study takes Luxian county of Sichuan province as the research area. Based on the prediction of water supply and demand, this study aims to [...] Read more.
Water rights trading plays an important role in the market mechanism to optimize the allocation of water resources. This study takes Luxian county of Sichuan province as the research area. Based on the prediction of water supply and demand, this study aims to achieve minimum water shortage and maximum economic benefits for regional water distribution, and introduces a water-saving reward and water price punishment mechanism to construct a two-layer collaborative regulation model of water rights trading for water users. The self-improved elite strategy and cogenetic algorithm (NSGA II-S) are used to solve the optimization model, and the optimal allocation of water resources and water rights trading in different towns in the planning year (2025 and 2030) under different flat and dry scenarios is studied. The results show that there would be an obvious problem in the uneven distribution of water resources between supply and demand in 2025 and 2030. The overall water shortage rates in the flat and dry scenario areas in 2025 are 13.71% and 31.99%, respectively, and the overall water shortage rates in the flat and dry scenario areas in 2030 are 11.55% and 31.94%, respectively. Water rights trading can increase the economic benefit value, with the economic benefit increasing by an average of CNY 614 million in all scenarios, an average increase of 8.68%. The research results could be helpful in alleviating the contradiction between the supply and demand of regional water resources and provide a theoretical basis for optimizing water resource allocation by means of water rights trading in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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18 pages, 3667 KiB  
Article
Impact Evaluation Using Nonstationary Parameters for Historical and Projected Extreme Precipitation
by Muhammad Usman Khan, Muhammad Wajid Ijaz, Mudassar Iqbal, Rizwan Aziz, Muhammad Masood and Muhammad Atiq Ur Rehman Tariq
Water 2023, 15(22), 3958; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15223958 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 907
Abstract
Recent improvements in time series studies of hydro-climatological variables have led to the belief that the effects of nonstationarity are substantial enough to call the idea of traditional stationary approaches into doubt. The mean and variability of annual and seasonal rainfall in Pakistan [...] Read more.
Recent improvements in time series studies of hydro-climatological variables have led to the belief that the effects of nonstationarity are substantial enough to call the idea of traditional stationary approaches into doubt. The mean and variability of annual and seasonal rainfall in Pakistan are changing due to anthropogenic climate change. With the use of stationary and nonstationary frequency analysis techniques, this study set out to assess the impacts of nonstationarity in Southern Punjab, Pakistan, over the historical period of 1970–2015 and the future periods of 2020–2060 and 2060–2100. Four frequency distributions, namely Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), Gumbel, normal, and lognormal, were used. The findings of the nonstationarity impact across Southern Punjab showed different kinds of impacts, such as an increase or reduction in the return level of extreme precipitation. In comparison to other distributions, GEV provided the finest fit. In Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur, Multan, Rahim Yar Khan and DG. Khan, the annual nonstationarity impacts for the 100-year return level were increased up to 15.2%, 8.7%, 58.3%, 18.7%, and 20%, respectively. Moreover, extreme precipitation was found to be increasing during the historical and projected periods, which may increase floods, while less water availability appeared at a seasonal scale (summer) during 2061–2100. The increased nonstationarity effects emphasized adapting these nonstationarities induced by climate change into the design of water resource structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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22 pages, 6200 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Model for Assessing Synergistic Revenue–Cost for the Joint Operation of a Complex Multistakeholder Reservoir System
by Yufei Quan, Yang Xu, Ran Mo, Xin Huang, Saijin Ji, Huili Wang, Zirui Li and Bin Xu
Water 2023, 15(22), 3896; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15223896 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 740
Abstract
The joint operation of a multiobjective multistakeholder reservoir system enhances the revenues of downstream-compensated reservoirs at the expense of increasing the operation cost of upstream-compensating reservoirs. Challenges in quantifying the synergistic revenue–cost tradeoffs with incomplete information arise from difficulties in multistakeholder, high-dimensional, and [...] Read more.
The joint operation of a multiobjective multistakeholder reservoir system enhances the revenues of downstream-compensated reservoirs at the expense of increasing the operation cost of upstream-compensating reservoirs. Challenges in quantifying the synergistic revenue–cost tradeoffs with incomplete information arise from difficulties in multistakeholder, high-dimensional, and combinational joint optimal operation modeling. This study proposed an equivalent aggregated reservoir multiobjective operation and synergistic revenue–cost assessment model. The proposed methodology includes three parts. Module I constructs revenue indexes covering energy production, water supply, ecological protection, and shipping objectives and uses the maximum outflow change degree as a surrogate “cost” index. Module II defines “aggregated reservoirs” that aggregate upstream reservoirs within the same river system as a single reservoir, reducing model complexity with the least information. Module III evaluates the revenue–cost tradeoffs under various operation scenarios. The following conclusions were derived from a 27-reservoir system: (1) The model complexity was reduced by 67.18% with precision preserved. (2) Key compensating reservoirs are identified via tradeoff curves, which are reservoirs controlling high streamflow with large storage. (3) Upstream compensating reservoirs homogenize the inflows of downstream-compensated reservoirs to increase the downstream synergistic revenue by sacrificing upstream benefit. The proposed method provides a new approach for revenue–cost estimation via the joint optimal operation of a multistakeholder-reservoir system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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18 pages, 6645 KiB  
Article
River Recreational Activity Vulnerability Assessment and the Hydraulic Index Proposal
by Jaehyun Shin, Tae Geom Ku, Il Won Seo and Young Do Kim
Water 2023, 15(20), 3587; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15203587 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 975
Abstract
In this study, a vulnerability index and hydraulic index for recreational activities were developed for assessments in riverside areas to provide water quality and hydraulic information to the public. These novel indices consist of several river recreation activities such as swimming, water skiing, [...] Read more.
In this study, a vulnerability index and hydraulic index for recreational activities were developed for assessments in riverside areas to provide water quality and hydraulic information to the public. These novel indices consist of several river recreation activities such as swimming, water skiing, canoeing, etc., and are calculated using hydraulic information. The hydraulic information is integrated with fuzzy synthetic evaluation, with parameters such as velocity, water surface elevation, and water surface width. Also, a water quality index was created using information integrated with parameters such as DO, pH, and chlorophyll a, and then these parameters were combined into the vulnerability index. The proposed vulnerability index and hydraulic index were applied to the Nakdong River, downstream of a large weir. The hydraulic index was also combined with the results from a two-dimensional flow model for the spatial representation of the index for the categorization of safe recreational acceptability levels in the river. The results showed that the calculated index was sufficient to reflect changes in the hydraulic parameters, shown with spatial data, with comparisons to the index calculation from the gauge site measured data, with differences ranging from 0.8% to 6.5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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13 pages, 2659 KiB  
Article
Edge-of-Field Runoff Analysis following Grazing and Silvicultural Best Management Practices in Northeast Texas
by Kevin L. Wagner, Lucas Gregory, Jason A. Gerlich, Edward C. Rhodes and Stephanie deVilleneuve
Water 2023, 15(20), 3537; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15203537 - 11 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 922
Abstract
Landowners and natural resource agencies are seeking to better understand the benefits of best management practices (BMPs) for addressing water quality issues. Using edge-of-field and edge-of-farm runoff analysis, we compared runoff volumes and water quality between small watersheds where BMPs (e.g., prescribed grazing, [...] Read more.
