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Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II)

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 April 2024) | Viewed by 36100

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Guest Editor
Department of Oral Pathology, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania
Interests: oral medicine; oral pathology; dental materials; nanomaterials; biomaterials; oral microbiome; oral biofilm; oral cancer; nanomedicine; oral microenvironment; oral biomarkers
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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Enhancing the quality of life for dental patients can be achieved by the development and selection of biocompatible, durable, and high aesthetic materials, able to withstand the conditions of the oral environment for a long time. The physical and chemical properties must be considered to ensure high-resistant results, as well as the maintenance of the original characteristics of the material. The main treatment goal concerns either the regeneration of diseased tissues or their replacement with prosthesis.

The continuous development of dental materials enables dentists and dental technicians to choose from a wide variety. Recent advances enable tailoring dental materials to specific applications, resulting in progressive materials. The introduction of new aesthetic materials, digital devices, processing software, and manufacturing and prototyping tools have radically transformed the dental profession. Bioactive dental materials, which release specific ions, play an important role in the regenerative process, in preventive and restorative dentistry, as well as in endodontics, inducing cell differentiation and stimulation, hard tissue formation, and exerting antimicrobial actions. Smart materials are capable to react to pH changes and induce reparative processes in the oral environment.

Biocompatibility has to be considered, as dental materials must be well tolerated by the human organism. Bacterial colonization of the surface is also important, considering its etiopathogenetic role in initiating different oral pathologies.

This Special Issue “Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II)” aims to focus on the advances in this attractive field of research, encouraging a multidisciplinary approach of the subject.

It is our pleasure to invite you to submit your work to this Special Issue. Research papers, reviews, and communications are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Laura-Cristina Rusu
Prof. Dr. Lavinia Cosmina Ardelean
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • dental materials
  • biocompatibility
  • toxicity
  • mutagenicity
  • carcinogens
  • restorative materials
  • endodontic materials
  • ceramics
  • polymers
  • alloys
  • 3D printing
  • CAD/CAM milling
  • oral lesions
  • oral cancer
  • properties
  • technologies
  • surface treatment
  • tissue engineering

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Published Papers (25 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 10579 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Citric Acid Solution on Hydraulic Calcium Silicate-Based Sealers and Root Dentin: A Preliminary Assessment
by Saulius Drukteinis, Goda Bilvinaite and Simas Sakirzanovas
Materials 2024, 17(6), 1351; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17061351 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 611
Abstract
Hydraulic calcium silicate-based (HCS) sealers have recently gained tremendous popularity due to their unique properties. However, their removal during endodontic retreatment is challenging. The solvent, which could chemically deteriorate the material, would be highly desirable for endodontic retreatment procedures. This preliminary study assessed [...] Read more.
Hydraulic calcium silicate-based (HCS) sealers have recently gained tremendous popularity due to their unique properties. However, their removal during endodontic retreatment is challenging. The solvent, which could chemically deteriorate the material, would be highly desirable for endodontic retreatment procedures. This preliminary study assessed the interplay and dissolving capability of 10% and 20% citric acid, compared to 17% EDTA, on commonly used HCS sealers (AH Plus Bioceramic Sealer, Bio-C Sealer, BioRoot RCS, TotalFill BC Sealer), and evaluated the potential impact of these solutions on root dentin structure. The interaction between tested sealers and irrigating solutions was photographed, and solubility-related mass changes were determined. The surface morphology of treated filling materials and dentin was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) along with Tukey’s test were used to detect the statistically significant differences among groups at the confidence level of 0.95. Intense gas release was observed during the interaction of HCS materials and citric acid, with no evidently visible “bubbling” after the immersion in EDTA. The mass loss of HCS sealers equally confirmed the significantly higher dissolving characteristics of 10% and 20% citric acid solutions compared to EDTA. The surface structural changes, associated with pore and crack formation, were mainly seen for HCS sealers exposed to citric acid. Meanwhile, no severe erosion was detected for dentin after root canal preparation with 10% and 20% citric acid solutions. These findings demonstrate that citric acid has the potential to dissolve HCS sealers with minimal or no negative impact on root dentin, suggesting citric acid as a solvent for HCS sealers in endodontic retreatment procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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10 pages, 1390 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Restoration Thickness on the Fracture Resistance of 5 mol% Yttria-Containing Zirconia Crowns
by Po-Hsu Chen, Esra Elamin, Akram Sayed Ahmed, Daniel A. Givan, Chin-Chuan Fu and Nathaniel C. Lawson
Materials 2024, 17(2), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020365 - 11 Jan 2024
Viewed by 644
Abstract
Background: To determine what thickness of 5 mol% yttria zirconia (5Y-Z) translucent crowns cemented with different cements and surface treatments would have equivalent fracture resistance as 3 mol% yttria (3Y-Z) crowns. Methods: The study included 0.8 mm, 1.0 mm, and 1.2 mm thickness [...] Read more.
Background: To determine what thickness of 5 mol% yttria zirconia (5Y-Z) translucent crowns cemented with different cements and surface treatments would have equivalent fracture resistance as 3 mol% yttria (3Y-Z) crowns. Methods: The study included 0.8 mm, 1.0 mm, and 1.2 mm thickness 5Y-Z (Katana UTML) crowns and 0.5 and 1.0 mm thickness 3Y-Z (Katana HT) crowns as controls. The 5Y-Z crowns were divided among three treatment subgroups (n = 10/subgroup): (1) cemented using RMGIC (Rely X Luting Cement), (2) alumina particle-abraded then luted with the same cement, (3) alumina particle-abraded and cemented using a resin cement (Panavia SA Cement Universal). The 3Y-Z controls were alumina particle-abraded then cemented with RMGIC. The specimens were then loaded in compression at 30° until failure. Results: All 5Y-Z crowns (regardless of thickness or surface treatment) had a similar to or higher fracture force than the 0.5 mm 3Y-Z crowns. Only the 1.2 mm 5Y-Z crowns with resin cement showed significantly similar fracture force to the 1 mm 3Y-Z crowns. Conclusion: In order to achieve a similar fracture resistance to 0.5 mm 3Y-Z crowns cemented with RMGIC, 5Y-Z crowns may be as thin as 0.8 mm. To achieve a similar fracture resistance to 1.0 mm 3Y-Z crowns cemented with RMGIC, 5Y-Z crowns must be 1.2 mm and bonded with resin cement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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14 pages, 3681 KiB  
Article
Biological Performance of Titanium Surfaces with Different Hydrophilic and Nanotopographical Features
by Barbara Illing, Leila Mohammadnejad, Antonia Theurer, Jacob Schultheiss, Evi Kimmerle-Mueller, Frank Rupp and Stefanie Krajewski
Materials 2023, 16(23), 7307; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16237307 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 739
Abstract
The micro- and nanostructures, chemical composition, and wettability of titanium surfaces are essential for dental implants’ osseointegration. Combining hydrophilicity and nanostructure has been shown to improve the cell response and to shorten the healing time. This study aimed to investigate the biological response [...] Read more.
