Optimization and Control in Energy Management: Mathematical Modeling and Simulation

A special issue of Mathematics (ISSN 2227-7390). This special issue belongs to the section "Engineering Mathematics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2023) | Viewed by 22221

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville 7535, South Africa
Interests: alternative and renewable energy systems; modelling and simulation; control algorithm; microgrid; power electronics

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Guest Editor
Centre for Distributed Power and Electronic Systems, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town 7535, South Africa
Interests: power quality; genetic algorithms; smart grid; optimal control; power system analysis; microgrids; scada

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The global energy crisis due to the depletion of fossil fuel resources, the need to reduce greenhouse emissions, the climate change phenomenon, and the unexpected increase in fuel prices due to global conflicts have increased the need to focus on using new and renewable energy systems. These systems can work autonomously and in a hybrid manner with other energy generation systems. The operation of these single or hybrid energy systems can be in the form of islanded or grid-connected mini or microgrids. Microgrid power fluctuation due to renewable energy systems requires energy storage systems to balance the energy and provides a continuous flow of energy even when energy fluctuates from renewable sources. Energy management strategies are essential in such systems for reliability, good power quality, and optimizing the operation of different energy and storage distributed systems in the microgrid. Energy Management Systems (EMS) are control techniques for managing the power flow in response to supply, demand, power quality, and storage conditions. We are pleased to invite the research community to submit a review or regular research papers on, but not limited to, the following relevant topics related to optimization and control in energy management:

  • Demand side management and demand response
  • Artificial intelligence optimization methods for renewable energy systems and energy management
  • Frequency regulation using Virtual power plants
  • Modeling and simulation for energy management
  • EMS in smart electrical grids
  • Energy-efficient systems
  • Energy conservation techniques
  • EMS in Mini and Micro-Grids
  • Algorithms
  • Numerical simulations
  • Mathematical modeling
  • Analytical understanding
  • Control Theory
  • Load and renewable energy generation prediction techniques
  • Energy management for Smart cities and homes
  • Energy management for improving power quality
  • Various optimization techniques and methods in energy management systems
  • Various control methods and strategies in energy management systems.

Dr. Atanda Kamoru Raji
Dr. Khaled M. Abo-Al-Ez
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • energy management systems
  • algorithms
  • numerical simulations
  • mathematical modelling
  • analytical understanding
  • control theory
  • smart grids
  • control of power electronics converters
  • optimization techniques for energy managing
  • hybrid electrical vehicles
  • energy efficient systems
  • energy conservation strategy
  • artificial neural network
  • optimal power flow
  • optimization algorithm

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 4703 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Management for an EV Hybrid Storage System Based on Fuzzy Control
by Dimitrios Rimpas, Stavrοs D. Kaminaris, Dimitrios D. Piromalis and George Vokas
Mathematics 2023, 11(21), 4429; https://doi.org/10.3390/math11214429 - 25 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
Following the European Climate Law of 2021 and the climate neutrality goal for zero-emission transportation by 2050, electric vehicles continue to gain market share, reaching 2.5 million vehicles in Q1 of 2023. Electric vehicles utilize an electric motor for propulsion powered by lithium [...] Read more.
Following the European Climate Law of 2021 and the climate neutrality goal for zero-emission transportation by 2050, electric vehicles continue to gain market share, reaching 2.5 million vehicles in Q1 of 2023. Electric vehicles utilize an electric motor for propulsion powered by lithium batteries, which suffer from high temperatures caused by peak operation conditions and rapid charging, so hybridization with supercapacitors is implemented. In this paper, a fuzzy logic controller is employed based on a rule-based scheme and the Mamdani model to control the power distribution of the hybrid system, driven by the state of charge and duty cycle parameters. An active topology with one bi-directional DC-to-DC converter at each source is exploited in the MATLAB/Simulink environment, and five power states like acceleration and coasting are identified. Results show that the ideal duty cycle is within 0.40–0.50 as a universal value for all power states, which may vary depending on the available state of charge. Total efficiency is enhanced by 6%, sizing is increased by 22%, leading to a more compact layout, and battery life is extended by 20%. Future work includes testing with larger energy sources and the application of this management strategy in real-time operations. Full article
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30 pages, 4664 KiB  
Article
Efficient Red Kite Optimization Algorithm for Integrating the Renewable Sources and Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Stations in Radial Distribution Networks
by Sami M. Alshareef and Ahmed Fathy
Mathematics 2023, 11(15), 3305; https://doi.org/10.3390/math11153305 - 27 Jul 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
The high penetration of renewable energy resources’ (RESs) and electric vehicles’ (EVs) demands to power systems can stress the network reliability due to their stochastic natures. This can reduce the power quality in addition to increasing the network power losses and voltage deviations. [...] Read more.