Landowners and natural resource agencies are seeking to better understand the benefits of best management practices (BMPs) for addressing water quality issues. Using edge-of-field and edge-of-farm runoff analysis, we compared runoff volumes and water quality between small watersheds where BMPs (e.g., prescribed grazing, silvicultural practices) were implemented and control watersheds managed using conventional practices (i.e., continuous grazing, natural forest revegetation). Flow-weighted samples, collected over a 2-year period using automated samplers, were analyzed for nitrate/nitrite nitrogen (NNN), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorus (P), ortho-phosphate phosphorous (OP), total suspended solids (TSS), and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Comparison of silvicultural planting to conventional reforestation practices showed a significant decrease in NNN loads (p < 0.05) but no significant differences in TKN, P, OP, TSS, or E. coli. Continuously grazed sites yielded >24% more runoff than sites that were under prescribed grazing regimes, despite receiving less total rainfall. Likewise, NNN, TSS, and TKN loadings were significantly lower under prescribed grazing management than on conventionally grazed sites (p < 0.05). Data suggests that grazing BMPs can be an effective tool for rapidly improving water quality. However, silvicultural BMPs require more time (i.e., >2 years) to establish and achieve detectable improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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22 pages, 3124 KiB  
Review
Multivariate Statistical Analysis for Water Quality Assessment: A Review of Research Published between 2001 and 2020
by Daphne H. F. Muniz and Eduardo C. Oliveira-Filho
Hydrology 2023, 10(10), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10100196 - 05 Oct 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2735
Abstract
Research on water quality is a fundamental step in supporting the maintenance of environmental and human health. The elements involved in water quality analysis are multidimensional, because numerous characteristics can be measured simultaneously. This multidimensional character encourages researchers to statistically examine the data [...] Read more.
Research on water quality is a fundamental step in supporting the maintenance of environmental and human health. The elements involved in water quality analysis are multidimensional, because numerous characteristics can be measured simultaneously. This multidimensional character encourages researchers to statistically examine the data generated through multivariate statistical analysis (MSA). The objective of this review was to explore the research on water quality through MSA between the years 2001 and 2020, present in the Web of Science (WoS) database. Annual results, WoS subject categories, conventional journals, most cited publications, keywords, water sample types analyzed, country or territory where the study was conducted and most used multivariate statistical analyses were topics covered. The results demonstrate a considerable increase in research using MSA in water quality studies in the last twenty years, especially in developing countries. River, groundwater and lake were the most studied water sample types. In descending order, principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), factor analysis (FA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were the most used techniques. This review presents relevant information for researchers in choosing the most appropriate methods to analyze water quality data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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20 pages, 13232 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Satellite-Derived Precipitation Products for Streamflow Simulation of a Mountainous Himalayan Watershed: A Study of Myagdi Khola in Kali Gandaki Basin, Nepal
by Aashutosh Aryal, Thanh-Nhan-Duc Tran, Brijesh Kumar and Venkataraman Lakshmi
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(19), 4762; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15194762 - 28 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1765
Abstract
This study assesses four Satellite-derived Precipitation Products (SPPs) that are corrected and validated against gauge data such as Soil Moisture to Rain—Advanced SCATterometer V1.5 (SM2RAIN-ASCAT), Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation V2.8 (MSWEP), Global Precipitation Measurement Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM Final run V6 (GPM IMERGF), [...] Read more.
This study assesses four Satellite-derived Precipitation Products (SPPs) that are corrected and validated against gauge data such as Soil Moisture to Rain—Advanced SCATterometer V1.5 (SM2RAIN-ASCAT), Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation V2.8 (MSWEP), Global Precipitation Measurement Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM Final run V6 (GPM IMERGF), and Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS). We evaluate the performance of these SPPs in Nepal’s Myagdi Khola watershed, located in the Kali Gandaki River basin, for the period 2009–2019. The SPPs are evaluated by validating the gridded precipitation products using the hydrological model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The results of this study show that the SM2RAIN-ASCAT and GPM IMERGF performed better than MSWEP and CHIRPS in accurately simulating daily and monthly streamflow. GPM IMERGF and SM2RAIN-ASCAT are found to be the better-performing models, with higher NSE values (0.63 and 0.61, respectively) compared with CHIRPS and MSWEP (0.45 and 0.41, respectively) after calibrating the model with monthly data. Moreover, SM2RAIN-ASCAT demonstrated the best performance in simulating daily and monthly streamflow, with NSE values of 0.57 and 0.63, respectively, after validation. This study’s findings support the use of satellite-derived precipitation datasets as inputs for hydrological models to address the hydrological complexities of mountainous watersheds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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21 pages, 9371 KiB  
Article
Water Area Extraction and Water Level Prediction of Dongting Lake Based on Sentinel-1 Dual-Polarization Data Decomposition
by Qing Song, Rong Zhao, Haiqiang Fu, Jianjun Zhu and Yi Li
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(19), 4655; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15194655 - 22 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1012
Abstract
The Sentinel-1 imaging radar mission provides a short revisit-time, continuous all-weather, and day-and-night imagery at the C-band, which brings opportunities for the dynamic extraction of lake water areas. For wetland-type lakes, it is difficult to distinguish between the water, submerged plants, and mudflats [...] Read more.