The micro- and nanostructures, chemical composition, and wettability of titanium surfaces are essential for dental implants’ osseointegration. Combining hydrophilicity and nanostructure has been shown to improve the cell response and to shorten the healing time. This study aimed to investigate the biological response to different wettability levels and nanotopographical modifications in aged and non-aged titanium surfaces. By plasma etching titanium surfaces with the fluorine gas 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (R1234yF), additional nanostructures were created on the sample surfaces. Furthermore, this treatment resulted in sustained superhydrophilicity and fluoride accumulation. We examined the effect of various nanostructuring processes and aging using scanning electron microscopy, roughness analyses, and wettability measurement. In addition, all the surface modifications were tested for their effects on fibroblast adhesion, proliferation, and viability as well as osteoblast differentiation. Our study indicates that the plasma etching, with 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene, of the machined and SLA surface neither favored nor had an adverse effect on the biological response of the SAOS-2 osteoblast cell line. Although the fluorine-plasma-etched surfaces demonstrated improved fibroblast cell viability, they did not lead to improved early osseointegration. It is still unclear which surface properties mainly influence fibroblast and osteoblast adhesion. Further physiochemical aspects, such as electrostatic interaction and surface tension, are crucial to be analyzed along with wettability and roughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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17 pages, 1860 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Functional Toothpaste Formulation Containing Nano-Hydroxyapatite and Birch Extract for Daily Oral Care
by Alexandra-Diana Florea, Cristina Teodora Dobrota, Rahela Carpa, Csaba-Pal Racz, Gheorghe Tomoaia, Aurora Mocanu, Alexandra Avram, Olga Soritau, Lucian Cristian Pop and Maria Tomoaia-Cotisel
Materials 2023, 16(22), 7143; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16227143 - 13 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
This research work aims to develop functional toothpastes with combined enamel remineralization and antibacterial effects using nano-hydroxyapatites (nHAPs) and birch extract. Eleven toothpastes (notated as P1–P11) were designed featuring different concentrations of birch extract and a constant concentration of pure nHAPs or substituted [...] Read more.
This research work aims to develop functional toothpastes with combined enamel remineralization and antibacterial effects using nano-hydroxyapatites (nHAPs) and birch extract. Eleven toothpastes (notated as P1–P11) were designed featuring different concentrations of birch extract and a constant concentration of pure nHAPs or substituted nHAPs (HAP-5%Zn, HAP-0.23%Mg-3.9%Zn-2%Si-10%Sr, and HAP-2.5%Mg-2.9%Si-1.34%Zn). In vitro assessments involved treating artificially demineralized enamel slices and analyzing surface repair and remineralization using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The Agar Disk Diffusion method was used to measure antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aureus. Topographic images of enamel structure and surface roughness, as well as the ability of nHAP nanoparticles to form self-assembled layers, revealed excellent restorative properties of the tested toothpastes, with enamel nanostructure normalization occurring as soon as 10 days after treatment. The outcomes highlighted enamel morphology improvements due to the toothpaste treatment also having various efficacious antibacterial effects. Promising results were obtained using P5 toothpaste, containing HAP-5%Zn (3.4%) and birch extract (1.3%), indicating notable remineralization and good antibacterial properties. This study represents a significant advancement in oral care by introducing toothpaste formulations that simultaneously promote enamel health through effective remineralization and bacterial inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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10 pages, 1331 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Three Types of Adhesive Materials Used in the Restoration of Permanent Molars after Treatment with Silver Diamine Fluoride: An In Vitro Study
by Mannaa K. Aldowsari, Fatimah Alfawzan, Alanoud Alhaidari, Nada Alhogail, Reema Alshargi, Saad Bin Saleh, Ayman M. Sulimany and Mohammed Alturki
Materials 2023, 16(21), 6831; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16216831 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 997
Abstract
Background: Permanent blackish discoloration of the tooth structure post application of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is one of its drawbacks. Several restorative materials have been used to restore and mask the blackish discoloration of SDF-treated teeth. Recently, a new self-adhesive material has been [...] Read more.
Background: Permanent blackish discoloration of the tooth structure post application of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is one of its drawbacks. Several restorative materials have been used to restore and mask the blackish discoloration of SDF-treated teeth. Recently, a new self-adhesive material has been introduced and is marketed as an all-in-one etchant, adhesive, and restorative material indicated for use in all clinical situations. This study aimed to assess the shear bond strength of the new self-adhesive restorative material and compare it with adhesive restorative materials- resin-based composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement to dentin of extracted permanent teeth treated with 38% SDF. Methods: Thirty-nine caries-free extracted teeth (n = 39) were grouped into three groups. Following 38% SDF application, the specimens were loaded with resin-based (Group I), the new self-adhesive restorative material (SDR) Surefil (Group II), and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) (Group III). Shear bond strength (SBS) was calculated, and failure modes were evaluated using the universal testing device (3) Results: The composite showed the highest bond strength, followed by Group II while Group III had the lowest bond strength of all tested materials. Regarding failure type, the composite showed 100% adhesive failure, while Group III and Group II showed mostly adhesive failure with some combination. (4) Conclusions: RBC had a significantly stronger SBS to demineralized dentin surfaces of permanent molar teeth treated with SDF when compared to SDR Surefil and RMGIC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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10 pages, 2065 KiB  
Article
The Effects of a Novel Nanohydroxyapatite Gel and Er: YAG Laser Treatment on Dentin Hypersensitivity
by Demet Sahin, Ceren Deger, Burcu Oglakci, Metehan Demirkol, Bedri Onur Kucukyildirim, Mehtikar Gursel and Evrim Eliguzeloglu Dalkilic
Materials 2023, 16(19), 6522; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16196522 - 30 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1240
Abstract
Purpose: This study evaluates the effects of a novel nanohydroxyapatite gel and Er: YAG laser on the surface roughness, surface morphology, and elemental content after dentin hypersensitivity treatments. Methods: Dentin discs (2 × 3 × 3 mm3) were prepared from 75 [...] Read more.