The high penetration of renewable energy resources’ (RESs) and electric vehicles’ (EVs) demands to power systems can stress the network reliability due to their stochastic natures. This can reduce the power quality in addition to increasing the network power losses and voltage deviations. This problem can be solved by allocating RESs and EV fast charging stations (FCSs) in suitable locations on the grid. So, this paper proposes a new approach using the red kite optimization algorithm (ROA) for integrating RESs and FCSs to the distribution network through identifying their best sizes and locations. The fitness functions considered in this work are: reducing the network loss and minimizing the voltage violation for 24 h. Moreover, a new version of the multi-objective red kite optimization algorithm (MOROA) is proposed to achieve both considered fitness functions. The study is performed on two standard distribution networks of IEEE-33 bus and IEEE-69 bus. The proposed ROA is compared to dung beetle optimizer (DBO), African vultures optimization algorithm (AVOA), bald eagle search (BES) algorithm, bonobo optimizer (BO), grey wolf optimizer (GWO), multi-objective multi-verse optimizer (MOMVO), multi-objective grey wolf optimizer (MOGWO), and multi-objective artificial hummingbird algorithm (MOAHA). For the IEEE-33 bus network, the proposed ROA succeeded in reducing the power loss and voltage deviation by 58.24% and 90.47%, respectively, while in the IEEE-69 bus it minimized the power loss and voltage deviation by 68.39% and 93.22%, respectively. The fetched results proved the competence and robustness of the proposed ROA in solving the problem of integrating RESs and FCSs to the electrical networks. Full article
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15 pages, 1579 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Power Exchange Cost Considering Behavioral Intervention in Local Energy Community
by Pratik Mochi, Kartik Pandya, Joao Soares and Zita Vale
Mathematics 2023, 11(10), 2367; https://doi.org/10.3390/math11102367 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1362
Abstract
In order to encourage energy saving and the adoption of renewable sources, this study provides a comprehensive experimental framework that integrates socioeconomic and behavioral objectives for the local energy community. The experiment aims to find out how successfully using behavioral interventions might encourage [...] Read more.
In order to encourage energy saving and the adoption of renewable sources, this study provides a comprehensive experimental framework that integrates socioeconomic and behavioral objectives for the local energy community. The experiment aims to find out how successfully using behavioral interventions might encourage customers to save electrical energy and encourage them to adopt renewable energy, e.g., solar photovoltaic energy, in the present case. Using this method, we can calculate the causal impact of the intervention on consumer participation in the local electricity sector. The study uses consumer data on the import and export of electrical power from retailer electricity utilities at a predetermined power exchange price and a midmarket price for local energy community power transactions. The local energy community model simulates the consumption, storage, and export of 20 residential customers who, in different scenarios, are the test subjects of an empirical experiment and embrace electricity conservation and renewable energy. We address the optimization issue of calculating the power exchange cost and revenue in various scenarios and comparing them with the base case cost. The cases are built on the customers’ behavioral interventions’ empirical response. The findings demonstrate that the interaction of socioeconomic and behavioral objectives leads to impressive cost savings of up to 19.26% for energy utility customers. The policy implication is suggested for local energy utilities. Full article
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29 pages, 11121 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation of Grid-Connected DFIG-Based WECS with Battery Energy Storage System under Wind Alterations Using FOPID Controller for RSC
by Pradeep Singh, Krishan Arora, Umesh C. Rathore, Eunmok Yang, Gyanendra Prasad Joshi and Kwang Chul Son
Mathematics 2023, 11(9), 2100; https://doi.org/10.3390/math11092100 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
In the present energy scenario, wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy resource on the globe. However, wind-energy-based generation systems are also associated with increasing demands for power quality and active power control in the power network. With the advancements in power-electronics-based technology [...] Read more.
