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Advances in Alloys, Ceramics and Polymers Used in Dentistry

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 19686

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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague,

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript to the Special Issue "Advances in Alloys, Ceramics, and Polymers Used in Dentistry" in Materials (impact factor: 3.623).

A wide variety of biocompatible, durable, and high-aesthetic dental materials are currently available for prosthetic restorations and dental implants. Furthermore, their properties, behavior, and corrosion resistance are of great importance for the success of the prosthetic treatment. Their biocompatibility is crucial, as they are in long-term intimate contact with oral tissues.

The field of dental materials is a very extensive one, encompassing both the materials themselves and the manufacturing methods, which are constantly developing.

The manufacturing conditions as well as the environmental ones are of great importance.

Alternatives, such as injection, CAD/CAM milling, or 3D printing technologies, are nowadays available and trend to take over traditional techniques, which are laborious and time-consuming.

The aim of this Special Issue is to give an updated outlook on alloys, ceramics, and polymers for dental use, as well as innovative manufacturing technologies. It represents a good opportunity for researchers around the world to disseminate different aspects of their work and reporting the results related to this topic.

Research articles, review articles, and communications are invited for this Special Issue.

Prof. Lavinia Cosmina Ardelean
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 3D printing
  • CAD/CAM milling
  • alloys for dental use
  • bioceramics
  • dental polymers
  • corrosion evaluation of dental alloys
  • biocompatibility of dental materials
  • properties of dental materials