Purpose: This study evaluates the effects of a novel nanohydroxyapatite gel and Er: YAG laser on the surface roughness, surface morphology, and elemental content after dentin hypersensitivity treatments. Methods: Dentin discs (2 × 3 × 3 mm3) were prepared from 75 human molars. Out of 75 human molars, 50 were used to evaluate surface roughness and randomly divided into five groups: Group ID (intact dentin), Group DD (demineralized dentin), Group BF (fluoride varnish/Bifluorid 10), Group Lsr (Er: YAG laser-50 mJ, 0.50 W, 10 Hz), and Group NHA (nanohydroxyapatite-containing gel). Dentin hypersensitivity was stimulated by 35% phosphoric acid for 1 min (except Group ID). The surface roughness (Ra, μm) was measured via contact profilometry (n = 10). Out of the 75 sound human molars, 25 were used to evaluate the surface morphology and elemental content using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (n = 5). The data were statistically analyzed using Welsch ANOVA, Games–Howell, Kruskal–Wallis, and Dunn tests (p < 0.05). Results: Group Lsr showed significantly lower surface roughness than Group NHA and Group BF (p < 0.05). The SEM analysis indicated that most of the dentinal tubules were obliterated for Group NHA. Precipitant plugs with partially occluded dentinal tubules were observed for Group BF, while partially or completely occluded tubules with a melting appearance were detected for Group Lsr. The EDS analysis revealed that Group NHA and Group Lsr presented similar calcium and phosphorus amounts to Group ID. All dentin hypersensitivity treatment methods could provide promising results in terms of tubular occlusion efficiency. However, laser treatment resulted in smoother surfaces, which could help prevent dental plaque accumulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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12 pages, 3329 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Evaluation of Candida albicans Adhesion on Heat-Cured Resin-Based Dental Composites
by Francesco De Angelis, Simonetta D’Ercole, Mara Di Giulio, Mirco Vadini, Virginia Biferi, Matteo Buonvivere, Lorenzo Vanini, Luigina Cellini, Silvia Di Lodovico and Camillo D’Arcangelo
Materials 2023, 16(17), 5818; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16175818 - 25 Aug 2023
Viewed by 784
Abstract
Microbial adhesion on dental restorative materials may jeopardize the restorative treatment long-term outcome. The goal of this in vitro study was to assess Candida albicans capability to adhere and form a biofilm on the surface of heat-cured dental composites having different formulations but [...] Read more.
Microbial adhesion on dental restorative materials may jeopardize the restorative treatment long-term outcome. The goal of this in vitro study was to assess Candida albicans capability to adhere and form a biofilm on the surface of heat-cured dental composites having different formulations but subjected to identical surface treatments and polymerization protocols. Three commercially available composites were evaluated: GrandioSO (GR), Venus Diamond (VD) and Enamel Plus HRi Biofunction (BF). Cylindrical specimens were prepared for quantitative determination of C. albicans S5 planktonic CFU count, sessile cells CFU count and biomass optical density (OD570 nm). Qualitative Concanavalin-A assays (for extracellular polymeric substances of a biofilm matrix) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analyses (for the morphology of sessile colonies) were also performed. Focusing on planktonic CFU count, a slight but not significant reduction was observed with VD as compared to GR. Regarding sessile cells CFU count and biomass OD570 nm, a significant increase was observed for VD compared to GR and BF. Concanavalin-A assays and SEM analyses confirmed the quantitative results. Different formulations of commercially available resin composites may differently interact with C. albicans. The present results showed a relatively more pronounced antiadhesive effect for BF and GR, with a reduction in sessile cells CFU count and biomass quantification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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12 pages, 2298 KiB  
Article
The Shear Bond Strength of Resin-Based Luting Cement to Zirconia Ceramics after Different Surface Treatments
by Grzegorz Sokolowski, Agata Szczesio-Wlodarczyk, Małgorzata Iwona Szynkowska-Jóźwik, Wioleta Stopa, Jerzy Sokolowski, Karolina Kopacz and Kinga Bociong
Materials 2023, 16(15), 5433; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16155433 - 2 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1134
Abstract
Due to its unique properties, zirconia is increasingly being used in dentistry, but surface preparation for bonding is difficult because of its polycrystalline structure. This study aimed to determine the effect of a new etching technique (Zircos-E) on Ceramill Zi (Amann Girrbach). The [...] Read more.
Due to its unique properties, zirconia is increasingly being used in dentistry, but surface preparation for bonding is difficult because of its polycrystalline structure. This study aimed to determine the effect of a new etching technique (Zircos-E) on Ceramill Zi (Amann Girrbach). The effect of etching and the use of primers (Monobond Plus and MKZ Primer) on the bond strength of zirconia with resin cement (NX3) was assessed. Shear bond strength was evaluated after storage in water for 24 h and after thermal aging (5000 thermocycling at 5 °C/55 °C). A scanning electron microscope (Hitachi S-4700) was used to evaluate the surface structure before and after the Zircos-E system. The roughness parameters were assessed using an SJ-410 profilometer. The etched zirconia surface is more homogeneous over the entire surface, but some localized forms of erosion exist. The etching of zirconia ceramics caused changes in the surface structure of zirconia and a significant increase in the shear bond strength between zirconia and resin cement. The use of primers positively affects the adhesion between resin cement and zirconia. Aging with thermocycler significantly reduced the shear bond strength, with one exception—sandblasted samples with MKZ Primer. Standard ceramic surface preparation, involving only alumina sandblasting, does not provide a satisfactory bond. The use of etching with the Zircos-E system and primers had a positive effect on the strength of the zirconium–resin cement connection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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16 pages, 6195 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of Conical and Cylindrical Implants Inserted in an In Vitro Post-Extraction Model Using Low-Density Polyurethane Foam Blocks
by Luca Comuzzi, Margherita Tumedei, Natalia Di Pietro, Tea Romasco, Hamid Heydari Sheikh Hossein, Lorenzo Montesani, Francesco Inchingolo, Adriano Piattelli and Ugo Covani
Materials 2023, 16(14), 5064; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16145064 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
Combining tooth extraction and implant placement reduces the number of surgical procedures that a patient must undergo. Thus, the present study aimed to compare the stability of two types of conical implants (TAC and INTRALOCK) and another cylindrical one (CYROTH), inserted with a [...] Read more.