The Sentinel-1 imaging radar mission provides a short revisit-time, continuous all-weather, and day-and-night imagery at the C-band, which brings opportunities for the dynamic extraction of lake water areas. For wetland-type lakes, it is difficult to distinguish between the water, submerged plants, and mudflats at the edge of a lake, which leads to difficulty in recognizing the water edge of a lake and affects the accuracy of lake water area extraction. In this paper, a water area extraction and water level prediction algorithm based on Sentinel-1 dual-polarization data decomposition is proposed to solve the problem. We can accurately extract lake water through generalized Stokes polarization decomposition. At the same time, we can verify the accuracy of water area extraction by establishing the water area and in situ water level elevation (A–E) relationship, and predicting the water level according to the calculated water area. In this study, dual-polarization Sentinel-1 time series SAR data covering the Dongting Lake wetland from 2018 to 2022 are used to verify the proposed water area extraction algorithm and establish the A–E relationship of the East Dongting Lake basin. The results show that the generalized Stokes decomposition parameters are very sensitive to the water boundary, and the R2 of the water area and the water level can reach 0.98 by using the piecewise linear function. It confirms the accuracy of the water area inversion, which is of extremely important significance for the high-precision monitoring of the water area of Dongting Lake with long-term Sentinel-1 data. Meanwhile, the predicted lake water level acquired using the A–E relationship established in this paper is compared with the field water level, with an RMSE of 0.4857 m and R2 of 0.9930. This means that the water level derived using the method in this study is quite compatible with the field observations, which provides a good idea for the water level monitoring of lakes lacking hydrological monitoring stations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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28 pages, 8631 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Climate Change Effects on a Snow-Dominant Watershed: A Multi-Model Hydrological Investigation
by Ali Sharifinejad and Elmira Hassanzadeh
Water 2023, 15(18), 3281; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183281 - 17 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1399
Abstract
Assessing the impact of climate change on water systems often requires employing a hydrological model to estimate streamflow. However, the choice of hydrological model, process representation, input data resolution, and catchment discretization can potentially influence such analyses. This study aims to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Assessing the impact of climate change on water systems often requires employing a hydrological model to estimate streamflow. However, the choice of hydrological model, process representation, input data resolution, and catchment discretization can potentially influence such analyses. This study aims to evaluate the sensitivity of climate change impact assessments to various hydrological modeling configurations in a snow-dominated headwater system in Alberta, Canada. The HBV-MTL and GR4J models, coupled with the Degree-Day and CemaNeige snowmelt modules, were utilized and calibrated using point- and grid-based climate data on lumped and semi-distributed catchment discretization. The hydrological models, in conjunction with a water allocation model, were supplied with climate model outputs to project changes in the basin. While all models revealed a unanimous increase in peak flow, the difference between their estimations could be as substantial as 42%. In contrast, their divergence was minimal in projecting median flow. Furthermore, most models projected an aggravated water supply deficit between 16% and 40%. Overall, the quantified climate change impacts were the most sensitive to the choice of snow routine module, followed by the model type, catchment discretization, and data resolution in this snow-dominant basin. Therefore, particular attention should be given to the proper representation of snowmelt processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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18 pages, 2507 KiB  
Article
Exploring a Novel Reservoir Impoundment Operation Framework for Facilitating Hydropower Sustainability
by Zhihao Ning, Yanlai Zhou, Fanqi Lin, Ying Zhou and Qi Luo
Sustainability 2023, 15(18), 13400; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151813400 - 07 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
Reservoir impoundment operation has far-reaching effects on the synergies of hydropower output, floodwater utilization, and carbon fluxes, but flood risk is significantly increasing, which is especially true when shifting to earlier impoundment timings and lifting reservoir water levels. This study proposed a novel [...] Read more.
Reservoir impoundment operation has far-reaching effects on the synergies of hydropower output, floodwater utilization, and carbon fluxes, but flood risk is significantly increasing, which is especially true when shifting to earlier impoundment timings and lifting reservoir water levels. This study proposed a novel reservoir impoundment operation framework driven by flood prevention, hydropower production, floodwater utilization, and carbon emission management. The Three Gorges Reservoir in the Yangtze River was selected as a case study. The results demonstrated that flood prevention safety could be guaranteed with the initial impoundment timings on and after the first of September. The best scheme of reservoir impoundment operation could efficiently boost synergistic benefits by enhancing 2.98 billion kW·h (8.8%) hydropower output and 6.4% water impoundment rate and decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and carbon budget by 28.15 GgCO2e/yr (4.6%) and 0.44 (23.1%), respectively, compared with the standard operation policy. This study can not only provide scientific and technical support for reservoir impoundment operations, benefiting water–carbon synergies, but can also suggest policymakers with various favorable advancing impoundment timing and lifting reservoir water level schemes to experience related risks and benefits in the interest of hydropower sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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27 pages, 5918 KiB  
Article
Exploring Random Forest Machine Learning and Remote Sensing Data for Streamflow Prediction: An Alternative Approach to a Process-Based Hydrologic Modeling in a Snowmelt-Driven Watershed
by Khandaker Iftekharul Islam, Emile Elias, Kenneth C. Carroll and Christopher Brown
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(16), 3999; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15163999 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2225
Abstract
Physically based hydrologic models require significant effort and extensive information for development, calibration, and validation. The study explored the use of the random forest regression (RFR), a supervised machine learning (ML) model, as an alternative to the physically based Soil and Water Assessment [...] Read more.
Physically based hydrologic models require significant effort and extensive information for development, calibration, and validation. The study explored the use of the random forest regression (RFR), a supervised machine learning (ML) model, as an alternative to the physically based Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for predicting streamflow in the Rio Grande Headwaters near Del Norte, a snowmelt-dominated mountainous watershed of the Upper Rio Grande Basin. Remotely sensed data were used for the random forest machine learning analysis (RFML) and RStudio for data processing and synthesizing. The RFML model outperformed the SWAT model in accuracy and demonstrated its capability in predicting streamflow in this region. We implemented a customized approach to the RFR model to assess the model’s performance for three training periods, across 1991–2010, 1996–2010, and 2001–2010; the results indicated that the model’s accuracy improved with longer training periods, implying that the model trained on a more extended period is better able to capture the parameters’ variability and reproduce streamflow data more accurately. The variable importance (i.e., IncNodePurity) measure of the RFML model revealed that the snow depth and the minimum temperature were consistently the top two predictors across all training periods. The paper also evaluated how well the SWAT model performs in reproducing streamflow data of the watershed with a conventional approach. The SWAT model needed more time and data to set up and calibrate, delivering acceptable performance in annual mean streamflow simulation, with satisfactory index of agreement (d), coefficient of determination (R2), and percent bias (PBIAS) values, but monthly simulation warrants further exploration and model adjustments. The study recommends exploring snowmelt runoff hydrologic processes, dust-driven sublimation effects, and more detailed topographic input parameters to update the SWAT snowmelt routine for better monthly flow estimation. The results provide a critical analysis for enhancing streamflow prediction, which is valuable for further research and water resource management, including snowmelt-driven semi-arid regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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22 pages, 3247 KiB  
Article
Modeled Forest Conversion Influences Humid Tropical Watershed Hydrology More than Projected Climate Change
by Taylor Joyal, Alexander K. Fremier and Jan Boll
Hydrology 2023, 10(8), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10080160 - 31 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1284
Abstract
In the humid tropics, forest conversion and climate change threaten the hydrological function and stationarity of watersheds, particularly in steep terrain. As climate change intensifies, shifting precipitation patterns and expanding agricultural and pastoral land use may effectively reduce the resilience of headwater catchments. [...] Read more.
