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Remote Sens., Volume 16, Issue 9 (May-1 2024) – 174 articles

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18 pages, 15092 KiB  
Article
Terrace Extraction Method Based on Remote Sensing and a Novel Deep Learning Framework
by Yinghai Zhao, Jiawei Zou, Suhong Liu and Yun Xie
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1649; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091649 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 634
Abstract
Terraces, farmlands built along hillside contours, are common anthropogenically designed landscapes. Terraces control soil and water loss and improve land productivity; therefore, obtaining their spatial distribution is necessary for soil and water conservation and agricultural production. Spatial information of large-scale terraces can be [...] Read more.
Terraces, farmlands built along hillside contours, are common anthropogenically designed landscapes. Terraces control soil and water loss and improve land productivity; therefore, obtaining their spatial distribution is necessary for soil and water conservation and agricultural production. Spatial information of large-scale terraces can be obtained using satellite images and through deep learning. However, when extracting terraces, accurately segmenting the boundaries of terraces and identifying small terraces in diverse scenarios continues to be challenging. To solve this problem, we combined two deep learning modules, ANB-LN and DFB, to produce a new deep learning framework (NLDF-Net) for terrace extraction using remote sensing images. The model first extracted the features of the terraces through the coding area to obtain abstract semantic features, and then gradually recovered the original size through the decoding area using feature fusion. In addition, we constructed a terrace dataset (the HRT-set) for Guangdong Province and conducted a series of comparative experiments on this dataset using the new framework. The experimental results show that our framework had the best extraction effect compared to those of other deep learning methods. This framework provides a method and reference for extracting ground objects using remote sensing images. Full article
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23 pages, 16364 KiB  
Article
Mapping the Continuous Cover of Invasive Noxious Weed Species Using Sentinel-2 Imagery and a Novel Convolutional Neural Regression Network
by Fei Xing, Ru An, Xulin Guo and Xiaoji Shen
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1648; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091648 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 477
Abstract
Invasive noxious weed species (INWS) are typical poisonous plants and forbs that are considered an increasing threat to the native alpine grassland ecosystems in the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Accurate knowledge of the continuous cover of INWS across complex alpine grassland ecosystems over a [...] Read more.
Invasive noxious weed species (INWS) are typical poisonous plants and forbs that are considered an increasing threat to the native alpine grassland ecosystems in the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Accurate knowledge of the continuous cover of INWS across complex alpine grassland ecosystems over a large scale is required for their control and management. However, the cooccurrence of INWS and native grass species results in highly heterogeneous grass communities and generates mixed pixels detected by remote sensors, which causes uncertainty in classification. The continuous coverage of INWS at the pixel level has not yet been achieved. In this study, objective 1 was to test the capability of Senginel-2 imagery at estimating continuous INWS cover across complex alpine grasslands over a large scale and objective 2 was to assess the performance of the state-of-the-art convolutional neural network-based regression (CNNR) model in estimating continuous INWS cover. Therefore, a novel CNNR model and a random forest regression (RFR) model were evaluated for estimating INWS continuous cover using Sentinel-2 imagery. INWS continuous cover was estimated directly from Sentinel-2 imagery with an R2 ranging from 0.88 to 0.93 using the CNNR model. The RFR model combined with multiple features had a comparable accuracy, which was slightly lower than that of the CNNR model, with an R2 of approximately 0.85. Twelve green band-, red-edge band-, and near-infrared band-related features had important contributions to the RFR model. Our results demonstrate that the CNNR model performs well when estimating INWS continuous cover directly from Sentinel-2 imagery, and the RFR model combined with multiple features derived from the Sentinel-2 imager can also be used for INWS continuous cover mapping. Sentinel-2 imagery is suitable for mapping continuous INWS cover across complex alpine grasslands over a large scale. Our research provides information for the advanced mapping of the continuous cover of invasive species across complex grassland ecosystems or, more widely, terrestrial ecosystems over large spatial areas using remote sensors such as Sentinel-2. Full article
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24 pages, 8326 KiB  
Article
High Resolution Ranging with Small Sample Number under Low SNR Utilizing RIP-OMCS Strategy and AHRC l1 Minimization for Laser Radar
by Min Xue, Mengdao Xing, Yuexin Gao, Jixiang Fu, Zhixin Wu and Wangshuo Tang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1647; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091647 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 399
Abstract
This manuscript presents a novel scheme to achieve high-resolution laser-radar ranging with a small sample number under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions. To reduce the sample number, the Restricted Isometry Property-based optimal multi-channel coprime-sampling (RIP-OMCS) strategy is established. In the RIP-OMCS strategy, the [...] Read more.
This manuscript presents a novel scheme to achieve high-resolution laser-radar ranging with a small sample number under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions. To reduce the sample number, the Restricted Isometry Property-based optimal multi-channel coprime-sampling (RIP-OMCS) strategy is established. In the RIP-OMCS strategy, the data collected across multiple channels with very low coprime-sampling rates can record accurate range information on each target. Further, the asynchronous problem caused by channel sampling-time errors is considered. The sampling-time errors are estimated using the cross-correlation function. After canceling the asynchronous problem, the data collected by multiple channels are then merged into non-uniform sampled signals. Using data combination, target-range estimation is converted into an optimization problem of sparse representation consisting of a non-uniform Fourier dictionary. This optimization problem is solved using adaptive hybrid re-weighted constraint (AHRC) l1 minimization. Two constraints are formed from statistical attributes of the targets and clutter. Moreover, as the detailed characteristics of the target, clutter, and noise are unknown before the solution, the two constraints can be adaptively modified, which guarantees that l1 minimization obtains the high-resolution range profile and accurate distance of all targets under a low SNR. Our experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Radar Signal and Data Processing with Applications)
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14 pages, 9313 KiB  
Article
Remote Detection of Geothermal Alteration Using Airborne Light Detection and Ranging Return Intensity
by Yan Restu Freski, Christoph Hecker, Mark van der Meijde and Agung Setianto
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1646; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091646 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 615
Abstract
The remote detection of hydrothermally altered grounds in geothermal exploration demands datasets capable of reliably detecting key outcrops with fine spatial resolution. While optical thermal or radar-based datasets have resolution limitations, airborne LiDAR offers point-based detection through its LiDAR return intensity (LRI) values, [...] Read more.
The remote detection of hydrothermally altered grounds in geothermal exploration demands datasets capable of reliably detecting key outcrops with fine spatial resolution. While optical thermal or radar-based datasets have resolution limitations, airborne LiDAR offers point-based detection through its LiDAR return intensity (LRI) values, serving as a proxy for surface reflectivity. Despite this potential, few studies have explored LRI value variations in the context of hydrothermal alteration and their utility in distinguishing altered from unaltered rocks. Although the link between alteration degree and LRI values has been established under laboratory conditions, this relationship has yet to be demonstrated in airborne data. This study investigates the applicability of laboratory results to airborne LRI data for alteration detection. Utilising LRI data from an airborne LiDAR point cloud (wavelength 1064 nm, density 12 points per square metre) acquired over a prospective geothermal area in Bajawa, Indonesia, where rock sampling for a related laboratory study took place, we compare the airborne LRI values within each ground sampling area of a 3 m radius (due to hand-held GPS uncertainty) with laboratory LRI values of corresponding rock samples. Our findings reveal distinguishable differences between strongly altered and unaltered samples, with LRI discrepancies of approximately ~28 for airborne data and ~12 for laboratory data. Furthermore, the relative trends of airborne and laboratory-based LRI data concerning alteration degree exhibit striking similarity. These consistent results for alteration degree in laboratory and airborne data mark a significant step towards LRI-based alteration mapping from airborne platforms. Full article
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19 pages, 5315 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Characteristics on Different Underlying Surfaces of the Eastern Tibetan Plateau in Summer
by Xiaohang Wen, Jie Ma and Mei Chen
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1645; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091645 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 415
Abstract
The atmospheric boundary layer is a key region for human activities and the interaction of various layers and is an important channel for the transportation of momentum, heat, and various substances between the free atmosphere and the surface, which has a significant impact [...] Read more.