Combining tooth extraction and implant placement reduces the number of surgical procedures that a patient must undergo. Thus, the present study aimed to compare the stability of two types of conical implants (TAC and INTRALOCK) and another cylindrical one (CYROTH), inserted with a range of angulation of 15–20 degrees in low-density polyurethane blocks (10 and 20 pounds per cubic foot, PCF) with or without a cortical lamina (30 PCF), which potentially mimicked the post-extraction in vivo condition. For this purpose, a total of 120 polyurethane sites were prepared (10 for each implant and condition) and the Insertion Torque (IT), Removal Torque (RT), and Resonance Frequency Analysis (RFA) were measured, following a Three-Way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test for the statistical analysis of data. The IT and RT values registered for all implant types were directly proportional to the polyurethane density. The highest IT was registered by INTRALOCK implants in the highest-density block (32.44 ± 3.28 Ncm). In contrast, the highest RFA, a well-known index of Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ), was shown by TAC implants in all clinical situations (up to 63 ISQ in the 20 PCF block without the cortical sheet), especially in lower-density blocks. Although more pre-clinical and clinical studies are required, these results show a better primary stability of TAC conical implants in all tested densities of this post-extraction model, with a higher ISQ, despite their IT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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11 pages, 2261 KiB  
Article
Effect of Sandblasting Parameters and the Type and Hardness of the Material on the Number of Embedded Al2O3 Grains
by Beata Śmielak, Leszek Klimek and Kamil Krześniak
Materials 2023, 16(13), 4783; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16134783 - 2 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1263
Abstract
Background: Is abrasive blasting accompanied by the phenomenon of driving abrasive particles into the conditioned material? Methods: Three hundred and fifteen cylindrical disks of three types of metal alloy (chromium/cobalt, chromium/nickel, titanium, and sintered zirconium dioxide) were divided into four groups (n = [...] Read more.
Background: Is abrasive blasting accompanied by the phenomenon of driving abrasive particles into the conditioned material? Methods: Three hundred and fifteen cylindrical disks of three types of metal alloy (chromium/cobalt, chromium/nickel, titanium, and sintered zirconium dioxide) were divided into four groups (n = 35) and sandblasted at pressures of 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 MPa with aluminum oxide (Al2O3), grain size 50, 110, or 250 μm. Then, the surface topography was examined using a scanning microscope, and the amount of embedded grain was measured using quantitative metallography. For each group, five samples were randomly selected and subjected to Vickers hardness testing. In the statistical analyses, a three-factor analysis of variance was carried out, considering the type of material, the size of gradation of the abrasive, and the amount of pressure. Results: The smallest amounts of embedded abrasive (2.62) were observed in the ZrO2 treatment, and the largest (38.19) occurred in the treatment of the Ti alloy. An increase in the gradation and the pressure were a systematic increase in the amount of embedded grain. Conclusions: After abrasive blasting, abrasive particles were found on the surface of the materials. The amount of driven abrasive depends on the hardness of the processed material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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15 pages, 5214 KiB  
Article
An Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of a Hybrid Composite Containing Hydroxyapatite
by Leszek Klimek, Karolina Kopacz, Beata Śmielak and Zofia Kula
Materials 2023, 16(13), 4548; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16134548 - 23 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
There is currently a lack of scientific reports on the use of composites based on UDMA resin containing HAp in conservative dentistry. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the effect of hydroxyapatite content on the properties of a hybrid composite [...] Read more.
There is currently a lack of scientific reports on the use of composites based on UDMA resin containing HAp in conservative dentistry. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the effect of hydroxyapatite content on the properties of a hybrid composite used in conservative dentistry. This paper compares a commercial hybrid composite with experimental composites treated with 2% by weight (b/w), 5% b/w, and 8% b/w hydroxyapatite. The composites were subjected to bending strength, compression, and diametrical compression tests, as well as those for impact strength, hardness, and tribological wear. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis. Increased hydroxyapatite was found to weaken the mechanical properties; however, 2% b/w and 5% b/w hydroxyapatite powder was found to achieve acceptable results. The statistical analysis showed no significant differences. HAp is an effective treatment for composites when applied at a low concentration. Further research is needed to identify an appropriate size of HAp particles that can be introduced into a composite to adequately activate the surface and modification its composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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17 pages, 6542 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Human Gingival Fibroblasts (HGFs) Behavior on Innovative Laser Colored Titanium Surfaces
by Susi Zara, Giulia Fioravanti, Angelo Ciuffreda, Ciro Annicchiarico, Raimondo Quaresima and Filiberto Mastrangelo
Materials 2023, 16(13), 4530; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16134530 - 22 Jun 2023
Viewed by 963
Abstract
The use of ytterbium laser to obtain colored titanium surfaces is a suitable strategy to improve the aesthetic soft tissue results and reduce implant failures in oral rehabilitation. To investigate the relationship between novel laser-colored surfaces and peri-implant soft tissues, Human Gingival Fibroblasts [...] Read more.
The use of ytterbium laser to obtain colored titanium surfaces is a suitable strategy to improve the aesthetic soft tissue results and reduce implant failures in oral rehabilitation. To investigate the relationship between novel laser-colored surfaces and peri-implant soft tissues, Human Gingival Fibroblasts (HGFs) were cultured onto 12 colored titanium grade 1 light fuchsia, dark fuchsia, light gold, and dark gold disks and their viability (MTT Assay), cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase release), and collagen I secretion were compared to the machined surface used as control. Optical and electronic microscopies showed a HGF growth directly correlated to the roughness and wettability of the colored surfaces. A higher viability percentage on dark fuchsia (125%) light gold (122%), and dark gold (119%) samples with respect to the machined surface (100%) was recorded. All specimens showed a statistically significant reduction of LDH release compared to the machined surface. Additionally, a higher collagen type I secretion, responsible for an improved adhesion process, in light fuchsia (3.95 μg/mL) and dark gold (3.61 μg/mL) compared to the machined surface (3.59 μg) was recorded. The in vitro results confirmed the innovative physical titanium improvements due to laser treatment and represent interesting perspectives of innovation in order to ameliorate aesthetic dental implant performance and to obtain more predictable osteo and perio-osteointegration long term implant prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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9 pages, 2196 KiB  
Article
Do the Mechanical Properties of Calcium-Silicate-Based Cements Influence the Stress Distribution of Different Retrograde Cavity Preparations?