In the present energy scenario, wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy resource on the globe. However, wind-energy-based generation systems are also associated with increasing demands for power quality and active power control in the power network. With the advancements in power-electronics-based technology and its use in non-conventional energy conversion systems, it has witnessed tremendous growth in wind energy conversion systems (WECSs). At the same time, integrating wind farms into the grid system also results in many power quality issues in the power system that involve these renewable energy sources feeding power networks. This paper reports the effectiveness of grid-connected doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based WECS with a battery energy storage system (BESS) under variable wind conditions. In this study, a rotor side converter (RSC) is controlled to achieve the optimal torque for a given maximal wind power. The control scheme is simulated using MATLAB for a 2 MW-rated DFIG used in a WECS. Additionally, in this paper, a new fraction order proportional integral derivative (FOPID) controller is introduced into the system’s RSC, and its performance is also observed. The BESS technique is used with a DC link to improve the overall performance of the DFIG-based WECS under different wind conditions. To control the BESS, a proportional integral (PI) controller is introduced to increase the charging and discharging rates. Two models are developed in MATLAB/Simulink: one model is a basic model, and other model is equipped with a BESS and a PI controller in the BESS. The results validate the effectiveness of the proposed PI-controller-equipped BESS at improving the overall performance of the WECS system under study. Full article
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20 pages, 1940 KiB  
Article
Strategic Electricity Production Planning of Turkey via Mixed Integer Programming Based on Time Series Forecasting
by Gökay Yörük, Ugur Bac, Fatma Yerlikaya-Özkurt and Kamil Demirberk Ünlü
Mathematics 2023, 11(8), 1865; https://doi.org/10.3390/math11081865 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
This study examines Turkey’s energy planning in terms of strategic planning, energy policy, electricity production planning, technology selection, and environmental policies. A mixed integer optimization model is proposed for strategic electricity planning in Turkey. A set of energy resources is considered simultaneously in [...] Read more.
This study examines Turkey’s energy planning in terms of strategic planning, energy policy, electricity production planning, technology selection, and environmental policies. A mixed integer optimization model is proposed for strategic electricity planning in Turkey. A set of energy resources is considered simultaneously in this research, and in addition to cost minimization, different strategic level policies, such as CO2 emission reduction policies, energy resource import/export restriction policies, and renewable energy promotion policies, are also considered. To forecast electricity demand over the planning horizon, a variety of forecasting techniques, including regression methods, exponential smoothing, Winter’s method, and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average methods, are used, and the best method is chosen using various error measures. The optimization model constructed for Turkey’s Strategic Electricity Planning is obtained for two different planning intervals. The findings indicate that the use of renewable energy generation options, such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric alternatives, will increase significantly, while the use of fossil fuels in energy generation will decrease sharply. The findings of this study suggest a gradual increase in investments in renewable energy-based electricity production strategies are required to eventually replace fossil fuel alternatives. This change not only reduces investment, operation, and maintenance costs, but also reduces emissions in the long term. Full article
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20 pages, 1867 KiB  
Article
Reinforcement Learning-Enabled Electric Vehicle Load Forecasting for Grid Energy Management
by M. Zulfiqar, Nahar F. Alshammari and M. B. Rasheed
Mathematics 2023, 11(7), 1680; https://doi.org/10.3390/math11071680 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
Electric vehicles are anticipated to be essential components of future energy systems, as they possess the capability to assimilate surplus energy generated by renewable sources. With the increasing popularity of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), conventional internal combustion engine (ICE)-based vehicles are expected [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles are anticipated to be essential components of future energy systems, as they possess the capability to assimilate surplus energy generated by renewable sources. With the increasing popularity of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), conventional internal combustion engine (ICE)-based vehicles are expected to be gradually phased out, thereby decreasing greenhouse gases and reliance on foreign oil. Intensive research and development efforts across the globe are currently concentrated on developing effective PHEV charging solutions that can efficiently cater to the charging needs of PHEVs, while simultaneously minimizing their detrimental effects on the power infrastructure. Efficient PHEV charging strategies and technologies are necessary to overcome the obstacles presented. Forecasting PHEV charging loads provides a solution by enabling energy delivery to power systems based on anticipated future loads. We have developed a novel approach, utilizing machine learning methods, for accurately forecasting PHEV charging loads at charging stations across three phases of powering (smart, non-cooperative, and cooperative). The proposed Q-learning method outperforms conventional AI techniques, such as recurrent neural and artificial neural networks, in accurately forecasting PHEV loads for various charging scenarios. The findings indicate that the Q-learning method effectively predicts PHEV loads in three scenarios: smart, non-cooperative, and cooperative. Compared to the ANN and RNN models, the forecast precision of the QL model is higher by 31.2% and 40.7%, respectively. The Keras open-source set was utilized to simulate three different approaches and evaluate the efficacy and worth of the suggested Q-learning technique. Full article
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19 pages, 2058 KiB  
Article
Coordinated Economic Operation of Hydrothermal Units with HVDC Link Based on Lagrange Multipliers
by Ali Ahmad, Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif, Arslan Ashraf, Muhammad Majid Gulzar, Mohammed Alqahtani and Muhammad Khalid
Mathematics 2023, 11(7), 1610; https://doi.org/10.3390/math11071610 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Coordinated operation of hydrothermal scheduling with HVDC links considering network constraints becomes a vital issue due to their remote location and recent induction in the existing power system. The nonlinear and complex nature of the problem introduces many variables and constraints which results [...] Read more.
