Hydrological Simulation for Erosion and Infiltration

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 August 2024 | Viewed by 5176

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effects in Arid Region, Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, Xi’an, China
2. School of Water and Environment, Chang’an University, Xi’an, China
Interests: soil environmental quality; soil erosion; hydrology ecology; geological disaster
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effects in Arid Region, Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, 710064 Xi’an, China
2. School of Water and Environment, Chang’an University, 710064 Xi’an, China
Interests: urban flood; flood management; hydrological modeling; water quality analysis; statistical analysis; sustainable water resource management; ecohydrology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

To solve practical hydrological problems and study hydrological laws, a hydrological mathematical model can be used, employing the advantages of mathematical physics, empirical correlation, and generalized reasoning methods, and rapid developments have been made in the last 20 years. Understanding the changes in soil erosion and infiltration activity in key regions helps early warning systems to be established in key gully consolidation, tableland protection, and natural disaster regions in loess areas. However, total risk reduction seems impractical in this framework, especially since the delocalization of anthropogenic activities is often not feasible and co-existence with natural disasters is acceptable. In these cases, robust approaches, such as hydrological simulations of erosion and infiltration, appear to be the most promising approaches to reducing natural disasters and improving societal resilience.

Given this scientific framework, we would like to invite scientists in this field to contribute to this Special Issue, which will focus broadly on the analysis, experimentation, or simulation of hydrological processes leading to erosion and infiltration, as well as the analysis of early warning definitions based on rainfall or soil hydrological monitoring. Therefore, manuscripts with case studies of these processes in loess areas, as well as studies aimed at assessing human-induced changes in seepage simulation, the inflow of water from the aquifer, and other indicators that reflect erosion and infiltration, are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Aidi Huo
Prof. Dr. Pingping Luo
Dr. Chunli Zheng
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • hydrological simulation
  • erosion
  • infiltration
  • water inflow

