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Advanced Materials for Oral Application

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2022) | Viewed by 42851

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Dear Colleagues,

Enhancing the quality of life for dental patients can be achieved by the development and selection of biocompatible, durable, and high aesthetic materials, able to withstand the conditions of the oral environment for a long time. The physical and chemical properties must be considered to ensure high-resistant results, as well as the maintenance of the original characteristics of the material. The main treatment goal concerns either the regeneration of diseased tissues or their replacement with prosthesis.

The continuous development of dental materials enables dentists and dental technicians to choose from a wide variety. Recent advances enable tailoring dental materials to specific applications, resulting in progressive materials. The introduction of new aesthetic materials, digital devices, processing software, and manufacturing and prototyping tools have radically transformed the dental profession. Bioactive dental materials, which release specific ions, play an important role in the regenerative process, in preventive and restorative dentistry, as well as in endodontics, inducing cell differentiation and stimulation, hard tissue formation, and exerting antimicrobial actions. Smart materials are capable to react to pH changes and induce reparative processes in the oral environment.

Biocompatibility has to be considered, as dental materials must be well tolerated by the human organism. Bacterial colonization of the surface is also important, considering its etiopathogenetic role in initiating different oral pathologies.

This Special Issue aims to focus on the advances in this attractive field of research, encouraging a multidisciplinary approach of the subject.

It is our pleasure to invite you to submit your work to this Special Issue. Research papers, reviews, and communications are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Laura-Cristina Rusu
Prof. Dr. Lavinia Cosmina Ardelean
Guest Editors

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dental materials
  • biocompatibility
  • toxicity
  • mutagenicity
  • carcinogens
  • restorative materials
  • endodontic materials
  • ceramics
  • polymers
  • alloys
  • 3D printing
  • CAD/CAM milling
  • oral lesions
  • oral cancer
  • properties
  • technologies
  • surface treatment
  • tissue engineering

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Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 198 KiB  
Editorial
Advanced Materials for Oral Application
by Laura-Cristina Rusu and Lavinia Cosmina Ardelean
Materials 2022, 15(14), 4749; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15144749 - 7 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1129
Abstract
This Special Issue of Materials explores the wide variety of dental materials, which enables the dentists and dental technicians to select the most suitable therapeutic solution for each patient [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

10 pages, 2449 KiB  
Article
Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Fluorescence in Aesthetic Direct Restorations
by Zsuzsanna Bardocz-Veres, Melinda Székely, Pál Salamon, Előd Bala, Előd Bereczki and Bernadette Kerekes-Máthé
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4619; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134619 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1548
Abstract
Currently available direct restoration materials have been developed to have improved optical properties to interact with light in the same manner as the natural tooth. The objective of this study was to investigate the fluorescence of different enamel resin composites. In the present [...] Read more.
Currently available direct restoration materials have been developed to have improved optical properties to interact with light in the same manner as the natural tooth. The objective of this study was to investigate the fluorescence of different enamel resin composites. In the present study, nine brands of enamel composites were tested in vitro, some of which are cited by manufacturers as having color adjustment potential. Fluorescence spectra of the composite specimens and the human natural enamel were measured with a fluorescence spectrophotometer immediately after preparation and after 6 months. Qualitative data of the specimens were also collected. Statistical analyses were conducted by Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U nonparametric tests (p < 0.05). Almost all tested resin composites presented a significant decrease in the fluorescence values after a period of 6 months. There was no significant decrease in fluorescence in the case of Harmonize™ resin composite samples, which presented the lowest initial fluorescence values. The highest value in the reduction of the initial fluorescence intensity after 6 months (22.95%) was observed for the Charisma® specimens. Composites with a color adjustment did not perform significantly better than other composites in terms of reduction in fluorescence intensity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application)
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16 pages, 4436 KiB  
Article
Masking Ability of Monolithic and Layered Zirconia Crowns on Discolored Substrates
by Cristina Gasparik, Manuela Maria Manziuc, Alexandru Victor Burde, Javier Ruiz-López, Smaranda Buduru and Diana Dudea
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2233; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062233 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2739
Abstract
There is scarce information on the colorimetric behavior of monolithic and layered zirconia crowns in combination with various abutment colors. This study evaluated the masking ability on discolored substrates of monolithic and layered zirconia crowns. Anterior crowns were fabricated using 3Y-TZP zirconia and [...] Read more.
