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Wetland Ecohydrology: Restoration of Contaminated Wetlands in Sustainability

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Sustainability and Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2023) | Viewed by 6258

Special Issue Editors

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China
Interests: wetland ecological process; water and soil pollution restoration; environmental risk assessment and management; urban ecological planning and management; uncertainty quantification analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
College of Urban & Environmental Sciences, Northwest University, Xi’an 710127, China
Interests: wetland remediation of nutrient contaminants; water chemistry

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Guest Editor
1. Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effects in Arid Region, Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, 710064 Xi’an, China
2. School of Water and Environment, Chang’an University, 710064 Xi’an, China
Interests: urban flood; flood management; hydrological modeling; water quality analysis; statistical analysis; sustainable water resource management; ecohydrology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Civil Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
Interests: atmospheric circulation; atmospheric thermodynamics; land and atmospheric interactions; precipitation extremes; climate detection and attribution
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wetlands is an important component of the surface earth system. Their function through strong interactions between hydrology and ecology, and thus are central environments for ecohydrological research. With rapid economic and social development and global climate change, the pressure on the environmental status and ecological security of the wetlands is increasing. To comprehensively understand the environment conditions of the watershed ecosystem, we set this issue to raise concerns and update significant changes, knowledge, and technologies relevant to monitoring, integration, evaluation and restoration of the contaminated wetlands, which will provide a scientific basis for the criterion and restriction of human activities, raising community awareness of the environment and enhancing the implementation of regional sustainable development strategies and policies and measures. We seek papers on the following topics:

  • The ecohydrological processes of wetlands and their mechanism
  • The environmental evolution mechanism and social-ecological response of the wetlands ecosystems
  • The technologies for restoration of contaminated wetlands.

I/We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Jie Liang
Dr. Anlei Wei
Prof. Dr. Pingping Luo
Dr. Xuezhi Tan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wetlands
  • ecohydrology
  • global change
  • restoration
  • social-ecological response

