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Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021) | Viewed by 92423

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China
Interests: remote sensing for hydrological applications; hydrological big data; sustainable water resource management; extreme climate events
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Guest Editor
Hydrology and Water Resources, IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, Delft, The Netherlands
Interests: mountain hydrology; process-based distributed hydrological modeling; flood and drought forecasting; snow/glaciers modeling; uncertainty analysis and climate change impacts and adaptation

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Guest Editor
Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-900, Brazil
Interests: watered hydrology; process-based distributed hydrological modeling; climate change
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Guest Editor
1. Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effects in Arid Region, Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, 710064 Xi’an, China
2. School of Water and Environment, Chang’an University, 710064 Xi’an, China
Interests: urban flood; flood management; hydrological modeling; water quality analysis; statistical analysis; sustainable water resource management; ecohydrology
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Guest Editor
Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China
Interests: soil environment; soil pollution; nonpoint source pollution; water-related disasters; hydrological modeling; geographical information system
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Xi 'an Jiaotong University, China
Interests: eco-hydrological processes; water–carbon cycles; numerical modeling

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Guest Editor
School of Water Resources and Hydro-electric Engineering, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, China
Interests: hydrodynamic modeling; flood management; low-impact development measures; eco-hydraulics; environmental hydraulics; sediment transport
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last few decades, remote sensing (RS) technology has developed rapidly, which provides a means of observing hydrological and hydraulic state variables including precipitation, temperature, soil moisture, water levels, evapotranspiration, flood extent, flow velocity, river discharge, and land water storage over regional/global areas. All these variables could be the input files for integrated hydrodynamics or hydrological or hydrometeorological models to simulate and assess water resources and water-related issues, contributing to fully understand global- and regional-scale hydrological processes under climate change and human activities. Improved understanding of changes in global to regional and basin scale hydrological system is imperative to manage water resources sustainably. The objective of this special issue is to present reviews and recent advances of general interest that make use of remote sensing techniques in hydrology and water resources management. Manuscripts on all aspects related with remote sensing in hydrology and water resources management are welcome. Paper topics may include but are not limited to the following:

(1) Satellite remote sensing for water resources management.

(2) Ground validation of remote sensing observations of soil moisture, water depth, precipitation, temperature, river discharge, and so on.

(3) Remote sensing of snow and glacier cover.

(4) Water quality monitoring and evaluation using remote-sensing data.

(5) Remote sensing and flood inundation modelling.

(6) Remote sensing for detecting the global impact of climate extremes.

(7) Use of remote sensing data for improved calibration of hydrological models.

Dr. Weili Duan
Dr. Shreedhar Maskey
Dr. Pedro Luiz Borges Chaffe
Dr. Pingping Luo
Dr. Bin He
Dr. Yiping Wu
Dr. Jingming Hou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Satellite altimetry
  • Remote sensing in hydrology
  • Theory and techniques of hydroinformatics
  • Data assimilation
  • Hydrological big data
  • Extreme climate events
  • Sustainable water resource management
  • Urban flood and waterlogging
  • Ecological hydrology
  • Soil and water conservation
  • Environmental engineering
  • Geological disasters
  • Water-related disaster
  • Nonpoint source pollution
  • Water pollution treatment
  • Eco-hydrological processes
  • Water–carbon cycles
  • Numerical modeling

Published Papers (24 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 192 KiB  
Editorial
Recent Advancement in Remote Sensing Technology for Hydrology Analysis and Water Resources Management
by Weili Duan, Shreedhar Maskey, Pedro L. B. Chaffe, Pingping Luo, Bin He, Yiping Wu and Jingming Hou
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(6), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13061097 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 61 | Viewed by 5446
Abstract
Water is undoubtedly the most valuable resource of human society and an essential component of the ecosystem [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

22 pages, 10181 KiB  
Article
A Neural-Network Based Spatial Resolution Downscaling Method for Soil Moisture: Case Study of Qinghai Province
by Aifeng Lv, Zhilin Zhang and Hongchun Zhu
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(8), 1583; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13081583 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2506
Abstract
Currently, soil-moisture data extracted from microwave data suffer from poor spatial resolution. To overcome this problem, this study proposes a method to downscale the soil moisture spatial resolution. The proposed method establishes a statistical relationship between low-spatial-resolution input data and soil-moisture data from [...] Read more.
Currently, soil-moisture data extracted from microwave data suffer from poor spatial resolution. To overcome this problem, this study proposes a method to downscale the soil moisture spatial resolution. The proposed method establishes a statistical relationship between low-spatial-resolution input data and soil-moisture data from a land-surface model based on a neural network (NN). This statistical relationship is then applied to high-spatial-resolution input data to obtain high-spatial-resolution soil-moisture data. The input data include passive microwave data (SMAP, AMSR2), active microwave data (ASCAT), MODIS data, and terrain data. The target soil moisture data were collected from CLDAS dataset. The results show that the addition of data such as the land-surface temperature (LST), the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the normalized shortwave-infrared difference bare soil moisture indices (NSDSI), the digital elevation model (DEM), and calculated slope data (SLOPE) to active and passive microwave data improves the retrieval accuracy of the model. Taking the CLDAS soil moisture data as a benchmark, the spatial correlation increases from 0.597 to 0.669, the temporal correlation increases from 0.401 to 0.475, the root mean square error decreases from 0.051 to 0.046, and the mean absolute error decreases from 0.041 to 0.036. Triple collocation was applied in the form of [NN, FY3C, GEOS-5] based on the extracted retrieved soil-moisture data to obtain the error variance and correlation coefficient between each product and the actual soil-moisture data. Therefore, we conclude that NN data, which have the lowest error variance (0.00003) and the highest correlation coefficient (0.811), are the most applicable to Qinghai Province. The high-spatial-resolution data obtained from the NN, CLDAS data, SMAP data, and AMSR2 data were correlated with the ground-station data respectively, and the result of better NN data quality was obtained. This analysis demonstrates that the NN-based method is a promising approach for obtaining high-spatial-resolution soil-moisture data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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20 pages, 8581 KiB  
Article
Satellite-Observed Global Terrestrial Vegetation Production in Response to Water Availability
by Yuan Zhang, Xiaoming Feng, Bojie Fu, Yongzhe Chen and Xiaofeng Wang
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(7), 1289; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13071289 - 28 Mar 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2942
Abstract
Water stress is one of the primary environmental factors that limits terrestrial ecosystems’ productivity. Hense, the way to quantify gobal vegetation productivity’s vulnerability under water stress and reveal its seasonal dynamics in response to drought is of great significance in mitigating and adapting [...] Read more.