The atmospheric boundary layer is a key region for human activities and the interaction of various layers and is an important channel for the transportation of momentum, heat, and various substances between the free atmosphere and the surface, which has a significant impact on the development of weather and climate change. During the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program (STEP) in June 2022, utilizing the comprehensive stereoscopic observation experiment of the “Plateau Low Vortex Network”, this study analyzed the variation characteristics and influencing factors of the atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLH) at three stations with different underlying surface types on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP): Qumalai Station (grassland), Southeast Tibet Observation and Research Station for the Alpine Environment (SETORS, forest), and Sieshan Station (cropland). The analysis utilized sounding observation data, microwave radiometer data, and ERA5 reanalysis data. The results revealed that the temperature differences between the sounding observation data and microwave radiometer data were minor at the three stations, with a notable temperature inversion phenomenon observed at Sieshan Station. Regarding water vapor density, the differences between the sounding observation data and microwave radiometer data were relatively small at Sieshan Station. The relative humidity increased with height at Sieshan Station, whereas it increased and then decreased with height at SETORS and Qumalai Station. The ABLH at all sites reached its maximum value around noon, approximately 1500 m, and exhibited mostly convective boundary layer (CBL) characteristics. During the night, the ABLH mostly showed a stable boundary layer (SBL) pattern, with heights around 250 m. In summer, latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H) in the eastern plateau were generally lower than those in the western plateau except at 20:00, where they were higher. Vertical velocity (w) in the eastern plateau was greater than in the western plateau. Among Sieshan Station and SETORS, LE, and H had the most significant impact on ABLH, while at Qumalai Station, ABLH was more influenced by surface long-wave radiation (Rlu). These four influencing factors showed a positive correlation with ABLH. The impact of different underlying surface types on ABLH primarily manifests in surface temperature variations, solar radiation intensity, vegetation cover, and terrain. Grasslands typically exhibit a larger range of ABLH variations, while the ABLH in forests and mountainous cropland areas is relatively stable. Full article
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18 pages, 4891 KiB  
Article
A Technique for SAR Significant Wave Height Retrieval Using Azimuthal Cut-Off Wavelength Based on Machine Learning
by Shaijie Leng, Mengyu Hao, Weizeng Shao, Armando Marino and Xingwei Jiang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1644; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091644 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 416
Abstract
This study introduces a new machine learning-based algorithm for the retrieving significant wave height (SWH) using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. This algorithm is based on the azimuthal cut-off wavelength and was developed in quad-polarized stripmap (QPS) mode in coastal waters. The collected [...] Read more.
This study introduces a new machine learning-based algorithm for the retrieving significant wave height (SWH) using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. This algorithm is based on the azimuthal cut-off wavelength and was developed in quad-polarized stripmap (QPS) mode in coastal waters. The collected images are collocated with a wave simulation from the numeric model, called WAVEWATCH-III (WW3), and the current speed from the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). The sea surface wind is retrieved from the image at the vertical–vertical polarization channel, using the geophysical model function (GMF) CSARMOD-GF. The results of the algorithm were validated against the measurements obtained from the Haiyang-2B (HY-2B) scatterometer, yielding a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 1.99 m/s with a 0.82 correlation (COR) and 0.27 scatter index of wind speed. It was found that the SWH depends on the wind speed and azimuthal cut-off wavelength. However, the current speed has less of an influence on azimuthal cut-off wavelength. Following this rationale, four widely known machine learning methods were employed that take the SAR-derived azimuthal cut-off wavelength, wind speed, and radar incidence angle as inputs and then output the SWH. The validation result shows that the SAR-derived SWH by eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) against the HY-2B altimeter products has a 0.34 m RMSE with a 0.97 COR and a 0.07 bias, which is better than the results obtained using an existing algorithm (i.e., a 1.10 m RMSE with a 0.77 COR and a 0.44 bias) and the other three machine learning methods (i.e., a >0.58 m RMSE with a <0.95 COR), i.e., convolutional neural networks (CNNs), Support Vector Regression (SVR) and the ridge regression model (RR). As a result, XGBoost is a highly efficient approach for GF-3 wave retrieval at the regular sea state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Remote Sensing)
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21 pages, 11192 KiB  
Article
Estimating Urban Forests Biomass with LiDAR by Using Deep Learning Foundation Models
by Hanzhang Liu, Chao Mou, Jiateng Yuan, Zhibo Chen, Liheng Zhong and Xiaohui Cui
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1643; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091643 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 668
Abstract
Accurately estimating vegetation biomass in urban forested areas is of great interest to researchers as it is a key indicator of the carbon sequestration capacity necessary for cities to achieve carbon neutrality. The emerging vegetation biomass estimation methods that use AI technologies with [...] Read more.
Accurately estimating vegetation biomass in urban forested areas is of great interest to researchers as it is a key indicator of the carbon sequestration capacity necessary for cities to achieve carbon neutrality. The emerging vegetation biomass estimation methods that use AI technologies with remote sensing images often suffer from arge estimating errors due to the diversity of vegetation and the complex three-dimensional terrain environment in urban ares. However, the high resolution of Light Detection and Ranging (i.e., LiDAR) data provides an opportunity to accurately describe the complex 3D scenes of urban forests, thereby improving estimation accuracy. Additionally, deep earning foundation models have widely succeeded in the industry, and show great potential promise to estimate vegetation biomass through processing complex and arge amounts of urban LiDAR data efficiently and accurately. In this study, we propose an efficient and accurate method called 3D-CiLBE (3DCity Long-term Biomass Estimation) to estimate urban vegetation biomass by utilizing advanced deep earning foundation models. In the 3D-CiLBE method, the Segment Anything Model (i.e., SAM) was used to segment single wood information from a arge amount of complex urban LiDAR data. Then, we modified the Contrastive Language–Image Pre-training (i.e., CLIP) model to identify the species of the wood so that the classic anisotropic growth equation can be used to estimate biomass. Finally, we utilized the Informer model to predict the biomass in the ong term. We evaluate it in eight urban areas across the United States. In the task of identifying urban greening areas, the 3D-CiLBE achieves optimal performance with a mean Intersection over Union (i.e., mIoU) of 0.94. Additionally, for vegetation classification, 3D-CiLBE achieves an optimal recognition accuracy of 92.72%. The estimation of urban vegetation biomass using 3D-CiLBE achieves a Mean Square Error of 0.045 kg/m2, reducing the error by up to 8.2% compared to 2D methods. The MSE for biomass prediction by 3D-CiLBE was 0.06kg/m2 smaller on average than the inear regression model. Therefore, the experimental results indicate that the 3D-CiLBE method can accurately estimate urban vegetation biomass and has potential for practical application. Full article
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12 pages, 3256 KiB  
Article
Miniaturizing Hyperspectral Lidar System Employing Integrated Optical Filters
by Haibin Sun, Yicheng Wang, Zhipei Sun, Shaowei Wang, Shengli Sun, Jianxin Jia, Changhui Jiang, Peilun Hu, Haima Yang, Xing Yang, Mika Karjalnen, Juha Hyyppä and Yuwei Chen
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1642; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091642 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 690
Abstract
Hyperspectral LiDAR (HSL) has been utilized as an efficacious technique in object classification and recognition based on its unique capability to obtain ranges and spectra synchronously. Different kinds of HSL prototypes with varied structures have been promoted and measured its performance. However, almost [...] Read more.
