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Antioxidants, Volume 13, Issue 3 (March 2024) – 130 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Melanocyte death due to oxidative stress and autoimmune reactions causes hypopigmentation, such as vitiligo. Melanin overproduction from melanocytes stimulated by oxidative stress, hormones, or substrates causes hyperpigmentation, such as melasma. Thus, we hypothesized that certain antioxidants may help alleviate skin pigmentation disorders. This study highlights the multifaceted effects of L-cysteine, L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and their derivatives on melanocyte viability and melanin levels under several experimental conditions, which can guide the therapeutic application of each compound. In particular, it suggests that L-cysteine, L-cysteinamide, or L-ascorbic acid may be applied to prevent and treat skin hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, or both diseases in the matched order. View this paper
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17 pages, 2296 KiB  
Article
Cyanide Insensitive Oxidase Confers Hydrogen Sulfide and Nitric Oxide Tolerance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aerobic Respiration
by Martina R. Nastasi, Lorenzo Caruso, Francesca Giordano, Marta Mellini, Giordano Rampioni, Alessandro Giuffrè and Elena Forte
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030383 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 870
Abstract
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) are long-known inhibitors of terminal oxidases in the respiratory chain. Yet, they exert pivotal signaling roles in physiological processes, and in several bacterial pathogens have been reported to confer resistance against oxidative stress, host [...] Read more.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) are long-known inhibitors of terminal oxidases in the respiratory chain. Yet, they exert pivotal signaling roles in physiological processes, and in several bacterial pathogens have been reported to confer resistance against oxidative stress, host immune responses, and antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen causing life-threatening infections that are difficult to eradicate, has a highly branched respiratory chain including four terminal oxidases of the haem-copper type (aa3, cbb3-1, cbb3-2, and bo3) and one oxidase of the bd-type (cyanide-insensitive oxidase, CIO). As Escherichia coli bd-type oxidases have been shown to be H2S-insensitive and to readily recover their activity from NO inhibition, here we tested the effect of H2S and NO on CIO by performing oxygraphic measurements on membrane preparations from P. aeruginosa PAO1 and isogenic mutants depleted of CIO only or all other terminal oxidases except CIO. We show that O2 consumption by CIO is unaltered even in the presence of high levels of H2S, and that CIO expression is enhanced and supports bacterial growth under such stressful conditions. In addition, we report that CIO is reversibly inhibited by NO, while activity recovery after NO exhaustion is full and fast, suggesting a protective role of CIO under NO stress conditions. As P. aeruginosa is exposed to H2S and NO during infection, the tolerance of CIO towards these stressors agrees with the proposed role of CIO in P. aeruginosa virulence. Full article
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18 pages, 5204 KiB  
Article
Protective Mechanism of Rosa roxburghii Tratt Fermentation Broth against Ultraviolet-A-Induced Photoaging of Human Embryonic Skin Fibroblasts
by Minglu Yuan, Hao Fu, Qiuting Mo, Shiwei Wang, Changtao Wang, Dongdong Wang, Jiachan Zhang and Meng Li
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030382 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 762
Abstract
This study takes the fruit of Rosa roxburghii Tratt (RRT) as a fermentation substrate and carries out a quantitative visual analysis of the domestic and foreign literature on screenings of five different lactic acid bacteria to obtain a fermentation broth. Systemic anti-photoaging effects [...] Read more.
This study takes the fruit of Rosa roxburghii Tratt (RRT) as a fermentation substrate and carries out a quantitative visual analysis of the domestic and foreign literature on screenings of five different lactic acid bacteria to obtain a fermentation broth. Systemic anti-photoaging effects are analyzed at the biochemical, cellular, and molecular biological levels. DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activities are used to verify the antioxidant capacity of the RRT fruit fermentation broth in vitro. Human embryonic skin fibroblasts (HESs) are used to establish a UVA damage model, and the antioxidant capacity of the RRT fruit fermentation broth is verified in terms of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzyme activity. RT-qPCR and ELISA are used to detect the expression of TGF-β/Smad, MMPs, and the MAPK/AP-1 and Nrf2/Keap-1 signaling pathways in order to explore the anti-oxidation and anti-photoaging effects of the RRT fruit fermentation broth by regulating different signaling pathways. The results show that an RRT fruit fermentation broth can effectively protect cells from oxidative stress caused by UVA and has significant anti-photoaging effects, with the co-cultured Lactobacillus Yogurt Starter LYS-20297 having the highest overall effect. Full article
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16 pages, 530 KiB  
Article
Dietary Antioxidants May Support Cosmetic Treatment in Patients with Rosacea
by Kinga Zujko-Kowalska, Joanna Masłowska, Małgorzata Knaś-Dawidziuk, Jadwiga Hamulka and Małgorzata Elżbieta Zujko
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030381 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 856
Abstract
Rosacea is a chronic skin disease that significantly reduces the quality of life (QoL) of patients. The aim of this study was to assess whether dietary antioxidants can support the effect of cosmetic treatment in improving the QoL of patients with rosacea. Basic [...] Read more.
Rosacea is a chronic skin disease that significantly reduces the quality of life (QoL) of patients. The aim of this study was to assess whether dietary antioxidants can support the effect of cosmetic treatment in improving the QoL of patients with rosacea. Basic data about participants (N = 160) were collected using a self-reported survey. QoL was assessed using the standardized Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire. An interventional cosmetic treatment was performed using cavitation peeling and sonophoresis with a commercial capillary repair serum. The study was registered as a clinical trial (NCT06271135). To assess antioxidant diet quality, for the first time, a new dietary antioxidant quality index (DAQI) was developed, which consisted of 12 items: dietary total antioxidant capacity, dietary polyphenols, phytosterols, lignans, vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, zinc, iron, copper, manganese and selenium. It was found that the highest tertiles of DAQI diminished the odds about 40–45% of the moderate, large and extremely large effect of rosacea on QoL and about 8–11% of the occurrence of rosacea symptoms compared with the lowest tertile. This study showed that rosacea has a negative impact on QoL, but a comprehensive approach to treatment, including antioxidant cosmetic treatment and dietary antioxidants, can improve the QoL of patients with rosacea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Potential Health Benefits of Dietary Antioxidants)
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14 pages, 3891 KiB  
Article
Stigmasterol Exerts an Anti-Melanoma Property through Down-Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 in Melanoma Cells
by Na-Ra Han, Hi-Joon Park, Seong-Gyu Ko and Phil-Dong Moon
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030380 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 773
Abstract
Cancer immunotherapy as a promising anti-cancer strategy has been widely studied in recent years. Stigmasterol (STIG), a phytosterol, is known to have various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory effects. However, the pharmacological role of STIG on melanoma immunotherapy has not been investigated. The present [...] Read more.