Coordinated operation of hydrothermal scheduling with HVDC links considering network constraints becomes a vital issue due to their remote location and recent induction in the existing power system. The nonlinear and complex nature of the problem introduces many variables and constraints which results in a heavy computational burden. A widespread approach for handling these complexities is to reformulate the problem by several linearization methods. In this paper, a Lagrange multipliers-based method is proposed for the solution of hydrothermal economic scheduling including HVDC link. This method solves equality constraint optimization problems. The linear programming approach is embedded with the Lagrange method to consider both equality and inequality constraints. The proposed technique has been used on piecewise linear variables and constraints of the system considering generation, water volume, and line power flow limits. The formulated method efficiently minimizes the operational cost of thermal units and maximizes the utilization of hydro units while meeting all generation, water volume, and the HVDC link constraints. The method was successfully implemented in two scenarios of a case study. In the first scenario, hydrothermal scheduling was performed on the typical network without an HVDC line limit and equal nodal prices were found with minimal thermal generation cost of $278,822.3. In the second scenario, the proposed method optimally dispatches units to meet the HVDC line limit and minimizes thermal generation cost to $279,025.4 while satisfying hydro, thermal, and other operating constraints. Both scenarios are implemented for a 24 h period. The results have been presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. Full article
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23 pages, 775 KiB  
Article
Optimal Integration of Battery Systems in Grid-Connected Networks for Reducing Energy Losses and CO2 Emissions
by Luis Fernando Grisales-Noreña, Oscar Danilo Montoya and Alberto-Jesus Perea-Moreno
Mathematics 2023, 11(7), 1604; https://doi.org/10.3390/math11071604 - 26 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1339
Abstract
This work addressed the problem regarding the optimal integration of battery systems (BS) in grid-connected networks (GCNs) with the purpose of reducing energy losses and CO2 emissions, for which it formulates a mathematical model that considers the constraints associated with the operation [...] Read more.
This work addressed the problem regarding the optimal integration of battery systems (BS) in grid-connected networks (GCNs) with the purpose of reducing energy losses and CO2 emissions, for which it formulates a mathematical model that considers the constraints associated with the operation of GCNs in a distributed generation environment that includes BS and variable power generation related to photovoltaic (PV) distributed generation (DG) and demand. As solution strategies, three different master–slave methodologies are employed that are based on sequential programming methods, with the aim to avoid the implementation of commercial software. In the master stage, to solve the problem regarding the location and the type of batteries to be used, parallel-discrete versions of the Montecarlo method (PMC), a genetic algorithm (PDGA), and the search crow algorithm (PDSCA) are employed. In the slave stage, the particle swarm optimization algortihm (PSO) is employed to solve the problem pertaining to the operation of the batteries, using a matrix hourly power flow to assess the impact of each possible solution proposed by the master–slave methodologies on the objective functions and constraints. As a test scenario, a GCN based on the 33-bus test systems is used, which considers the generation, power demand, and CO2 emissions behavior of the city of Medellín (Colombia). Each algorithm is executed 1000 times, with the aim to evaluate the effectiveness of each solution in terms of its quality, standard deviation, and processing times. The simulation results obtained in this work demostrate that PMC/PSO is the master–slave methodology with the best performance in terms of solution quality, repeatability, and processing time. Full article
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17 pages, 4156 KiB  
Article
Blockchain-Driven Real-Time Incentive Approach for Energy Management System
by Aparna Kumari, Riya Kakkar, Rajesh Gupta, Smita Agrawal, Sudeep Tanwar, Fayez Alqahtani, Amr Tolba, Maria Simona Raboaca and Daniela Lucia Manea
Mathematics 2023, 11(4), 928; https://doi.org/10.3390/math11040928 - 12 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1369
Abstract
In the current era, the skyrocketing demand for energy necessitates a powerful mechanism to mitigate the supply–demand gap in intelligent energy infrastructure, i.e., the smart grid. To handle this issue, an intelligent and secure energy management system (EMS) could benefit end-consumers participating in [...] Read more.