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 3890 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Static and Dynamic Analyses of an Embedded Concrete-Face Rockfill Dam
by Pengfei Qu, Junrui Chai and Zengguang Xu
Water 2023, 15(23), 4189; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15234189 - 04 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 822
Abstract
Concrete-face rockfill dams have gradually become the preferred dam type in the engineering community. This study presents a hydropower station in China as a case study to introduce a new type of embedded concrete-face rockfill dam. The static and dynamic stress–strain characteristics of [...] Read more.
Concrete-face rockfill dams have gradually become the preferred dam type in the engineering community. This study presents a hydropower station in China as a case study to introduce a new type of embedded concrete-face rockfill dam. The static and dynamic stress–strain characteristics of the proposed and conventional concrete-face rockfill dams were compared, and the optimal height of the embedded concrete body at the hydropower station was determined. The results indicate that, under static conditions, the embedded concrete body could reduce deformation upstream and downstream of the rockfill body, eliminate tensile stress along the concrete-face slab slope, reduce concrete-face slab deflection, and increase the maximum deflection area to 0.47 times the dam height. The inhibitory effect of the embedded concrete body on the stress and strain of the dam body became more evident as the size of the embedded body increased. Although the embedded concrete body did not enhance the dynamic and superposed static–dynamic stress states of the embedded concrete body and rockfill, the stress and strain increase in the dynamic state were within a controllable range. Through a sensitivity analysis and considering the terrain conditions and engineering cost of the hydropower station, the height of the embedded concrete body is recommended to be 0.4 times the dam height. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological Simulation for Erosion and Infiltration)
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21 pages, 4601 KiB  
Article
Prediction of the Mine Water Inflow of Coal-Bearing Rock Series Based on Well Group Pumping
by Hongtao Zhai, Jucui Wang, Yangchun Lu, Zhenxing Rao, Kai He, Shunyi Hao, Aidi Huo and Ahmed Adnan
Water 2023, 15(20), 3680; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15203680 - 20 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 960
Abstract
Previous scholarly investigations have mainly concentrated on examining water intake, particularly within the specific domain of coal mines. Nevertheless, the scholarly discourse lacks significant research on predicting water inflow in environments with complex multi-layer mineral distributions. The Yanlong mining area is a complex [...] Read more.
Previous scholarly investigations have mainly concentrated on examining water intake, particularly within the specific domain of coal mines. Nevertheless, the scholarly discourse lacks significant research on predicting water inflow in environments with complex multi-layer mineral distributions. The Yanlong mining area is a complex mine containing coal and bauxite. Forecasting the water inflow of bauxite deposits is crucial for designing mining drainage and formulating a mining plan in a coal-bearing rock series mining area. The water inflow on the roof and floor of bauxite was studied with various numerical simulation and analytical methods (such as the big well method). The hydrogeological conceptual and numerical model of the mining area was established by the MODFLOW module in Groundwater Modeling System (GMS (7.1)) software, and the measured groundwater level was identified and verified in the model. The results show that the model average values of R2, Ens, and PBIAS are 0.86, 0.81 and 2.71, respectively, indicating that the established numerical simulation model can accurately forecast water inflow into the aquifer. Taking No. XII orebody in the eastern Songshan Mining area as an example, a virtual well group consisting of 12 wells was set up, and the numerical model forecast a water inflow of 71,500 m3/d from the Taiyuan Formation aquifer in the bauxite ore roof, which was lower than the value predicted by the large well method (72,786.66 m3/d). The numerical method predicted an average water inflow of 59,000 m3/d and a maximum water inflow of 82,600 m3/d from the Majiagou Formation in the bauxite ore floor. A dependence has been established that the numerical method estimates water inflow with accuracy. Additionally, the model predicts future mining water inflow, and also provides a standard framework for estimating inflow in similar mining conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological Simulation for Erosion and Infiltration)
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14 pages, 10315 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Implementation Effect of a Gully Consolidation and Highland Protection (GCHP) Project Based on the GeoWEPP Model
by Yi Luo, Aidi Huo, Luying Yang, Zhixin Zhao, Adnan Ahmed, Ahmed Elbeltagi, Mohamed EL-Sayed Abuarab and Hossein Ganjidoust
Water 2023, 15(16), 2971; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162971 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 839
Abstract
The Gully Consolidation and Highland Protection (GCHP) project is an important governance measure for controlling source erosion and reducing soil erosion in the Loess Plateau, which has been explored and developed continuously in recent decades. However, there is no international precedent for research [...] Read more.