Cancer immunotherapy as a promising anti-cancer strategy has been widely studied in recent years. Stigmasterol (STIG), a phytosterol, is known to have various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory effects. However, the pharmacological role of STIG on melanoma immunotherapy has not been investigated. The present study demonstrates the anti-melanoma potency of STIG through the regulation of PD-L1 levels. The results reveal that STIG reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels induced by hydrogen peroxide and increases glutathione levels decreased by α-MSH in B16F10 cells. Moreover, STIG significantly decreases melanin content and tyrosinase activities elevated by α-MSH. It also suppresses nitric oxide production induced by α-MSH. Additionally, STIG induces apoptosis with the up-regulation of PARP activation. STIG inhibits IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 expression and STAT1 phosphorylation levels. STIG also reverses the up-regulation of PD-L1 and phosphorylated STAT1 levels augmented by cisplatin, and STIG enhances CD8(+) T-cell-mediated cell death against B16F10 cells. These findings represent the first evidence of pro-apoptotic activity of STIG on melanoma cells through the down-regulation of ROS and PD-L1 pathways. Therefore, STIG may be an effective candidate for melanoma immunotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Phytochemicals in Drug Discovery)
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18 pages, 2859 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Effect of Maternal Antioxidant Supplementation on the Lipid Profile of the Progeny According to the Sow’s Parity Number
by Gerardo Gómez, Hernan D. Laviano, Juan García-Casco, Maria Muñoz, Fernando Gómez, Fernando Sánchez-Esquiliche, Antonio González-Bulnes, Clemente López-Bote, Cristina Óvilo and Ana I. Rey
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030379 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 909
Abstract
Pig feeding prior to the extensive fattening phase might affect the final lipid profile and product quality. This study evaluates how maternal supplementation with vitamin E (VITE) (100 mg/kg), hydroxytyrosol (HXT) (1.5 mg/kg), or combined administration (VE + HXT) affects the piglet’s plasma [...] Read more.
Pig feeding prior to the extensive fattening phase might affect the final lipid profile and product quality. This study evaluates how maternal supplementation with vitamin E (VITE) (100 mg/kg), hydroxytyrosol (HXT) (1.5 mg/kg), or combined administration (VE + HXT) affects the piglet’s plasma and tissues’ fatty acid profiles and lipid stability according to the sow’s parity number (PN), as well as the possible changes to the lipid profile after extensive feeding. The sows’ PN affected the total fatty acid profile of plasma, muscle, and liver of piglets, with lower Δ-9 and Δ-6 desaturase indices but higher Δ-5 in those from primiparous (P) than multiparous (M) sows. Dietary VITE was more effective at decreasing C16:0 and saturated fatty acids in the muscle of piglets born from M than P sows, and modified the liver phospholipids in a different way. Sows’ supplementation with HXT increased C18:2n-6 in triglycerides and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in muscle phospholipids. In the liver, HXT supplementation also increased free-PUFA and free-n-3 fatty acids. However, lipid oxidation of piglets’ tissues was not affected by the antioxidant supplementation, and it was higher in the livers of piglets born from M sows. The fatty acid profile in the muscle of pigs after extensive feeding was not affected by the PN, but it was by the sows’ antioxidant supplementation, with positive effects on quality by both compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Animal Nutrition)
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14 pages, 2782 KiB  
Article
Identification and Functional Validation of Two Novel Antioxidant Peptides in Saffron
by Yiyang Long, Han Tao, Shiyu Wang, Bingcong Xing, Zhineng Wang, Kexin Liu, Qingsong Shao and Fei Gao
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030378 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 909
Abstract
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most expensive spices in the world, boasting rich medicinal and edible value. However, the effective development of active natural substances in saffron is still limited. Currently, there is a lack of comprehensive studies on [...] Read more.
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most expensive spices in the world, boasting rich medicinal and edible value. However, the effective development of active natural substances in saffron is still limited. Currently, there is a lack of comprehensive studies on the saffron stigma protein, and the main effect peptides have not been identified. In this study, the total protein composition of saffron stigmas was analyzed, and two main antioxidant peptides (DGGSDYLGK and VDPYFNK) were identified, which showed high antioxidant activity. Then, the stability of two peptides was further evaluated. Furthermore, our results suggested that these two peptides may protect HepG2 cells from H2O2-induced oxidative damage by significantly improving the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and reducing the malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Collectively, we identified two peptides screened from the saffron protein possessing good antioxidant activity and stability, making them promising candidates for use as functional foods, etc., for health promotion. Our findings indicated that proteomic analysis together with peptide identification is a good method for exploitation and utilization of spice plants. Full article
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21 pages, 14300 KiB  
Article
Bioactive Lignan Honokiol Alleviates Ovarian Oxidative Stress in Aging Laying Chickens by Regulating SIRT3/AMPK Pathway
by Yiqiu Chen, Zhaoyu Yang, Jingchun Bai, Xinyu Wang, Qiongyu Yuan, Yuling Mi and Caiqiao Zhang
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030377 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 943
Abstract
Aging is not only a key internal cause of age-related diseases in humans but also poses a threat to the productivity of farm animals with longer breeding cycles, such as laying chickens. Various measures were taken to prolong the laying period by reducing [...] Read more.