In the current era, the skyrocketing demand for energy necessitates a powerful mechanism to mitigate the supply–demand gap in intelligent energy infrastructure, i.e., the smart grid. To handle this issue, an intelligent and secure energy management system (EMS) could benefit end-consumers participating in the Demand–Response (DR) program. Therefore, in this paper, we proposed a real-time and secure incentive-based EMS for smart grid, i.e., RI-EMS approach using Reinforcement Learning (RL) and blockchain technology. In the RI-EMS approach, we proposed a novel reward mechanism for better convergence of the RL-based model using a Q-learning approach based on the greedy policy that guides the RL-agent for faster convergence. Then, the proposed RI-EMS approach designed a real-time incentive mechanism to minimize energy consumption in peak hours and reduce end-consumers’ energy bills to provide incentives to the end-consumers. Experimental results show that the proposed RI-EMS approach induces end-consumer participation and increases customer profitabilities compared to existing approaches considering the different performance evaluation metrics such as energy consumption for end-consumers, energy consumption reduction, and total cost comparison to end-consumers. Furthermore, blockchain-based results are simulated and analyzed with the help of deployed smart contracts in a Remix Integrated Development Environment (IDE) with the parameters such as transaction efficiency and data storage cost. Full article
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15 pages, 4675 KiB  
Article
An improved Fractional MPPT Method by Using a Small Circle Approximation of the P–V Characteristic Curve
by Ernesto Bárcenas-Bárcenas, Diego R. Espinoza-Trejo, José A. Pecina-Sánchez, Héctor A. Álvarez-Macías, Isaac Compeán-Martínez and Ángel A. Vértiz-Hernández
Mathematics 2023, 11(3), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/math11030526 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1052
Abstract
This paper presents an analytical solution to the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) problem for photovoltaic (PV) applications in the form of an improved fractional method. The proposal makes use of a mathematical function that describes the relationship between power and voltage in [...] Read more.
This paper presents an analytical solution to the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) problem for photovoltaic (PV) applications in the form of an improved fractional method. The proposal makes use of a mathematical function that describes the relationship between power and voltage in a PV module in a neighborhood including the maximum power point (MPP). The function is generated by using only three points of the P–V curve. Next, by using geometrical relationships, an analytical value for the MPP can be obtained. The advantage of the proposed technique is that it provides an explicit mathematical expression for calculation of the voltage at the maximum power point (vMPP) with high accuracy. Even more, complex calculations, manufacturer data, the measurements of short circuit current (iSC) and open-circuit voltage (vOC) are not required, making the proposal less invasive than other solutions. The proposed method is validated using the P–V curve of one PV module. Experimental work demonstrates the speed in the calculation of vMPP and the feasibility of the proposed solution. In addition, this MPPT proposal requires only the typical and available measurements, namely, PV voltage and current. Consequently, the proposed method could be implemented in most PV applications. Full article
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17 pages, 367 KiB  
Article
Optimal Location and Operation of PV Sources in DC Grids to Reduce Annual Operating Costs While Considering Variable Power Demand and Generation
by Luis Fernando Grisales-Noreña, Oscar Danilo Montoya and Carlos Andres Ramos-Paja
Mathematics 2022, 10(23), 4512; https://doi.org/10.3390/math10234512 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 853
Abstract
Due to the need to include renewable energy resources in electrical grids as well as the development and high implementation of PV generation and DC grids worldwide, it is necessary to propose effective optimization methodologies that guarantee that PV generators are located and [...] Read more.