by Tarek Ashi, Raphaël Richert, Davide Mancino, Hamdi Jmal, Sleman Alkhouri, Frédéric Addiego, Naji Kharouf and Youssef Haïkel
Materials 2023, 16(8), 3111; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16083111 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the mechanical properties of three different calcium-silicate-based cements on the stress distribution of three different retrograde cavity preparations. Biodentine™ “BD”, MTA Biorep “BR”, and Well-Root™ PT “WR” were used. The compression [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the mechanical properties of three different calcium-silicate-based cements on the stress distribution of three different retrograde cavity preparations. Biodentine™ “BD”, MTA Biorep “BR”, and Well-Root™ PT “WR” were used. The compression strengths of ten cylindrical samples of each material were tested. The porosity of each cement was investigated by using micro-computed X-ray tomography. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to simulate three retrograde conical cavity preparations with an apical diameter of 1 mm (Tip I), 1.4 mm (Tip II), and 1.8 mm (Tip III) after an apical 3 mm resection. BR demonstrated the lowest compression strength values (17.6 ± 5.5 MPa) and porosity percentages (0.57 ± 0.14%) compared to BD (80 ± 17 MPa–1.22 ± 0.31%) and WR (90 ± 22 MPa–1.93 ± 0.12%) (p < 0.05). FEA demonstrated that the larger cavity preparation demonstrated higher stress distribution in the root whereas stiffer cement demonstrated lower stress in the root but higher stress in the material. We can conclude that a respected root end preparation associated with cement with good stiffness could offer optimal endodontic microsurgery. Further studies are needed to define the adapted cavity diameter and cement stiffness in order to have optimal mechanical resistance with less stress distribution in the root. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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12 pages, 2370 KiB  
Article
Expression of Interleukin-1β and Histological Changes of the Three-Dimensional Oral Mucosal Model in Response to Yttria-Stabilized Nanozirconia
by Naziratul Adirah Nasarudin, Masfueh Razali, Victor Goh, Wen Lin Chai and Andanastuti Muchtar
Materials 2023, 16(5), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16052027 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1328
Abstract
Over the years, advancement in ceramic-based dental restorative materials has led to the development of monolithic zirconia with increased translucency. The monolithic zirconia fabricated from nano-sized zirconia powders is shown to be superior in physical properties and more translucent for anterior dental restorations. [...] Read more.
Over the years, advancement in ceramic-based dental restorative materials has led to the development of monolithic zirconia with increased translucency. The monolithic zirconia fabricated from nano-sized zirconia powders is shown to be superior in physical properties and more translucent for anterior dental restorations. Most in vitro studies on monolithic zirconia have focused mainly on the effect of surface treatment or the wear of the material, while the nanotoxicity of this material is yet to be explored. Hence, this research aimed to assess the biocompatibility of yttria-stabilized nanozirconia (3-YZP) on the three-dimensional oral mucosal models (3D-OMM). The 3D-OMMs were constructed using human gingival fibroblast (HGF) and immortalized human oral keratinocyte cell line (OKF6/TERT-2), co-cultured on an acellular dermal matrix. On day 12, the tissue models were exposed to 3-YZP (test) and inCoris TZI (IC) (reference material). The growth media were collected at 24 and 48 h of exposure to materials and assessed for IL-1β released. The 3D-OMMs were fixed with 10% formalin for the histopathological assessments. The concentration of the IL-1β was not statistically different between the two materials for 24 and 48 h of exposure (p = 0.892). Histologically, stratification of epithelial cells was formed without evidence of cytotoxic damage and the epithelial thickness measured was the same for all model tissues. The excellent biocompatibility of nanozirconia, as evidenced by the multiple endpoint analyses of the 3D-OMM, may indicate the potential of its clinical application as a restorative material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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15 pages, 2696 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of a Single Chair Side Application of NovaMin® [Calcium Sodium Phosphosilicate] in the Treatment of Dentine Hypersensitivity following Ultrasonic Scaling—A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Jeeth Janardhan Rai, Saurabh Chaturvedi, Shankar T. Gokhale, Raghavendra Reddy Nagate, Saad M. Al-Qahtani, Mohammad Al. Magbol, Shashit Shetty Bavabeedu, Mohamed Fadul A. Elagib, Vatsala Venkataram and Mudita Chaturvedi
Materials 2023, 16(4), 1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16041329 - 4 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1717
Abstract
Dentinal hypersensitivity or cervical dentinal sensitivity is one of the commonest clinical problems. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a single chair side application of 100% pure calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin®) in reducing dentin [...] Read more.
Dentinal hypersensitivity or cervical dentinal sensitivity is one of the commonest clinical problems. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a single chair side application of 100% pure calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin®) in reducing dentin hypersensitivity following ultrasonic scaling as evaluated on a visual analogue scale (VAS). The study included 50 subjects who were selected based on an evaluation of dentinal hypersensitivity on a VAS carried out using a metered air blast from a three-way syringe and divided into two groups (n = 25/group); i.e., the test group (Group A) received the NovaMin® paste and the control group (Group B) received a placebo paste made from pumice. All the 50 subjects included in the study were had VAS scores of 3 or more. The NovaMin® powder mixed with distilled water was applied. Dentinal hypersensitivity was reassessed immediately and after 1, 2 and 4 weeks after the procedure. Results showed that the percentage reduction of dentinal hypersensitivity following a single application of NovaMin® in powder form was about 76.38% immediately, 67.72% one week postoperatively, 52.76% two weeks postoperatively and 26.78% four weeks postoperatively. It can be concluded from the results of the current clinical study demonstrated that a single chair side application of NovaMin® in powder form has a significant and immediate reduction in dentinal hypersensitivity, which lasted nearly for four weeks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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17 pages, 4873 KiB  
Article
Biomechanical Assessment of Endodontically Treated Molars Restored by Endocrowns Made from Different CAD/CAM Materials
by Mhd Ayham Darwich, Abeer Aljareh, Nabil Alhouri, Szabolcs Szávai, Hasan Mhd Nazha, Fabian Duvigneau and Daniel Juhre
Materials 2023, 16(2), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16020764 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the deflection and stress distribution in endodontically treated molars restored by endocrowns from different materials available for the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The models represented extensively damaged molars restored [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the deflection and stress distribution in endodontically treated molars restored by endocrowns from different materials available for the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The models represented extensively damaged molars restored by endocrowns from the following materials: translucent zirconia; zirconia-reinforced glass ceramic; lithium disilicate glass ceramic; polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) and resin nanoceramic. Axial and oblique loadings were applied and the resulting stress distribution and deflection were analyzed. The Mohr–Coulomb (MC) ratio was also calculated in all models. The translucent zirconia endocrown showed the highest stress concentration within it and the least stress in dental structures. The resin nanoceramic model was associated with the greatest stress concentration in dental tissues, followed by the PICN model. Stress was also concentrated in the distal region of the cement layer. The MC ratio in the cement was higher than 1 in the resin nanoceramic model. Oblique loading caused higher stresses in all components and greater displacement than axial loading, whatever the material of the endocrown was. The translucent zirconia model recorded deflections of enamel and dentin (38.4 µm and 35.7 µm, respectively), while resin nanoceramic showed the highest stress concentration and displacement in the tooth–endocrown complex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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13 pages, 11330 KiB  
Article
Push-Out Bond Strength of Endodontic Posts Cemented to Extracted Teeth: An In-Vitro Evaluation
by Syed Rashid Habib, Abdul Sadekh Ansari, Aleshba Saba Khan, Nawaf M. Alamro, Meshari A. Alzaaqi, Yazeed A. Alkhunefer, Abdulaziz A. AlHelal, Talal M. Alnassar and Abdulaziz S. Alqahtani
Materials 2022, 15(19), 6792; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15196792 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
(1) Background: An ideal bond strength between endodontic posts and root canal dentin is essential for optimal retention and good prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the push-out bond strength (PBS) of prefabricated fiber and metal posts, luted with resin cement to natural [...] Read more.