Aging is not only a key internal cause of age-related diseases in humans but also poses a threat to the productivity of farm animals with longer breeding cycles, such as laying chickens. Various measures were taken to prolong the laying period by reducing oxidative stress to improve poultry ovarian functions. Within the mitochondria, SIRT3, a member of the Sirtuin family, plays an important role in post-translational modifications and the regulation of protein activities involved in energy metabolism and oxidative response. This study aimed to investigate the alleviating effect of a bioactive lignan Honokiol (HKL) on oxidative stress in aging chicken ovaries in order to retard decline in egg production. The results showed that HKL treatment restored the abnormal balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, and it enhanced the antioxidant capacity of the H2O2-induced small white follicles (SWFs) by activating the SIRT3/AMPK pathway. Moreover, HKL significantly increased total egg production, the number of yellow follicles, and the mRNA expression of yolk synthesis and deposition-related genes, serum estrogen, and antioxidant levels. These findings suggest that HKL holds promise in enhancing the egg productivity of aging laying chickens by promoting yolk deposition and reducing ovarian oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Poultry Reproduction and Nutrition)
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18 pages, 1906 KiB  
Article
Unveiling Glucosinolate Diversity in Brassica Germplasm and In Silico Analysis for Determining Optimal Antioxidant Potential
by Kanivalan Iwar, Kebede Taye Desta, Kingsley Ochar and Seong-Hoon Kim
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030376 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 702
Abstract
This study explored the glucosinolate (GSL) content in Brassica plants and utilized in silico analysis approach to assess their antioxidant capabilities. GSLs, present abundantly in Brassica vegetables, offer potential health advantages, including antioxidant effects. Employing Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) coupled with tandem mass [...] Read more.
This study explored the glucosinolate (GSL) content in Brassica plants and utilized in silico analysis approach to assess their antioxidant capabilities. GSLs, present abundantly in Brassica vegetables, offer potential health advantages, including antioxidant effects. Employing Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), major GSLs were identified in 89 accessions from diverse species and subspecies. Statistical analysis and principal component analysis unveiled significant GSL variation and potential correlations among the Brassica germplasms. This study unveils the dominance of aliphatic GSLs over aromatic and indolyl compounds in all the accessions. Notably, Gluconapin (GNA) (33,049.23 µmol·kg−1 DW), Glucobrassicanapin (GBN) (9803.82 µmol·kg−1 DW), Progoitrin (PRO) (12,780.48 µmol·kg−1 DW) and Sinigrin (SIN) (14,872.93 µmol·kg−1 DW) were the most abundant compounds across the analyzed accessions. Moreover, in silico docking studies predicted promising antioxidant activity by evaluating the interactions of each GSL with antioxidant enzymes. Specifically, Sinigrin and Gluconapin exhibited a notably weaker influence on antioxidant enzymes. This provides key insights into the antioxidant potential of Brassica germplasm and highlights the importance of in silico analysis for evaluating bioactive properties. In general, the results of this study could be utilized in breeding programs to maximize GSL levels and antioxidant properties in Brassica crops and for developing functional foods with enhanced health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Capacity of Natural Products)
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30 pages, 6865 KiB  
Systematic Review
Oxidative Stress in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3 and Its Attenuation by Herbal Remedies in Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Systematic Review
by Nur Shahirah Mohd Hisam and Kah Hui Wong
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030375 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1212
Abstract
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that gives rise to motor incoordination and progressive functional disabilities. Although pharmacological interventions have revealed promising prospects in the management of SCA3, adverse effects may become unbearable. The use of herbal remedies [...] Read more.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that gives rise to motor incoordination and progressive functional disabilities. Although pharmacological interventions have revealed promising prospects in the management of SCA3, adverse effects may become unbearable. The use of herbal remedies in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may serve as potential alternative medicines to delay the progression of the disease. This systematic review is intended to identify, appraise, and summarize the findings of studies pertaining to the therapeutic roles of herbal remedies in TCM targeting oxidative stress in the management of SCA3. A literature search for relevant articles published from 1 January 2013 to 30 June 2023 in three databases, namely PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus, was carried out according to the procedures of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). A total of ten preclinical studies met the inclusion criteria of the systematic review. We recognized the therapeutic potential of Brassica napus, Codonopsis pilosula, Curcuma sp., Gardenia jasminoides, Gastrodia elata, Ginkgo biloba, Glycyrrhiza inflata, Hericium erinaceus, Hyptis sp., Paeonia lactiflora, Panax ginseng, Poria cocos, Pueraria lobata, Rehmannia glutinosa, and Scrophularia ningpoensis. We identified the types of preclinical models expressing polyglutamine (polyQ) expanded mutant protein (mATXN3), inducers of oxidative stress that mimic the SCA3 pathogenesis, and effective doses of the herbal remedies. The modes of action contributing to the attenuation of oxidative stress are activation of antioxidant pathways, ubiquitin–proteasome system and autophagy, regulation of apoptosis, proinflammatory signaling pathway and chaperones, regulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis, and restoration of neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. In conclusion, herbal remedies in TCM may possibly delay the progression of SCA3, therefore providing justification for clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Potential in Medicinal Plants)
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17 pages, 3918 KiB  
Article
Promoting the Aging Process and Enhancing the Production of Antioxidant Components of Garlic through Pulsed Electric Field Treatments
by Chao-Kai Chang, Sheng-Yen Tsai, Ming-Shiun Tsai, An-Ting Tu, Chih-Yao Hou, Kuan-Chen Cheng, Wei-Lun Zhu, Rizka Mulyani and Chang-Wei Hsieh
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030374 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 707
Abstract
Shortening the aging duration and enhancing the functional components of garlic present significant technical challenges that need to be addressed. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potential role of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment, a novel nonthermal food processing method, in promoting [...] Read more.