Due to the need to include renewable energy resources in electrical grids as well as the development and high implementation of PV generation and DC grids worldwide, it is necessary to propose effective optimization methodologies that guarantee that PV generators are located and sized on the DC electrical network. This will reduce the operation costs and cover the investment and maintenance cost related to the new technologies (PV distributed generators), thus satisfying all technical and operative constraints of the distribution grid. It is important to propose solution methodologies that require short processing times, with the aim of exploring a large number of scenarios while planning energy projects that are to be presented in public and private contracts, as well as offering solutions to technical problems of electrical distribution companies within short periods of time. Based on these needs, this paper proposes the implementation of a Discrete–Continuous Parallel version of the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (DCPPSO) to solve the problem regarding the integration of photovoltaic (PV) distributed generators (DGs) in Direct Current (DC) grids, with the purpose of reducing the annual costs related to energy purchasing as well as the investment and maintenance cost associated with PV sources in a scenario of variable power demand and generation. In order to evaluate the effectiveness, repeatability, and robustness of the proposed methodology, four comparison methods were employed, i.e., a commercial software and three discrete–continuous methodologies, as well as two test systems of 33 and 69 buses. In analyzing the results obtained in terms of solution quality, it was possible to identify that the DCPPSO proposed obtained the best performance in relation to the comparison methods used, with excellent results in relation to the processing times and standard deviation. The main contribution of the proposed methodology is the implementation of a discrete–continuous codification with a parallel processing tool for the evaluation of the fitness function. The results obtained and the reports in the literature for alternating current networks demonstrate that the DCPPSO is the optimization methodology with the best performance in solving the problem of the optimal integration of PV sources in economic terms and for any kind of electrical system and size. Full article
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20 pages, 5425 KiB  
Article
Robust Flatness-Based Tracking Control for a “Full-Bridge Buck Inverter–DC Motor” System
by Ramón Silva-Ortigoza, Magdalena Marciano-Melchor, Rogelio Ernesto García-Chávez, Alfredo Roldán-Caballero, Victor Manuel Hernández-Guzmán, Eduardo Hernández-Márquez, José Rafael García-Sánchez, Rocío García-Cortés and Gilberto Silva-Ortigoza
Mathematics 2022, 10(21), 4110; https://doi.org/10.3390/math10214110 - 04 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1638
Abstract
By developing a robust control strategy based on the differential flatness concept, this paper presents a solution for the bidirectional trajectory tracking task in the “full-bridge Buck inverter–DC motor” system. The robustness of the proposed control is achieved by taking advantage of the [...] Read more.
By developing a robust control strategy based on the differential flatness concept, this paper presents a solution for the bidirectional trajectory tracking task in the “full-bridge Buck inverter–DC motor” system. The robustness of the proposed control is achieved by taking advantage of the differential flatness property related to the mathematical model of the system. The performance of the control, designed via the flatness concept, is verified in two ways. The first is by implementing experimentally the flatness control and proposing different shapes for the desired angular velocity profiles. For this aim, a built prototype of the “full-bridge Buck inverter–DC motor” system, along with Matlab–Simulink and a DS1104 board from dSPACE are used. The second is via simulation results, i.e., by programming the system in closed-loop with the proposed control algorithm through Matlab–Simulink. The experimental and the simulation results are similar, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of the designed robust control even when abrupt electrical variations are considered in the system. Full article
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22 pages, 576 KiB  
Article
Optimal Location and Sizing of PV Generation Units in Electrical Networks to Reduce the Total Annual Operating Costs: An Application of the Crow Search Algorithm
by Brandon Cortés-Caicedo, Luis Fernando Grisales-Noreña, Oscar Danilo Montoya, Miguel-Angel Perea-Moreno and Alberto-Jesus Perea-Moreno
Mathematics 2022, 10(20), 3774; https://doi.org/10.3390/math10203774 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1454
Abstract
This study presents a master–slave methodology to solve the problem of optimally locating and sizing photovoltaic (PV) generation units in electrical networks. This problem is represented by means of a Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) model, whose objective function is to reduce the total [...] Read more.