(1) Background: An ideal bond strength between endodontic posts and root canal dentin is essential for optimal retention and good prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the push-out bond strength (PBS) of prefabricated fiber and metal posts, luted with resin cement to natural dentin. (2) Methods: Extracted premolars with similar root dimensions were assigned into two groups of 30 each for the metal and fiber posts. Teeth were mounted in acrylic blocks exposing 2 mm of the coronal root. Teeth were subjected to endodontic treatment and post-space preparations. Two groups were further subdivided into three sub-groups (n = 10) according to the size of the posts (# 4, 5 and 6). Posts were cemented with resin cement. Specimens were sectioned into 4 mm slices and subjected to the PBS test. (3) Results: The mean PBS was similar for the metal and fiber posts bonded with resin cement, showing a statistically significant result. An increase in post size increased the bond strength initially, but a further increase in size did not show any marked difference. A total of 71.66% of tested specimens failed with the adhesive failure mode. (4) Conclusions: Metal posts showed slightly higher retention compared to the fiber posts, although the p-value was similar for both types. An increase in the size of posts showed increased retention. The most common mode of failure was adhesive failure between cement and dentin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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15 pages, 2432 KiB  
Article
Influence of Factors in the Photopolymerization Process on Dental Composites Microhardness
by Jordan Maximov, Tsanka Dikova, Galya Duncheva and Georgi Georgiev
Materials 2022, 15(18), 6459; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15186459 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
The aim of the present paper is to investigate the influence of factors in photopolymerization process that govern microhardness of three types of dental composites—universal (UC), bulk-fill (BC), and flowable (FC). Cylindrical specimens with different thicknesses are made and light cured. The significance [...] Read more.
The aim of the present paper is to investigate the influence of factors in photopolymerization process that govern microhardness of three types of dental composites—universal (UC), bulk-fill (BC), and flowable (FC). Cylindrical specimens with different thicknesses are made and light cured. The significance of light intensity, irradiation time, and layer thickness on Vickers microhardness is evaluated by experimental design, analysis of variance, and regression analysis. It is found that the main factor influencing the microhardness on the top surface of the three composites is light intensity. The second factor is layer thickness for the UC and FC, while for BC, it is curing time. The third factor is curing time for the first two composites and layer thickness for bulk-fill. The significance of factors’ influence on the microhardness of the bottom surface is the same for the UC and FC, but different for BC. The main factor for the first two composites is layer thickness, followed by curing time and light intensity. For bulk-fill, curing time is main factor, light intensity is second, and layer thickness is last. Different significance of factors influencing the microhardness on top and bottom surfaces of investigated composites is revealed for the first time in the present study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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12 pages, 3324 KiB  
Article
Marginal and Internal Gap of Metal Copings Fabricated Using Three Types of Resin Patterns with Subtractive and Additive Technology: An In Vitro Comparison
by Hemavardhini Addugala, Vidyashree Nandini Venugopal, Surya Rengasamy, Pradeep Kumar Yadalam, Nassreen H. Albar, Ahmed Alamoudi, Sarah Ahmed Bahammam, Bassam Zidane, Hammam Ahmed Bahammam, Shilpa Bhandi, Deepti Shrivastava, Kumar Chandan Srivastava and Shankargouda Patil
Materials 2022, 15(18), 6397; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15186397 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
This study analyzes the evidence of the marginal discrepancy and internal adaptation of copings fabricated using three types of resin patterns with subtractive (milling) and additive technology (3D printing), as it is not widely reported. Working casts (n = 15) were scanned [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the evidence of the marginal discrepancy and internal adaptation of copings fabricated using three types of resin patterns with subtractive (milling) and additive technology (3D printing), as it is not widely reported. Working casts (n = 15) were scanned and patterns were completed using computer-aided designing (CAD). Resin patterns were fabricated using the designed data and divided into three groups according to the method of fabrication of patterns: subtractive technology–CAD milled polymethyl methacrylate resin (Group-PMMA), additive technology [digital light processing (DLP) technique]–acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) patterns (Group-ABS), and polylactic acid (PLA) patterns (Group-PLA). Resin patterns were casted with Cobalt–Chromium (Co–Cr) alloy (lost wax technique). Internal and marginal gaps of the metal copings were analyzed with the replica technique under optical microscope. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare values among the groups, and post hoc multiple tests confirmed the specific differences within the groups. The median marginal gap was least for CAD milled resin patterns, followed by PLA printed resin patterns and ABS printed resin patterns. There were significant differences between Group-PMMA and Group-PLA and Group-ABS (p = 0.0001). There was no significant difference between Group-PLA and Group-ABS (p = 0.899). The median internal gap was least for metal copings fabricated from Group-PLA, followed by Group-ABS and Group-PMMA. The differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.638) for the internal gap. Full metal Co–Cr copings fabricated from the milled PMMA group had a better marginal fit, followed by the PLA and ABS printed groups. Copings fabricated with the PLA printed group had the best internal fit, though the values were statistically insignificant between the groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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9 pages, 662 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study Assessing the Canal Cleanliness Using Automated Device and Conventional Syringe Needle for Root Canal Irrigation—An Ex-Vivo Study
by Keerthika Rajamanickam, Kavalipurapu Venkata Teja, Sindhu Ramesh, Abdulaziz S. AbuMelha, Mazen F. Alkahtany, Khalid H. Almadi, Sarah Ahmed Bahammam, Krishnamachari Janani, Sahil Choudhari, Jerry Jose, Kumar Chandan Srivastava, Deepti Shrivastava and Shankargouda Patil
Materials 2022, 15(18), 6184; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15186184 - 6 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
The success of endodontic treatment relies on both apical and coronal sealing. To achieve a good three-dimensional seal, the removal of the smear layer becomes mandatory. This study aims to assess the difference in debris accumulation and smear layer formation while using automated [...] Read more.