There is scarce information on the colorimetric behavior of monolithic and layered zirconia crowns in combination with various abutment colors. This study evaluated the masking ability on discolored substrates of monolithic and layered zirconia crowns. Anterior crowns were fabricated using 3Y-TZP zirconia and layering ceramic and divided into three groups: monolithic (ML), bi-layer (BL), and tri-layer (TL). The crowns were placed over eleven substrates (ND1-ND9, zirconia, metal), and CIE L*, a*, b*, C*, and h° color coordinates were measured in the cervical, middle, and incisal areas with a spectrophotometer. Masking ability was calculated using the color difference formula, and values were interpreted according to the perceptibility and acceptability thresholds. Data were analyzed statistically (α = 0.001). The L* coordinate was not significantly different between BL and TL crowns, regardless of the measurement area or substrate (p ≥ 0.001). In the middle area, the L* coordinate of the ML group was statistically different from the BL and TL groups only for zirconia and metal substrates, while in the incisal area, only for ND7 and metal substrates. The a* coordinate was significantly different between the ML and layered crowns for all measurement areas and substrates (except zirconia). The b* and C* coordinates differed significantly between the groups only in the cervical area (p < 0.001). The ML crown had better masking ability than the BL and TL crowns. However, the color differences for ML crowns were below the acceptability threshold for ND2, ND3, and ND7 substrates in the cervical and middle areas and below perceptibility threshold only for the incisal area. The lowest masking ability of the crowns was found for ND9 and metal substrates in all measurement areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application)
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15 pages, 43953 KiB  
Article
A New Anorganic Equine Bone Substitute for Oral Surgery: Structural Characterization and Regenerative Potential
by Alessandro Addis, Elena Canciani, Marino Campagnol, Matteo Colombo, Christian Frigerio, Daniele Recupero, Claudia Dellavia and Marco Morroni
Materials 2022, 15(3), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15031031 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2385
Abstract
Different xenogeneic inorganic bone substitutes are currently used as bone grafting materials in oral and maxillo-facial surgery. The aim of the present study was to determine the physicochemical properties and the in vivo performance of an anorganic equine bone (AEB) substitute. AEB is [...] Read more.
Different xenogeneic inorganic bone substitutes are currently used as bone grafting materials in oral and maxillo-facial surgery. The aim of the present study was to determine the physicochemical properties and the in vivo performance of an anorganic equine bone (AEB) substitute. AEB is manufactured by applying a process involving heating at >300 °C with the aim of removing all the antigens and the organic components. AEB was structurally characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and Fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and compared to the anorganic bovine bone (ABB). In order to provide a preliminary evaluation of the in vivo performance of AEB, 18 bone defects were prepared and grafted with AEB (nine sites), or ABB (nine sites) used as a control, in nine Yucatan Minipigs. De novo bone formation, residual bone substitute, as well as local inflammatory and tissue effects were histologically evaluated at 30 and 90 days after implantation. The structural characterization showed that the surface morphology, particle size, chemical composition, and crystalline structure of AEB were similar to cancellous human bone. The histological examination of AEB showed a comparable pattern of newly formed bone and residual biomaterial to that of ABB. Overall, the structural data and pre-clinical evidence reported in the present study suggests that AEB can be effectively used as bone grafting material in oral surgery procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application)
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11 pages, 2462 KiB  
Article
Impact of APRF+ in Combination with Autogenous Fibroblasts on Release Growth Factors, Collagen, and Proliferation and Migration of Gingival Fibroblasts: An In Vitro Study
by Barbara Sterczała, Agnieszka Chwiłkowska, Urszula Szwedowicz, Magdalena Kobielarz, Bartłomiej Chwiłkowski and Marzena Dominiak
Materials 2022, 15(3), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15030796 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