Water stress is one of the primary environmental factors that limits terrestrial ecosystems’ productivity. Hense, the way to quantify gobal vegetation productivity’s vulnerability under water stress and reveal its seasonal dynamics in response to drought is of great significance in mitigating and adapting to global changes. Here, we estimated monthly gross primary productivity (GPP) first based on light-use efficiency (LUE) models for 1982–2015. GPP’s response time to water availability can be determined by correlating the monthly GPP series with the multiple timescale Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). Thereafter, we developed an optimal bivariate probabilistic model to derive the vegetation productivity loss probabilities under different drought scenarios using the copula method. The results showed that LUE models have a good fit and estimate GPP well (R2 exceeded 0.7). GPP is expected to decrease in 71.91% of the global land vegetation area because of increases in radiation and temperature and decreases in soil moisture during drought periods. Largely, we found that vegetation productivity and water availability are correlated positively globally. The vegetation productivity in arid and semiarid areas depends considerably upon water availability compared to that in humid and semi-humid areas. Weak drought resistance often characterizes the land cover types that water availability influences more. In addition, under the scenario of the same level of GPP damage with different drought degrees, as droughts increase in severity, GPP loss probabilities increase as well. Further, under the same drought severity with different levels of GPP damage, drought’s effect on GPP loss probabilities weaken gradually as the GPP damage level increaes. Similar patterns were observed in different seasons. Our results showed that arid and semiarid areas have higher conditional probabilities of vegetation productivity losses under different drought scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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26 pages, 9261 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Spatiotemporal Changes in Watershed Landscape Pattern and Its Influencing Factors in Rapidly Urbanizing Areas Using Satellite Data
by Zhenjie Zhu, Bingjun Liu, Hailong Wang and Maochuan Hu
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(6), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13061168 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3577
Abstract
Analyzing the spatiotemporal characteristics and causes of landscape pattern changes in watersheds around big cities is essential for understanding the ecological consequence of urbanization and provides a basic reference for the watershed management. This study used a land-use transition matrix and landscape indices [...] Read more.
Analyzing the spatiotemporal characteristics and causes of landscape pattern changes in watersheds around big cities is essential for understanding the ecological consequence of urbanization and provides a basic reference for the watershed management. This study used a land-use transition matrix and landscape indices to explore the spatiotemporal change of land use and landscape pattern over Liuxihe River basin of Guangzhou in the southeast of China from 1980 to 2015 with multitemporal Landsat satellite data in response to the rapid urbanization process. Primary temporal and spatial influencing factors were first quantitatively identified through grey relation analysis (calculating correlation degree between land use changes and influencing factors) and Geodetector (detecting landscape spatial heterogeneity and its driving factors), respectively. Considerable spatial and temporal differences in land use and landscape pattern changes were observed herein, thus determining the influencing factors of these differences in the Liuxihe River basin. These changes were characterized by a large increase in construction land converted from cropland, particularly in the middle and lower reaches of the basin from 2000 to 2010, causing dramatic fragmentation and homogenization of the landscape pattern there. Meanwhile, the landscape pattern gradually transitioned from an agricultural land use dominant landscape to a construction land use dominant landscape in these regions. Furthermore, the rapid growth of a nonagricultural population and the transformation of industry primarily caused the temporal changes of landscape pattern, and the landscape spatial heterogeneity was mainly caused by the interaction of complicated geomorphology and anthropogenic activities in different spatial locations, particularly after 2000. This study not only provides an improved approach to quantifying the main spatiotemporal influencing factors of landscape pattern changes during different time periods, but also offers a reference for decision-makers to formulate optimal strategies on ecological protection and urban sustainable development of different regions in this study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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21 pages, 2745 KiB  
Article
Assimilation of Multi-Source Precipitation Data over Southeast China Using a Nonparametric Framework
by Yuanyuan Zhou, Nianxiu Qin, Qiuhong Tang, Huabin Shi and Liang Gao
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(6), 1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13061057 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2217
Abstract
The accuracy of the rain distribution could be enhanced by assimilating the remotely sensed and gauge-based precipitation data. In this study, a new nonparametric general regression (NGR) framework was proposed to assimilate satellite- and gauge-based rainfall data over southeast China (SEC). The assimilated [...] Read more.
The accuracy of the rain distribution could be enhanced by assimilating the remotely sensed and gauge-based precipitation data. In this study, a new nonparametric general regression (NGR) framework was proposed to assimilate satellite- and gauge-based rainfall data over southeast China (SEC). The assimilated rainfall data in Meiyu and Typhoon seasons, in different months, as well as during rainfall events with various rainfall intensities were evaluated to assess the performance of this proposed framework. In rainy season (Meiyu and Typhoon seasons), the proposed method obtained the estimates with smaller total absolute deviations than those of the other satellite products (i.e., 3B42RT and 3B42V7). In general, the NGR framework outperformed the original satellites generally on root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE), especially on Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSE). At monthly scale, the performance of assimilated data by NGR was better than those of satellite-based products in most months, by exhibiting larger correlation coefficients (CC) in 6 months, smaller RMSE and MAE in at least 9 months and larger NSE in 9 months, respectively. Moreover, the estimates from NGR have been proven to perform better than the two satellite-based products with respect to the simulation of the gauge observations under different rainfall scenarios (i.e., light rain, moderate rain and heavy rain). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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19 pages, 5704 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Hydrological Dynamics of Poyang Lake in the Wet and Dry Seasons
by Fangdi Sun, Ronghua Ma, Caixia Liu and Bin He
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(5), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13050985 - 5 Mar 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2631
Abstract
Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake connecting the Yangtze River in China. It undergoes dramatic dynamics from the wet to the dry seasons. A comparison of the hydrological changes between the wet and dry seasons may be useful for understanding the water [...] Read more.
Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake connecting the Yangtze River in China. It undergoes dramatic dynamics from the wet to the dry seasons. A comparison of the hydrological changes between the wet and dry seasons may be useful for understanding the water flows between Poyang Lake and Yangtze River or the river system in the watershed. Gauged measurements and remote sensing datasets were combined to reveal lake area, level and volume changes during 2000–2020, and water exchanges between Poyang Lake and Yangtze River were presented based on the water balance equation. The results showed that in the wet seasons, the lake was usually around 1301.85–3840.24 km2, with an average value of 2800.79 km2. In the dry seasons, the area was around 618.82–2498.70 km2, with an average value of 1242.03 km2. The inundations in the wet seasons were approximately quadruple those in the dry seasons. In summer months, the lake surface tended to be flat, while in winter months, it was inclined, with the angles at around 10′′–16′′. The mean water levels of the wet and dry seasons were separately 13.51 m and 9.06 m, with respective deviations of around 0–2.38 m and 0.38–2.15 m. Monthly lake volume changes were about 7.5–22.64 km3 and 1–5.80 km3 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. In the wet seasons, the overall contributions of ground runoff, precipitation on the lake surface and lake evaporation were less than the volume flowing into Yangtze River. In the dry seasons, the three contributions decreased by 50%, 50% and 65.75%, respectively. Therefore, lake storages presented a decrease (−7.42 km3/yr) in the wet seasons and an increase (9.39 km3/yr) in the dry seasons. The monthly exchanges between Poyang Lake and Yangtze River were at around −14.22–32.86 km3. Water all flowed from the lake to the river in the wet seasons, and the chance of water flowing from Yangtze River in the dry seasons was only 5.26%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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18 pages, 5247 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Latest IMERG Products in a Subtropical Climate: The Case of Paraná State, Brazil
by Jéssica G. Nascimento, Daniel Althoff, Helizani C. Bazame, Christopher M. U. Neale, Sergio N. Duarte, Anderson L. Ruhoff and Ivo Z. Gonçalves
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(5), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13050906 - 28 Feb 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2734
Abstract
The lack of measurement of precipitation in large areas using fine-resolution data is a limitation in water management, particularly in developing countries. However, Version 6 of the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) has provided a new source of precipitation information with high [...] Read more.
The lack of measurement of precipitation in large areas using fine-resolution data is a limitation in water management, particularly in developing countries. However, Version 6 of the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) has provided a new source of precipitation information with high spatial and temporal resolution. In this study, the performance of the GPM products (Final run) in the state of Paraná, located in the southern region of Brazil, from June 2000 to December 2018 was evaluated. The daily and monthly products of IMERG were compared to the gauge data spatially distributed across the study area. Quantitative and qualitative metrics were used to analyze the performance of IMERG products to detect precipitation events and anomalies. In general, the products performed positively in the estimation of monthly rainfall events, both in volume and spatial distribution, and demonstrated limited performance for daily events and anomalies, mainly in mountainous regions (coast and southwest). This may be related to the orographic rainfall in these regions, associating the intensity of the rain, and the topography. IMERG products can be considered as a source of precipitation data, especially on a monthly scale. Product calibrations are suggested for use on a daily scale and for time-series analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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16 pages, 7528 KiB  
Article
Historic and Simulated Desert-Oasis Ecotone Changes in the Arid Tarim River Basin, China
by Fan Sun, Yi Wang, Yaning Chen, Yupeng Li, Qifei Zhang, Jingxiu Qin and Patient Mindje Kayumba
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(4), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13040647 - 11 Feb 2021
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 3356
Abstract
The desert-oasis ecotone, as a crucial natural barrier, maintains the stability of oasis agricultural production and protects oasis habitat security. This paper investigates the dynamic evolution of the desert-oasis ecotone in the Tarim River Basin and predicts the near-future land-use change in the [...] Read more.
The desert-oasis ecotone, as a crucial natural barrier, maintains the stability of oasis agricultural production and protects oasis habitat security. This paper investigates the dynamic evolution of the desert-oasis ecotone in the Tarim River Basin and predicts the near-future land-use change in the desert-oasis ecotone using the cellular automata–Markov (CA-Markov) model. Results indicate that the overall area of the desert-oasis ecotone shows a shrinking trend (from 67,642 km2 in 1990 to 46,613 km2 in 2015) and the land-use change within the desert-oasis ecotone is mainly manifested by the conversion of a large amount of forest and grass area into arable land. The increasing demand for arable land for groundwater has led to a decline in the groundwater level, which is an important reason for the habitat deterioration in the desert-oasis ecotone. The rising temperature and drought have further exacerbated this trend. Assuming the current trend in development without intervention, the CA-Markov model predicts that by 2030, there will be an additional 1566 km2 of arable land and a reduction of 1151 km2 in forested area and grassland within the desert-oasis ecotone, which will inevitably further weaken the ecological barrier role of the desert-oasis ecotone and trigger a growing ecological crisis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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17 pages, 11484 KiB  
Article
Implementation of an Improved Water Change Tracking (IWCT) Algorithm: Monitoring the Water Changes in Tianjin over 1984–2019 Using Landsat Time-Series Data
by Xingxing Han, Wei Chen, Bo Ping and Yong Hu
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(3), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13030493 - 30 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2964
Abstract
Tianjin is the largest open city along the coastline in Northern China, which has several important wetland ecosystems. However, no systematic study has assessed the water body changes over the past few decades for Tianjin, not to mention their response to human activities [...] Read more.