The success of endodontic treatment relies on both apical and coronal sealing. To achieve a good three-dimensional seal, the removal of the smear layer becomes mandatory. This study aims to assess the difference in debris accumulation and smear layer formation while using automated root canal irrigation and conventional syringe needle irrigation. Single-rooted human mandibular premolar teeth (n = 30) which were indicated for orthodontic extractions were selected. An endodontic access cavity was prepared, and a glide path was created. Based on the irrigation protocol decided upon for the study, the teeth were randomly allocated into three study groups, namely Group 1, where the manual syringe needle irrigation method was adopted; Group 2, in which automated root canal irrigation was undertaken; and Group 3, in which teeth remained un-instrumented as it was considered the Control group. The teeth were decoronated at the cement-enamel junction (CEJ) and were subjected for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. Debris and smear layers were viewed in 1000× magnification and scored. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) lower mean debris and smear layer score (p < 0.05) was observed in both study groups when compared with the control group. However, no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the debris and smear layer was observed between the manual syringe needle irrigation and automated irrigation, although automated irrigation devices can be a potential alternative. The present study concluded that the efficacy of smear layer removal remained the same with both automated irrigation and manual syringe irrigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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11 pages, 1408 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Tensile Bond Strength of Fixed-Fixed Versus Cantilever Single- and Double-Abutted Resin-Bonded Bridges Dental Prosthesis
by Shweta Narwani, Naveen S. Yadav, Puja Hazari, Vrinda Saxena, Abdulrahman H. Alzahrani, Ahmed Alamoudi, Bassam Zidane, Nasreen Hassan Mohammed Albar, Ali Robaian, Sushil Kishnani, Kirti Somkuwar, Shilpa Bhandi, Kumar Chandan Srivastava, Deepti Shrivastava and Shankargouda Patil
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5744; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165744 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2832
Abstract
Resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses (RBFDP) are minimally invasive alternatives to traditional full-coverage fixed partial dentures as they rely on resin cements for retention. This study compared and evaluated the tensile bond strength of three different resin-bonded bridge designs, namely, three-unit fixed-fixed, two-unit cantilever [...] Read more.
Resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses (RBFDP) are minimally invasive alternatives to traditional full-coverage fixed partial dentures as they rely on resin cements for retention. This study compared and evaluated the tensile bond strength of three different resin-bonded bridge designs, namely, three-unit fixed-fixed, two-unit cantilever single abutment, and three-unit cantilever double-abutted resin-bonded bridge. Furthermore, the study attempted to compare the tensile bond strengths of the Maryland and Rochette types of resin-bonded bridges. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of seventy-five extracted maxillary incisors were collected and later were mounted on the acrylic blocks. Three distinct resin-bonded metal frameworks were designed: three-unit fixed-fixed (n = 30), two-unit cantilever single abutment (n = 30), and a three-unit cantilever double abutment (n = 30). The main groups were further divided into two subgroups based on the retainer design such as Rochette and Maryland. The different prosthesis designs were cemented to the prepared teeth. Later, abutment preparations were made on all specimens keeping the preparation as minimally invasive and esthetic oriented. Impression of the preparations were made using polyvinyl siloxane impression material, followed by pouring cast using die stone. A U-shaped handle of 1.5 mm diameter sprue wax with a 3 mm hole in between was attached to the occlusal surface of each pattern. The wax patterns were sprued and cast in a cobalt–chromium alloy. The castings were cleaned by sandblasting, followed by finishing and polishing. Lastly, based on the study group, specimens for Rochette bridge were perforated to provide mechanical retention between resin cement and metal, whereas the remaining 15 specimens were sandblasted on the palatal side to provide mechanical retention (Maryland bridge). In order to evaluate the tensile bond strength, the specimens were subjected to tensile forces on a universal testing machine with a uniform crosshead speed. The fixed-fixed partial prosthesis proved superior to both cantilever designs, whereas the single abutment cantilever design showed the lowest tensile bond strength. Maryland bridges uniformly showed higher bond strengths across all framework designs. Within the limitations of this study, the three-unit fixed-fixed design and Maryland bridges had greater bond strengths, implying that they may demonstrate lower clinical failure than cantilever designs and Rochette bridges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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11 pages, 1894 KiB  
Article
Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage of Flowable Composite Resin Using Etch and Rinse, Self-Etch Adhesive Systems, and Self-Adhesive Flowable Composite Resin in Class V Cavities: Confocal Laser Microscopic Study
by Ekta Varma Sengar, Sanjyot Mulay, Lotika Beri, Archana Gupta, Thamer Almohareb, Sultan Binalrimal, Ali Robaian, Maha A. Bahammam, Hammam Ahmed Bahammam, Sarah Ahmed Bahammam, Bassam Zidane, Nassreen H. Albar, Shilpa Bhandi, Deepti Shrivastava, Kumar Chandan Srivastava and Shankargouda Patil
Materials 2022, 15(14), 4963; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15144963 - 16 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2431
Abstract
The essential factor in determining the preservation of restoration is the marginal seal. Restoring cervical lesions with a resin composite has always been a challenge. Composite resins with various viscosities and different bonding systems are being researched to reduce the microleakage. Confocal laser [...] Read more.