Hyperspectral LiDAR (HSL) has been utilized as an efficacious technique in object classification and recognition based on its unique capability to obtain ranges and spectra synchronously. Different kinds of HSL prototypes with varied structures have been promoted and measured its performance. However, almost all of these HSL prototypes employ complex and large spectroscopic devices, such as an Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter and Liquid-Crystal Tunable Filter, which makes this HSL system bulky and expensive, and then hinders its extensive application in many fields. In this paper, a smart and smaller spectroscopic component, an intergraded optical filter (IOF), is promoted to miniaturize these HSL systems. The system calibration, range precision, and spectral profile experiments were carried out to test the HSL prototype. Although the IOF employed here only covered a wavelength range of 699–758 nm with a six-channel passband and showed a transmittance of less than 50%, the HSL prototype showed excellent performance in ranging and spectral profile collecting. The spectral profiles collected are well in accordance with those acquired based on the AOTF. The spectral profiles of the fruits, vegetables, plants, and ore samples collected by the HSL based on an IOF can effectively reveal the status of the plants, the component materials, and ore species. Finally, we also showed the integrated design of the HSL based on a three-dimensional IOF and combined with a detector. The performance and designs of this HSL system based on an IOF show great potential for miniaturizing in some specific applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing and Lidar Data for Forest Monitoring)
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21 pages, 6695 KiB  
Article
MVT: Multi-Vision Transformer for Event-Based Small Target Detection
by Shilong Jing, Hengyi Lv, Yuchen Zhao, Hailong Liu and Ming Sun
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1641; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091641 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Object detection in remote sensing plays a crucial role in various ground identification tasks. However, due to the limited feature information contained within small targets, which are more susceptible to being buried by complex backgrounds, especially in extreme environments (e.g., low-light, motion-blur scenes). [...] Read more.
Object detection in remote sensing plays a crucial role in various ground identification tasks. However, due to the limited feature information contained within small targets, which are more susceptible to being buried by complex backgrounds, especially in extreme environments (e.g., low-light, motion-blur scenes). Meanwhile, event cameras offer a unique paradigm with high temporal resolution and wide dynamic range for object detection. These advantages enable event cameras without being limited by the intensity of light, to perform better in challenging conditions compared to traditional cameras. In this work, we introduce the Multi-Vision Transformer (MVT), which comprises three efficiently designed components: the downsampling module, the Channel Spatial Attention (CSA) module, and the Global Spatial Attention (GSA) module. This architecture simultaneously considers short-term and long-term dependencies in semantic information, resulting in improved performance for small object detection. Additionally, we propose Cross Deformable Attention (CDA), which progressively fuses high-level and low-level features instead of considering all scales at each layer, thereby reducing the computational complexity of multi-scale features. Nevertheless, due to the scarcity of event camera remote sensing datasets, we provide the Event Object Detection (EOD) dataset, which is the first dataset that includes various extreme scenarios specifically introduced for remote sensing using event cameras. Moreover, we conducted experiments on the EOD dataset and two typical unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing datasets (VisDrone2019 and UAVDT Dataset). The comprehensive results demonstrate that the proposed MVT-Net achieves a promising and competitive performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Target Object Detection and Identification II)
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20 pages, 855 KiB  
Article
Space–Air–Ground–Sea Integrated Network with Federated Learning
by Hao Zhao, Fei Ji, Yan Wang, Kexing Yao and Fangjiong Chen
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1640; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091640 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 538
Abstract
A space–air–ground–sea integrated network (SAGSIN) is a promising heterogeneous network framework for the next generation mobile communications. Moreover, federated learning (FL), as a widely used distributed intelligence approach, can improve advanced network performance. In view of the combination and cooperation of SAGSINs and [...] Read more.
A space–air–ground–sea integrated network (SAGSIN) is a promising heterogeneous network framework for the next generation mobile communications. Moreover, federated learning (FL), as a widely used distributed intelligence approach, can improve advanced network performance. In view of the combination and cooperation of SAGSINs and FL, an FL-based SAGSIN framework faces a number of unprecedented challenges, not only from the communication aspect but also on the security and privacy side. Motivated by these observations, in this article, we first give a detailed state-of-the-art review of recent progress and ongoing research works on FL-based SAGSINs. Then, the challenges of FL-based SAGSINs are discussed. After that, for different service demands, basic applications are introduced with their benefits and functions. In addition, two case studies are proposed, in order to improve SAGSINs’ communication efficiency under a significant communication latency difference and to protect user-level privacy for SAGSIN participants, respectively. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. Moreover, future trends of FL-based SAGSINs are discussed. Full article
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16 pages, 4159 KiB  
Article
Urban Land Surface Temperature Downscaling in Chicago: Addressing Ethnic Inequality and Gentrification
by Jangho Lee, Max Berkelhammer, Matthew D. Wilson, Natalie Love and Ralph Cintron
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091639 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 489
Abstract
In this study, we developed a XGBoost-based algorithm to downscale 2 km-resolution land surface temperature (LST) data from the GOES satellite to a finer 70 m resolution, using ancillary variables including NDVI, NDBI, and DEM. This method demonstrated a superior performance over the [...] Read more.
In this study, we developed a XGBoost-based algorithm to downscale 2 km-resolution land surface temperature (LST) data from the GOES satellite to a finer 70 m resolution, using ancillary variables including NDVI, NDBI, and DEM. This method demonstrated a superior performance over the conventional TsHARP technique, achieving a reduced RMSE of 1.90 °C, compared to 2.51 °C with TsHARP. Our approach utilizes the geostationary GOES satellite data alongside high-resolution ECOSTRESS data, enabling hourly LST downscaling to 70 m—a significant advancement over previous methodologies that typically measure LST only once daily. Applying these high-resolution LST data, we examined the hottest days in Chicago and their correlation with ethnic inequality. Our analysis indicated that Hispanic/Latino communities endure the highest LSTs, with a maximum LST that is 1.5 °C higher in blocks predominantly inhabited by Hispanic/Latino residents compared to those predominantly occupied by White residents. This study highlights the intersection of urban development, ethnic inequality, and environmental inequities, emphasizing the need for targeted urban planning to mitigate these disparities. The enhanced spatial and temporal resolution of our LST data provides deeper insights into diurnal temperature variations, crucial for understanding and addressing the urban heat distribution and its impact on vulnerable communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Land Surface Temperature and Related Applications)
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17 pages, 7188 KiB  
Article
Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Precipitation in the Bahr el Ghazal River Basin, Africa
by Jinyu Meng, Zengchuan Dong, Guobin Fu, Shengnan Zhu, Yiqing Shao, Shujun Wu and Zhuozheng Li
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1638; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091638 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 722
Abstract
Accurate and punctual precipitation data are fundamental to understanding regional hydrology and are a critical reference point for regional flood control. The aims of this study are to evaluate the performance of three widely used precipitation datasets—CRU TS, ERA5, and NCEP—as potential alternatives [...] Read more.