Tianjin is the largest open city along the coastline in Northern China, which has several important wetland ecosystems. However, no systematic study has assessed the water body changes over the past few decades for Tianjin, not to mention their response to human activities and climate change. Here, based on the water change tracking (WCT) algorithm, we proposed an improved water change tracking (IWCT) algorithm, which could remove built-up shade noise (account for 0.4%~6.0% of the final water area) and correct omitted water pixels (account for 1.1%~5.1% of the final water area) by taking the time-series data into consideration. The seasonal water product of the Global Surface Water Data (GSWD) was used to provide a comparison with the IWCT results. Significant changes in water bodies of the selected area in Tianjin were revealed from the time-series water maps. The permanent water area of Tianjin decreased 282.5 km2 from 1984 to 2019. Each time after the dried-up period, due to government policies, the land reclamation happened in Tuanbo Birds Nature Reserve (TBNR), and, finally, 12.6 km2 of the lake has been reclaimed. Meanwhile, 488.6 km2 of land has been reclaimed from the sea along the coastal zone in the past 16 years at a speed of 28.74 km2 yr−1 in the Binhai New Area (BHNA). The method developed in this study could be extended to other sensors which have similar band settings with Landsat; the products acquired in this study could provide fundamental reference for the wetland management in Tianjin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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18 pages, 5858 KiB  
Article
Spatial Allocation Method from Coarse Evapotranspiration Data to Agricultural Fields by Quantifying Variations in Crop Cover and Soil Moisture
by Zonghan Ma, Bingfang Wu, Nana Yan, Weiwei Zhu, Hongwei Zeng and Jiaming Xu
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(3), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13030343 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2119
Abstract
Cropland evapotranspiration (ET) is the major source of water consumption in agricultural systems. The precise management of agricultural ET helps optimize water resource usage in arid and semiarid regions and requires field-scale ET data support. Due to the combined limitations of satellite sensors [...] Read more.
Cropland evapotranspiration (ET) is the major source of water consumption in agricultural systems. The precise management of agricultural ET helps optimize water resource usage in arid and semiarid regions and requires field-scale ET data support. Due to the combined limitations of satellite sensors and ET mechanisms, the current high-resolution ET models need further refinement to meet the demands of field-scale ET management. In this research, we proposed a new field-scale ET estimation method by developing an allocation factor to quantify field-level ET variations and allocate coarse ET to the field scale. By regarding the agricultural field as the object of the ET parcel, the allocation factor is calculated with combined high-resolution remote sensing indexes indicating the field-level ET variations under different crop growth and land-surface water conditions. The allocation ET results are validated at two ground observation stations and show improved accuracy compared with that of the original coarse data. This allocated ET model provides reasonable spatial results of field-level ET and is adequate for precise agricultural ET management. This allocation method provides new insight into calculating field-level ET from coarse ET datasets and meets the demands of wide application for controlling regional water consumption, supporting the ET management theory in addressing the impacts of water scarcity on social and economic developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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24 pages, 19013 KiB  
Article
Error Correction of Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP) over the Lancang-Mekong River Basin
by Xiongpeng Tang, Jianyun Zhang, Guoqing Wang, Gebdang Biangbalbe Ruben, Zhenxin Bao, Yanli Liu, Cuishan Liu and Junliang Jin
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(2), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13020312 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3402
Abstract
The demand for accurate long-term precipitation data is increasing, especially in the Lancang-Mekong River Basin (LMRB), where ground-based data are mostly unavailable and inaccessible in a timely manner. Remote sensing and reanalysis quantitative precipitation products provide unprecedented observations to support water-related research, but [...] Read more.
The demand for accurate long-term precipitation data is increasing, especially in the Lancang-Mekong River Basin (LMRB), where ground-based data are mostly unavailable and inaccessible in a timely manner. Remote sensing and reanalysis quantitative precipitation products provide unprecedented observations to support water-related research, but these products are inevitably subject to errors. In this study, we propose a novel error correction framework that combines products from various institutions. The NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (AgMERRA), the Asian Precipitation Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE), the Climate Hazards group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS), the Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation Version 1.0 (MSWEP), and the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Records (PERSIANN) were used. Ground-based precipitation data from 1998 to 2007 were used to select precipitation products for correction, and the remaining 1979–1997 and 2008–2014 observe data were used for validation. The resulting precipitation products MSWEP-QM derived from quantile mapping (QM) and MSWEP-LS derived from linear scaling (LS) are evaluated by statistical indicators and hydrological simulation across the LMRB. Results show that the MSWEP-QM and MSWEP-LS can better capture major annual precipitation centers, have excellent simulation results, and reduce the mean BIAS and mean absolute BIAS at most gauges across the LMRB. The two corrected products presented in this study constitute improved climatological precipitation data sources, both time and space, outperforming the five raw gridded precipitation products. Among the two corrected products, in terms of mean BIAS, MSWEP-LS was slightly better than MSWEP-QM at grid-scale, point scale, and regional scale, and it also had better simulation results at all stations except Strung Treng. During the validation period, the average absolute value BIAS of MSWEP-LS and MSWEP-QM decreased by 3.51% and 3.4%, respectively. Therefore, we recommend that MSWEP-LS be used for water-related scientific research in the LMRB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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18 pages, 59509 KiB  
Article
Attribution of Long-Term Evapotranspiration Trends in the Mekong River Basin with a Remote Sensing-Based Process Model
by Shi Hu and Xingguo Mo
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(2), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13020303 - 16 Jan 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3368
Abstract
Using the Global Land Surface Satellite (GLASS) leaf area index (LAI), the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) and available water resources in the Mekong River Basin were estimated with the Remote Sensing-Based Vegetation Interface Processes Model (VIP-RS). The relative contributions of climate variables [...] Read more.
