Advanced Biomaterials and Biotechnology: Applications in Dental Medicine

A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983). This special issue belongs to the section "Dental Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2024) | Viewed by 24932

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Technology of Materials and Devices in Dental Medicine, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania
Interests: dental materials/biomaterials; alloys; ceramics; thermoplastic resins; 3D printing/bioprinting; CAD/CAM milling; corrosion evaluation; welding; scanning; coating; oral health; dental caries
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Guest Editor
Department of Oral Pathology, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania
Interests: oral medicine; oral pathology; dental materials; nanomaterials; biomaterials; oral microbiome; oral biofilm; oral cancer; nanomedicine; oral microenvironment; oral biomarkers
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biotechnology aims at the application of biological knowledge and techniques to enhance human health. From a health care perspective, a biomaterial is defined as a natural or synthetic material that can be placed into living tissues without developing an immune reaction.

Biomaterials and biotechnologies applications in dentistry are currently on an upward trend, and are leading dental research. As dentistry implies rehabilitation of damaged tissues and function restoration, tissue engineering applications in dentistry have advanced over the last years, in order to re-create functional, healthy tissues, and thus replace diseased ones. Dental biomaterials play an important role in the reconstruction of damaged oral hard and soft tissues, encompassing the fields of periodontology, endodontics, oral surgery, and ultimately attempting the replacement of the whole tooth organ. Biomaterials have evolved from simply replacing the damaged tissue, to allowing the 3D development of a structurally complex regenerated tissue. The development of biotechnologies applications in dentistry has achieved its goal regarding the implementation of biomaterials in order to replace oral tissue, including various novel approaches such as biomimetics and nano-biotechnology.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide an updated outlook on the applications of advanced biomaterials and biotechnologies in dentistry and represents a good opportunity for researchers and scholars worldwide to disseminate different aspects of their work and report the results related to this topic. Research articles, reviews, and communications are equally invited for this Special Issue. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Advanced biomaterials for dental applications;
  • Biotechnology applications in dental medicine;
  • Role of scaffolds in dental tissue regeneration;
  • Polymers applications in regenerative medicine;
  • Current applications of 3D bioprinting in dentistry;
  • Future perspectives of 4D bioprinting in dentistry.

Prof. Dr. Lavinia Cosmina Ardelean
Prof. Dr. Laura-Cristina Rusu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Biomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomaterials
  • biotechnology
  • tissue engineering
  • regenerative medicine
  • scaffolds
  • grow factors
  • stem cells
  • 3D-bioprinting
  • 4D-bioprinting

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

15 pages, 8413 KiB  
Article
Dental Implant Abutment Screw Loss: Presentation of 10 Cases
by Maryam Soleimani, Jarosław Żmudzki, Wojciech Pakieła, Anna Jaśkowska and Kornel Krasny
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15040096 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 880
Abstract
Re-tightening the loosened dental implant abutment screw is an accepted procedure, however the evidence that such screw will hold sufficiently is weak. The purpose of this study was material analysis of lost dental implant abutment screws made of the TiAlV alloy from various [...] Read more.
Re-tightening the loosened dental implant abutment screw is an accepted procedure, however the evidence that such screw will hold sufficiently is weak. The purpose of this study was material analysis of lost dental implant abutment screws made of the TiAlV alloy from various manufacturers, which became lost due to unscrewing or damaged when checking if unscrewed; undamaged screws could be safely re-tightened. Among 13 failed screws retrieved from 10 cases, 10 screws were removed due to untightening and 3 were broken but without mechanical damage at the threads. Advanced corrosion was found on nine screws after 2 years of working time on all surfaces, also not mechanically loaded. Sediments observed especially in the thread area did not affect the corrosion process because of no pit densification around sediments. Pitting corrosion visible in all long-used screws raises the question of whether the screws should be replaced after a certain period during service, even if they are well-tightened. This requires further research on the influence of the degree of corrosion on the loss of the load-bearing ability of the screw. Full article
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23 pages, 9147 KiB  
Article
Influence of Hybrid Surface Modification on Biocompatibility and Physicochemical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V ELI Titanium
by Anna Woźniak, Weronika Smok, Janusz Szewczenko, Marcin Staszuk and Grzegorz Chladek
J. Funct. Biomater. 2024, 15(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb15030052 - 20 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1427
Abstract
Titanium-based materials are the most widely used materials in biomedical applications. However, according to literature findings, the degradation products of titanium have been associated with potential allergic reactions, inflammation, and bone resorption. The corrosion process of Ti-6Al-4V in the human body environment may [...] Read more.