Shortening the aging duration and enhancing the functional components of garlic present significant technical challenges that need to be addressed. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potential role of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment, a novel nonthermal food processing method, in promoting and enhancing the functional attributes of aged garlic. Our results showed that 2–4 kV/cm PEF pretreatment increased S-allyl cysteine (SAC), total polyphenol (TPC), and flavonoid contents (TFC) compared with un-pretreated garlic during aging. The browning and texture-softening were also significantly improved during processing time, though the latter showed no significant difference from the eighth day to the end of the aging process. The principal component analysis results showed that PEF positively affects the SAC and TFC formations without adverse effects. Among the PEF pretreatments, 3 kV/cm is the most effective in enhancing functional component production compared with the other PEF pretreatments. Therefore, PEF pretreatment is a time-saving process that promotes and enhances the functionality of aged garlic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Materials and Their Antioxidant Potential)
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15 pages, 5214 KiB  
Article
Syrah Grape Polyphenol Extracts Protect Human Skeletal Muscle Cells from Oxidative and Metabolic Stress Induced by Excess of Palmitic Acid: Effect of Skin/Seed Ripening Stage
by Adriana Capozzi, Auriane Dudoit, Luca Garcia, Gilles Carnac, Gérald Hugon, Cédric Saucier, Catherine Bisbal and Karen Lambert
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030373 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 789
Abstract
Metabolic skeletal muscle (SM) dysfunction, triggered by increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment, is a pivotal contributor to obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR). Addressing obesity and SM IR demands substantial lifestyle changes including regular exercise and dietary adjustments that are difficult to follow over [...] Read more.
Metabolic skeletal muscle (SM) dysfunction, triggered by increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment, is a pivotal contributor to obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR). Addressing obesity and SM IR demands substantial lifestyle changes including regular exercise and dietary adjustments that are difficult to follow over time. This prompted exploration of alternative approaches. Grape polyphenols (GPPs) have demonstrated a positive impact on metabolism, although few studies have focused on SM. Since grape polyphenolic content and composition depend on tissue and ripening, we explored the antioxidant potential of GPPs from skin (Sk) and seeds (Sd) extracted before veraison (Bv) and at mature (M) stages, on palmitate-induced IR in primary human SM cells. Despite their important difference in polyphenol (PP) content: Sd-BvPP > Sd-MPP/Sk-BvPP > Sk-MPP, all extracts reduced lipid peroxidation by 44–60%, up-regulated the heme-oxygenase 1 protein level by 75–132% and mitochondrial activity by 47–68%. Contrary to the other extracts, which improved insulin response by 50%, Sd-BvPP did not. Our findings suggest that compounds other than stilbenoids or anthocyanin-type molecules, present only in grape Sk, could play an active role in regulating SM oxidative and metabolic stress and insulin sensitivity, paving the way for further exploration of novel bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Metabolic Diseases)
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15 pages, 2691 KiB  
Article
Phenolic Compounds in Berries of Winter-Resistant Actinidia arguta Miq. and Actinidia kolomikta Maxim.: Evidence of Antioxidative Activity
by Laima Česonienė, Viktorija Januškevičė, Sandra Saunoriūtė, Mindaugas Liaudanskas, Vaidotas Žvikas, Ričardas Krikštolaitis, Pranas Viškelis, Dalia Urbonavičienė, Paulina Martusevičė, Marcin Zych, Remigijus Daubaras, Aistė Balčiūnaitienė and Jonas Viškelis
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030372 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 777
Abstract
Variations between fruit cultivars can significantly impact their biochemical composition. The present research examined the variability in the qualitative and quantitative content of phenolic compounds in berry extracts of Actinidia kolomikta and Actinidia arguta cultivars. Additionally, antioxidant activities of berry extracts were evaluated. [...] Read more.
Variations between fruit cultivars can significantly impact their biochemical composition. The present research examined the variability in the qualitative and quantitative content of phenolic compounds in berry extracts of Actinidia kolomikta and Actinidia arguta cultivars. Additionally, antioxidant activities of berry extracts were evaluated. The total phenolic, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin contents and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were determined using the appropriate methodologies. The average amount of phenolic compounds in A. kolomikta berries (177.80 mg/g) was three times higher than that of A. arguta (54.45 mg/g). Our findings revealed that berries of A. kolomikta and A. arguta accumulated, on average, 1.58 RE/g DW (rutin equivalent/g dry weight) and 0.615 mg RE/g DW of total flavonoids, 1439.31 mg EE/g DW (epicatechin equivalent/g dry weight) and 439.97 mg EE/g DW of proanthocyanidins, and 23.51 mg CAE/g DW (chlorogenic acid equivalent/g dry weight) and 5.65 mg CAE/g DW of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, respectively. The cultivars of both species were characterized by higher antioxidant activity of total phenolic compounds determined using CUPRAC and FRAP methods compared to the ABTS•+ method. The variability in phenolic compounds’ qualitative and quantitative content in tested berry extracts was evaluated by applying ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem with electrospray ionization. Significant intraspecific differences in the amounts of total phenolic compounds, total flavonoid compounds, proanthocyanidins, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were determined among cultivars. Four phenolic acids, eight flavonols, two flavones, and five flavon-3-ols were identified in the berry extracts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Potential in Medicinal Plants)
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21 pages, 10339 KiB  
Article
The Cerebral Protective Effect of Novel Erinacines from Hericium erinaceus Mycelium on In Vivo Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Animal Model and Primary Mixed Glial Cells via Nrf2-Dependent Pathways
by Kam-Fai Lee, Yung-Yu Hsieh, Shui-Yi Tung, Chih-Chuan Teng, Kung-Chuan Cheng, Meng-Chiao Hsieh, Cheng-Yi Huang, Ko-Chao Lee, Li-Ya Lee, Wan-Ping Chen, Chin-Chu Chen and Hsing-Chun Kuo
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030371 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Hericium erinaceus, a consumable mushroom, has shown a potential to enhance the production of neuroprotective bioactive metabolites. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often leads to cognitive, physical, and psychosocial impairments, resulting in neuroinflammation and the loss of cortical neurons. In this research, the [...] Read more.