The present study aimed to compare the action of advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF+) alone with the action of A-PRF+ combined with autologous gingival fibroblasts. The components released from A-PRF+ conditioned with autogenous fibroblasts that were quantified in the study were fibroblast growth factor [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to compare the action of advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF+) alone with the action of A-PRF+ combined with autologous gingival fibroblasts. The components released from A-PRF+ conditioned with autogenous fibroblasts that were quantified in the study were fibroblast growth factor (FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), trans-forming growth factor-beta1 and 2 (TGFβ1 and TGFβ2), and soluble collagen. A-PRF+ combined with fibroblasts demonstrated significantly higher values of released VEGF at every time point and, after 7 days, significantly higher values of released TGFβ2. A viability test after 72 h showed a significant increase in proliferation fibroblasts after exposition to the factors released from A-PRF+ combined with fibroblasts. Similarly, the degree of wound closure after 48 h was significantly higher for the factors released from A-RRF+ alone and the factors released from A-RRF+ combined with fibroblasts. These results imply that platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) enhanced with fibroblasts can be an alternative method of connective tissue transplantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application)
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8 pages, 2219 KiB  
Article
Cross-Contamination Risk of Dental Tray Adhesives: An In Vitro Study
by Isabel Paczkowski, Catalina S. Stingu, Sebastian Hahnel, Angelika Rauch and Oliver Schierz
Materials 2021, 14(20), 6138; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14206138 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1461
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of cross-contamination in dental tray adhesives with reusable brush systems. Methods: Four dental tray adhesives with different disinfectant components were examined for risk as a potential transmission medium for Staphylococcus aureus, [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of cross-contamination in dental tray adhesives with reusable brush systems. Methods: Four dental tray adhesives with different disinfectant components were examined for risk as a potential transmission medium for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus oralis, and Candida albicans. Bacterial and fungal strains were mixed with artificial saliva. The contaminated saliva was intentionally added to tray adhesive liquid samples. At baseline and up to 60 min, 100 microliters of each sample were collected and cultivated aerobically on Columbia and Sabouraud agar for 24 or 48 h, respectively. Results: At baseline, contamination with Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans could be identified in three out of four adhesives. In the subsequent samples, low counts of up to 20 colony-forming units per milliliter could be observed for Staphylococcus aureus. All other strains did not form colonies at baseline or subsequently. Adhesives with isopropanol or ethyl acetate as disinfectant additives were most effective in preventing contamination, while adhesives with hydrogen chloride or acetone as a disinfectant additive were the least effective. Conclusion: Within 15 min, the tested adhesives appeared to be sufficiently bactericidal and fungicidal against all microorganisms tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application)
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11 pages, 3694 KiB  
Article
Base Materials’ Influence on Fracture Resistance of Molars with MOD Cavities
by Gabriela Ciavoi, Ruxandra Mărgărit, Liana Todor, Dana Bodnar, Magdalena Natalia Dina, Daniela Ioana Tărlungeanu, Denisa Cojocaru, Cătălina Farcaşiu and Oana Cella Andrei
Materials 2021, 14(18), 5242; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185242 - 12 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1601
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare fracture resistance of teeth presenting medium-sized mesial-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavities using different base materials. Thirty-six extracted molars were immersed for 48 h in saline solution (0.1% thymol at 4 °C) and divided into six groups. In [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare fracture resistance of teeth presenting medium-sized mesial-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavities using different base materials. Thirty-six extracted molars were immersed for 48 h in saline solution (0.1% thymol at 4 °C) and divided into six groups. In group A, the molars were untouched, and in group B, cavities were prepared, but not filled. In group C, we used zinc polycarboxylate cement, in group D—conventional glass ionomer cement, in group E—resin modified glass ionomer