Titanium-based materials are the most widely used materials in biomedical applications. However, according to literature findings, the degradation products of titanium have been associated with potential allergic reactions, inflammation, and bone resorption. The corrosion process of Ti-6Al-4V in the human body environment may be exacerbated by factors such as reduced pH levels and elevated concentrations of chloride compounds. Coatings made of biopolymers are gaining attention as they offer numerous advantages for enhancing implant functionality, including improved biocompatibility, bioactivity, wettability, drug release, and antibacterial activity. This study analyzes the physicochemical and electrochemical behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy subjected to PCL and PCL/TiO2 deposition by the electrospinning method. To characterize the polymer-based layer, tests of chemical and phase composition, as well as surface morphology investigations, were performed. Wetting angle tests were conducted as part of assessing the physicochemical properties. The samples were subjected to corrosion behavior analysis, which included open circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic tests, and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method. Additionally, the quantification of released ions post the potentiodynamic test was carried out using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES) method. Cytotoxicity tests were also performed. It was found that surface modification by depositing a polymer-based layer on the titanium substrate material using the electrospinning method provides improved corrosion behavior, and the samples exhibit non-toxic properties. Full article
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18 pages, 2774 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Penetration of an Endodontic Sealer into Dentinal Tubules with Three Different Compaction Techniques Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy
by Ignacio Barbero-Navarro, Diego Velázquez-González, María Esther Irigoyen-Camacho, Marco Antonio Zepeda-Zepeda, Paulo Mauricio, David Ribas-Perez and Antonio Castano-Seiquer
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(11), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14110542 - 7 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1895
Abstract
Adequate root canal sealing is essential for the success of endodontic treatment. There are numerous techniques available; identifying simple and efficient techniques is important to provide good patient care. The purpose of the study was to compare the maximum penetration depth and the [...] Read more.
Adequate root canal sealing is essential for the success of endodontic treatment. There are numerous techniques available; identifying simple and efficient techniques is important to provide good patient care. The purpose of the study was to compare the maximum penetration depth and the percentage of sealant penetration of an endodontic sealer into dentine tubules using cold lateral condensation, continuous wave, and hybrid techniques, and to contrast the effectiveness of two different tapered gutta-percha master cones (0.02 and 0.04). A sample of sixty single root teeth was used. Six experimental groups were formed from the three filling techniques and the two tapered master cones. Images were acquired using a confocal laser scanning microscope. In the apical root third, the penetration percentage was higher in the hybrid compared with the continuous wave technique. The results indicated a higher penetration depth of hybrid compared with cold lateral condensation in the middle and coronal thirds, and in the apical third, a higher penetration was identified in the hybrid group compared with the continuous wave group. No significant differences in penetration were found comparing 0.02 with 0.04 taper gutta-percha groups. The coronal cross-sections presented a higher penetration than the apical third sections. In conclusion, the hybrid technique a had higher maximum sealer penetration than the continuous wave in the apical third, and the coronal third hybrid and continuous wave had a higher penetration than cold lateral condensation. Full article
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19 pages, 2584 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Dental Nanocomposite Resins Reinforced with Dual Organomodified Silica/Clay Nanofiller Systems
by Maria Saridou, Alexandros K. Nikolaidis, Elisabeth A. Koulaouzidou and Dimitris S. Achilias
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(8), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14080405 - 1 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1215
Abstract
Quaternary ammonium (QA) compounds have been widely studied as potential disinfectants in dental restorative materials. The present work investigates whether the gradual displacement of nanosilica by QA-clay nanoparticles may have an impact on the physicochemical and mechanical properties of dental nanocomposite resins. For [...] Read more.