Hericium erinaceus, a consumable mushroom, has shown a potential to enhance the production of neuroprotective bioactive metabolites. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often leads to cognitive, physical, and psychosocial impairments, resulting in neuroinflammation and the loss of cortical neurons. In this research, the effects of H. erinaceus mycelium, its derivative erinacine C, along with the underlying mechanisms, were examined in terms of oxidative stress modulation and neurological improvement in a rat model of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered diets containing H. erinaceus mycelium and erinacine C following experimental brain injury; these supplements were continued throughout the recovery phase. The binding activity of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) near antioxidant genes in mixed glial cells was measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (ChIP-qPCR). The motor beam walking test revealed that dietary supplementation of H. erinaceus mycelium resulted in modest improvements in spatial memory while inhibiting neuron cell death and microglial activation according to brain histological examination. These findings were further corroborated by the upregulation of several antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase, and superoxide dismutase) and phospho-CAMP-response element-binding (p-CREB) levels in the mTBI model treated with H. erinaceus mycelium. Erinacine C treatment led to significantly reduced brain inflammation and normalization of mTBI-induced deficits through the modulation of the Nrf2 activation pathway and upregulated expression of numerous Nrf2-binding antioxidant genes such as catalase, thioredoxin reductase, superoxide dismutase, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. This study demonstrates the potential of H. erinaceus mycelium and erinacine C in facilitating recovery following mTBI, including the prevention of neuronal injury and inactivation of microglia through the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant pathway in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Antioxidant Foods and Nutraceuticals in Ageing)
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19 pages, 2840 KiB  
Article
Se Alleviated Pb-Caused Neurotoxicity in Chickens: SPS2-GPx1-GSH-IL-2/IL-17-NO Pathway, Selenoprotein Suppression, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammatory Injury
by Yansheng Li, Jiatian Liang, Chunyu Jiang, Jiawen Cui, Lan Hong, Zhiyu Hao, You Tang, Yuhao Liu, Xun Cui and Xiaohua Teng
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030370 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 685
Abstract
Lead (Pb), a heavy metal environmental pollutant, poses a threat to the health of humans and birds. Inflammation is one of the most common pathological phenomena in the case of illness and poisoning. However, the underlying mechanisms of inflammation remain unclear. The cerebellum [...] Read more.
Lead (Pb), a heavy metal environmental pollutant, poses a threat to the health of humans and birds. Inflammation is one of the most common pathological phenomena in the case of illness and poisoning. However, the underlying mechanisms of inflammation remain unclear. The cerebellum and the thalamus are important parts of the nervous system. To date, there have been no reports of Pb inducing inflammation in animal cerebellums or thalami. Selenium (Se) can relieve Pb poisoning. Therefore, we aimed to explore the mechanism by which Se alleviates Pb toxicity to the cerebellums and thalami of chickens by establishing a chicken Pb or/and Se treatment model. Our results demonstrated that exposure to Pb caused inflammatory damage in cerebellums and thalami, evidenced by the characteristics of inflammation, the decrease in anti-inflammatory factors (interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon-γ (INF-γ)), and the increase in pro-inflammatory factors (IL-4, IL-6, IL-12β, IL-17, and nitric oxide (NO)). Moreover, we found that the IL-2/IL-17–NO pathway took part in Pb-caused inflammatory injury. The above findings were reversed by the supplementation of dietary Se, meaning that Se relieved inflammatory damage caused by Pb via the IL-2/IL-17–NO pathway. In addition, an up-regulated oxidative index malondialdehyde (MDA) and two down-regulated antioxidant indices (glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)) were recorded after the chickens received Pb stimulation, indicating that excess Pb caused an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance and oxidative stress, and the oxidative stress mediated inflammatory damage via the GSH–IL-2 axis. Interestingly, exposure to Pb inhibited four glutathione peroxidase (GPx) family members (GPx1, GPx2, GPx3, and GPx4), three deiodinase (Dio) family members (Dio1, Dio2, and Dio3), and fifteen other selenoproteins (selenophosphate synthetase 2 (SPS2), selenoprotein (Sel)H, SelI, SelK, SelM, SelO, SelP1, SelPb, SelS, SelT, SelU, and selenoprotein (Sep)n1, Sepw1, Sepx1, and Sep15), suggesting that Pb reduced antioxidant capacity and resulted in oxidative stress involving the SPS2GPx1–GSH pathway. Se supplementation, as expected, reversed the changes mentioned above, indicating that Se supplementation improved antioxidant capacity and mitigated oxidative stress in chickens. For the first time, we discovered that the SPS2GPx1–GSH–IL-2/IL-17–NO pathway is involved in the complex inflammatory damage mechanism caused by Pb in chickens. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that Se relieved Pb-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory damage via the SPS2GPx1–GSH–IL-2/IL-17–NO pathway in the chicken nervous system. This study offers novel insights into environmental pollutant-caused animal poisoning and provides a novel theoretical basis for the detoxification effect of Se against oxidative stress and inflammation caused by toxic pollutants. Full article
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23 pages, 11869 KiB  
Article
Effect of Gracilaria vermiculophylla Macroalga on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Obese Rats
by Maitane González-Arceo, Leixuri Aguirre, María Teresa Macarulla, Clàudia Gil-Pitarch, María Luz Martínez-Chantar, María P. Portillo and Saioa Gómez-Zorita
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030369 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 811
Abstract
Marine algae are valuable sources of bioactive compounds that have the potential to be used in the management of various pathologies. Despite the increasing prevalence of NAFLD, the absence of an approved effective pharmacological treatment with demonstrable effectiveness persists. In this context, the [...] Read more.
Marine algae are valuable sources of bioactive compounds that have the potential to be used in the management of various pathologies. Despite the increasing prevalence of NAFLD, the absence of an approved effective pharmacological treatment with demonstrable effectiveness persists. In this context, the aim of the present study is to assess the effect of Gracilaria vermiculophylla red seaweed dietary supplementation on hepatic lipid accumulation, as well as on oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis- related markers on obese fa/fa Zucker rats fed with a standard diet, supplemented or not with 2.5% or 5% dehydrated Gracilaria vermiculophylla. After a six-week supplementation with the macroalga, no significant reduction in hepatic total lipid content or hepatic triglyceride content was observed. However, both doses were able to diminish hepatic NEFA concentration by reducing de novo lipogenesis and increasing mitochondrial biogenesis. Moreover, supplementation with the dose of 2.5% improved some oxidative stress and inflammation-related markers. Supplementation with the dose of 5% did not exert these clear beneficial effects. Thus, this study demonstrates that while Gracilaria vermiculophylla may not mitigate hepatic steatosis, it could exert protective effects on the liver by reducing NEFA content and enhancing oxidative stress and inflammation parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Oxidative Stress in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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14 pages, 1647 KiB  
Article
TNFRSF1B Signaling Blockade Protects Airway Epithelial Cells from Oxidative Stress
by Javier Checa, Pau Fiol, Marta Guevara and Josep M. Aran
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030368 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 757
Abstract
Progressive respiratory airway destruction due to unresolved inflammation induced by periodic infectious exacerbation episodes is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung pathology. To clear bacteria, neutrophils release high amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which inflict collateral damage to the neighboring epithelial [...] Read more.