The essential factor in determining the preservation of restoration is the marginal seal. Restoring cervical lesions with a resin composite has always been a challenge. Composite resins with various viscosities and different bonding systems are being researched to reduce the microleakage. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is the latest non-destructive technique for visualizing the microleakage. Objectives: To evaluate and compare the microleakage of Universal Flo composite resin (G-aenial) using etch and rinse adhesive system ER-2 steps (Adper Single Bond 2), self-etch adhesive system SE-1 step (G-Bond), and self-adhesive flowable composite resin (Constic) in Class V cavities using a confocal laser scanning microscope. Materials and Method: Class V cavities were prepared on 27 caries-free human extracted premolar teeth on the buccal and lingual surfaces with standardized dimensions of 2 mm height, width 4 mm, and a depth of 2 mm. After the cavity preparation, all teeth were randomly divided into three groups, namely Group-I: G-aenial Universal Flo with Single Bond 2 (n = 9 teeth); Group-II: G- aenial Universal Flo with G-Bond (n = 9 teeth), and Group-III: Constic (n = 9 teeth). The prepared and restored specimens were then subjected to thermocycling for 500 cycles in a water bath at 5 °C and 55 °C with a dwelling time of 30 s. The specimens were placed in 0.6% aqueous rhodamine dye for 48 h. Sectioning was carried out bucco-lingually and specimens were evaluated for microleakage under a confocal laser scanning microscope. Results: There was a significant difference (p = 0.009) in microleakage when comparing total etch and rinse, specifically between Adper Single Bond 2 ER-2 steps (fifth generation) and self-adhesive flowable composite resin, which is Constic. There was more microleakage in the self-etch bonding agent, particularly G-Bond, SE-1 step (seventh generation), when compared to ER-2 steps (fifth generation bonding agent); however, the results were not statistically significant (p = 0.468). The self-adhesive flowable composite resin showed more microleakage than SE-1 step and ER-2 steps. Conclusions: None of the adhesive systems tested were free from microleakage. However, less microleakage was observed in the total etch and rinse, especially Adper Single Bond 2 (ER-2 steps), than the self-etch adhesive system SE-1 step and self-adhesive flowable composite resin. Clinical significance: Constant research and technological advancements are taking place in dentin adhesives to improve the marginal seal. This has led to the evolution of total acid-etching dentin bonding agents termed as etch and rinse (ER)-2 steps (fifth generation dentin bonding agents) and self-etching (SE) 2 steps, and SE-1 step dentin bonding agents termed as the sixth and seventh generation bonding agents, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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6 pages, 3337 KiB  
Article
Hydroxyethyl Cellulose Promotes the Mucin Retention of Herbal Extracts Active against Streptococcus mutans
by Shiri Livne, Sapir Simantov, Arkadi Rahmanov, Uziel Jeffet and Nir Sterer
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4652; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134652 - 1 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1110
Abstract
Streptococcus mutans is considered a major cariogenic bacterium. Most anti-cariogenic dentifrices are limited by a short exposure time. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that adding a mucoadhesive agent to the formulation may increase its bioavailability and efficacy. [...] Read more.
Streptococcus mutans is considered a major cariogenic bacterium. Most anti-cariogenic dentifrices are limited by a short exposure time. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that adding a mucoadhesive agent to the formulation may increase its bioavailability and efficacy. We tested the effect of adding hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) to an herbal extract solution containing lavender, echinacea, sage, and mastic gum, which have been previously shown to be effective against Streptococcus mutans. Mucin-coated wells were treated with four test solutions: saline, herbal extracts, herbal extracts with HEC, and chlorhexidine. The wells were incubated with Streptococcus mutans and studied for biofilm formation (Crystal violet assay), acid production (lactate assay), acid tolerance (ATPase assay), and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production using fluorescent microscopy. The results showed that the addition of HEC to the herbal extract solution caused a significant reduction in Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation, lactic acid production, and EPS quantity (p < 0.001). These results suggest that HEC may be a beneficial added excipient to herbal extracts in an anti-cariogenic formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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Review

Jump to: Research

17 pages, 3790 KiB  
Review
Biofilm Formation on Hybrid, Resin-Based CAD/CAM Materials for Indirect Restorations: A Comprehensive Review
by Konstantinos Tzimas, Christos Rahiotis and Eftychia Pappa
Materials 2024, 17(7), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17071474 - 23 Mar 2024
Viewed by 786
Abstract
Hybrid materials are a recent addition in the field of restorative dentistry for computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) indirect restorations. The long-term clinical success of modern dental restorative materials is influenced by multiple factors. Among the characteristics affecting the longevity of a restoration, the [...] Read more.
Hybrid materials are a recent addition in the field of restorative dentistry for computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) indirect restorations. The long-term clinical success of modern dental restorative materials is influenced by multiple factors. Among the characteristics affecting the longevity of a restoration, the mechanical properties and physicοchemical interactions are of utmost importance. While numerous researchers constantly evaluate mechanical properties, the biological background of resin-based CAD/CAM biomaterials is scarcely investigated and, therefore, less described in the literature. This review aims to analyze biofilm formation on the surfaces of novel, hybrid, resin-based CAD/CAM materials and evaluate the methodological protocols followed to assess microbial growth. It is demonstrated that the surface structure, the composition and the finishing and polishing procedures on the surface of a dental restorative material influence initial bacterial adhesion; however, most studies focus on in vitro protocols, and in vivo and/or in situ research of microbiomics in CAD/CAM restorative materials is lacking, obstructing an accurate understanding of the bioadhesion phenomenon in the oral cavity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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25 pages, 1935 KiB  
Review
Current Advances of Three-Dimensional Bioprinting Application in Dentistry: A Scoping Review
by Nurulhuda Mohd, Masfueh Razali, Mariyam Jameelah Ghazali and Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim
Materials 2022, 15(18), 6398; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15186398 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3261
Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology has emerged as an ideal approach to address the challenges in regenerative dentistry by fabricating 3D tissue constructs with customized complex architecture. The dilemma with current dental treatments has led to the exploration of this technology in restoring and [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology has emerged as an ideal approach to address the challenges in regenerative dentistry by fabricating 3D tissue constructs with customized complex architecture. The dilemma with current dental treatments has led to the exploration of this technology in restoring and maintaining the function of teeth. This scoping review aims to explore 3D bioprinting technology together with the type of biomaterials and cells used for dental applications. Based on PRISMA-ScR guidelines, this systematic search was conducted by using the following databases: Ovid, PubMed, EBSCOhost and Web of Science. The inclusion criteria were (i) cell-laden 3D-bioprinted construct; (ii) intervention to regenerate dental tissue using bioink, which incorporates living cells or in combination with biomaterial; and (iii) 3D bioprinting for dental applications. A total of 31 studies were included in this review. The main 3D bioprinting technique was extrusion-based approach. Novel bioinks in use consist of different types of natural and synthetic polymers, decellularized extracellular matrix and spheroids with encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells, and have shown promising results for periodontal ligament, dentin, dental pulp and bone regeneration application. However, 3D bioprinting in dental applications, regrettably, is not yet close to being a clinical reality. Therefore, further research in fabricating ideal bioinks with implantation into larger animal models in the oral environment is very much needed for clinical translation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application (Volume II))
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