Quaternary ammonium (QA) compounds have been widely studied as potential disinfectants in dental restorative materials. The present work investigates whether the gradual displacement of nanosilica by QA-clay nanoparticles may have an impact on the physicochemical and mechanical properties of dental nanocomposite resins. For this purpose, Bis-GMA/TEGDMA-based composite resins were initially synthesized by incorporating 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (γ-MPS)-modified nanosilica/QA-clay nanoparticles at 60/0, 55/5, 50/10, 40/20, and 30/30 wt% filler loadings. Their structural characterization was performed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The degree of double bond conversion (DC) over time and the polymerization shrinkage were determined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and a linear variable displacement transducer (LVDT), respectively. Mechanical properties as well as water sorption and solubility parameters were also evaluated after storage of nanocomposites in water for 7 days at 37 °C. Spectral data revealed intercalated clay configurations along with areas characterized by silica-clay clusters for clay loadings up to 30 wt%. Furthermore, the insertion of 10 wt% QA-clay enhanced the auto-acceleration effect also sustaining the ultimate (DC), reduced the setting contraction and solubility, and, finally, yielded flexural modulus and strength very close to those of the control nanocomposite resin. The acquired results could herald the advanced design of dental restorative materials appropriate for contemporary clinical applications. Full article
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17 pages, 3390 KiB  
Article
Bactericidal Activity of Silver Nanoparticles on Oral Biofilms Related to Patients with and without Periodontal Disease
by Perla Alejandra Hernández-Venegas, Rita Elizabeth Martínez-Martínez, Erasto Armando Zaragoza-Contreras, Rubén Abraham Domínguez-Pérez, Simón Yobanny Reyes-López, Alejandro Donohue-Cornejo, Juan Carlos Cuevas-González, Nelly Molina-Frechero and León Francisco Espinosa-Cristóbal
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(6), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14060311 - 2 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1947
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Periodontal disease (PD) is a multifactorial oral disease regularly caused by bacterial biofilms. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have offered good antimicrobial activity; moreover, there is no available scientific information related to their antimicrobial effects in biofilms from patients with PD. This [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Periodontal disease (PD) is a multifactorial oral disease regularly caused by bacterial biofilms. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have offered good antimicrobial activity; moreover, there is no available scientific information related to their antimicrobial effects in biofilms from patients with PD. This study reports the bactericidal activity of AgNP against oral biofilms related to PD. Materials and Methods: AgNP of two average particle sizes were prepared and characterized. Sixty biofilms were collected from patients with (30 subjects) and without PD (30 subjects). Minimal inhibitory concentrations of AgNP were calculated and the distribution of bacterial species was defined by polymerase chain reaction. Results: Well-dispersed sizes of AgNP were obtained (5.4 ± 1.3 and 17.5 ± 3.4 nm) with an adequate electrical stability (−38.2 ± 5.8 and −32.6 ± 5.4 mV, respectively). AgNP showed antimicrobial activities for all oral samples; however, the smaller AgNP had significantly the most increased bactericidal effects (71.7 ± 39.1 µg/mL). The most resistant bacteria were found in biofilms from PD subjects (p < 0.05). P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia were present in all PD biofilms (100%). Conclusions: The AgNP showed efficient bactericidal properties as an alternative therapy for the control or progression of PD. Full article
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11 pages, 1968 KiB  
Article
Effects of Polishing and Artificial Aging on Mechanical Properties of Dental LT Clear® Resin
by Anna Paradowska-Stolarz, Joanna Wezgowiec, Andrzej Malysa and Mieszko Wieckiewicz
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(6), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14060295 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1367
Abstract
Three-dimensional printing has become incorporated into various aspects of everyday life, including dentistry. Novel materials are being introduced rapidly. One such material is Dental LT Clear by Formlabs, a resin used for manufacturing occlusal splints, aligners, and orthodontic retainers. In this study, a [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional printing has become incorporated into various aspects of everyday life, including dentistry. Novel materials are being introduced rapidly. One such material is Dental LT Clear by Formlabs, a resin used for manufacturing occlusal splints, aligners, and orthodontic retainers. In this study, a total of 240 specimens, comprising two shapes (dumbbell and rectangular), were evaluated through compression and tensile tests. The compression tests revealed that the specimens were neither polished nor aged. However, after polishing, the compression modulus values decreased significantly. Specifically, the unpolished and nonaged specimens measured 0.87 ± 0.02, whereas the polished group measured 0.086 ± 0.03. The results were significantly affected by artificial aging. The polished group measured 0.73 ± 0.05, while the unpolished group measured 0.73 ± 0.03. In contrast, the tensile test proved that the specimens showed the highest resistance when the polishing was applied. The artificial aging influenced the tensile test and reduced the force needed to damage the specimens. The tensile modulus had the highest value when polishing was applied (3.00 ± 0.11). The conclusions drawn from these findings are as follows: 1. Polishing does not change the properties of the examined resin. 2. Artificial aging reduces resistance in both compression and tensile tests. 3. Polishing reduces the damage to the specimens in the aging process. Full article
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14 pages, 3992 KiB  
Article
Effects of Surface Preparation Methods on the Color Stability of 3D-Printed Dental Restorations
by Zbigniew Raszewski, Katarzyna Chojnacka and Marcin Mikulewicz
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(5), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14050257 - 5 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1972
Abstract
Background: Color stability is a crucial performance parameter for dental restorations, and limited research exists on how surface preparation methods affect it. The purpose of this study was to test the color stability of three resins intended for 3D printing, which can be [...] Read more.