In the humid tropics, forest conversion and climate change threaten the hydrological function and stationarity of watersheds, particularly in steep terrain. As climate change intensifies, shifting precipitation patterns and expanding agricultural and pastoral land use may effectively reduce the resilience of headwater catchments. Compounding this problem is the limited long-term monitoring in developing countries for planning in an uncertain future. In this study, we asked which change, climate or land use, more greatly affects stream discharge in humid tropical mountain watersheds? To answer this question, we used the process-based, spatially distributed Soil Moisture Routing model. After first evaluating model performance (Ns = 0.73), we conducted a global sensitivity analysis to identify the model parameters that most strongly influence simulated watershed discharge. In particular, peak flows are most influenced by input model parameters that represent shallow subsurface soil pathways and saturation-excess runoff while low flows are most sensitive to macropore hydraulic conductivity, soil depth and porosity parameters. We then simulated a range of land use and climate scenarios in three mountain watersheds of central Costa Rica. Our results show that deforestation influences streamflow more than altered precipitation and temperature patterns through changes in first-order hydrologic hillslope processes. However, forest conversion coupled with intensifying precipitation events amplifies hydrological extremes, reducing the hydrological resilience to predicted climate shifts in mountain watersheds of the humid tropics. This finding suggests that reforestation can help mitigate the effects of climate change on streamflow dynamics in the tropics including impacts to water availability, flood pulses, channel geomorphology and aquatic habitat associated with altered flow regimes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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16 pages, 2455 KiB  
Article
Influences of the Runoff Partition Method on the Flexible Hybrid Runoff Generation Model for Flood Prediction
by Bin Yi, Lu Chen, Binlin Yang, Siming Li and Zhiyuan Leng
Water 2023, 15(15), 2738; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152738 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 874
Abstract
The partition of surface runoff and infiltration is crucial in hydrologic modeling. To improve the flood prediction, we designed four strategies to explore the influences of the runoff partition method on the flexible hybrid runoff generation model. The runoff partition strategies consist of [...] Read more.
The partition of surface runoff and infiltration is crucial in hydrologic modeling. To improve the flood prediction, we designed four strategies to explore the influences of the runoff partition method on the flexible hybrid runoff generation model. The runoff partition strategies consist of a hydrological model without the runoff partition module, a two-source runoff partition method, an improved two-source runoff partition method considering the heterogeneity of the subsurface topography and land cover, and a three-source runoff partition method. The Xin’anjiang hydrological model was used as the modeling framework to simulate a six-hourly stream flow for the Xun River watershed in Shaanxi Province, China. And the saturation-excess runoff generation and infiltration-excess runoff generation mechanisms were combined to construct the flexible hybrid runoff generation model. The performances of the four strategies were compared and analyzed based on the continuous flow discharge as well as the flood events. The runoff components analysis method was used to test the model’s conformity with the reality of the watershed. The results showed that the three-source runoff partition method was not applicable to the flexible hybrid runoff generation model because it overestimated the surface runoff and almost ignored the subsurface stormflow runoff. The improved two-source runoff partition method outperformed the others as it considered the heterogeneity of the watershed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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20 pages, 8958 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Mechanisms of the Responses of Abrupt Seasonal Temperature Changes and Warming Hiatuses in China to Their Influencing Factors
by Xing Huang, Long Ma, Tingxi Liu, Bolin Sun, Yang Chen and Zixu Qiao
Atmosphere 2023, 14(7), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14071090 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 756
Abstract
Abrupt temperature changes and warming hiatuses have a great impact on socioeconomic systems; however, their mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the quantitative mechanisms of the responses of abrupt seasonal temperature changes and warming hiatuses in China to their influencing factors were analysed [...] Read more.
Abrupt temperature changes and warming hiatuses have a great impact on socioeconomic systems; however, their mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the quantitative mechanisms of the responses of abrupt seasonal temperature changes and warming hiatuses in China to their influencing factors were analysed using the monthly mean temperature (Tav), mean minimum temperature (Tnav), and mean maximum temperature (Txav) from 622 meteorological stations in China covering 1951–2018, the CMIP6 model data, and data at large spatial scales, including Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) data. The results showed that the contributions of the influencing factors to the abrupt changes in Tav, Tnav, and Txav showed large spatial variability and peaked in the spring and summer and bottomed out in the autumn. The Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) greatly impacted the abrupt temperature changes in Northeast China and North China at a contribution rate of approximately 12%, strongly influenced the abrupt temperature changes south of the Yangtze River, and markedly influenced the abrupt temperature changes in Northwest China. The AMO had a large impact on temperature in most regions of China in all seasons except for the summer. The MEI mainly affected the abrupt seasonal temperature changes in the region between 25° N and 35° N. The Arctic oscillation (AO) substantially impacted the warming hiatuses in Northeast China in the winter at a contribution rate of approximately 12%. These influencing factors contributed less to warming hiatuses than to abrupt temperature changes. Among the regional influencing factors, AP and WS greatly impacted warming hiatuses, more so than abrupt temperature changes, while relative humidity (RH) and solar radiation (SR) contributed little to warming hiatuses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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23 pages, 10546 KiB  
Article
Bengal Delta, Charland Formation, and Riparian Hazards: Why Is a Flexible Planning Approach Needed for Deltaic Systems?
by C. Emdad Haque and Md. Jakariya
Water 2023, 15(13), 2373; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132373 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2901
Abstract
A comprehensive understanding of the dynamic characteristics of geomorphological, ecological, and human systems is essential to explaining complex charland (mid-channel island) processes and crafting and implementing policy measures. This work demonstrates that the characteristics and outcomes of riparian hazards are determined by [...] Read more.
A comprehensive understanding of the dynamic characteristics of geomorphological, ecological, and human systems is essential to explaining complex charland (mid-channel island) processes and crafting and implementing policy measures. This work demonstrates that the characteristics and outcomes of riparian hazards are determined by the interactive dynamics between hydrogeology and human conditions, which constitutes a novel contribution to the literature in this research area. We further contend that such dynamic social-ecological systems demand a flexible, adaptive management and planning approach. The present research has three key interdisciplinary objectives: (i) to analyze the salient features and characteristics of the geomorphological and riparian systems of the Bengal Delta; (ii) to analyze the evolutionary discourse of the legal systems concerning eroded (diluvion) and accreted (alluvion) land in Bangladesh; and (iii) to assess the characteristics of the coping and adaptation strategies employed by charland inhabitants. The findings of this research reveal that delta-building processes, which are characterized by dynamic shifts in the river channels, along with the erosion and accretion of charlands have made Bangladesh’s land and water systems very dynamic and unstable. The destabilization of these systems increases the inhabitants’ vulnerability to riparian hazards, which consistently results in the displacement of settlers and, consequently, a serious deterioration in their socioeconomic status. At present, Bangladesh does not have an effective institutional framework and structure for resettlement planning; therefore, the formulation of a comprehensive national resettlement policy with adequate flexibility to adapt to changing scenarios is urgently needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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21 pages, 9616 KiB  
Article
Spatial Distribution of Water Risk Based on Atlas Compilation in the Shaanxi Section of the Qinling Mountains, China
by Xinyue Ke, Ni Wang, Long Yu, Zihan Guo and Tianming He
Sustainability 2023, 15(12), 9792; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15129792 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 839
Abstract
Global climate change and rapid socio-economic development have increased the uncertainty in water resource systems and the complexity of water risk issues. Analyzing water risk and its spatial distribution is integral to the attainment of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6, as this contributes [...] Read more.