Using the Global Land Surface Satellite (GLASS) leaf area index (LAI), the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) and available water resources in the Mekong River Basin were estimated with the Remote Sensing-Based Vegetation Interface Processes Model (VIP-RS). The relative contributions of climate variables and vegetation greening to ETa were estimated with numerical experiments. The results show that the average ETa in the entire basin increased at a rate of 1.16 mm year−2 from 1980 to 2012 (36.7% of the area met the 95% significance level). Vegetation greening contributed 54.1% of the annual ETa trend, slightly higher than that of climate change. The contributions of air temperature, precipitation and the LAI were positive, whereas contributions of solar radiation and vapor pressure were negative. The effects of water supply and energy availability were equivalent on the variation of ETa throughout most of the basin, except the upper reach and downstream Mekong Delta. In the upper reach, climate warming played a critical role in the ETa variability, while the warming effect was offset by reduced solar radiation in the Mekong Delta (an energy-limited region). For the entire basin, the available water resources showed an increasing trend due to intensified precipitation; however, in downstream areas, additional pressure on available water resources is exerted due to cropland expansion with enhanced agricultural water consumption. The results provide scientific basis for practices of integrated catchment management and water resources allocation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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24 pages, 5477 KiB  
Article
Satellite-Based Precipitation Datasets Evaluation Using Gauge Observation and Hydrological Modeling in a Typical Arid Land Watershed of Central Asia
by Jiabin Peng, Tie Liu, Yue Huang, Yunan Ling, Zhengyang Li, Anming Bao, Xi Chen, Alishir Kurban and Philippe De Maeyer
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(2), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13020221 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3670
Abstract
Hydrological modeling has always been a challenge in the data-scarce watershed, especially in the areas with complex terrain conditions like the inland river basin in Central Asia. Taking Bosten Lake Basin in Northwest China as an example, the accuracy and the hydrological applicability [...] Read more.
Hydrological modeling has always been a challenge in the data-scarce watershed, especially in the areas with complex terrain conditions like the inland river basin in Central Asia. Taking Bosten Lake Basin in Northwest China as an example, the accuracy and the hydrological applicability of satellite-based precipitation datasets were evaluated. The gauge-adjusted version of six widely used datasets was adopted; namely, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks–Climate Data Record (CDR), Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS), Global Precipitation Measurement Ground Validation National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Prediction Center (NOAA CPC) Morphing Technique (CMORPH), Integrated Multi-Satellite Retrievals for GPM (GPM), Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP), the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA). Seven evaluation indexes were used to compare the station data and satellite datasets, the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model, and four indexes were used to evaluate the hydrological performance. The main results were as follows: 1) The GPM and CDR were the best datasets for the daily scale and monthly scale rainfall accuracy evaluations, respectively. 2) The performance of CDR and GPM was more stable than others at different locations in a watershed, and all datasets tended to perform better in the humid regions. 3) All datasets tended to perform better in the summer of a year, while the CDR and CHIRPS performed well in winter compare to other datasets. 4) The raw data of CDR and CMORPH performed better than others in monthly runoff simulations, especially CDR. 5) Integrating the hydrological performance of the uncorrected and corrected data, all datasets have the potential to provide valuable input data in hydrological modeling. This study is expected to provide a reference for the hydrological and meteorological application of satellite precipitation datasets in Central Asia or even the whole temperate zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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15 pages, 4321 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of TMPA 3B42-V7 Product on Extreme Precipitation Estimates
by Jiachao Chen, Zhaoli Wang, Xushu Wu, Chengguang Lai and Xiaohong Chen
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(2), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13020209 - 9 Jan 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2215
Abstract
Availability of precipitation data at high spatial and temporal resolution is crucial for the understanding of precipitation behaviors that are determinant for environmental aspects such as hydrology, ecology, and social aspects like agriculture, food security, or health issues. This study evaluates the performance [...] Read more.
Availability of precipitation data at high spatial and temporal resolution is crucial for the understanding of precipitation behaviors that are determinant for environmental aspects such as hydrology, ecology, and social aspects like agriculture, food security, or health issues. This study evaluates the performance of 3B42-V7 satellite-based precipitation product on extreme precipitation estimates in China, by using the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm and L-moment-based regional frequency analysis method. The China Gauge-based Daily Precipitation Analysis (CGDPA) product is employed to measure the estimation biases of 3B42-V7. Results show that: (1) for most regions of China, the Generalized Extreme Value and Generalized Normal distributions are preferable for extreme precipitation estimates; (2) the extreme precipitation estimations of 3B42-V7 for different return periods have a high correlation with those of CGDPA, with biases within 25% for a majority of China on extreme precipitation estimates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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19 pages, 2465 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Analysis of Hydrological Variations and Their Impacts on Vegetation in Semiarid Areas from Multiple Satellite Data
by Yonghua Zhu, Pingping Luo, Sheng Zhang and Biao Sun
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(24), 4177; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12244177 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 81 | Viewed by 4959
Abstract
Understanding the spatiotemporal characteristics of hydrological components and their impacts on vegetation are critical for comprehending hydrological, climatological, and ecological processes under environmental change and solving future water management challenges. Innovative methods need to be developed in semiarid areas to analyze the special [...] Read more.