cement, and in group F—flow composite. Fracture resistance was tested using a universal loading machine (Lloyd Instruments) with a maximum force of 5 kN and a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min; we used NEXYGEN Data Analysis Software and ANOVA Method (p < 0.05). The smallest load that determined the sample failure was 2780 N for Group A, 865 N for Group B, 1210 N for Group C, 1340 N for Group D, 1630 N for Group E and 1742 N for Group F. The highest loads were 3050 N (A), 1040 N (B), 1430 N (C), 1500 N (D), 1790 N (E), and 3320 N (F), the mean values being 2902 ± 114 N (A), 972 ± 65 N (B), 1339 ± 84 N (C), 1415 ± 67 N (D), 1712 ± 62 N (E), and 2334 ± 662 N (F). A p = 0.000195 shows a statistically significant difference between groups C, D, E and F. For medium sized mesial-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavities, the best base material regarding fracture resistance was flow composite, followed by glass ionomer modified with resin, conventional glass ionomer cement and zinc polycarboxylate cement. It can be concluded that light-cured base materials are a better option for the analyzed use case, one of the possible reasons being their compatibility with the final restoration material, also light-cured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application)
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14 pages, 2557 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cement Layer Thickness on the Immediate and Long-Term Bond Strength and Residual Stress between Lithium Disilicate Glass-Ceramic and Human Dentin
by João Paulo Mendes Tribst, Alison Flavio Campos dos Santos, Giuliane da Cruz Santos, Larissa Sandy da Silva Leite, Julio Chávez Lozada, Laís Regiane Silva-Concílio, Kusai Baroudi and Marina Amaral
Materials 2021, 14(18), 5153; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185153 - 8 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2863
Abstract
This study tested whether three different cement layer thicknesses (60, 120 and 180 μm) would provide the same bonding capacity between adhesively luted lithium disilicate and human dentin. Ceramic blocks were cut to 20 blocks with a low-speed diamond saw under cooling water [...] Read more.
This study tested whether three different cement layer thicknesses (60, 120 and 180 μm) would provide the same bonding capacity between adhesively luted lithium disilicate and human dentin. Ceramic blocks were cut to 20 blocks with a low-speed diamond saw under cooling water and were then cemented to human flat dentin with an adhesive protocol. The assembly was sectioned into 1 mm2 cross-section beams composed of ceramic/cement/dentin. Cement layer thickness was measured, and three groups were formed. Half of the samples were immediately tested to evaluate the short-term bond strength and the other half were submitted to an aging simulation. The microtensile test was performed in a universal testing machine, and the bond strength (MPa) was calculated. The fractured specimens were examined under stereomicroscopy. Applying the finite element method, the residual stress of polymerization shrinkage according to cement layer thickness was also calculated using first principal stress as analysis criteria. Kruskal–Wallis tests showed that the ‘‘cement layer thickness’’ factor significantly influenced the bond strength results for the aged samples (p = 0.028); however, no statistically significant difference was found between the immediately tested groups (p = 0.569). The higher the cement layer thickness, the higher the residual stress generated at the adhesive interface due to cement polymerization shrinkage. In conclusion, the cement layer thickness does not affect the immediate bond strength in lithium disilicate restorations; however, thinner cement layers are most stable in the short term, showing constant bond strength and lower residual stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application)
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14 pages, 2282 KiB  
Article
The Role of Biomaterials in Upper Digestive Tract Transoral Reconstruction
by Raluca Grigore, Bogdan Popescu, Şerban Vifor Gabriel Berteşteanu, Cornelia Nichita, Irina Doinita Oașă, Gloria Simona Munteanu, Alexandru Nicolaescu, Paula Luiza Bejenaru, Catrinel Beatrice Simion-Antonie, Dragoș Ene and Răzvan Ene
Materials 2021, 14(6), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14061436 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1970
Abstract
This study aims to establish whether the use of biomaterials, particularly polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), for surgical reconstruction of the esophagus with templates, Montgomery salivary tube, after radical oncology surgery for malignant neoplasia is an optimal choice for patients’ safety and for optimal function preservation [...] Read more.