Background: Color stability is a crucial performance parameter for dental restorations, and limited research exists on how surface preparation methods affect it. The purpose of this study was to test the color stability of three resins intended for 3D printing, which can be used to make dentures or crowns in A2 and A3 colors. Materials and Methods: Samples were prepared in the form of incisors; the first group was not subjected to any treatment after curing and washing with alcohol, the second was covered with light-curing varnish, and the third was polished in a standard way. Then, the samples were placed in solutions of coffee, red wine, and distilled water and stored in the laboratory. After 14, 30, and 60 days, color changes were measured (presented as Delta E) compared to material stored in the dark. Results: The greatest changes were observed for samples that were not polished, then were placed in red wine dilutions (ΔE = 18.19 ± 0.16). Regarding the samples covered with varnish, during storage, some parts detached, and the dyes penetrated inside. Conclusions: 3D-printed material should be polished as thoroughly as possible to limit the adhesion of dyes from food to their surface. Applying varnish may be a temporary solution. Full article
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11 pages, 1925 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Polishing and Artificial Aging on BioMed Amber® Resin’s Mechanical Properties
by Anna Paradowska-Stolarz, Marcin Mikulewicz, Mieszko Wieckiewicz and Joanna Wezgowiec
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(5), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14050254 - 2 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1296
Abstract
Currently, 3D print is becoming more common in all branches of medicine, including dentistry. Some novel resins, such as BioMed Amber (Formlabs), are used and incorporated to more advanced techniques. The aims of the study were to check whether or not polishing and/or [...] Read more.
Currently, 3D print is becoming more common in all branches of medicine, including dentistry. Some novel resins, such as BioMed Amber (Formlabs), are used and incorporated to more advanced techniques. The aims of the study were to check whether or not polishing and/or artificial aging influences the properties of the 3D-printed resin. A total of 240 specimens of BioMed Resin were printed. Two shapes (rectangular and dumbbell) were prepared. Of each shape, 120 specimens were divided into four groups each (with no influence, after polishing only, after artificial aging only, and after both polishing and artificial aging). Artificial aging took place in water at the temperature of 37 °C for 90 days. For testing, the universal testing machine (Z10-X700, AML Instruments, Lincoln, UK) was used. The axial compression was performed with the speed of 1mm/min. The tensile modulus was measured with the constant speed of 5 mm/min. The highest resistance to compression and tensile test were observed in the specimens that were neither polished nor aged (0.88 ± 0.03 and 2.88 ± 0.26, respectively). The lowest resistance to compression was observed in the specimens that were not polished, but aged (0.70 ± 0.02). The lowest results of the tensile test were observed when specimens were both polished and aged (2.05 ± 0.28). Both polishing and artificial aging weakened the mechanical properties of the BioMed Amber resin. The compressive modulus changed much with or without polishing. The tensile modulus differed in specimens that were either polished or aged. The application of both did not change the properties when compared to the polished or aged probes only. Full article
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12 pages, 5064 KiB  
Article
Decellularized Scaffolds of Nopal (Opuntia Ficus-indica) for Bioengineering in Regenerative Dentistry
by Ruth Betsabe Zamudio-Ceja, Rene Garcia-Contreras, Patricia Alejandra Chavez-Granados, Benjamin Aranda-Herrera, Hugo Alvarado-Garnica, Carlos A. Jurado and Nicholas G. Fischer
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(5), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14050252 - 1 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2203
Abstract
Opuntia Ficus-indica, or nopal, is traditionally used for its medicinal properties in Mexico. This study aims to decellularize and characterize nopal (Opuntia Ficus-indica) scaffolds, assess their degradation and the proliferation of hDPSC, and determine potential pro-inflammatory effects by assessing the [...] Read more.