Understanding the spatiotemporal characteristics of hydrological components and their impacts on vegetation are critical for comprehending hydrological, climatological, and ecological processes under environmental change and solving future water management challenges. Innovative methods need to be developed in semiarid areas to analyze the special hydrological factors in the water resource systems of these areas. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) were applied with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data in this paper to analyze spatiotemporal changes of hydrological factors in the Xiliaohe River Basin (XRB). The results showed that precipitation (P), evapotranspiration (ET) and temperature (T) had similar seasonal change patterns at rates of 0.05 cm/yr., 0.01 cm/yr. and −0.05 °C/yr., respectively. Total water storage change (TWSC) was consistent with the change trend of soil moisture change (SMC) and showed a fluctuating trend. Groundwater change (GWC) showed a decreasing trend at a rate of −0.43 cm/yr. P and ET had a greater impact on GLDAS data (R = 0.634, P < 0.05 and R = 0.686, P < 0.01, respectively) than on other factors. GWC was more sensitive to changes in T (R = 0.570, P < 0.05). Furthermore, a lag period of 0 to 1 months was observed for the effects of P and ET on TWSC and GLDAS. NDVI showed an upward trend at a rate of 0.001 yr−1 between 2002 and 2014. A spatial distribution of NDVI was heterogeneous in the study area. ET, GLDAS and GWC in growing season limited vegetation growth and were more important than other factors in XRB. The results may contribute to an understanding of the relationships between the hydrological cycle and climate change and provide scientific support for local environmental management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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23 pages, 9569 KiB  
Article
Parameter Optimization for Uncertainty Reduction and Simulation Improvement of Hydrological Modeling
by Jinyu Hui, Yiping Wu, Fubo Zhao, Xiaohui Lei, Pengcheng Sun, Shailesh Kumar Singh, Weihong Liao, Linjing Qiu and Jiguang Li
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(24), 4069; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12244069 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3057
Abstract
Hydrological modeling has experienced rapid development and played a significant role in water resource management in recent decades. However, modeling uncertainties, which are propagated throughout model runs, may affect the credibility of simulation results and mislead management decisions. Therefore, analyzing and reducing uncertainty [...] Read more.
Hydrological modeling has experienced rapid development and played a significant role in water resource management in recent decades. However, modeling uncertainties, which are propagated throughout model runs, may affect the credibility of simulation results and mislead management decisions. Therefore, analyzing and reducing uncertainty is of significant importance in providing greater confidence in hydrological simulations. To reduce and quantify parameter uncertainty, in this study, we attempted to introduce additional remotely sensed data (such as evapotranspiration (ET)) into a common parameter estimation procedure that uses observed streamflow only. We undertook a case study of an application of the Soil Water Assessment Tool in the Guijiang River Basin (GRB) in China. We also compared the effects of different combinations of parameter estimation algorithms (e.g., Sequential Uncertainty Fitting version 2, particle swarm optimization) on reduction in parameter uncertainty and improvement in modeling precision improvement. The results indicated that combining Sequential Uncertainty Fitting version 2 (SUFI-2) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) can substantially reduce the modeling uncertainty (reduction in the R-factor from 0.9 to 0.1) in terms of the convergence of parameter ranges and the aggregation of parameters, in addition to iterative optimization. Furthermore, the combined approaches ensured the rationality of the parameters’ physical meanings and reduced the complexity of the model calibration procedure. We also found the simulation accuracy of ET improved substantially after adding remotely sensed ET data. The parameter ranges and optimal parameter sets obtained by multi-objective calibration (using streamflow plus ET) were more reasonable and the Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) improved more rapidly using multiple objectives, indicating a more efficient parameter optimization procedure. Overall, the selected combined approach with multiple objectives can help reduce modeling uncertainty and attain a reliable hydrological simulation. The presented procedure can be applied to any hydrological model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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21 pages, 11727 KiB  
Article
Suitability of TRMM Products with Different Temporal Resolution (3-Hourly, Daily, and Monthly) for Rainfall Erosivity Estimation
by Xianghu Li, Zhen Li and Yaling Lin
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(23), 3924; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12233924 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2912
Abstract
Rainfall erosivity (RE) is a significant indicator of erosion capacity. The application of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall products to deal with RE estimation has not received much attention. It is not clear which temporal resolution of TRMM data is most suitable. [...] Read more.
Rainfall erosivity (RE) is a significant indicator of erosion capacity. The application of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall products to deal with RE estimation has not received much attention. It is not clear which temporal resolution of TRMM data is most suitable. This study quantified the RE in the Poyang Lake basin, China, based on TRMM 3B42 3-hourly, daily, and 3B43 monthly rainfall data, and investigated their suitability for estimating RE. The results showed that TRMM 3-hourly product had a significant systematic underestimation of monthly RE, especially during the period of April–June for the large values. The TRMM 3B42 daily product seems to have better performance with the relative bias of 3.0% in summer. At the annual scale, TRMM 3B42 daily and 3B43 monthly data had acceptable accuracy, with mean error of 1858 and −85 MJ∙mm/ha∙h and relative bias of 18.3% and −0.85%, respectively. A spatial performance analysis showed that all three TRMM products generally captured the overall spatial patterns of RE, while the TRMM 3B43 product was more suitable in depicting the spatial characteristics of annual RE. This study provides valuable information for the application of TRMM products in mapping RE and risk assessment of soil erosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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24 pages, 6220 KiB  
Article
Hydrological Model Calibration with Streamflow and Remote Sensing Based Evapotranspiration Data in a Data Poor Basin
by T. A. Jeewanthi G. Sirisena, Shreedhar Maskey and Roshanka Ranasinghe
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(22), 3768; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12223768 - 17 Nov 2020
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 4588
Abstract
Conventional calibration methods adopted in hydrological modelling are based on streamflow data measured at certain river sections. However, streamflow measurements are usually sparse and, in such instances, remote-sensing-based products may be used as an additional dataset(s) in hydrological model calibration. This study compares [...] Read more.