Accurate and punctual precipitation data are fundamental to understanding regional hydrology and are a critical reference point for regional flood control. The aims of this study are to evaluate the performance of three widely used precipitation datasets—CRU TS, ERA5, and NCEP—as potential alternatives for hydrological applications in the Bahr el Ghazal River Basin in South Sudan, Africa. This includes examining the spatial and temporal evolution of regional precipitation using relatively accurate precipitation datasets. The findings indicate that CRU TS is the best precipitation dataset in the Bahr el Ghazal Basin. The spatial and temporal distributions of precipitation from CRU TS reveal that precipitation in the Bahr el Ghazal Basin has a clear wet season, with June–August accounting for half of the annual precipitation and peaking in July and August. The long-term annual total precipitation exhibits a gradual increasing trend from the north to the south, with the southwestern part of the Basin having the largest percentage of wet season precipitation. Notably, the Bahr el Ghazal Basin witnessed a significant precipitation shift in 1967, followed by an increasing trend. Moreover, the spatial and temporal precipitation evolutions reveal an ongoing risk of flooding in the lower part of the Basin; therefore, increased engineering counter-measures might be needed for effective flood prevention. Full article
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27 pages, 9009 KiB  
Article
Temporal Variations in Land Surface Temperature within an Urban Ecosystem: A Comprehensive Assessment of Land Use and Land Cover Change in Kharkiv, Ukraine
by Gareth Rees, Liliia Hebryn-Baidy and Vadym Belenok
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1637; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091637 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Remote sensing technologies are critical for analyzing the escalating impacts of global climate change and increasing urbanization, providing vital insights into land surface temperature (LST), land use and cover (LULC) changes, and the identification of urban heat island (UHI) and surface urban heat [...] Read more.
Remote sensing technologies are critical for analyzing the escalating impacts of global climate change and increasing urbanization, providing vital insights into land surface temperature (LST), land use and cover (LULC) changes, and the identification of urban heat island (UHI) and surface urban heat island (SUHI) phenomena. This research focuses on the nexus between LULC alterations and variations in LST and air temperature (Tair), with a specific emphasis on the intensified SUHI effect in Kharkiv, Ukraine. Employing an integrated approach, this study analyzes time-series data from Landsat and MODIS satellites, alongside Tair climate records, utilizing machine learning techniques and linear regression analysis. Key findings indicate a statistically significant upward trend in Tair and LST during the summer months from 1984 to 2023, with a notable positive correlation between Tair and LST across both datasets. MODIS data exhibit a stronger correlation (R2 = 0.879) compared to Landsat (R2 = 0.663). The application of a supervised classification through Random Forest algorithms and vegetation indices on LULC data reveals significant alterations: a 70.3% increase in urban land and a decrement in vegetative cover comprising a 15.5% reduction in dense vegetation and a 62.9% decrease in sparse vegetation. Change detection analysis elucidates a 24.6% conversion of sparse vegetation into urban land, underscoring a pronounced trajectory towards urbanization. Temporal and seasonal LST variations across different LULC classes were analyzed using kernel density estimation (KDE) and boxplot analysis. Urban areas and sparse vegetation had the smallest average LST fluctuations, at 2.09 °C and 2.16 °C, respectively, but recorded the most extreme LST values. Water and dense vegetation classes exhibited slightly larger fluctuations of 2.30 °C and 2.24 °C, with the bare land class showing the highest fluctuation 2.46 °C, but fewer extremes. Quantitative analysis with the application of Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests across various LULC classes substantiated the normality of LST distributions p > 0.05 for both monthly and annual datasets. Conversely, the Shapiro-Wilk test validated the normal distribution hypothesis exclusively for monthly data, indicating deviations from normality in the annual data. Thresholded LST classifies urban and bare lands as the warmest classes at 39.51 °C and 38.20 °C, respectively, and classifies water at 35.96 °C, dense vegetation at 35.52 °C, and sparse vegetation 37.71 °C as the coldest, which is a trend that is consistent annually and monthly. The analysis of SUHI effects demonstrates an increasing trend in UHI intensity, with statistical trends indicating a growth in average SUHI values over time. This comprehensive study underscores the critical role of remote sensing in understanding and addressing the impacts of climate change and urbanization on local and global climates, emphasizing the need for sustainable urban planning and green infrastructure to mitigate UHI effects. Full article
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22 pages, 14050 KiB  
Article
An Evaluation and Improvement of Microphysical Parameterization for a Heavy Rainfall Process during the Meiyu Season
by Zhimin Zhou, Muyun Du, Yang Hu, Zhaoping Kang, Rong Yu and Yinglian Guo
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1636; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091636 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 601
Abstract
The present study assesses the simulated precipitation and cloud properties using three microphysics schemes (Morrison, Thompson and MY) implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The precipitation, differential reflectivity (ZDR), specific differential phase (KDP) and mass-weighted mean diameter [...] Read more.
The present study assesses the simulated precipitation and cloud properties using three microphysics schemes (Morrison, Thompson and MY) implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The precipitation, differential reflectivity (ZDR), specific differential phase (KDP) and mass-weighted mean diameter of raindrops (Dm) are compared with measurements from a heavy rainfall event that occurred on 27 June 2020 during the Integrative Monsoon Frontal Rainfall Experiment (IMFRE). The results indicate that all three microphysics schemes generally capture the characteristics of rainfall, ZDR, KDP and Dm, but tend to overestimate their intensity. To enhance the model performance, adjustments are made based on the MY scheme, which exhibited the best performance. Specifically, the overall coalescence and collision parameter (Ec) is reduced, which effectively decreases Dm and makes it more consistent with observations. Generally, reducing Ec leads to an increase in the simulated content (Qr) and number concentration (Nr) of raindrops across most time steps and altitudes. With a smaller Ec, the impact of microphysical processes on Nr and Qr varies with time and altitude. Generally, the autoconversion of droplets to raindrops primarily contributes to Nr, while the accretion of cloud droplets by raindrops plays a more significant role in increasing Qr. In this study, it is emphasized that even if the precipitation characteristics could be adequately reproduced, accurately simulating microphysical characteristics remains challenging and it still needs adjustments in the most physically based parameterizations to achieve more accurate simulation. Full article
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24 pages, 4272 KiB  
Article
JPSSL: SAR Terrain Classification Based on Jigsaw Puzzles and FC-CRF
by Zhongle Ren, Yiming Lu, Biao Hou, Weibin Li and Feng Sha
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1635; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091635 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Effective features play an important role in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image interpretation. However, since SAR images contain a variety of terrain types, it is not easy to extract effective features of different terrains from SAR images. Deep learning methods require a large [...] Read more.