Global climate change and rapid socio-economic development have increased the uncertainty in water resource systems and the complexity of water risk issues. Analyzing water risk and its spatial distribution is integral to the attainment of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6, as this contributes to effective water resource partition management. In this paper, a compiling method of risk atlas with multiple layers is proposed, and the water risk system is divided into five sub-systems including the risk of resource, management, engineering, quality, and disaster. The information used for the risk atlas is calculated by a risk evaluation model based on a Pressure–State–Response (PSR) framework, hierarchical cluster, and set pair analysis (SPA). Risks in the Qinling Mountains of Shaanxi (as a case study) are evaluated and visualized. The results show that grades IV and V of engineering, disaster, and resource risk exceed 40%, indicating that they require prior control. The quality and management risks are not major, but there is still room for improvement. Overall, the risk atlas can effectively and objectively reflect the spatial distribution of water risk and provide a basis for the layout of water risk control measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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24 pages, 16426 KiB  
Article
Driving Factors of the Hydrological Response of a Tropical Watershed: The Ankavia River Basin in Madagascar
by Zonirina Ramahaimandimby, Alain Randriamaherisoa, Marnik Vanclooster and Charles L. Bielders
Water 2023, 15(12), 2237; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15122237 - 14 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Understanding the hydrological behavior of watersheds (WS) and their driving factors is crucial for sustainable water resources management. However, at large scales, this task remains challenging due to the spatial heterogeneity in landscapes, topography and morphology (T), land cover (LC), geology (G), and [...] Read more.
Understanding the hydrological behavior of watersheds (WS) and their driving factors is crucial for sustainable water resources management. However, at large scales, this task remains challenging due to the spatial heterogeneity in landscapes, topography and morphology (T), land cover (LC), geology (G), and soil properties (S). In this context, the aim of this study was to identify the key factors that influence the hydrological signatures of four watersheds: Ankavia (WS1: 55% forest cover), Ankaviabe (WS2: 77% forest cover), Sahafihitry (WS3: 41% forest cover), and Antsahovy (WS4: 48% forest cover), over a 10-month study period. These catchments are located within the SAVA region of northeastern Madagascar and have a humid tropical climate. We investigated the relationship between selected catchment descriptors and hydrological signatures by using a Pearson coefficient-based correlation matrix. More specifically, catchment descriptors (extracted from T, LC, G, and S) were correlated with the following hydrological signatures: base flow index (BFI), mean runoff coefficient (rc), mean peak flow (Qp), mean runoff event time scales (ts), high flows (Q5), low flows (Q95), and mean discharge (q_mean). The analysis revealed that land cover, soil properties, and geology seem to be the best predictors for BFI and Q95, while soil properties mainly govern rc, Qp, Q5, ts, and q_mean. These findings provide valuable insights into the key drivers of hydrological behavior that can inform water resource management strategies. In particular, WS2 exhibits better flood buffering capacity but also experiences lower base flows in the dry season, potentially due to higher evapotranspiration. Conversely, WS3 and WS4 (and to a lesser extent WS1) have lower flood buffering capacity, but these watersheds encounter less pronounced low flows in the dry season due to higher BFIs, possibly attributable to lower evapotranspiration rates. The results underscore the importance of responsible land use practices and conservation efforts, which are essential for the sustainable development of the region. By incorporating these practices into water management strategies, we can help ensure a more stable and reliable water supply for communities and ecosystems within the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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13 pages, 7982 KiB  
Article
Study on the Water Level–Discharge Relationship Changes in Dongting Lake Outlet Section over 70 Years and the Impact of Yangtze River Backwater Effect
by Yizhuang Liu, Changbo Jiang, Yuannan Long, Bin Deng, Jieyu Jiang, Yang Yang and Zhiyuan Wu
Water 2023, 15(11), 2057; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15112057 - 29 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1268
Abstract
The hydrological characteristics of the river–lake connecting section are determined by their interaction and studying them can help to understand the changing relationship between these two water bodies over time. The Lujiao–Luosan section is the connecting section of Dongting Lake and the Yangtze [...] Read more.
The hydrological characteristics of the river–lake connecting section are determined by their interaction and studying them can help to understand the changing relationship between these two water bodies over time. The Lujiao–Luosan section is the connecting section of Dongting Lake and the Yangtze River, and the hydrological data for this section over the past 70 years has been analyzed. It has been found that the lowest water level is consistently rising at the same discharge at Chenglingji station, which is the joint point of Dongting Lake and the Yangtze River. While this could alleviate the drought situation in the Dongting Lake area during dry seasons, it could pose a more significant flood-control challenge during high water levels in the flood season. The water surface slope shows a decreasing trend especially during the dry season, except for the high flood period (July–September), which indicates that the water slope in the connecting section of Dongting Lake has become flatter. The backwater effect of the Yangtze River on Dongting Lake becomes increasingly stronger as the water surface slope difference between the Chenglingji–Luoshan section and the Lujiao–Chenglingji section changes from negative to positive between January and April. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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19 pages, 7626 KiB  
Article
Attribution of Extreme Drought Events and Associated Physical Drivers across Southwest China Using the Budyko Framework
by Xupeng Sun, Jinghan Wang, Mingguo Ma and Xujun Han
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(11), 2702; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15112702 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1551
Abstract
Drought is a meteorological phenomenon that negatively impacts agricultural production. In recent years, southwest China has frequently experienced agricultural droughts; these have significantly impacted the economy and the ecological environment. Although several studies have been conducted on agricultural droughts, few have examined the [...] Read more.
Drought is a meteorological phenomenon that negatively impacts agricultural production. In recent years, southwest China has frequently experienced agricultural droughts; these have significantly impacted the economy and the ecological environment. Although several studies have been conducted on agricultural droughts, few have examined the factors driving agricultural droughts from the perspective of water and energy balance. This study aimed to address this gap by utilizing the Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSMI) and the Budyko model to investigate agricultural drought in southwest China. The study identified four areas in Southwest China with a high incidence of agricultural drought from 2000 to 2020. Yunnan and the Sichuan-Chongqing border regions experienced drought in 10% of the months during the study period, while Guangxi and Guizhou had around 8% of months with drought. The droughts in these regions exhibited distinct seasonal characteristics, with Yunnan experiencing significantly higher drought frequency than other periods from January to June, while Guizhou and other areas were prone to severe droughts in summer and autumn. The Budyko model is widely used as the mainstream international framework for studying regional water and energy balance. In this research, the Budyko model was applied to analyze the water and energy balance characteristics in several arid regions of southwest China using drought monitoring data. Results indicate that the water and energy balances in Yunnan and Sichuan-Chongqing are more moisture-constrained, whereas those in Guizhou and Guangxi are relatively stable, suggesting lower susceptibility to extreme droughts. Furthermore, during severe drought periods, evapotranspiration becomes a dominant component of the water cycle, while available water resources such as soil moisture decrease. After comparing the causes of drought and non-drought years, it was found that the average rainfall in southwest China is approximately 30% below normal during drought years, and the temperature is 1–2% higher than normal. These phenomena are most noticeable during the spring and winter months. Additionally, vegetation transpiration is about 10% greater than normal during dry years in Southwest China, and soil evaporation increases by about 5% during the summer and autumn months compared to normal conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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18 pages, 18155 KiB  
Article
Recognition of the Interaction Mechanisms between Water and Land Resources Based on an Improved Distributed Hydrological Model
by Jianwei Wang, Xizhi Lv, Tianling Qin, Yongxin Ni, Li Ma, Qiufen Zhang, Hanjiang Nie, Zhenyu Lv, Chenhao Li, Xin Zhang and Jianming Feng
Water 2023, 15(10), 1946; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15101946 - 21 May 2023
Viewed by 1285
Abstract
Conflicts between humans and land use in the process of using water and conflicts between humans and water resources in the process of using land have led to an imbalance between natural ecosystems and socio-economic systems. It is difficult to understand the impact [...] Read more.