Conventional calibration methods adopted in hydrological modelling are based on streamflow data measured at certain river sections. However, streamflow measurements are usually sparse and, in such instances, remote-sensing-based products may be used as an additional dataset(s) in hydrological model calibration. This study compares two main calibration approaches: (a) single variable calibration with streamflow and evapotranspiration separately, and (b) multi-variable calibration with both variables together. Here, we used remote sensing-based evapotranspiration data from Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Model (GLEAM ET), and measured streamflow at four stations to calibrate a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and evaluate the performances for Chindwin Basin, Myanmar. Our results showed that when one variable (either streamflow or evapotranspiration) is used for calibration, it led to good performance with respect to the calibration variable but resulted in reduced performance in the other variable. In the multi-variable calibration using both streamflow and evapotranspiration, reasonable results were obtained for both variables. For example, at the basin outlet, the best NSEs (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiencies) of streamflow and evapotranspiration on monthly time series are, respectively, 0.98 and 0.59 in the calibration with streamflow alone, and 0.69 and 0.73 in the calibration with evapotranspiration alone. Whereas, in the multi-variable calibration, the NSEs at the basin outlet are 0.97 and 0.64 for streamflow and evapotranspiration, respectively. The results suggest that the GLEAM ET data, together with streamflow data, can be used for model calibration in the study region as the simulation results show reasonable performance for streamflow with an NSE > 0.85. Results also show that many different sets of parameter values (‘good parameter sets’) can produce results comparable to the best parameter set. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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20 pages, 4856 KiB  
Article
Changing Patterns of Lakes on The Southern Tibetan Plateau Based on Multi-Source Satellite Data
by Fangdi Sun, Ronghua Ma, Bin He, Xiaoli Zhao, Yuchao Zeng, Siyi Zhang and Shilin Tang
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(20), 3450; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12203450 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2657
Abstract
More than 1100 lakes covering an area greater than 4500 km2 are located on the Tibetan Plateau, and these lakes are important regulators of several large and famous rivers in Asia. The determination of hydrological changes that have occurred in these lakes [...] Read more.
More than 1100 lakes covering an area greater than 4500 km2 are located on the Tibetan Plateau, and these lakes are important regulators of several large and famous rivers in Asia. The determination of hydrological changes that have occurred in these lakes can reflect climate change and supply scientific data to plateau environmental research. Data from high frequency (moderate-resolution imaging spectro-radiometer) MODIS images, altimetry, and the Hydroweb database collected during 2000–2015 were integrated in this study to delineate the detailed hydrological changes of 15 lakes in three basins—Inner Basin, Indus Basin, and Brahmaputra Basin—on the southern Tibetan Plateau. Seven of the 10 lakes in the Inner Basin presented increasing trends with various intensities, and the increasing rates in the area of four lakes (Nam Co, Selin Co, Zhari-namco, and Ngangze) were 1.62, 28.81, 2.27, and 3.70 km2/yr, respectively. The yearly increases in volume of the four lakes were 3.6, 9.44, 6, and 2.36 km3, respectively. A water balance equation was established for the four lakes based on lake volume changes to illustrate the contributions of precipitation, ground runoff, evaporation, and other factors. The results revealed that surface runoff was the major contributor to expansion, and lake surface evaporation was almost 2.76–3.86 times that of lake surface precipitation. The two lakes in Indus Basin, Rakshastal and Mapam Yumco, presented a slight retreat. As a representative of Brahmaputra Basin, Yamzho Yumco underwent a retreat of –3.49 km2/yr in area, –0.39 m/yr in level, and –0.19 km3/yr in volume. Decreasing precipitation, increasing evaporation, and the operation of a hydrological project were the main causes of its constant retreat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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17 pages, 9449 KiB  
Article
sUAS Remote Sensing of Vineyard Evapotranspiration Quantifies Spatiotemporal Uncertainty in Satellite-Borne ET Estimates
by Michael Kalua, Anna M. Rallings, Lorenzo Booth, Josué Medellín-Azuara, Stefano Carpin and Joshua H. Viers
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(19), 3251; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12193251 - 7 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3569
Abstract
Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) show promise in being able to collect high resolution spatiotemporal data over small extents. Use of such remote sensing platforms also show promise for quantifying uncertainty in more ubiquitous Earth Observation System (EOS) data, such as evapotranspiration and [...] Read more.
Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) show promise in being able to collect high resolution spatiotemporal data over small extents. Use of such remote sensing platforms also show promise for quantifying uncertainty in more ubiquitous Earth Observation System (EOS) data, such as evapotranspiration and consumptive use of water in agricultural systems. This study compares measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) from a commercial vineyard in California using data collected from sUAS and EOS sources for 10 events over a growing season using multiple ET estimation methods. Results indicate that sUAS ET estimates that include non-canopy pixels are generally lower on average than EOS methods by >0.5 mm day1. sUAS ET estimates that mask out non-canopy pixels are generally higher than EOS methods by <0.5 mm day1. Masked sUAS ET estimates are less variable than unmasked sUAS and EOS ET estimates. This study indicates that limited deployment of sUAS can provide important estimates of uncertainty in EOS ET estimations for larger areas and to also improve irrigation management at a local scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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32 pages, 22439 KiB  
Article
Volume Variations of Small Inland Water Bodies from a Combination of Satellite Altimetry and Optical Imagery
by Christian Schwatke, Denise Dettmering and Florian Seitz
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(10), 1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12101606 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4773
Abstract
In this study, a new approach for estimating volume variations of lakes and reservoirs using water levels from satellite altimetry and surface areas from optical imagery is presented. Both input data sets, namely water level time series and surface area time series, are [...] Read more.