Effective features play an important role in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image interpretation. However, since SAR images contain a variety of terrain types, it is not easy to extract effective features of different terrains from SAR images. Deep learning methods require a large amount of labeled data, but the difficulty of SAR image annotation limits the performance of deep learning models. SAR images have inevitable geometric distortion and coherence speckle noise, which makes it difficult to extract effective features from SAR images. If effective semantic context features cannot be learned for SAR images, the extracted features struggle to distinguish different terrain categories. Some existing terrain classification methods are very limited and can only be applied to some specified SAR images. To solve these problems, a jigsaw puzzle self-supervised learning (JPSSL) framework is proposed. The framework comprises a jigsaw puzzle pretext task and a terrain classification downstream task. In the pretext task, the information in the SAR image is learned by completing the SAR image jigsaw puzzle to extract effective features. The terrain classification downstream task is trained using only a small number of labeled data. Finally, fully connected conditional random field processing is performed to eliminate noise points and obtain a high-quality terrain classification result. Experimental results on three large-scene high-resolution SAR images confirm the effectiveness and generalization of our method. Compared with the supervised methods, the features learned in JPSSL are highly discriminative, and the JPSSL achieves good classification accuracy when using only a small amount of labeled data. Full article
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19 pages, 3476 KiB  
Article
Early Detection of Rubber Tree Powdery Mildew by Combining Spectral and Physicochemical Parameter Features
by Xiangzhe Cheng, Mengning Huang, Anting Guo, Wenjiang Huang, Zhiying Cai, Yingying Dong, Jing Guo, Zhuoqing Hao, Yanru Huang, Kehui Ren, Bohai Hu, Guiliang Chen, Haipeng Su, Lanlan Li and Yixian Liu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1634; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091634 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Powdery mildew significantly impacts the yield of natural rubber by being one of the predominant diseases that affect rubber trees. Accurate, non-destructive recognition of powdery mildew in the early stage is essential for the cultivation management of rubber trees. The objective of this [...] Read more.
Powdery mildew significantly impacts the yield of natural rubber by being one of the predominant diseases that affect rubber trees. Accurate, non-destructive recognition of powdery mildew in the early stage is essential for the cultivation management of rubber trees. The objective of this study is to establish a technique for the early detection of powdery mildew in rubber trees by combining spectral and physicochemical parameter features. At three field experiment sites and in the laboratory, a spectroradiometer and a hand-held optical leaf-clip meter were utilized, respectively, to measure the hyperspectral reflectance data (350–2500 nm) and physicochemical parameter data of both healthy and early-stage powdery-mildew-infected leaves. Initially, vegetation indices were extracted from hyperspectral reflectance data, and wavelet energy coefficients were obtained through continuous wavelet transform (CWT). Subsequently, significant vegetation indices (VIs) were selected using the ReliefF algorithm, and the optimal wavelengths (OWs) were chosen via competitive adaptive reweighted sampling. Principal component analysis was used for the dimensionality reduction of significant wavelet energy coefficients, resulting in wavelet features (WFs). To evaluate the detection capability of the aforementioned features, the three spectral features extracted above, along with their combinations with physicochemical parameter features (PFs) (VIs + PFs, OWs + PFs, WFs + PFs), were used to construct six classes of features. In turn, these features were input into support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), and logistic regression (LR), respectively, to build early detection models for powdery mildew in rubber trees. The results revealed that models based on WFs perform well, markedly outperforming those constructed using VIs and OWs as inputs. Moreover, models incorporating combined features surpass those relying on single features, with an overall accuracy (OA) improvement of over 1.9% and an increase in F1-Score of over 0.012. The model that combines WFs and PFs shows superior performance over all the other models, achieving OAs of 94.3%, 90.6%, and 93.4%, and F1-Scores of 0.952, 0.917, and 0.941 on SVM, RF, and LR, respectively. Compared to using WFs alone, the OAs improved by 1.9%, 2.8%, and 1.9%, and the F1-Scores increased by 0.017, 0.017, and 0.016, respectively. This study showcases the viability of early detection of powdery mildew in rubber trees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Remote Sensing for Sustainable Agriculture)
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24 pages, 7072 KiB  
Article
Multi-Year Cropland Mapping Based on Remote Sensing Data: A Case Study for the Khabarovsk Territory, Russia
by Konstantin Dubrovin, Andrey Verkhoturov, Alexey Stepanov and Tatiana Aseeva
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1633; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091633 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 544
Abstract
Cropland mapping using remote sensing data is the basis for effective crop monitoring, crop rotation control, and the detection of irrational land use. Classification using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series from multi-year data requires additional time costs, especially when [...] Read more.
Cropland mapping using remote sensing data is the basis for effective crop monitoring, crop rotation control, and the detection of irrational land use. Classification using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series from multi-year data requires additional time costs, especially when sentinel data are sparse. Approximation by nonlinear functions was proposed to solve this problem. Time series of weekly NDVI composites were plotted using multispectral Sentinel-2 (Level-2A) images at a resolution of 10 m for sites in Khabarovsk District from April to October in the years 2021 and 2022. Missing values due to the lack of suitable images for analysis were recovered using cubic polynomial, Fourier series, and double sinusoidal function approximation. The classes that were considered included crops, namely, soybean, buckwheat, oat, and perennial grasses, and fallow. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of each class fitting was calculated. It was found that Fourier series fitting showed the highest accuracy, with a mean error of 8.2%. Different classifiers, such as the support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), and gradient boosting (GB), were comparatively evaluated. The overall accuracy (OA) for the site pixels during the cross-validation (Fourier series restored) was 67.3%, 87.2%, and 85.9% for the SVM, RF, and GB classifiers, respectively. Thus, it was established that the best result in terms of combined accuracy, performance, and limitations in cropland mapping was achieved by composite construction using Fourier series and machine learning using GB. Similar results should be expected in regions with similar cropland structures and crop phenological cycles, including other regions of the Far East. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Remote Sensing for Sustainable Agriculture)
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29 pages, 2637 KiB  
Article
Four Years of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Height Retrievals Using COSMIC-2 Satellite Data
by Ginés Garnés-Morales, Maria João Costa, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, María José Granados-Muñoz, Vanda Salgueiro, Jesús Abril-Gago, Sol Fernández-Carvelo, Juana Andújar-Maqueda, Antonio Valenzuela, Inmaculada Foyo-Moreno, Francisco Navas-Guzmán, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Daniele Bortoli and Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1632; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091632 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 576
Abstract
This work aimed to study the atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLH) from COSMIC-2 refractivity data, endeavoring to refine existing ABLH detection algorithms and scrutinize the resulting spatial and seasonal distributions. Through validation analyses involving different ground-based methodologies (involving data from lidar, ceilometer, microwave [...] Read more.