This study presents a master–slave methodology to solve the problem of optimally locating and sizing photovoltaic (PV) generation units in electrical networks. This problem is represented by means of a Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) model, whose objective function is to reduce the total annual operating costs of a network for a 20-year planning period. Such costs include (i) the costs of purchasing energy at the conventional generators (the main supply node in this particular case), (ii) the investment in the PV generation units, and (iii) their corresponding operation and maintenance costs. In the proposed master–slave method, the master stage uses the Discrete–Continuous version of the Crow Search Algorithm (DCCSA) to define the set of nodes where the PV generation units will be installed (location), as well as their nominal power (sizing), and the slave stage employs the successive approximation power flow technique to find the value of the objective function of each individual provided by the master stage. The numerical results obtained in the 33- and 69-node test systems demonstrated its applicability, efficiency, and robustness when compared to other methods reported in the specialized literature, such as the vortex search algorithm, the generalized normal distribution optimizer, and the particle swarm optimization algorithm. All simulations were performed in MATLAB using our own scripts. Full article
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20 pages, 2644 KiB  
Article
Design of Space Efficient Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Integration Impact on Power Grid Network
by Suresh Chavhan, Subhi R. M. Zeebaree, Ahmed Alkhayyat and Sachin Kumar
Mathematics 2022, 10(19), 3450; https://doi.org/10.3390/math10193450 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2209
Abstract
With an ever-increasing number of electric vehicles (EVs) on the roads, there is a high demand for EV charging infrastructure. The present charging infrastructure in the market requires a lot of space and sometimes leads to traffic congestion, increasing the risk of accidents [...] Read more.
With an ever-increasing number of electric vehicles (EVs) on the roads, there is a high demand for EV charging infrastructure. The present charging infrastructure in the market requires a lot of space and sometimes leads to traffic congestion, increasing the risk of accidents and obstruction of emergency vehicles. As the current infrastructure requires ample space, the cost of setting up this charging infrastructure becomes very high in metropolitan cities. In addition, there are a lot of adverse effects on the power grid due to the integration of EVs. This paper discusses a space-efficient charging infrastructure and multi-agent system-based power grid balance to overcome these issues. The proposed multi-level EV charging station can save a lot of space and reduce traffic congestion as more vehicles can be accommodated in the space. Depending on the size, capacity, and type of multi-level vehicle charging system, it can serve as a reliable charging solution at sites with medium and high daily footfall. We integrated the EV charging station with IEEE 33 bus test system and analyzed the grid and charging stations. The proposed scheme is exhaustively tested by simulation in a discrete-time event simulator in MATLAB and analyzed with varying EV arrival rates, time periods, etc. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

25 pages, 2008 KiB  
Review
Variable-Speed Wind Turbines for Grid Frequency Support: A Systematic Literature Review
by Aksher Bhowon, Khaled M. Abo-Al-Ez and Marco Adonis
Mathematics 2022, 10(19), 3586; https://doi.org/10.3390/math10193586 - 01 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1723
Abstract
As the finite nature of non-renewable energy resources is realised and climate change concerns become more prevalent, the need to shift to more sustainable forms of energy such as the adoption of renewable energy has seen an increase. More specifically, wind energy conversion [...] Read more.
As the finite nature of non-renewable energy resources is realised and climate change concerns become more prevalent, the need to shift to more sustainable forms of energy such as the adoption of renewable energy has seen an increase. More specifically, wind energy conversion systems (WECS) have become increasingly important as a contribution to grid frequency support, to maintain power at the nominal frequency and mitigate power failures or supply shortages against demand. Therefore, limiting deviations in frequency is imperative and, thus, the control methods of WECS are called to be investigated. The systematic literature review methodology was used and aimed at investigating these control methods used by WECS, more specifically variable-speed wind turbines (VSWT), in supporting grid frequency as well as the limitations of such methods. The paper identifies these to be de-loading, energy storage systems and emulated inertial response. Further classification of these is presented regarding these control methods, which are supported by literature within period of 2015–2022. The literature indicated a persistent interest in this field; however, a few limitations of VSWTS were identified. The emulated inertial response, specifically using a droop control-based frequency support scheme, was the primary means of providing frequency support. This systematic literature review may be limited by the number of papers selected for the study. Results and conclusions will not only be useful for WECS development but also in assisting with the security of the transmission grid’s frequency stability. Future work will focus on further studying the limitations of WECS providing frequency support. Full article
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