This study aims to establish whether the use of biomaterials, particularly polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), for surgical reconstruction of the esophagus with templates, Montgomery salivary tube, after radical oncology surgery for malignant neoplasia is an optimal choice for patients’ safety and for optimal function preservation and organ rehabilitation. Structural analysis by Raman spectrometry and biomechanical properties with dynamic mechanical analysis are performed for fatigue strength and toughness, essential factors in durability of a prosthesis in the reconstruction practice of the esophagus. Nanocomposites with silicone elastomers and nanoparticles used in implantable devices and in reconstruction surgery present risks of infection and fatigue strength when required to perform a mechanical effort for long periods of time. This report takes into account the effect of silver (Ag) nanoparticles on the fatigue strength using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix, representative for silicon elastomers used in implantable devices. PDMS with 5% (wt) Ag nanoparticles of 100–150 nm during mechanical fatigue testing at shear strength loses elasticity properties after 400 loading-unloading cycles and up to 15% shear strain. The fatigue strength, toughness, maximum shear strength, as well as clinical properties are key issues in designing Montgomery salivary tube and derivates with appropriate biomechanical behavior for each patient. Prosthesis design needs to indulge both clinical outcomes as well as design methods and research in the field of biomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application)
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13 pages, 8235 KiB  
Article
PICN Nanocomposite as Dental CAD/CAM Block Comparable to Human Tooth in Terms of Hardness and Flexural Modulus
by Yohei Kawajiri, Hiroshi Ikeda, Yuki Nagamatsu, Chihiro Masaki, Ryuji Hosokawa and Hiroshi Shimizu
Materials 2021, 14(5), 1182; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051182 - 3 Mar 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3766
Abstract
Polymer infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) composites are an increasingly popular dental restorative material that offer mechanical biocompatibility with human enamel. This study aimed to develop a novel PICN composite as a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) block for dental applications. Several PICN [...] Read more.
Polymer infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) composites are an increasingly popular dental restorative material that offer mechanical biocompatibility with human enamel. This study aimed to develop a novel PICN composite as a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) block for dental applications. Several PICN composites were prepared under varying conditions via the sintering of a green body prepared from a silica-containing precursor solution, followed by resin infiltration. The flexural strength of the PICN composite block (107.8–153.7 MPa) was similar to a commercial resin-based composite, while the Vickers hardness (204.8–299.2) and flexural modulus (13.0–22.2 GPa) were similar to human enamel and dentin, respectively. The shear bond strength and surface free energy of the composite were higher than those of the commercial resin composites. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis revealed that the microstructure of the composite consisted of a nanosized silica skeleton and infiltrated resin. The PICN nanocomposite block was successfully used to fabricate a dental crown and core via the CAD/CAM milling process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application)
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10 pages, 1837 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Morpho-Geometrical Changes of the Root Canal System Produced by TF Adaptive vs. BioRace: A Micro-Computed Tomography Study
by Loai Alsofi, Muhannad Al Harbi, Martin Stauber and Khaled Balto
Materials 2021, 14(3), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14030531 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1643
Abstract
We aimed to analyze the morpho-geometric changes of the root canal system created by two rotary systems (TF Adaptive and BioRace) using micro-CT technology. Two concepts of rotary file system kinematics, continuous rotation and adaptive kinematics, were used in root canal preparation. Twenty [...] Read more.