This work aimed to study the atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLH) from COSMIC-2 refractivity data, endeavoring to refine existing ABLH detection algorithms and scrutinize the resulting spatial and seasonal distributions. Through validation analyses involving different ground-based methodologies (involving data from lidar, ceilometer, microwave radiometers, and radiosondes), the optimal ABLH determination relied on identifying the lowest refractivity gradient negative peak with a magnitude at least τ% times the minimum refractivity gradient magnitude, where τ is a fitting parameter representing the minimum peak strength relative to the absolute minimum refractivity gradient. Different τ values were derived accounting for the moment of the day (daytime, nighttime, or sunrise/sunset) and the underlying surface (land or sea). Results show discernible relations between ABLH and various features, notably, the land cover and latitude. On average, ABLH is higher over oceans (≈1.5 km), but extreme values (maximums > 2.5 km, and minimums < 1 km) are reached over intertropical lands. Variability is generally subtle over oceans, whereas seasonality and daily evolution are pronounced over continents, with higher ABLHs during daytime and local wintertime (summertime) in intertropical (middle) latitudes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Observation of Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Based on Remote Sensing)
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16 pages, 5049 KiB  
Technical Note
Impact of Urbanization on Cloud Characteristics over Sofia, Bulgaria
by Ventsislav Danchovski
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1631; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091631 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Urban artificial surfaces and structures induce modifications in land–atmosphere interactions, affecting the exchange of energy, momentum, and substances. These modifications stimulate urban climate formation by altering the values and dynamics of atmospheric parameters, including cloud-related features. This study evaluates the presence and quantifies [...] Read more.
Urban artificial surfaces and structures induce modifications in land–atmosphere interactions, affecting the exchange of energy, momentum, and substances. These modifications stimulate urban climate formation by altering the values and dynamics of atmospheric parameters, including cloud-related features. This study evaluates the presence and quantifies the extent of such changes over Sofia, Bulgaria. The findings reveal that estimations of low-level cloud base height (CBH) derived from lifting condensation level (LCL) calculations may produce unexpected outcomes due to microclimate influence. Ceilometer data indicate that the CBH of low-level clouds over urban areas exceeds that of surrounding regions by approximately 200 m during warm months and afternoon hours. Moreover, urban clouds exhibit reduced persistence relative to rural counterparts, particularly pronounced in May, June, and July afternoons. Reanalysis-derived low-level cloud cover (LCC) shows no significant disparities between urban and rural areas, although increased LCC is observed above the western and northern city boundaries. Satellite-derived cloud products reveal that the optically thinnest low-level clouds over urban areas exhibit slightly higher cloud tops, but the optically thickest clouds are more prevalent during warm months. These findings suggest an influence of urbanization on cloudiness, albeit nuanced and potentially influenced by the city size and surrounding physical and geographical features. Full article
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18 pages, 15686 KiB  
Article
From Point Cloud to BIM: A New Method Based on Efficient Point Cloud Simplification by Geometric Feature Analysis and Building Parametric Objects in Rhinoceros/Grasshopper Software
by Massimiliano Pepe, Alfredo Restuccia Garofalo, Domenica Costantino, Federica Francesca Tana, Donato Palumbo, Vincenzo Saverio Alfio and Enrico Spacone
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1630; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091630 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 566
Abstract
The aim of the paper is to identify an efficient method for transforming the point cloud into parametric objects in the fields of architecture, engineering and construction by four main steps: 3D survey of the structure under investigation, generation of a new point [...] Read more.
The aim of the paper is to identify an efficient method for transforming the point cloud into parametric objects in the fields of architecture, engineering and construction by four main steps: 3D survey of the structure under investigation, generation of a new point cloud based on feature extraction and identification of suitable threshold values, geometry reconstruction by semi-automatic process performed in Rhinoceros/Grasshopper and BIM implementation. The developed method made it possible to quickly obtain geometries that were very realistic to the original ones as shown in the case study described in the paper. In particular, the application of ShrinkWrap algorithm on the simplify point cloud allowed us to obtain a polygonal mesh model without errors such as holes, non-manifold surfaces, compenetrating surfaces, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Geomatics)
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22 pages, 8260 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Distribution Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Freeze–Thaw Erosion in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau
by Zhenzhen Yang, Wankui Ni, Fujun Niu, Lan Li and Siyuan Ren
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1629; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091629 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 510
Abstract
Freeze–thaw (FT) erosion intensity may exhibit a future increasing trend with climate warming, humidification, and permafrost degradation in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP). The present study provides a reference for the prevention and control of FT erosion in the QTP, as well as for [...] Read more.
Freeze–thaw (FT) erosion intensity may exhibit a future increasing trend with climate warming, humidification, and permafrost degradation in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP). The present study provides a reference for the prevention and control of FT erosion in the QTP, as well as for the protection and restoration of the regional ecological environment. FT erosion is the third major type of soil erosion after water and wind erosion. Although FT erosion is one of the major soil erosion types in cold regions, it has been studied relatively little in the past because of the complexity of several influencing factors and the involvement of shallow surface layers at certain depths. The QTP is an important ecological barrier area in China. However, this area is characterized by harsh climatic and fragile environmental conditions, as well as by frequent FT erosion events, making it necessary to conduct research on FT erosion. In this paper, a total of 11 meteorological, vegetation, topographic, geomorphological, and geological factors were selected and assigned analytic hierarchy process (AHP)-based weights to evaluate the FT erosion intensity in the QTP using a comprehensive evaluation index method. In addition, the single effects of the selected influencing factors on the FT erosion intensity were further evaluated in this study. According to the obtained results, the total FT erosion area covered 1.61 × 106 km2, accounting for 61.33% of the total area of the QTP. The moderate and strong FT erosion intensity classes covered 6.19 × 105 km2, accounting for 38.37% of the total FT erosion area in the QTP. The results revealed substantial variations in the spatial distribution of the FT erosion intensity in the QTP. Indeed, the moderate and strong erosion areas were mainly located in the high mountain areas and the hilly part of the Hoh Xil frozen soil region. Full article
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18 pages, 11407 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Rice Plant Coverage Using Sentinel-2 Based on UAV-Observed Data
by Yuki Sato, Takeshi Tsuji and Masayuki Matsuoka
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1628; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091628 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Vegetation coverage is a crucial parameter in agriculture, as it offers essential insight into crop growth and health conditions. The spatial resolution of spaceborne sensors is limited, hindering the precise measurement of vegetation coverage. Consequently, fine-resolution ground observation data are indispensable for establishing [...] Read more.
Vegetation coverage is a crucial parameter in agriculture, as it offers essential insight into crop growth and health conditions. The spatial resolution of spaceborne sensors is limited, hindering the precise measurement of vegetation coverage. Consequently, fine-resolution ground observation data are indispensable for establishing correlations between remotely sensed reflectance and plant coverage. We estimated rice plant coverage per pixel using time-series Sentinel-2 Multispectral Instrument (MSI) data, enabling the monitoring of rice growth conditions over a wide area. Coverage was calculated using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) data with a spatial resolution of 3 cm with the spectral unmixing method. Coverage maps were generated every 2–3 weeks throughout the rice-growing season. Subsequently, crop growth was estimated at 10 m resolution through multiple linear regression utilizing Sentinel-2 MSI reflectance data and coverage maps. In this process, a geometric registration of MSI and UAV data was conducted to improve their spatial agreement. The coefficients of determination (R2) of the multiple linear regression models were 0.92 and 0.94 for the Level-1C and Level-2A products of Sentinel-2 MSI, respectively. The root mean square errors of estimated rice plant coverage were 10.77% and 9.34%, respectively. This study highlights the promise of satellite time-series models for accurate estimation of rice plant coverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Satellite and UAV Data in Precision Agriculture)
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22 pages, 46483 KiB  
Article
SWIFT: Simulated Wildfire Images for Fast Training Dataset
by Luiz Fernando, Rafik Ghali and Moulay A. Akhloufi
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1627; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091627 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Wildland fires cause economic and ecological damage with devastating consequences, including loss of life. To reduce these risks, numerous fire detection and recognition systems using deep learning techniques have been developed. However, the limited availability of annotated datasets has decelerated the development of [...] Read more.