The Gully Consolidation and Highland Protection (GCHP) project is an important governance measure for controlling source erosion and reducing soil erosion in the Loess Plateau, which has been explored and developed continuously in recent decades. However, there is no international precedent for research on the implementation effect of the GCHP project, and it is still relatively weak. In order to quantify the erosion of a small watershed under the construction of a gully head landfill, this study selected Yangjiagou (YJG) as the research area. The spatial analysis function of ArcGIS was used to process DEM and soil type data, the GeoWEPP model was used to simulate soil erosion, and the changes of runoff and sediment yield before and after gully head landfill were analyzed. The results showed that compared with the simulated original soil erosion amount, the annual runoff decreased by 13.13%, and the sediment yield decreased by 37.61% after gully head landfill, indicating that the GCHP project positively influenced soil erosion control. After the gully head landfill measures are taken, the flow path becomes shorter, so the flow scour capacity is weakened. Soil and water control is very effective in the short term, but if long-term maintenance is not carried out, the intensity of soil and water loss is likely to be aggravated. This study provides an effective verification method for the feasibility of a soil loss control scheme on the Loess Plateau and provides a reference for promoting ecological priority and efficient management in the Loess gully area. Ultimately, it will serve the ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological Simulation for Erosion and Infiltration)
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20 pages, 7458 KiB  
Article
Computing of Permeability Tensor and Seepage Flow Model of Intact Malan Loess by X-ray Computed Tomography
by Yangchun Lu, Yudong Lu, Ting Lu, Bo Wang, Guanghao Zeng and Xu Zhang
Water 2023, 15(15), 2851; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152851 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1126
Abstract
Malan loess is an eolian sediment in arid and semi-arid areas. It is of great significance to study the pore structure of Malan loess for its evolution, strength, and mechanical properties. In order to quantitatively characterize the absolute permeability tensor of Malan loess [...] Read more.
Malan loess is an eolian sediment in arid and semi-arid areas. It is of great significance to study the pore structure of Malan loess for its evolution, strength, and mechanical properties. In order to quantitatively characterize the absolute permeability tensor of Malan loess and to simulate the seepage process of Malan loess, this study calculated the specific yield of intact Malan loess with a homemade seepage experimental device and recorded the water flow process on the surface of Malan loess during the seepage process. Modern computed tomography was used to scan the intact Malan loess samples from Jiuzhoutai, Lanzhou (western part of the Loess Plateau, China); the specific yield of the intact loess was used as the parameter value for the threshold segmentation of the scanned image for the 3D reconstruction of the connected pore space, the solver program in AVIZO software was used to solve the absolute permeability tensor of Malan loess using the volume averaging method combined with the CT scan to reconstruct the 3D pore space, and the simulation of the seepage process was carried out. The simulation results showed that Malan loess is a highly anisotropic loess; the absolute permeability in the vertical direction is 9.02 times and 3.86 times higher than the permeability in the horizontal direction. The pore spaces are well connected in the vertical direction (forming a near-vertical arrangement of pipes) and weakly connected in the horizontal direction. In the seepage simulation, it was found that the water flows first along the vertically oriented channels and then fills the horizontally oriented pores; the absolute permeability coefficient was calculated to be 0.3482 μm2. The indoor seepage experiment was consistent with the simulation experiment, which verifies the reliability of the calculated model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological Simulation for Erosion and Infiltration)
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14 pages, 4178 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Different Gully Consolidation and Highland Protection Models on the Runoff and Sediment Yield in Small Watershed of the Chinese Loess Plateau—A Case Study of Fengbugou in Qingyang City of Gansu
by Zhixin Zhao, Aidi Huo, Yuxiang Cheng, Pingping Luo, Jianbing Peng, Ahmed Elbeltagi, Mohamed EL-Sayed Abuarab, Ali Mokhtar and Adnan Ahmed
Water 2023, 15(15), 2764; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152764 - 30 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 922
Abstract
The Gully Consolidation and Highland Protection (GCHP) project is crucial in preventing gully erosion in the Loess Plateau. However, there are new problems after the completion of the GCHP project, such as secondary disasters caused by sudden changes in water flow paths. To [...] Read more.
The Gully Consolidation and Highland Protection (GCHP) project is crucial in preventing gully erosion in the Loess Plateau. However, there are new problems after the completion of the GCHP project, such as secondary disasters caused by sudden changes in water flow paths. To study the impact of different GCHP measures on runoff and sediment production, we conducted a series of scouring experiments using the similarity principle, taking Fengbao Gully, Xifeng District, Qingyang City, Gansu Province, as a prototype. Moreover, three scenarios in the GCHP project (landfill (LT), nondrained terraced (NDT), and terrace with a drainage system (DT)) are established. Seasonal rainfall simulation experiments are conducted with a constant slope. The results showed that during summer rainfall, the 10 min runoff depth of LT is 67.83~276.03% higher than that of NDT. However, in spring and autumn, the runoff depth of NDT is 4.12~39.84% higher than LT’s. The sediment yield of LT is 0.06–5.58 times higher than that of NDT and 1.91–25.58 times higher than that of DT. The sediment yield of NDT is 0.46–4.02 times higher than that of LT and 2.27–23.93 times higher than that of DT, indicating that, under the same conditions, the effect of slope replacement with terraces for GCHP is better than that of gully head landfill in reducing soil erosion and secondary geological disasters. Furthermore, imperfect terrace construction can result in increased sediment yield. This study provides a scientific basis for the maintenance and later management of GCHP and helps implement soil and water conservation measures in similar regions worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological Simulation for Erosion and Infiltration)
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