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 3383 KiB  
Article
Influence of Surface Roughness on Biodegradability and Cytocompatibility of High-Purity Magnesium
by Jiahao Chen, Jingtao Dai, Junyu Qian, Weirong Li, Ronghui Li, Dong Pang, Guojiang Wan, Ping Li and Shulan Xu
Materials 2022, 15(11), 3991; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15113991 - 3 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1823
Abstract
High-purity magnesium (Mg) is a promising biodegradable metal for oral and maxillofacial implants. Appropriate surface roughness plays a critical role in the degradation behavior and the related cellular processes of biodegradable Mg-based metals. Nevertheless, the most optimized surface roughness has been questionable, especially [...] Read more.
High-purity magnesium (Mg) is a promising biodegradable metal for oral and maxillofacial implants. Appropriate surface roughness plays a critical role in the degradation behavior and the related cellular processes of biodegradable Mg-based metals. Nevertheless, the most optimized surface roughness has been questionable, especially for Mg-based oral and maxillofacial implants. Three representative scales of surface roughness were investigated in this study, including smooth (Sa < 0.5 µm), moderately rough (Sa between 1.0–2.0 µm), and rough (Sa > 2.0 µm). The results indicated that the degradation rate of the Mg specimen in the cell culture medium was significantly accelerated with increased surface roughness. Furthermore, an extract test revealed that Mg with different roughness did not induce an evident cytotoxic effect. Nonetheless, the smooth Mg surface had an adversely affected cell attachment. Therefore, the high-purity Mg with a moderately rough surface exhibited the most optimized balance between biodegradability and overall cytocompatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alloys, Ceramics and Polymers Used in Dentistry)
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10 pages, 23700 KiB  
Communication
Limitation of Water-Soluble Tetrazolium Salt for the Cytocompatibility Evaluation of Zinc-Based Metals
by Peijun Zhu, Jiahao Chen, Ping Li and Shulan Xu
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6247; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216247 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2424
Abstract
Zinc (Zn) and its alloys have been regarded as promising biodegradable metals. The standardized cytotoxicity evaluation is a mandatory step to screen the biocompatibility of novel Zn and its alloys. Nevertheless, the suitability of the tetrazolium-based assay in the direct contact test for [...] Read more.
Zinc (Zn) and its alloys have been regarded as promising biodegradable metals. The standardized cytotoxicity evaluation is a mandatory step to screen the biocompatibility of novel Zn and its alloys. Nevertheless, the suitability of the tetrazolium-based assay in the direct contact test for some metallic biomaterials (i.e., magnesium and manganese) is questionable. In this study, our results demonstrate an obvious inconsistency between qualitative observation via fluorescence staining and quantitative assessment using water-soluble tetrazolium salt (CCK-8). Subsequent experiments revealed that Zn and pre-treated Zn can directly convert tetrazolium salts to formazan, falsifying the cytotoxicity results. Therefore, we conclude that the CCK-8 assay is not suitable for evaluating the cytotoxicity of biodegradable Zn-based metals in the direct contact test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alloys, Ceramics and Polymers Used in Dentistry)
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27 pages, 18123 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of the Corrosion Resistance of Titanium Alloys Intended to Come into Direct or Prolonged Contact with Live Tissues
by Florina Ionescu, Lucien Reclaru, Lavinia Cosmina Ardelean and Andreas Blatter
Materials 2019, 12(17), 2841; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12172841 - 3 Sep 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4219
Abstract
The evaluation of the biological safety and degradation of materials is quite important for risk assessment in various biomedical applications. In this study, two procedures were followed to characterize the corrosion resistance of different Ti-based alloys. The first one consisted of performing specific [...] Read more.
The evaluation of the biological safety and degradation of materials is quite important for risk assessment in various biomedical applications. In this study, two procedures were followed to characterize the corrosion resistance of different Ti-based alloys. The first one consisted of performing specific electrochemical tests (open circuit potential, linear resistance polarization, Tafel plots, potentiodynamic polarization) in order to highlight their behavior to the general and localized corrosion. The static and dynamic fatigue cycles combined with crevice corrosion conducted on a new prototype have completed the study. The second procedure followed was a cations extraction investigation (by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) in order to verify the ionic permeability of the oxides layers formed on the surfaces. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used for surface analysis. It was noticed that in these two electrolytes, the bulk Ti-based alloys presented an almost similar general corrosion behavior. The small differences of behavior for Ti6Al4V scaffolds were correlated to the surface oxidation and roughness (owing to the selective laser melting process). The Ti alloys presented no traces of localized corrosion at the end of the test. The fatigue cycles revealed that a strong and adhesive oxides film was formed during the static cycles (difficult to remove even during the depassivation steps). The concentration of cations released was at the detection limit, revealing very good passivation films, in adequacy with the all the other results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alloys, Ceramics and Polymers Used in Dentistry)
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21 pages, 4789 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels Intended to Come into Direct or Prolonged Contact with the Skin
by Rene Ziegenhagen, Lucien Reclaru, Lavinia Cosmina Ardelean and Alexandru Florian Grecu
Materials 2019, 12(6), 987; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060987 - 25 Mar 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4313
Abstract
The biocompatibility of materials in contact with a living tissue becomes a puzzle in the overall picture of assessing the toxic effects of chemicals that come into contact with us. Allergic reactions to substances are a significant and growing health problem affecting large [...] Read more.
The biocompatibility of materials in contact with a living tissue becomes a puzzle in the overall picture of assessing the toxic effects of chemicals that come into contact with us. Allergic reactions to substances are a significant and growing health problem affecting large parts of the population in Europe. Wristwatches are objects worn in prolonged contact with the skin, being subject to localized corrosion, especially pitting and crevice types, in sulfide-chloride medium, and high wear in the bracelets joints. Watches of medium quality are usually made of stainless steels. The X2 CrNiMo 17-12-2 316L grade as well as X1 CrNiMo 20-25-5 Cu 1 or 904L are commonly used, having good resistance to generalized corrosion. The passive layer is nevertheless insufficient to ensure complete immunity in all cases of localized corrosion encountered during wear. For this reason, a high-corrosion-resistant steel: X1 CrNiMo 18-15-4 N 0.15 or 317LMN, from three different suppliers was evaluated. Metallographic characterization was carried out. The corrosion behavior evaluation was performed for the generalized corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion and galvanic corrosion. Galvanic couples steel 317LMN-gold 18K alloy 3N and gold 18K 5M were used. The results of the generalized and pitting corrosion test indicated three basic groups. All of the 317LMNs were similar. The 316L variants tested noticeably worse. The 904Ls were difficult to discern, but certainly easier than the 316Ls and, possibly, at least comparable to the 317LMNs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alloys, Ceramics and Polymers Used in Dentistry)
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7 pages, 1664 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Elastic Modulus on the Osseointegration of Dental Implants
by Aritza Brizuela, Mariano Herrero-Climent, Elisa Rios-Carrasco, Jose Vicente Rios-Santos, Roman A. Pérez, Jose Maria Manero and Javier Gil Mur
Materials 2019, 12(6), 980; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060980 - 25 Mar 2019
Cited by 67 | Viewed by 5262
Abstract
The load transfer from metallic prosthesis to tissue plays an important role in the success of a designed device. From a mechanical behavior point of view, the load transfer will be favored when the elastic modulus between the metallic implant and the bone [...] Read more.
The load transfer from metallic prosthesis to tissue plays an important role in the success of a designed device. From a mechanical behavior point of view, the load transfer will be favored when the elastic modulus between the metallic implant and the bone tissue are similar. Titanium and Ti-6Al-4V are the most commonly used metals and alloys in the field of dental implants, although they present high elastic moduli and hence trigger bone resorption. We propose the use of low-modulus β-type titanium alloys that can improve the growth of new bone surrounding the implant. We designed dental implants with identical morphology and micro-roughness composed of: Ti-15Zr, Ti-19.1Nb-8.8Zr, Ti-41.2Nb-6.1Zr, and Ti-25Hf-25Ta. The commercially pure Ti cp and Ti-6Al-4V were used as control samples. The alloys were initially mechanically characterized with a tensile test using a universal testing machine. The results showed the lowest elastic modulus for the Ti-25Hf-25Ta alloy. We implanted a total of six implants in the mandible (3) and maxilla (3) for each titanium alloy in six minipigs and evaluated their bone index contact (i.e., the percentage of new bone in contact with the metal—BIC%) after 3 and 6 weeks of implantation. The results showed higher BIC% for the dental implants with lowest elastic modulus, showing the importance of decreasing the elastic modulus of alloys for the successful osseointegration of dental implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Alloys, Ceramics and Polymers Used in Dentistry)
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