Progressive respiratory airway destruction due to unresolved inflammation induced by periodic infectious exacerbation episodes is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung pathology. To clear bacteria, neutrophils release high amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which inflict collateral damage to the neighboring epithelial cells causing oxidative stress. A former genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screening in CF submucosal gland cells, instrumental for mucociliary clearance, proposed tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1B (TNFRSF1B; TNFR2) as a potential hit involved in oxidative stress susceptibility. Here, we demonstrate the relevance of TNFRSF1B transcript knock-down for epithelial cell protection under strong oxidative stress conditions. Moreover, a blockade of TNFR signaling through its ligand lymphotoxin-α (LTA), overexpressed in airway epithelial cells under oxidative stress conditions, using the anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) biologic etanercept significantly increased the viability of these cells from a toxic oxidizing agent. Furthermore, bioinformatic analyses considering our previous RNA interference (RNAi) screening output highlight the relevance of TNFRSF1B and of other genes within the TNF pathway leading to epithelial cell death. Thus, the inhibition of the LTα3-TNFR2 axis could represent a useful therapeutic strategy to protect the respiratory airway epithelial lining from the oxidative stress challenge because of recurrent infection/inflammation cycles faced by CF patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Antioxidant Mechanisms for Health and Diseases)
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27 pages, 3482 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Hydrolysis Conditions, Isolation, and Identification of Biologically Active Peptides Derived from Acheta domesticus for Antioxidant and Collagenase Inhibition
by Kankanit Yeerong, Panuwan Chantawannakul, Songyot Anuchapreeda, Sutee Wangtueai and Wantida Chaiyana
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030367 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1220
Abstract
The study aimed to optimize hydrolysis conditions and isolate and identify bioactive peptides with anti-skin aging effects from Acheta domesticus (house cricket). A. domesticus proteins underwent hydrolysis using Alcalase® and optimized conditions using response surface methodology through a face-centered central composite design. [...] Read more.
The study aimed to optimize hydrolysis conditions and isolate and identify bioactive peptides with anti-skin aging effects from Acheta domesticus (house cricket). A. domesticus proteins underwent hydrolysis using Alcalase® and optimized conditions using response surface methodology through a face-centered central composite design. Variable controls (enzyme–substrate concentration (E/S), time, and temperature) were assessed for their impact on activities against collagenase, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), and degree of hydrolysis of protein hydrolysate (PH). PH was also investigated for composition, anti-skin aging, and anti-inflammatory effects. Amino acid sequences with potent anti-skin aging activity were isolated and identified using ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography, and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, employing de novo sequencing. Optimal conditions for producing PH with maximum anti-skin aging activity were an E/S concentration of 2.1% (w/w), 227 min, and 61.5 °C. Glutamic acid was a predominant amino acid and PH exhibited a molecular weight below 15 kDa. Additionally, PH displayed significant activities against collagenase, hyaluronidase, DPPH, lipid peroxidation, and NF-κB-mediated inflammation (p < 0.05). Three novel anti-skin aging peptides were identified—Ala-Val-Thr-Lys-Ala-Asp-Pro-Tyr-Thr-Asp-Gln, Thr-Val-Met-Glu-Leu-Asn-Asp-Leu-Val-Lys-Ala-Phe, and Val-Pro-Leu-Leu-Glu-Pro-Trp—exhibiting the most potent collagenase and DPPH inhibition. Therefore, this study proposed that PH, produced with Alcalase® under optimal conditions, emerges as a promising substance with potent anti-skin aging activity for the cosmeceutical industry. Full article
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15 pages, 9854 KiB  
Article
Dietary Chitosan Oligosaccharide Supplementation Improves Meat Quality by Improving Antioxidant Capacity and Fiber Characteristics in the Thigh Muscle of Broilers
by Ruixia Lan, Yuchen Wang, Haoxuan Wang and Jia Zhang
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030366 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 703
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of dietary chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) supplementation on meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and muscle fiber characteristics in the thigh muscle of broilers. The results showed that dietary COS supplementation decreased shear force and increased crude protein content and nutritional [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of dietary chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) supplementation on meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and muscle fiber characteristics in the thigh muscle of broilers. The results showed that dietary COS supplementation decreased shear force and increased crude protein content and nutritional value in the thigh muscle, while decreasing the content of C16:0, C18:0, and total saturated fatty acids. Dietary COS supplementation increased free radical scavenging activity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and antioxidant enzyme-related gene expression. Additionally, COS promoted MyHCI while decreasing MyHCIIb mRNA expression levels. The myofiber transformation was associated with upregulated gene expression of CaN, NFATc1, MyoD, and SIRT1. Together, the results of this study demonstrate that dietary COS supplementation improves meat quality, nutritional value, antioxidant capacity, and myofiber transformation to more oxidative muscle fibers in the thigh muscle of broilers when its supplemental level is 400 mg/kg. Full article
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16 pages, 673 KiB  
Article
Impact of In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion on the Phenolic Bioaccessibility and Bioactive Properties of Insect-Containing Beef Burgers
by Gabriele Rocchetti, Gokhan Zengin, Gianluca Giuberti, Mariasole Cervini and Luigi Lucini
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030365 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 908
Abstract
Mealworm, migratory locust, and house cricket have recently been recognized by the European Commission as novel foods, thus being suitable in different food applications. In this work, we tested their powders as meat extenders at 5% (w/w) inclusion in [...] Read more.