Opuntia Ficus-indica, or nopal, is traditionally used for its medicinal properties in Mexico. This study aims to decellularize and characterize nopal (Opuntia Ficus-indica) scaffolds, assess their degradation and the proliferation of hDPSC, and determine potential pro-inflammatory effects by assessing the expression of cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and 2). The scaffolds were decellularized using a 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution and confirmed by color, optical microscopy, and SEM. The degradation rates and mechanical properties of the scaffolds were determined by weight and solution absorbances using trypsin and PBS and tensile strength testing. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) primary cells were used for scaffold–cell interaction and proliferation assays, as well as an MTT assay to determine proliferation. Proinflammatory protein expression of COX-I and -II was discovered by Western blot assay, and the cultures were induced into a pro-inflammatory state with interleukin 1-β. The nopal scaffolds exhibited a porous structure with an average pore size of 252 ± 77 μm. The decellularized scaffolds showed a 57% reduction in weight loss during hydrolytic degradation and a 70% reduction during enzymatic degradation. There was no difference in tensile strengths between native and decellularized scaffolds (12.5 ± 1 and 11.8 ± 0.5 MPa). Furthermore, hDPSCs showed a significant increase in cell viability of 95% and 106% at 168 h for native and decellularized scaffolds, respectively. The combination of the scaffold and hDPSCs did not cause an increase in the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 proteins. However, when the combination was exposed to IL-1β, there was an increase in the expression of COX-2. This study demonstrates the potential application of nopal scaffolds in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine or dentistry, owing to their structural characteristics, degradation properties, mechanical properties, ability to induce cell proliferation, and lack of enhancement of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Full article
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15 pages, 2575 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Corrosion Resistance of Different Types of Orthodontic Fixed Retention Appliances: A Preliminary Laboratory Study
by Busra Kumrular, Orhan Cicek, İlker Emin Dağ, Baris Avar and Hande Erener
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14020081 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1817
Abstract
(i) Objective: The present study aimed to compare the electrochemical corrosion resistance of six different types of fixed lingual retainer wires used as fixed retention appliances in an in vitro study. (ii) Methods: In the study, two different Ringer solutions, with pH 7 [...] Read more.
(i) Objective: The present study aimed to compare the electrochemical corrosion resistance of six different types of fixed lingual retainer wires used as fixed retention appliances in an in vitro study. (ii) Methods: In the study, two different Ringer solutions, with pH 7 and pH 3.5, were used. Six groups were formed with five retainer wires in each group. In addition, 3-braided stainless steel, 6-braided stainless steel, Titanium Grade 1, Titanium Grade 5, Gold, and Dead Soft retainer wires were used. The corrosion current density (icorr), corrosion rate (CR), and polarization resistance (Rp) were determined from the Tafel polarization curves. (iii) Results: The corrosion current density of the Gold retainer group was statistically higher than the other retainer groups in both solutions (p < 0.05). The corrosion rate of the Dead Soft retainer group was statistically higher than the other retainer groups in both solutions (p < 0.05). The polarization resistance of the Titanium Grade 5 retainer group was statistically higher than the other retainer groups in both solutions (p < 0.05). As a result of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images, pitting corrosion was not observed in the Titanium Grade 1, Titanium Grade 5 and Gold retainer groups, while pitting corrosion was observed in the other groups. (iv) Conclusion: From a corrosion perspective, although the study needs to be evaluated in vivo, the Titanium Grade 5 retainer group included is in this in vitro study may be more suitable for clinical use due to its high electrochemical corrosion resistance and the lack of pitting corrosion observed in the SEM images. Full article
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13 pages, 2471 KiB  
Article
Positive Effects of UV-Photofunctionalization of Titanium Oxide Surfaces on the Survival and Differentiation of Osteogenic Precursor Cells—An In Vitro Study
by Marco Roy, Alessandro Corti, Barbara Dorocka-Bobkowska and Alfonso Pompella
J. Funct. Biomater. 2022, 13(4), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb13040265 - 25 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1637
Abstract
Introduction: The UVC-irradiation (“UV-photofunctionalization”) of titanium dental implants has proved to be capable of removing carbon contamination and restoring the ability of titanium surfaces to attract cells involved in the process of osteointegration, thus significantly enhancing the biocompatibility of implants and favoring the [...] Read more.