Conflicts between humans and land use in the process of using water and conflicts between humans and water resources in the process of using land have led to an imbalance between natural ecosystems and socio-economic systems. It is difficult to understand the impact of the processes of water production and consumption on land patches and their ecological effects. A grid-type, basin-distributed hydrological model was established in this study, which was based on land-use units and coupled with groundwater modules to simulate the water production and consumption processes in different units. By combining land use and net primary productivity, the runoff coefficient and the water use efficiency (NPP/ET) of different land units were used as indicators to characterize the interaction between water and land resources. The results showed that the average runoff coefficients of cultivated land, forest land and grassland were 0.7, 0.5 and 0.9, respectively. Moreover, the average runoff coefficients of hills, plains and basins were 0.7, 0.7 and 0.8, respectively. The NPP produced by the average unit, evapotranspiration, in cultivated land, forest land and grassland was 7 (gC/(m2•a))/mm, 0.7 (gC/(m2•a))/mm and 0.2 (gC/(m2•a))/mm, respectively. These results provide quantitative scientific and technological support in favor of the comprehensive ecological management of river basins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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19 pages, 3156 KiB  
Article
Use of Analytic Hierarchy Process Method to Identify Potential Rainwater Harvesting Sites: Design and Financial Strategies in Taxco de Alarcón, Southern Mexico
by Blanca Itzany Rivera Vázquez, Edith Rosalba Salcedo Sánchez, Juan Manuel Esquivel Martínez, Miguel Ángel Gómez Albores, Felipe Gómez Noguez, Carina Gutiérrez Flores and Oscar Talavera Mendoza
Sustainability 2023, 15(10), 8220; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15108220 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1177
Abstract
Mexico is among the countries that are facing the greatest water stress, where factors such as climate change, contamination of surface water, groundwater sources, and inefficient management have limited the availability of water resources. Consequently, new supply sources need to be implemented. Rainwater [...] Read more.
Mexico is among the countries that are facing the greatest water stress, where factors such as climate change, contamination of surface water, groundwater sources, and inefficient management have limited the availability of water resources. Consequently, new supply sources need to be implemented. Rainwater harvesting systems (RHS) are viable and sustainable alternatives, the implementation of which primarily depends on identifying suitable sites and applying technologies that are appropriate for different users. This research used the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique in a GIS environment to select the optimal sites for designing RHS, taking into account hydrological, biophysical, and socioeconomic criteria. After determining the ideal sites, the study presents proposals and costs for the design of an urban and rural RHS based on the characteristics of the region and the needs of the community. The findings show that implementing RHS in the study area can be a practical, economical, and efficient alternative for water resource management, since these projects are aimed at sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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16 pages, 18670 KiB  
Article
Spatial–Temporal Variability of Climatic Water Balance in the Brazilian Savannah Region River Basins
by Fernanda Laurinda Valadares Ferreira, Lineu Neiva Rodrigues, Daniel Althoff and Ricardo Santos Silva Amorim
Water 2023, 15(10), 1820; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15101820 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
The evaluation of water and energy cycles from the estimation of water balance is a fundamental instrument to assess the water potential of a region. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the probable monthly water deficit and surplus in Cerrado [...] Read more.
The evaluation of water and energy cycles from the estimation of water balance is a fundamental instrument to assess the water potential of a region. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the probable monthly water deficit and surplus in Cerrado river basins and the trend of monthly data on climatic water balance (CWB) and its input variables in the study region. Monthly data on precipitation (P) and reference evapotranspiration (ETo) from January 2003 to December 2019 were used. The deficit and the probable monthly water surplus were obtained from the CWB for each of the 4531 ottobasins. For this, the frequency equal to or greater than 80% of permanence in time was used as a reference. Trend analysis was applied. In the rainy season, most ottobasins showed positive CWB. On the other hand, in the period of lower water availability, most ottobasins showed a negative balance. In all months, there was some ottobasin with a significant trend both for CWB and for P and ETo. In most situations, these trends were a decrease in CWB and monthly P and an increase in monthly ETo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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22 pages, 4212 KiB  
Article
Hydrogeochemical Appraisal of Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability for Drinking and Irrigation Purposes in the West Central Senegal
by Mathias Diédhiou, Seyni Ndoye, Helene Celle, Serigne Faye, Stefan Wohnlich and Philippe Le Coustumer
Water 2023, 15(9), 1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091772 - 05 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
Groundwater has been the main resource used for drinking, domestic and agricultural activities in West central Senegal for the past few decades. Thus, this study investigates the quality of groundwater and assesses its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes. To this end, 42 [...] Read more.
Groundwater has been the main resource used for drinking, domestic and agricultural activities in West central Senegal for the past few decades. Thus, this study investigates the quality of groundwater and assesses its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes. To this end, 42 samples were collected and analyzed for various chemical parameters (major ions, fluoride, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS)). Chemical data were interpreted using water quality indexes, Wilcox and USSL salinity diagrams, bivariate plots, ionic ratios and by comparing with the WHO standards. Results indicated that the groundwater is neutral to slightly alkaline with pH values between 7.1 and 8.2. Piper diagram shows that mixte-Ca-Na-Mg-HCO3 is the dominant hydrochemical facies. TDS and water quality index (WQI) values indicated respectively that 69% and 64.3% of samples were suitable for drinking. Moreover, major ions concentrations were found below the desirable limits in most of groundwater samples. However, for fluoride, 69% of samples exceed the WHO guideline, limiting their use for drinking. The computed index of irrigation water quality and Wilcox diagram reveal that 87% and 78% of samples belong, respectively, to excellent to good category and excellent to good and good to permissible. Similarly, according to the US salinity classification, the majority of samples were acceptable for irrigation. Gibbs plots illustrate that water-rocks interaction with some extent evaporation is the main hydrochemical process controlling groundwater chemistry while bivariate plots and ionic ratios indicate that mineral dissolution and ion exchange play important role in groundwater chemistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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16 pages, 4752 KiB  
Article
Integrating Remote Sensing, Proximal Sensing, and Probabilistic Modeling to Support Agricultural Project Planning and Decision-Making for Waterlogged Fields
by Benjamin Bukombe, Sándor Csenki, Dora Szlatenyi, Ivan Czako and Vince Láng
Water 2023, 15(7), 1340; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071340 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1622
Abstract
Waterlogging in agriculture poses severe threats to soil properties, crop yields, and farm profitability. Remote sensing data coupled with drainage systems offer solutions to monitor and manage waterlogging in agricultural systems. However, implementing agricultural projects such as drainage is associated with high uncertainty [...] Read more.