Mealworm, migratory locust, and house cricket have recently been recognized by the European Commission as novel foods, thus being suitable in different food applications. In this work, we tested their powders as meat extenders at 5% (w/w) inclusion in beef burgers, considering their ability to vehicle phenolic compounds during simulated in vitro static gastrointestinal digestion (INFOGEST). Insect powders were abundant in different phenolic classes, recording the highest values in locust (LP; 314.69 mg/kg), followed by cricket (CP; 113.3 mg/kg) and mealworm (MWP; 51.9 mg/kg). Following a pan-cooking process, LP burgers were confirmed as the best source of phenolics, with a marked abundance of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Interestingly, the insect powders were found to affect the in vitro gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds when compared with the CTR burger, likely promoted by the interactions between the phenolic compounds and proteins characterizing the tested insect powders. Among the most discriminant phenolic metabolites at the gastrointestinal level, we found several phenolic acids (mainly hydroxycinnamics), recording the highest content for the digested CP-containing burgers. Finally, stilbenes showed significant correlation values at the intestinal level with both antioxidant and enzymatic activities, while total flavonoids were the most correlated with the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Taken together, our preliminary findings demonstrated that insect powders added to beef burgers can promote the bioaccessibility and potential bioavailability of phenolics in the distal tracts of the intestine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants in Meat and Meat Products)
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17 pages, 3680 KiB  
Article
The Oxidative Stability of Champagne Base Wines Aged on Lees in Barrels: A 2-Year Study
by Charlotte Maxe, Rémy Romanet, Michel Parisot, Régis D. Gougeon and Maria Nikolantonaki
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030364 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1252
Abstract
In contrast with the elaboration of still wines, the impact of barrel aging before the “prise de mousse” on the aging potential of Champagne base wines has not been studied so far. In the present study, the oxidative stability and related molecular fingerprints [...] Read more.
In contrast with the elaboration of still wines, the impact of barrel aging before the “prise de mousse” on the aging potential of Champagne base wines has not been studied so far. In the present study, the oxidative stability and related molecular fingerprints of Chardonnay Champagne base wines were reported after 1 year of on lees ageing in new oak barrels for two consecutive vintages. Regardless of the vintage, on lees ageing in new oak barrels improved the wines’ oxidative stability estimated by DPPH assay at 1 year, while UHPLC-Q-ToF-MS molecular profiling showed clear chemical modifications according to the ageing period. Oak wood molecular ellagitannins followed a linear extraction during barrel ageing for both vintages. However, the wines’ antioxidant metabolome composed by antiradical and nucleophilic compounds clearly appeared vintage- and barrel-aging dependent. These results enrich the understanding of white wines antioxidant metabolome and improve the knowledge of the ageing potential of Chardonnay Champagne base wines by integrating vintage- and barrel-ageing effects. Full article
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20 pages, 6080 KiB  
Article
A High-Fat-Diet-Induced Microbiota Imbalance Correlates with Oxidative Stress and the Inflammatory Response in the Gut of Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus grunniens)
by Miaomiao Xue, Pao Xu, Haibo Wen, Jianxiang Chen, Qingyong Wang, Jiyan He, Changchang He, Changxin Kong, Xiaowei Li, Hongxia Li and Changyou Song
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030363 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 723
Abstract
Lipids are critical nutrients for aquatic animals, and excessive or insufficient lipid intake can lead to physiological disorders, which further affect fish growth and health. In aquatic animals, the gut microbiota has an important regulatory role in lipid metabolism. However, the effects of [...] Read more.
Lipids are critical nutrients for aquatic animals, and excessive or insufficient lipid intake can lead to physiological disorders, which further affect fish growth and health. In aquatic animals, the gut microbiota has an important regulatory role in lipid metabolism. However, the effects of a high-fat diet on physical health and microbiota diversity in the gut of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) are unclear. Therefore, in the present study, a control group (Con, 6%) and a high-fat diet group (HFD, 12%) were established for a 16-week feeding experiment in freshwater drum to explore the physiological changes in the gut and the potential regulatory mechanisms of bacteria. The results indicated that a high-fat diet inhibited antioxidant and immune capacity while increasing inflammation, apoptosis and autophagy in gut cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed significant enrichment in immune-related, apoptosis-related and disease-related pathways. Through 16S rRNA analysis, a total of 31 genus-level differentially abundant bacterial taxa were identified. In addition, a high-fat diet reduced gut microbial diversity and disrupted the ecological balance of the gut microbiota (Ace, Chao, Shannon and Simpson indices). Integrated analysis of the gut microbiota combined with physiological indicators and the transcriptome revealed that gut microbial disorders were associated with intestinal antioxidants, immune and inflammatory responses, cell apoptosis and autophagy. Specifically, genus-level bacterial taxa in Proteobacteria (Plesiomonas, Arenimonas, Erythrobacter and Aquabacteriumb) could serve as potential targets controlling the response to high-fat-diet stimulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Aquatic Animal Health)
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17 pages, 2487 KiB  
Review
Light Pollution and Oxidative Stress: Effects on Retina and Human Health
by Rocío Salceda
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030362 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 951
Abstract
Visible light refers to the frequencies within the electromagnetic spectrum that humans can see, encompassing radiation with wavelengths falling between 380 nm to 760 nm. The energy of a single photon increases with its frequency. In the retina, photoreceptor cells contain light-sensitive pigments [...] Read more.
Visible light refers to the frequencies within the electromagnetic spectrum that humans can see, encompassing radiation with wavelengths falling between 380 nm to 760 nm. The energy of a single photon increases with its frequency. In the retina, photoreceptor cells contain light-sensitive pigments that absorb light and convert it into electrical stimuli through a process known as phototransduction. However, since the absorption spectrum of photoreceptors closely aligns with blue light (ranging from 400 to 500 nm), exposure to high light intensities or continuous illumination can result in oxidative stress within these cells, leading to a loss of their functionality. Apart from photoreceptor cells, the retina also houses photosensitive ganglion cells, known as intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). These cells relay information to the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain, playing a crucial role in modulating melatonin secretion, which in turn helps in synchronizing the body’s circadian rhythms and responses to seasonal changes. Both, ipRGCs and skin possess a peak sensitivity to blue wavelengths, rendering them particularly susceptible to the effects of excessive blue light exposure. This study delves into the consequences of excessive illumination and/or prolonged exposure to blue light on retinal function and explores its implications for human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Pollution and Oxidative Stress)
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13 pages, 2565 KiB  
Article
Pharmacologic Ascorbate Radiosensitizes Pancreatic Cancer but Radioprotects Normal Tissue: The Role of Oxidative Stress-Induced Lipid Peroxidation
by Gloria Y. Chen, Brianne R. O’Leary, Juan Du, Rory S. Carroll, Garett J. Steers, Garry R. Buettner and Joseph J. Cullen
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030361 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 753
Abstract
The toxicity of ionizing radiation limits its effectiveness in the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Pharmacologic ascorbate (P-AscH) has been shown to radiosensitize pancreatic cancer cells while simultaneously radioprotecting normal cells. We hypothesize that P-AscH protects the small intestine while [...] Read more.