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 9792 KiB  
Article
A Numerical Simulation Study on the Probable Maximum Typhoon Wave in the South China Sea
by Jianjun Yi, Xingnan Zhang, Guoliang Zou, Ke Zhang and Jianquan Wang
Sustainability 2023, 15(13), 10254; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310254 - 28 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1070
Abstract
The South China Sea spans the tropics and subtropics. Tropical cyclones in the area are extremely active, due to the features of its marine environment, such as wide water-depth profile, complex topography and hydrology. The maximum wave heights along the coast of China [...] Read more.
The South China Sea spans the tropics and subtropics. Tropical cyclones in the area are extremely active, due to the features of its marine environment, such as wide water-depth profile, complex topography and hydrology. The maximum wave heights along the coast of China are normally generated by typhoons. Especially in the context of global warming, extreme weather events have significantly increased in the recent years, leading to more frequent strong and super typhoons. With the development of resources and energy in China expanding into the deep sea, extreme waves have caused serious damage to sea projects, endangering people’s lives and properties. Selecting the accurate typhoon gradient model to calculate various extreme waves, including the probable maximum tropical cyclone (PMTC) wave, is of significance for the safety of marine engineering construction and disaster prevention and mitigation. In this paper, we first proposed a wind field fusion model suitable for the South China Sea by superimposing an empirical typhoon model with the background wind field, and further verified it using the measured typhoon data. Secondly, the fused wind field was used as the input wind field of the SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) model, and the wave fields of typhoons “Usagi” and “Mangosteen” were used to verify the model. The relevant parameters of PMTC were calculated using the Pearson Type III frequency fitting method, while the verified SWAN model was used to calculate the probable maximum typhoon wave, and P-III frequency analysis was carried out by direction of the extrapolated result of typhoon waves to obtain the design wave elements of each return period. Finally, a model for calculating the probable maximum typhoon wave suitable for this sea area was proposed to derive the characteristic parameters and time-histories of the probable maximum typhoon wave and the wave heights and their corresponding frequencies of various extreme waves. Full article
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23 pages, 39298 KiB  
Article
Spatial Distribution and Controlling Factors of Groundwater Quality Parameters in Yancheng Area on the Lower Reaches of the Huaihe River, Central East China
by Jian Wang and Junli Xu
Sustainability 2023, 15(8), 6882; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15086882 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1006
Abstract
Groundwater samples that were distributed across the Yancheng area in the lower reaches of the Huaihe River were collected from the phreatic aquifer and first confined water layer during the summer of 2016. Using the water quality index, the suitability of the groundwater [...] Read more.
Groundwater samples that were distributed across the Yancheng area in the lower reaches of the Huaihe River were collected from the phreatic aquifer and first confined water layer during the summer of 2016. Using the water quality index, the suitability of the groundwater for drinking and irrigation purposes was systematically evaluated. The controlling factors of solute formation and the causes of water quality deterioration were discussed using the Chadha diagram and the relationship among ions. The results showed that there was a serious lack of excellent- and good-grade groundwater for drinking purposes in the shallow layer. The groundwater was also found to be unsuitable for irrigation, with only approximately 70% being of good quality. The spatial heterogeneity of the water quality was significant, and poor-quality groundwater was found to be distributed discontinuously. The high concentration of alkali metals in the shallow groundwater was found to be due to the weathering of silicate rocks in clay and subclays and the replacement of Ca2+ with Na+ in the surrounding rocks. Additionally, the leaching of residues from the salt industry and marine sediment in historical periods were identified as key factors leading to the scattering of poor-quality groundwater in inland areas. The study found that the shallow groundwater in the study area was not significantly affected by seawater intrusion and human activities. However, signs of human activity, such as agricultural fertilizer and urban sewage, were found to be affecting the “excellent-” and “good-grade” shallow groundwater intended for irrigation purposes. Full article
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17 pages, 8376 KiB  
Article
Data Stream Approach for Exploration of Droughts and Floods Driving Forces in the Dongting Lake Wetland
by Yeqing Zhai, Jie Liang, Zhenyu An, Xin Li, Ziqian Zhu, Wanting Wang, Yuru Yi and Suhang Yang
Sustainability 2022, 14(24), 16778; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142416778 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1310
Abstract
Wetlands are important environmental resources that are vulnerable to droughts and floods. Studying drought-flood events and their driving factors is essential for wetland resource planning and management. However, climate change and human activities present dynamic challenges that traditional approaches are unable to simulate [...] Read more.
Wetlands are important environmental resources that are vulnerable to droughts and floods. Studying drought-flood events and their driving factors is essential for wetland resource planning and management. However, climate change and human activities present dynamic challenges that traditional approaches are unable to simulate dynamically in a rapidly changing environment. This makes quantitative analysis difficult. Our research focused on the innovative use of the data stream model, namely online bagging of Hoeffding adaptive trees, to quantify drought and flood drivers in response to climate change and human activity. The proposed approach was applied to a river-lake system, the Dongting Lake wetland. The frequency and duration characteristics of drought-flood events were analyzed. In addition, the cyclical changes of droughts and floods were analyzed by wavelet analysis. Then, drought-flood indicators as well as climatic and hydrological factors were entered into a dynamic data stream model for quantitative calculations. The results showed that the water conservancy projects largely reduced flood events while aggravating droughts. The frequency of floods decreased by 4.91% and the frequency of droughts increased by 6.81% following the construction of the Gezhouba Hydro-project and the Three Gorges Dam. Precipitation and Sankou streamflow were two dominant factors in the Dongting Lake drought and flood events, both of which had a feature importance value of approximately 0.3. This research showed how the data stream model can be used in a changing environment and the applicability of the conclusions reached through real-world instances. Moreover, these quantitative outputs can help in the sustainable utilization of Dongting Lake wetland resources. Full article
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Review

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18 pages, 4055 KiB  
Review
Spatio-Temporal Distribution and Risk Assessment of Antibiotic in the Aquatic Environment in China Nationwide, A Review
by Nan Li, Yongxin Cai, Hanling Chen, Junjie Huang, Zhihao Hou and Qi Li
Sustainability 2023, 15(1), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15010386 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1930
Abstract
Antibiotics have been an emerging concern due to the potential adverse threat on the environment and human health. Studies on the presence and fate of antibiotics in Chinese aqueous environments have increased in the past few years. Nevertheless, the distribution of antibiotics contributing [...] Read more.
Antibiotics have been an emerging concern due to the potential adverse threat on the environment and human health. Studies on the presence and fate of antibiotics in Chinese aqueous environments have increased in the past few years. Nevertheless, the distribution of antibiotics contributing to the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance in China nationwide remains unclear. This review summarizes the temporal and spatial distribution of antibiotics in different aqueous environmental systems across the China in the last decade. In all, 79 antibiotics with the concentration range of 0.04 ng/L~6.54 μg/L have been detected in the aquatic environment in China. The Bohai Sea had the highest annual average concentration of total antibiotics ranging from 5.66 to 1552.59 ng/L. The peak of antibiotics in four typical water systems occurred in different years. Antibiotics in the surface water of Northern China accounted for 47.0% of the total annual average concentrations in four regions. Sulfonamides, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones were the dominant compounds both for seawater and surface water. In contrast, β-lactams, sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones were the most abundant for the wastewater treatment plants. That indicated that β-lactams were from human medicine and tetracyclines were from veterinary antibiotics. The risk assessment demonstrated ofloxacin, norfloxacin and enrofloxacin had posed the higher risk than other antibiotics. The review provides an improved understanding on aquatic antibiotics pollution to outline the Chinese scenario and addresses the prospects for future research relating to the issues requiring urgent attention. Full article
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