Introduction: The UVC-irradiation (“UV-photofunctionalization”) of titanium dental implants has proved to be capable of removing carbon contamination and restoring the ability of titanium surfaces to attract cells involved in the process of osteointegration, thus significantly enhancing the biocompatibility of implants and favoring the post-operative healing process. To what extent the effect of UVC irradiation is dependent on the type or the topography of titanium used, is still not sufficiently established. Objective: The present study was aimed at analyzing the effects of UV-photofunctionalization on the TiO2 topography, as well as on the gene expression patterns and the biological activity of osteogenic cells, i.e., osteogenic precursors cultured in vitro in the presence of different titanium specimens. Methodology: The analysis of the surface roughness was performed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) on machined surface grade 2, and sand-blasted/acid-etched surface grades 2 and 4 titanium specimens. The expression of the genes related with the process of healing and osteogenesis was studied in the MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic murine cells, as well as in MSC murine stem cells, before and after exposure to differently treated TiO2 surfaces. Results: The AFM determinations showed that the surface topographies of titanium after the sand-blasting and acid-etching procedures, look very similar, independently of the grade of titanium. The UVC-irradiation of the TiO2 surface was found to induce an increase in the cell survival, attachment and proliferation, which was positively correlated with an increased expression of the osteogenesis-related genes Runx2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Conclusion: Overall, our findings expand and further support the current view that UV-photofunctionalization can indeed restore biocompatibility and osteointegration of TiO2 implants, and suggest that this at least in part occurs through a stimulation of the osteogenic differentiation of the precursor cells. Full article
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Review

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17 pages, 2628 KiB  
Review
The Use of Graphene Oxide in Orthodontics—A Systematic Review
by Joanna Rygas, Jacek Matys, Magdalena Wawrzyńska, Maria Szymonowicz and Maciej Dobrzyński
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(10), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14100500 - 9 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1561
Abstract
Background: Graphene-based materials have great prospects for application in dentistry and medicine due to their unique properties and biocompatibility with tissues. The literature on the use of graphene oxide in orthodontic treatment was reviewed. Methods: This systematic review followed the PRISMA protocol and [...] Read more.
Background: Graphene-based materials have great prospects for application in dentistry and medicine due to their unique properties and biocompatibility with tissues. The literature on the use of graphene oxide in orthodontic treatment was reviewed. Methods: This systematic review followed the PRISMA protocol and was conducted by searching the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane. The following search criteria were used to review the data on the topic under study: (Graphene oxide) AND (orthodontic) ALL FIELDS. For the Scopus database, results were narrowed to titles, authors, and keywords. A basic search structure was adopted for each database. Initially, a total of 74 articles were found in the considered databases. Twelve articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Results: Nine studies demonstrated the antibacterial properties of graphene oxide, which can reduce the demineralization of enamel during orthodontic treatment. Seven studies showed that it is biocompatible with oral tissues. Three studies presented that graphene oxide can reduce friction in the arch-bracket system. Two studies showed that it can improve the mechanical properties of orthodontic adhesives by reducing ARI (Adhesive Remnant Index). Three studies demonstrated that the use of graphene oxide in the appropriate concentration can also increase the SBS (shear bond strength) parameter. One research study showed that it can increase corrosion resistance. One research study suggested that it can be used to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement. Conclusion: The studies included in the systematic review showed that graphene oxide has numerous applications in orthodontic treatment due to its properties. Full article
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18 pages, 3117 KiB  
Review
Surface Coatings of Dental Implants: A Review
by Angelo Michele Inchingolo, Giuseppina Malcangi, Laura Ferrante, Gaetano Del Vecchio, Fabio Viapiano, Alessio Danilo Inchingolo, Antonio Mancini, Ciro Annicchiarico, Francesco Inchingolo, Gianna Dipalma, Elio Minetti, Andrea Palermo and Assunta Patano
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(5), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14050287 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3054
Abstract
Replacement of missing teeth is possible using biocompatible devices such as endosseous implants. This study aims to analyze and recognize the best characteristics of different implant surfaces that ensure good peri-implant tissue healing and thus clinical success over time. The present review was [...] Read more.
Replacement of missing teeth is possible using biocompatible devices such as endosseous implants. This study aims to analyze and recognize the best characteristics of different implant surfaces that ensure good peri-implant tissue healing and thus clinical success over time. The present review was performed on the recent literature concerning endosseous implants made of titanium, a material most frequently used because of its mechanical, physical, and chemical characteristics. Thanks to its low bioactivity, titanium exhibits slow osseointegration. Implant surfaces are treated so that cells do not reject the surface as a foreign material and accept it as fully biocompatible. Analysis of different types of implant surface coatings was performed in order to identify ideal surfaces that improve osseointegration, epithelial attachment to the implant site, and overall peri-implant health. This study shows that the implant surface, with different adhesion, proliferation, and spreading capabilities of osteoblastic and epithelial cells, influences the cells involved in anchorage. Implant surfaces must have antibacterial capabilities to prevent peri-implant disease. Research still needs to improve implant material to minimize clinical failure. Full article
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