We aimed to analyze the morpho-geometric changes of the root canal system created by two rotary systems (TF Adaptive and BioRace) using micro-CT technology. Two concepts of rotary file system kinematics, continuous rotation and adaptive kinematics, were used in root canal preparation. Twenty mandibular molars (n = 20) were selected with the following criteria: the teeth have mesial roots with a single and continuous isthmus connecting the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals (Vertucci’s Type I configuration) and distal roots with independent canals. Teeth were scanned at a resolution of 14 μm. Canals were divided equally into two groups and then enlarged sequentially using the BioRace system and TF Adaptive system according to manufacturer protocol. Co-registered images, before and after preparation, were evaluated for morphometric measurements of canal surface area, volume, structure model index, thickness, straightening, and un-instrumented surface area. Before and after preparation, data were statistically analyzed using a paired sample t-test. After preparation, data were analyzed using an unpaired sample test. The preparation by both systems significantly changed canal surface area, volume, structure model index, and thickness in both systems. There were no significant differences between instrument types with respect to these parameters (p > 0.05). TF Adaptive was associated with less straightening (8% compared with 17% for BioRace in the mesial canal, p > 0.05). Both instrumentation systems produced canal preparations with adequate geometrical changes. BioRace straightened the mesial canals more than TF Adaptive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application)
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8 pages, 10663 KiB  
Article
Impact of Warm Vertical Compaction on the Sealing Ability of Calcium Silicate-Based Sealers: A Confocal Microscopic Evaluation
by Diana Eid, Etienne Medioni, Gustavo De-Deus, Issam Khalil, Alfred Naaman and Carla Zogheib
Materials 2021, 14(2), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14020372 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2564
Abstract
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the dentinal tubule penetration of two calcium silicate-based sealers used in warm vertical compaction (WVC) obturation technique in comparison with the single cone (SC) technique by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The null [...] Read more.
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the dentinal tubule penetration of two calcium silicate-based sealers used in warm vertical compaction (WVC) obturation technique in comparison with the single cone (SC) technique by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The null hypothesis was that both obturation techniques produced similar sealer penetration depths at 1 and 5 mm from the apex. Forty-four mandibular single-rooted premolars were randomly divided into four equally experimental groups (n = 10) and two control groups (n = 2) according to the type of sealer (Bio-C Angelus, Londrína, PR, Brazil or HiFlow Brasseler, Savannah, GA, USA) with either SC or WVC. The sealers were mixed with a fluorescent dye Rhodamine B (0.1%) to enable the assessment under the CLSM. All the specimens were sectioned horizontally at 1 and 5 mm from the apex. The maximum penetration depth was calculated using the ImageJ Software (ImageJ, NIH). Data were analyzed by Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests (p < 0.05). A significant difference was shown between the four groups at 1 mm (p = 0.0116), whereas similar results were observed at 5 mm (p = 0.20). WVC allowed better diffusion for both sealers at 1 mm (p = 0.01) and 5 mm (p = 0.034). The maximum penetration of the Bio-C and HiFlow sealers was more important at 5 mm with the two obturation techniques. Within the limitations of this study, WVC enhanced the penetration of calcium silicate-based sealers into the dentinal tubules in comparison with the SC technique at both levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application)
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12 pages, 6779 KiB  
Article
Does Printing Orientation Matter? In-Vitro Fracture Strength of Temporary Fixed Dental Prostheses after a 1-Year Simulation in the Artificial Mouth
by Julian Nold, Christian Wesemann, Laura Rieg, Lara Binder, Siegbert Witkowski, Benedikt Christopher Spies and Ralf Joachim Kohal
Materials 2021, 14(2), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14020259 - 7 Jan 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2281
Abstract
Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD–CAM) enable subtractive or additive fabrication of temporary fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). The present in-vitro study aimed to compare the fracture resistance of both milled and additive manufactured three-unit FDPs and bar-shaped, ISO-conform specimens. Polymethylmethacrylate was used for [...] Read more.
Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD–CAM) enable subtractive or additive fabrication of temporary fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). The present in-vitro study aimed to compare the fracture resistance of both milled and additive manufactured three-unit FDPs and bar-shaped, ISO-conform specimens. Polymethylmethacrylate was used for subtractive manufacturing and a light-curing resin for additive manufacturing. Three (bars) and four (FDPs) different printing orientations were evaluated. All bars (n = 32) were subjected to a three-point bending test after 24 h of water storage. Half of the 80 FDPs were dynamically loaded (250,000 cycles, 98 N) with simultaneous hydrothermal cycling. Non-aged (n = 40) and surviving FDPs (n = 11) were subjected to static loading until fracture. Regarding the bar-shaped specimens, the milled group showed the highest flexural strength (114 ± 10 MPa, p = 0.001), followed by the vertically printed group (97 ± 10 MPa, p < 0.007). Subtractive manufactured FDPs revealed the highest fracture strength (1060 ± 89 N) with all specimens surviving dynamic loading. During artificial aging, 29 of 32 printed specimens failed. The present findings indicate that both printing orientation and aging affect the strength of additive manufactured specimens. The used resin and settings cannot be recommended for additive manufacturing of long-term temporary three-unit FDPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

21 pages, 1971 KiB  
Review
Calcium Silicate-Based Root Canal Sealers: A Narrative Review and Clinical Perspectives
by Germain Sfeir, Carla Zogheib, Shanon Patel, Thomas Giraud, Venkateshbabu Nagendrababu and Frédéric Bukiet
Materials 2021, 14(14), 3965; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14143965 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 5139
Abstract
Over the last two decades, calcium silicate-based materials have grown in popularity. As root canal sealers, these formulations have been extensively investigated and compared with conventional sealers, such as zinc oxide–eugenol and epoxy resin-based sealers, in in vitro studies that showed their promising [...] Read more.
Over the last two decades, calcium silicate-based materials have grown in popularity. As root canal sealers, these formulations have been extensively investigated and compared with conventional sealers, such as zinc oxide–eugenol and epoxy resin-based sealers, in in vitro studies that showed their promising properties, especially their biocompatibility, antimicrobial properties, and certain bioactivity. However, the consequence of their higher solubility is a matter of debate and still needs to be clarified, because it may affect their long-term sealing ability. Unlike conventional sealers, those sealers are hydraulic, and their setting is conditioned by the presence of humidity. Current evidence reveals that the properties of calcium silicate-based sealers vary depending on their formulation. To date, only a few short-term investigations addressed the clinical outcome of calcium silicate-based root canal sealers. Their use has been showed to be mainly based on practitioners’ clinical habits rather than manufacturers’ recommendations or available evidence. However, their particular behavior implies modifications of the clinical protocol used for conventional sealers. This narrative review aimed to discuss the properties of calcium silicate-based sealers and their clinical implications, and to propose rational indications for these sealers based on the current knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application)
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37 pages, 1907 KiB  
Review
Advanced Biomaterials and Techniques for Oral Tissue Engineering and Regeneration—A Review
by Anamaria Matichescu, Lavinia Cosmina Ardelean, Laura-Cristina Rusu, Dragos Craciun, Emanuel Adrian Bratu, Marius Babucea and Marius Leretter
Materials 2020, 13(22), 5303; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225303 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 62 | Viewed by 7809
Abstract
The reconstruction or repair of oral and maxillofacial functionalities and aesthetics is a priority for patients affected by tooth loss, congenital defects, trauma deformities, or various dental diseases. Therefore, in dental medicine, tissue reconstruction represents a major interest in oral and maxillofacial surgery, [...] Read more.
The reconstruction or repair of oral and maxillofacial functionalities and aesthetics is a priority for patients affected by tooth loss, congenital defects, trauma deformities, or various dental diseases. Therefore, in dental medicine, tissue reconstruction represents a major interest in oral and maxillofacial surgery, periodontics, orthodontics, endodontics, and even daily clinical practice. The current clinical approaches involve a vast array of techniques ranging from the traditional use of tissue grafts to the most innovative regenerative procedures, such as tissue engineering. In recent decades, a wide range of both artificial and natural biomaterials and scaffolds, genes, stem cells isolated from the mouth area (dental follicle, deciduous teeth, periodontal ligament, dental pulp, salivary glands, and adipose tissue), and various growth factors have been tested in tissue engineering approaches in dentistry, with many being proven successful. However, to fully eliminate the problems of traditional bone and tissue reconstruction in dentistry, continuous research is needed. Based on a recent literature review, this paper creates a picture of current innovative strategies applying dental stem cells for tissue regeneration in different dental fields and maxillofacial surgery, and offers detailed information regarding the available scientific data and practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Oral Application)
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