In this study, a new approach for estimating volume variations of lakes and reservoirs using water levels from satellite altimetry and surface areas from optical imagery is presented. Both input data sets, namely water level time series and surface area time series, are provided by the Database of Hydrological Time Series of Inland Waters (DAHITI), developed and maintained by the Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinsitut der Technischen Universität München (DGFI-TUM). The approach is divided into three parts. In the first part, a hypsometry model based on the new modified Strahler approach is computed by combining water levels and surface areas. The hypsometry model describes the dependency between water levels and surface areas of lakes and reservoirs. In the second part, a bathymetry between minimum and maximum surface area is computed. For this purpose, DAHITI land-water masks are stacked using water levels derived from the hypsometry model. Finally, water levels and surface areas are intersected with the bathymetry to estimate a time series of volume variations in relation to the minimum observed surface area. The results are validated with volume time series derived from in-situ water levels in combination with bathymetric surveys. In this study, 28 lakes and reservoirs located in Texas are investigated. The absolute volumes of the investigated lakes and reservoirs vary between 0.062 km 3 and 6.041 km 3 . The correlation coefficients of the resulting volume variation time series with validation data vary between 0.80 and 0.99. Overall, the relative errors with respect to volume variations vary between 2.8% and 14.9% with an average of 8.3% for all 28 investigated lakes and reservoirs. When comparing the resulting RMSE with absolute volumes, the absolute errors vary between 1.5% and 6.4% with an average of 3.1%. This study shows that volume variations can be calculated with a high accuracy which depends essentially on the quality of the used water levels and surface areas. In addition, this study provides a hypsometry model, high-resolution bathymetry and water level time series derived from surface areas based on the hypsometry model. All data sets are publicly available on the Database of Hydrological Time Series of Inland Waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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27 pages, 7758 KiB  
Article
Applying Satellite Data Assimilation to Wind Simulation of Coastal Wind Farms in Guangdong, China
by Wenqing Xu, Like Ning and Yong Luo
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(6), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12060973 - 17 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2975
Abstract
With the development of the wind power industry in China, accurate simulation of near-surface wind plays an important role in wind-resource assessment. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models have been widely used to simulate the near-surface wind speed. By combining the Weather Research and [...] Read more.
With the development of the wind power industry in China, accurate simulation of near-surface wind plays an important role in wind-resource assessment. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models have been widely used to simulate the near-surface wind speed. By combining the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model with the Three-dimensional variation (3DVar) data assimilation system, our work applied satellite data assimilation to the wind resource assessment tasks of coastal wind farms in Guangdong, China. We compared the simulation results with wind speed observation data from seven wind observation towers in the Guangdong coastal area, and the results showed that satellite data assimilation with the WRF model can significantly reduce the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and improve the index of agreement (IA) and correlation coefficient (R). In different months and at different height layers (10, 50, and 70 m), the Root-Mean-Square Error (RMSE) can be reduced by a range of 0–0.8 m/s from 2.5–4 m/s of the original results, the IA can be increased by a range of 0–0.2 from 0.5–0.8 of the original results, and the R can be increased by a range of 0–0.3 from 0.2–0.7 of the original results. The results of the wind speed Weibull distribution show that, after data assimilation was used, the WRF model was able to simulate the distribution of wind speed more accurately. Based on the numerical simulation, our work proposes a combined wind resource evaluation approach of numerical modeling and data assimilation, which will benefit the wind power assessment of wind farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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24 pages, 8183 KiB  
Article
Reliability of Gridded Precipitation Products in the Yellow River Basin, China
by Yanfen Yang, Jing Wu, Lei Bai and Bing Wang
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(3), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12030374 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3500
Abstract
Gridded precipitation products are the potential alternatives in hydrological studies, and the evaluation of their accuracy and potential use is very important for reliable simulations. The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of gridded precipitation products in the Yellow River [...] Read more.
Gridded precipitation products are the potential alternatives in hydrological studies, and the evaluation of their accuracy and potential use is very important for reliable simulations. The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of gridded precipitation products in the Yellow River Basin of China. Five gridded precipitation products, i.e., Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP), CPC Morphing Technique (CMORPH), Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis 3B42, and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN), were evaluated against observations made during 2001−2014 at daily, monthly, and annual scales. The results showed that MSWEP had a higher correlation and lower percent bias and root mean square error, while CMORPH and GSMaP made overestimations compared to the observations. All the datasets underestimated the frequency of dry days, and overestimated the frequency and the intensity of wet days (0–5 mm/day). MSWEP and TRMM showed consistent interannual variations and spatial patterns while CMORPH and GSMaP had larger discrepancies with the observations. At the sub-basin scale, all the datasets performed poorly in the Beiluo River and Qingjian River, whereas they were applicable in other sub-basins. Based on its superior performance, MSWEP was identified as more suitable for hydrological applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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20 pages, 1421 KiB  
Review
The Use of LiDAR-Derived DEM in Flood Applications: A Review
by Nur Atirah Muhadi, Ahmad Fikri Abdullah, Siti Khairunniza Bejo, Muhammad Razif Mahadi and Ana Mijic
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(14), 2308; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12142308 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 70 | Viewed by 12668
Abstract
Flood occurrence is increasing due to escalated urbanization and extreme climate change; hence, various studies on this issue and methods of flood monitoring and mapping are also increasing to reduce the severe impacts of flood disasters. The advancement of current technologies such as [...] Read more.
Flood occurrence is increasing due to escalated urbanization and extreme climate change; hence, various studies on this issue and methods of flood monitoring and mapping are also increasing to reduce the severe impacts of flood disasters. The advancement of current technologies such as light detection and ranging (LiDAR) systems facilitated and improved flood applications. In a LiDAR system, a laser emits light that travels to the ground and reflects off objects like buildings and trees. The reflected light energy returns to the sensor, whereby the time interval is recorded. Since the conventional methods cannot produce high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) data, which results in low accuracy of flood simulation results, LiDAR data are extensively used as an alternative. This review aims to study the potential and the applications of LiDAR-derived DEM in flood studies. It also provides insight into the operating principles of different LiDAR systems, system components, and advantages and disadvantages of each system. This paper discusses several topics relevant to flood studies from a LiDAR-derived DEM perspective. Furthermore, the challenges and future perspectives regarding DEM LiDAR data for flood mapping and assessment are also reviewed. This study demonstrates that LiDAR-derived data are useful in flood risk management, especially in the future assessment of flood-related problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Hydrology and Water Resources Management)
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