Waterlogging in agriculture poses severe threats to soil properties, crop yields, and farm profitability. Remote sensing data coupled with drainage systems offer solutions to monitor and manage waterlogging in agricultural systems. However, implementing agricultural projects such as drainage is associated with high uncertainty and risk, with substantial negative impacts on farm profitability if not well planned. Cost–benefit analyses can help allocate resources more effectively; however, data scarcity, high uncertainty, and risks in the agricultural sector make it difficult to use traditional approaches. Here, we combined a wide range of field and remote sensing data, unsupervised machine learning, and Bayesian probabilistic models to: (1) identify potential sites susceptible to waterlogging at the farm scale, and (2) test whether the installation of drainage systems would yield a positive benefit for the farmer. Using the K-means clustering algorithm on water and vegetation indices derived from Sentinel-2 multispectral imagery, we were able to detect potential waterlogging sites in the investigated field (elbow point = 2, silhouette coefficient = 0.46). Using a combination of the Bayesian statistical model and the A/B test, we show that the installation of a drainage system can increase farm profitability by 1.7 times per year compared to the existing farm management. The posterior effect size associated with yield, cropping area, and time (year) was 0.5, 1.5, and 1.9, respectively. Altogether, our results emphasize the importance of data-driven decision-making for agriculture project planning and resource management in the wake of smart agriculture for food security and adaptation to climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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15 pages, 12520 KiB  
Article
New Remote Sensing Data on the Potential Presence of Permafrost in the Deosai Plateau in the Himalayan Portion of Pakistan
by Maria Teresa Melis, Francesco Gabriele Dessì and Marco Casu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(7), 1800; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15071800 - 28 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1456
Abstract
In this study, the presence of permafrost layer and its potential variation in the last three decades will be examined through the multitemporal analysis of satellite data in the area of the Deosai Plateau (Northern Pakistan). In the area, only global maps on [...] Read more.
In this study, the presence of permafrost layer and its potential variation in the last three decades will be examined through the multitemporal analysis of satellite data in the area of the Deosai Plateau (Northern Pakistan). In the area, only global maps on the potential presence of permafrost layer are known. The results are based on the evaluation of variation of the number and water levels of the small lakes, and the changes of the extensions of the wetlands. The adopted methodology is based on the use of spectral indices and visual interpretation of a time-series data of Landsat images in the range 1990–2019, and on the processing of radar data from Sentinel 1 satellites, adopting new methods to extract the vertical displacement. The main findings are: (i) a high temporal dynamic of the number and surface areas of small lakes, and (ii) the evidence of a subduction in a wetland area (Black Hole), coherent with its extension, and suggesting the potential presence of a permafrost layer slowly degrading. This analysis can play a useful role on the management of the Deosai National Park (DNP), adopting careful measures for the human activities inside the park. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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22 pages, 5612 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Urban Evapotranspiration at High Spatiotemporal Resolution and Considering Flux Footprints
by Lihao Zhou, Lei Cheng, Shujing Qin, Yiyi Mai and Mingshen Lu
Remote Sens. 2023, 15(5), 1327; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs15051327 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1934
Abstract
Evapotranspiration (ET) estimations at high spatiotemporal resolutions in urban areas are crucial for extreme weather forecasting and water management. However, urban ET estimation remains a major challenge in current urban hydrology and regional climate research due to highly heterogeneous environments, human interference, and [...] Read more.
Evapotranspiration (ET) estimations at high spatiotemporal resolutions in urban areas are crucial for extreme weather forecasting and water management. However, urban ET estimation remains a major challenge in current urban hydrology and regional climate research due to highly heterogeneous environments, human interference, and a lack of observations. In this study, an urban ET model, called the PT-Urban model, was proposed for half-hourly ET estimations at a 10 m resolution. The PT-Urban model was validated using observations from the Hotel Torni urban flux site during the 2018 growing season. The results showed that the PT-Urban model performed satisfactorily, with an R2 and root-mean-square error of 0.59 and 14.67 W m−2, respectively. Further analysis demonstrated that urban canopy heat storage and shading effects are essential for the half-hourly urban energy balance. Ignoring the shading effects led to a 38.7% urban ET overestimation. Modeling experiments further proved that flux footprint variations were critical for the accurate estimation of urban ET. The setting source areas either as an invariant 70% historical footprint or as a circle with a 1 km radius both resulted in poor performances. This study presents a practical method for the accurate estimation of urban ET with high spatiotemporal resolution and highlights the importance of real-time footprints in urban ET estimations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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23 pages, 5222 KiB  
Article
Bivariate Hazard Assessment of Combinations of Dry and Wet Conditions between Adjacent Seasons in a Climatic Transition Zone
by Geer Cheng, Tiejun Liu, Sinan Wang, Ligao Bao, Wei Fang and Jianan Shang
Atmosphere 2023, 14(3), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14030437 - 22 Feb 2023
Viewed by 978
Abstract
Accumulated evidence reminds one that abrupt transitions between dry and wet spells, though attracting less attention, have harmful influences upon global continents as extensively investigated droughts and floods. This study attempts to incorporate dryness–wetness transitions into the current hazard assessment framework through bivariate [...] Read more.
Accumulated evidence reminds one that abrupt transitions between dry and wet spells, though attracting less attention, have harmful influences upon global continents as extensively investigated droughts and floods. This study attempts to incorporate dryness–wetness transitions into the current hazard assessment framework through bivariate frequency analysis and causal attribution from a teleconnection perspective. In the study, regional dry and wet conditions are monitored using the multivariate standardized drought index (MSDI) which facilitates the integrated evaluation of water deficits/surplus from a combined viewpoint of precipitation (largely denoting the received atmospheric water) and runoff (representing an important source of surface water). On such a basis, a copula-based method is subsequently utilized to calculate joint return periods of dryness–wetness combinations in three (i.e., moderate, severe and extreme) severity scenarios. The changing frequency of diverse dryness–wetness combinations is also estimated under a changing climate using a 25-year time window. Furthermore, the cross-wavelet transform is applied to attribute variations in dry and wet conditions to large-scale climate indices, which benefits the early warning of dryness–wetness combinations by providing predictive information. A case study conducted during 1952–2010 in the Huai River basin (HRB)—a typical climatic transition zone in China—shows that the HRB is subject to prolonged dryness with the highest frequency, followed by the abrupt transition from dryness to wetness. Spatially, abrupt dryness–wetness transitions are more likely to occur in the southern and central parts of the HRB than in the rest of the proportion. The past half-century has witnessed the dominantly higher frequency of occurrence of dryness–wetness combinations under three severity scenarios. In particular, the occurrence of the continued dry/wetness escalates more rapidly than transition events under climate change. Moreover, a preliminary attribution analysis discloses the link of the dry and wet conditions in the HRB with climate indices, such as the El Niño southern oscillation, the Pacific decadal oscillation and the Arctic oscillation, as well as sunspot activities. The results of the study enrich the current atlas of water-related hazards, which may benefit more effective hazard mitigation and adaptation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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17 pages, 4044 KiB  
Article
A Machine-Learning Approach for Monitoring Water Distribution Networks (WDNs)
by Roberto Magini, Manuela Moretti, Maria Antonietta Boniforti and Roberto Guercio
Sustainability 2023, 15(4), 2981; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15042981 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1732
Abstract
The knowledge of the simultaneous nodal pressure values in a water distribution network (WDN) can favor its correct management, with advantages for both water utilities and end users, and guarantee higher sustainability in the use of the water resource. However, monitoring pressure in [...] Read more.