Wildland fires cause economic and ecological damage with devastating consequences, including loss of life. To reduce these risks, numerous fire detection and recognition systems using deep learning techniques have been developed. However, the limited availability of annotated datasets has decelerated the development of reliable deep learning techniques for detecting and monitoring fires. For such, a novel dataset, namely, SWIFT, is presented in this paper for detecting and recognizing wildland smoke and fires. SWIFT includes a large number of synthetic images and videos of smoke and wildfire with their corresponding annotations, as well as environmental data, including temperature, humidity, wind direction, and speed. It represents various wildland fire scenarios collected from multiple viewpoints, covering forest interior views, views near active fires, ground views, and aerial views. In addition, three deep learning models, namely, BoucaNet, DC-Fire, and CT-Fire, are adopted to recognize forest fires and address their related challenges. These models are trained using the SWIFT dataset and tested using real fire images. BoucaNet performed well in recognizing wildland fires and overcoming challenging limitations, including the complexity of the background, the variation in smoke and wildfire features, and the detection of small wildland fire areas. This shows the potential of sim-to-real deep learning in wildland fires. Full article
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15 pages, 4589 KiB  
Article
Domain Feature Decomposition for Efficient Object Detection in Aerial Images
by Ren Jin, Zikai Jia, Xingyu Yin, Yi Niu and Yuhua Qi
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1626; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091626 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 470
Abstract
Object detection in UAV aerial images faces domain-adaptive challenges, such as changes in shooting height, viewing angle, and weather. These changes constitute a large number of fine-grained domains that place greater demands on the network’s generalizability. To tackle these challenges, we initially decompose [...] Read more.
Object detection in UAV aerial images faces domain-adaptive challenges, such as changes in shooting height, viewing angle, and weather. These changes constitute a large number of fine-grained domains that place greater demands on the network’s generalizability. To tackle these challenges, we initially decompose image features into domain-invariant and domain-specific features using practical imaging condition parameters. The composite feature can improve domain generalization and single-domain accuracy compared to the conventional fine-grained domain-detection method. Then, to solve the problem of the overfitting of high-frequency imaging condition parameters, we mixed images from different imaging conditions in a balanced sampling manner as input for the training of the detection network. The data-augmentation method improves the robustness of training and reduces the overfitting of high-frequency imaging parameters. The proposed algorithm is compared with state-of-the-art fine-grained domain detectors on the UAVDT and VisDrone datasets. The results show that it achieves an average detection precision improvement of 5.7 and 2.4, respectively. The airborne experiments validate that the algorithm achieves a 20 Hz processing performance for 720P images on an onboard computer with Nvidia Jetson Xavier NX. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Learning for the Analysis of Multi-/Hyperspectral Images II)
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22 pages, 14624 KiB  
Article
Drought Risk Assessment of Winter Wheat at Different Growth Stages in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain Based on Nonstationary Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index and Crop Coefficient
by Wenhui Chen, Rui Yao, Peng Sun, Qiang Zhang, Vijay P. Singh, Shao Sun, Amir AghaKouchak, Chenhao Ge and Huilin Yang
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1625; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091625 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Soil moisture plays a crucial role in determining the yield of winter wheat. The Huang-Huai-Hai (HHH) Plain is the main growing area of winter wheat in China, and frequent occurrence of drought seriously restricts regional agricultural development. Hence, a daily-scale Non-stationary Standardized Precipitation [...] Read more.
Soil moisture plays a crucial role in determining the yield of winter wheat. The Huang-Huai-Hai (HHH) Plain is the main growing area of winter wheat in China, and frequent occurrence of drought seriously restricts regional agricultural development. Hence, a daily-scale Non-stationary Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (NSPEI), based on winter wheat crop coefficient (Kc), was developed in the present study to evaluate the impact of drought characteristics on winter wheat in different growth stages. Results showed that the water demand for winter wheat decreased with the increase in latitude, and the water shortage was affected by effective precipitation, showing a decreasing trend from the middle to both sides in the HHH Plain. Water demand and water shortage showed an increasing trend at the jointing stage and heading stage, while other growth stages showed a decreasing trend. The spatial distributions of drought duration and intensity were consistent, which were higher in the northern region than in the southern region. Moreover, the water shortage and drought intensity at the jointing stage and heading stage showed an increasing trend. The drought had the greatest impact on winter wheat yield at the tillering stage, jointing stage, and heading stage, and the proportions of drought risk vulnerability in these three stages accounted for 0.25, 0.21, and 0.19, respectively. The high-value areas of winter wheat loss due to drought were mainly distributed in the northeast and south-central regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biogeosciences Remote Sensing)
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22 pages, 9502 KiB  
Article
Mapping Foliar C, N, and P Concentrations in An Ecological Restoration Area with Mixed Plant Communities Based on LiDAR and Hyperspectral Data
by Yongjun Yang, Jing Dong, Jiajia Tang, Jiao Zhao, Shaogang Lei, Shaoliang Zhang and Fu Chen
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1624; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091624 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 465
Abstract
Interactions between carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P), the vital indicators of ecological restoration, play an important role in signaling the health of ecosystems. Rapidly and accurately mapping foliar C, N, and P is essential for interpreting community structure, nutrient limitation, and [...] Read more.
Interactions between carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P), the vital indicators of ecological restoration, play an important role in signaling the health of ecosystems. Rapidly and accurately mapping foliar C, N, and P is essential for interpreting community structure, nutrient limitation, and primary production during ecosystem recovery. However, research on how to rapidly map C, N, and P in restored areas with mixed plant communities is limited. This study employed laser imaging, detection, and ranging (LiDAR) and hyperspectral data to extract spectral, textural, and height features of vegetation as well as vegetation indices and structural parameters. Causal band, multiple linear regression, and random forest models were developed and tested in a restored area in northern China. Important parameters were identified including (1), for C, red-edge bands, canopy height, and vegetation structure; for N, textural features, height percentile of 40–95%, and vegetation structure; for P, spectral features, height percentile of 80%, and 1 m foliage height diversity. (2) R2 was used to compare the accuracy of the three models as follows: R2 values for C were 0.07, 0.42, and 0.56, for N they were 0.20, 0.48, and 0.53, and for P they were 0.32, 0.39, and 0.44; the random forest model demonstrated the highest accuracy. (3) The accuracy of the concentration estimates could be ranked as C > N > P. (4) The inclusion of LiDAR features significantly improved the accuracy of the C concentration estimation, with increases of 22.20% and 47.30% in the multiple linear regression and random forest models, respectively, although the inclusion of LiDAR features did not notably enhance the accuracy of the N and P concentration estimates. Therefore, LiDAR and hyperspectral data can be used to effectively map C, N, and P concentrations in a mixed plant community in a restored area, revealing their heterogeneity in terms of species and spatial distribution. Future efforts should involve the use of hyperspectral data with additional bands and a more detailed classification of plant communities. The application of this information will be useful for analyzing C, N, and P limitations, and for planning for the maintenance of restored plant communities. Full article
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32 pages, 7440 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review of the Application of the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager to the Water Quality Monitoring of Inland and Coastal Waters
by Shidi Shao, Yu Wang, Ge Liu and Kaishan Song
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1623; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091623 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 774
Abstract
In recent decades, eutrophication in inland and coastal waters (ICWs) has increased due to anthropogenic activities and global warming, thus requiring timely monitoring. Compared with traditional sampling and laboratory analysis methods, satellite remote sensing technology can provide macro-scale, low-cost, and near real-time water [...] Read more.