The knowledge of the simultaneous nodal pressure values in a water distribution network (WDN) can favor its correct management, with advantages for both water utilities and end users, and guarantee higher sustainability in the use of the water resource. However, monitoring pressure in all the nodes is not feasible, so it can be useful to develop methods that allow us to estimate the whole pressure field based on data from a limited number of nodes. For this purpose, the work employed an artificial neural network (ANN) as a machine-learning regression algorithm. Uncertainty of water demand is modeled through scaling laws, linking demand statistics to the number of users served by each node. Three groups of demand scenarios are generated by using a Latin Hypercube Random Sampling with three different cross-correlations matrices of the nodal demands. Each of the corresponding groups of pressure scenarios is employed for the training of an ANN, whose performance parameter is preliminarily used to solve the sampling design for the WDN. Most of the so-derived monitoring nodes coincide in the three cases. The performance of each ANN appears to be strongly influenced by cross-correlation values, with the best results provided by the ANN relating to the most correlated demands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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20 pages, 8138 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Groundwater Storage Changes and Influencing Factors in China Based on GRACE Data
by Chunxiu Shao and Yonghe Liu
Atmosphere 2023, 14(2), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14020250 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1688
Abstract
Groundwater is a primary freshwater resource for human consumption and an essential source for industry and agriculture. Therefore, understanding its spatial and temporal trends and drivers is crucial for governments to take appropriate measures to manage water resources. This paper uses Gravity Recovery [...] Read more.
Groundwater is a primary freshwater resource for human consumption and an essential source for industry and agriculture. Therefore, understanding its spatial and temporal trends and drivers is crucial for governments to take appropriate measures to manage water resources. This paper uses Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) to derive groundwater storage anomalies (GWSAs) and to analyze the spatial and temporal trends of GWSA in different regions of China (Xinjiang, Tibet, Inner Mongolia, North China Plain, South China, and Northeast China). It used groundwater-level observation data to verify the accuracy of GWSA estimates and analyzed the drivers of regional GWSA changes. The results showed that: (1) GWSA in South China increased at a rate of 4.79 mm/a from 2003 to 2016, and GWSA in other regions in China showed a decreasing trend. Among them, the decline rates of GWSA in Xinjiang, Tibet, Inner Mongolia, North China Plain, and Northeast China were −6.24 mm/a, −3.33 mm/a, −3.17 mm/a, −7.35 mm/a, and −0.75 mm/a, respectively. (2) The accuracy of the annual-scale GWSA estimates was improved after deducting gravity losses due to raw coal quality, and the correlation coefficient between GWSA and groundwater levels monitored by observation wells increased. (3) In Xinjiang, the annual water consumed by raw coal mining, industrial, and agricultural activities had a greater impact on GWSA than rainfall and temperature, so these human activities might be the main drivers of the continued GWSA decline in Xinjiang. Water consumption by raw coal mining and industry might be the main drivers of the continued decline in GWSA in Inner Mongolia and the North China Plain. The increase in groundwater storage in South China was mainly due to the recharge of rainfall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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15 pages, 16352 KiB  
Article
Assessment of a Smartphone App for Open Channel Flow Measurement in Data Scarce Irrigation Schemes
by Menwagaw T. Damtie, Marshet B. Jumber, Fasikaw A. Zimale and Seifu A. Tilahun
Hydrology 2023, 10(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10010022 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2293
Abstract
Accurate water flow measurement ensures proper irrigation water management by allocating the desired amount of water to the irrigation fields. The present study evaluated whether the non-intrusive smartphone application “DischargeApp” could be applicable and precise to measure small canal flow rates in the [...] Read more.
Accurate water flow measurement ensures proper irrigation water management by allocating the desired amount of water to the irrigation fields. The present study evaluated whether the non-intrusive smartphone application “DischargeApp” could be applicable and precise to measure small canal flow rates in the Koga irrigation Scheme. The app was tested in unlined canals with flow rates ranging from 15 to 65 l/s using a 90° V-notch weir. The app is found to overestimate high flow rates. Another source of uncertainty is that the app employed a constant surface velocity conversion factor (C = 0.8) to compute discharge. The accuracy was enhanced by recalculating the measured discharge using a new surface velocity conversion factor that depends on depths. The new conversion factor decreased the errors of MAE and RMSE by 47% and 52%, respectively. Where channel and other optional measuring techniques are not available without interfering with the flow operation conditions in place, the DischargeApp devices can be used to measure flows. The DischargeApp could be used to collect data using local citizens in data-scarce areas. This study suggested reconfiguring the DischargeApp with a new surface velocity conversion coefficient based on flow depths in field conditions for better performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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13 pages, 2548 KiB  
Article
Forecasting the July Precipitation over the Middle-Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River with a Flexible Statistical Model
by Qixiao Jiang and Xiangjun Shi
Atmosphere 2023, 14(1), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14010152 - 10 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1210
Abstract
The multiple regression method is still an important tool for establishing precipitation forecast models with a lead time of one season. This study developed a flexible statistical forecast model for July precipitation over the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River (MLYR) based on [...] Read more.
The multiple regression method is still an important tool for establishing precipitation forecast models with a lead time of one season. This study developed a flexible statistical forecast model for July precipitation over the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River (MLYR) based on the prophase winter sea surface temperature (SST). According to the characteristics of observed samples and related theoretical knowledge, some special treatments (i.e., more flexible and better-targeted methods) were introduced in the forecast model. These special treatments include a flexible MLYR domain definition, the extraction of indicative signals from the SST field, artificial samples, and the amplification of abnormal precipitation. Rolling forecast experiments show that the linear correlation between prediction and observation is around 0.5, more than half of the abnormal precipitation years can be successfully predicted, and there is no contradictory prediction of the abnormal years. These results indicate that the flexible statistical forecast model is valuable in real-life applications. Furthermore, sensitivity experiments show that forecast skills without these special treatments are obviously decreased. This suggests that forecast models can benefit from using statistical methods in a more flexible and better-targeted way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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