In recent decades, eutrophication in inland and coastal waters (ICWs) has increased due to anthropogenic activities and global warming, thus requiring timely monitoring. Compared with traditional sampling and laboratory analysis methods, satellite remote sensing technology can provide macro-scale, low-cost, and near real-time water quality monitoring services. The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), aboard the Communication Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) from the Republic of Korea, marked a significant milestone as the world’s inaugural geostationary ocean color observation satellite. Its operational tenure spanned from 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2021. Over ten years, the GOCI has observed oceans, coastal waters, and inland waters within its 2500 km × 2500 km target area centered on the Korean Peninsula. The most attractive feature of the GOCI, compared with other commonly used water color sensors, was its high temporal resolution (1 h, eight times daily from 0 UTC to 7 UTC), providing an opportunity to monitor ICWs, where their water quality can undergo significant changes within a day. This study aims to comprehensively review GOCI features and applications in ICWs, analyzing progress in atmospheric correction algorithms and water quality monitoring. Analyzing 123 articles from the Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) through a bibliometric quantitative approach, we examined the GOCI’s strength and performance with different processing methods. These articles reveal that the GOCI played an essential role in monitoring the ecological health of ICWs in its observation coverage (2500 km × 2500 km) in East Asia. The GOCI has led the way to a new era of geostationary ocean satellites, providing new technical means for monitoring water quality in oceans, coastal zones, and inland lakes. We also discuss the challenges encountered by Geostationary Ocean Color Sensors in monitoring water quality and provide suggestions for future Geostationary Ocean Color Sensors to better monitor the ICWs. Full article
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12 pages, 7133 KiB  
Communication
Deterministic Global 3D Fractal Cloud Model for Synthetic Scene Generation
by Aaron M. Schinder, Shannon R. Young, Bryan J. Steward, Michael Dexter, Andrew Kondrath, Stephen Hinton and Ricardo Davila
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1622; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091622 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 495
Abstract
This paper describes the creation of a fast, deterministic, 3D fractal cloud renderer for the AFIT Sensor and Scene Emulation Tool (ASSET). The renderer generates 3D clouds by ray marching through a volume and sampling the level-set of a fractal function. The fractal [...] Read more.
This paper describes the creation of a fast, deterministic, 3D fractal cloud renderer for the AFIT Sensor and Scene Emulation Tool (ASSET). The renderer generates 3D clouds by ray marching through a volume and sampling the level-set of a fractal function. The fractal function is distorted by a displacement map, which is generated using horizontal wind data from a Global Forecast System (GFS) weather file. The vertical windspeed and relative humidity are used to mask the creation of clouds to match realistic large-scale weather patterns over the Earth. Small-scale detail is provided by the fractal functions which are tuned to match natural cloud shapes. This model is intended to run quickly, and it can run in about 700 ms per cloud type. This model generates clouds that appear to match large-scale satellite imagery, and it reproduces natural small-scale shapes. This should enable future versions of ASSET to generate scenarios where the same scene is consistently viewed from both GEO and LEO satellites from multiple perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atmospheric Remote Sensing)
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23 pages, 8941 KiB  
Article
DS-Trans: A 3D Object Detection Method Based on a Deformable Spatiotemporal Transformer for Autonomous Vehicles
by Yuan Zhu, Ruidong Xu, Chongben Tao, Hao An, Huaide Wang, Zhipeng Sun and Ke Lu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1621; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091621 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Facing the significant challenge of 3D object detection in complex weather conditions and road environments, existing algorithms based on single-frame point cloud data struggle to achieve desirable results. These methods typically focus on spatial relationships within a single frame, overlooking the semantic correlations [...] Read more.
Facing the significant challenge of 3D object detection in complex weather conditions and road environments, existing algorithms based on single-frame point cloud data struggle to achieve desirable results. These methods typically focus on spatial relationships within a single frame, overlooking the semantic correlations and spatiotemporal continuity between consecutive frames. This leads to discontinuities and abrupt changes in the detection outcomes. To address this issue, this paper proposes a multi-frame 3D object detection algorithm based on a deformable spatiotemporal Transformer. Specifically, a deformable cross-scale Transformer module is devised, incorporating a multi-scale offset mechanism that non-uniformly samples features at different scales, enhancing the spatial information aggregation capability of the output features. Simultaneously, to address the issue of feature misalignment during multi-frame feature fusion, a deformable cross-frame Transformer module is proposed. This module incorporates independently learnable offset parameters for different frame features, enabling the model to adaptively correlate dynamic features across multiple frames and improve the temporal information utilization of the model. A proposal-aware sampling algorithm is introduced to significantly increase the foreground point recall, further optimizing the efficiency of feature extraction. The obtained multi-scale and multi-frame voxel features are subjected to an adaptive fusion weight extraction module, referred to as the proposed mixed voxel set extraction module. This module allows the model to adaptively obtain mixed features containing both spatial and temporal information. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is validated on the KITTI, nuScenes, and self-collected urban datasets. The proposed algorithm achieves an average precision improvement of 2.1% over the latest multi-frame-based algorithms. Full article
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19 pages, 12576 KiB  
Article
A Mars Local Terrain Matching Method Based on 3D Point Clouds
by Binliang Wang, Shuangming Zhao, Xinyi Guo and Guorong Yu
Remote Sens. 2024, 16(9), 1620; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs16091620 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 506
Abstract
To address the matching challenge between the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) DEM, we propose a terrain matching framework based on the combination of point cloud coarse alignment and fine alignment [...] Read more.
To address the matching challenge between the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) DEM, we propose a terrain matching framework based on the combination of point cloud coarse alignment and fine alignment methods. Firstly, we achieved global coarse localization of the HiRISE DEM through nearest neighbor matching of key Intrinsic Shape Signatures (ISS) points in the Fast Point Feature Histograms (FPFH) feature space. We introduced a graph matching strategy to mitigate gross errors in feature matching, employing a numerical method of non-cooperative game theory to solve the extremal optimization problem under Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT) conditions. Secondly, to handle the substantial resolution disparities between the MOLA DEM and HiRISE DEM, we devised a smoothing weighting method tailored to enhance the Voxelized Generalized Iterative Closest Point (VGICP) approach for fine terrain registration. This involves leveraging the Euclidean distance between distributions to effectively weight loss and covariance, thereby reducing the results’ sensitivity to voxel radius selection. Our experiments show that the proposed algorithm improves the accuracy of terrain registration on the proposed Curiosity landing area’s, Mawrth Vallis, data by nearly 20%, with faster convergence and better algorithm robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Applied to Deep Space Exploration)
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