The toxicity of ionizing radiation limits its effectiveness in the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Pharmacologic ascorbate (P-AscH) has been shown to radiosensitize pancreatic cancer cells while simultaneously radioprotecting normal cells. We hypothesize that P-AscH protects the small intestine while radiosensitizing pancreatic cancer cells partially through an oxidative stress mechanism. Duodenal samples from pancreaticoduodenectomy specimens of patients who underwent radio-chemotherapy ± P-AscH and mouse tumor and jejunal samples treated with radiation ± P-AscH were evaluated. Pancreatic cancer and non-tumorigenic cells were treated with radiation ± P-AscH to assess lipid peroxidation. To determine the mechanism, pancreatic cancer cells were treated with selenomethionine or RSL3, an inhibitor of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4). Radiation-induced decreases in villi length and increases in 4-HNE immunofluorescence were reversed with P-AscH in human duodenum. In vivo, radiation-induced decreases in villi length and increased collagen deposition were reversed in P-AscH-treated jejunal samples. P-AscH and radiation increased BODIPY oxidation in pancreatic cancer cells but not in non-tumorigenic cells. Selenomethionine increased GPx4 protein and activity in pancreatic cancer and reversed P-AscH-induced toxicity and lipid peroxidation. RSL3 treatment inhibited GPx4 activity and increased lipid peroxidation. Differences in oxidative stress may play a role in radioprotecting normal cells while radiosensitizing pancreatic cancer cells when treated with P-AscH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Aberrant Oxidation of Biomolecules)
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3 pages, 183 KiB  
Editorial
Melatonin: A Myriad of Functions to Discover
by Adrián Santos-Ledo and Marina García-Macia
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030360 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 687
Abstract
Melatonin is an indoleamine that has captured our attention since 1958 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free-Radical Scavenging and Antioxidant Properties of Melatonin)
20 pages, 3433 KiB  
Article
DL-Methionyl–DL-Methionine/DL-Methionine Supplementation Alleviated the Adverse Effects of Dietary Low Fishmeal Levels on Growth and Intestinal Health of Micropterus salmoides
by Heng Yu, Karthik Masagounder, Hualiang Liang, Xianping Ge, Dongyu Huang, Chunyu Xue, Mingchun Ren and Juyun He
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030359 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 768
Abstract
DL-methionyl–DL-methionine (AQUAVI® Met-Met) (Met-Met) (0.10%, 0.20%, 0.30%, and 0.40%) or DL-methionine (DL-Met) (0.10%, 0.20%, 0.30%, and 0.40%) were added to a low-fishmeal diet in an attempt to reduce fishmeal in the diet of Micropterus salmoides (M. salmoides). The fish were randomly [...] Read more.
DL-methionyl–DL-methionine (AQUAVI® Met-Met) (Met-Met) (0.10%, 0.20%, 0.30%, and 0.40%) or DL-methionine (DL-Met) (0.10%, 0.20%, 0.30%, and 0.40%) were added to a low-fishmeal diet in an attempt to reduce fishmeal in the diet of Micropterus salmoides (M. salmoides). The fish were randomly allocated into ten experimental groups (n = 100), each with 4 replicates of 25 fish (16.39 ± 0.01 g) each. Compared to 25% FM, 0.40% of DL-Met and 0.10% of Met-Met promoted growth, and 0.10% of Met-Met decreased FCR. Compared to 25% FM, the supplementation of Met-Met or DL-Met improved the intestinal antioxidant capacity by upregulating the NF-E2-related factor 2-mediated antioxidant factors and enzyme activities and nuclear factor kappa-B-mediated anti-inflammatory factors while downregulating the pro-inflammatory factors, thereby exerting anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, 0.10% of the Met-Met diet affected the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidota ratio, increased the levels of Proteobacteria, changed the composition of intestinal flora (Roseburia, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, and unclassified_Oscillospiraceae), and enhanced intestinal dominant bacteria (Caldicoprobacter, Pseudogracilibacillus, and Parasutterella), leading to improved gut health. In summary, the supplementation of DL-Met or Met-Met alleviated the adverse effect of fishmeal reduction (from 40 to 25%) on the growth performance and intestinal health of M. salmoides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress of Aquatic Animals)
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19 pages, 2887 KiB  
Article
Effects of Crocus sativus L. Floral Bio-Residues Related to Skin Protection
by Nuria Acero, Dolores Muñoz-Mingarro and Ana Gradillas
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030358 - 17 Mar 2024
Viewed by 817
Abstract
The cultivation of Crocus sativus L. to obtain the saffron spice generates a large amount of biowaste, constituted mainly by the flower’s tepals. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and dermo-protective effect of a complex methanolic extract of C. [...] Read more.
The cultivation of Crocus sativus L. to obtain the saffron spice generates a large amount of biowaste, constituted mainly by the flower’s tepals. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and dermo-protective effect of a complex methanolic extract of C. sativus tepals. The extract’s major phenolic content was analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization, coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). Then, the antioxidant in vitro activity of the extract was studied and related to their chemical composition. Likewise, the effect on intracellular ROS levels in HepG2 and Hs27 cell culture was determined in normal culture and under hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative stress. Finally, tyrosinase, hyaluronidase, collagenase, elastase, and xanthine oxidase assays were carried out to determine the dermo-protective capacity of the extract. The high polyphenol content, including flavonoids and anthocyanins, explains the antioxidant effect of the extract both in vitro and in culture assays. The extract has a significant and remarkable protective capacity against oxidative stress induced in culture of the two studied cell lines. It is also remarkable in its ability to inhibit hyaluronidase, tyrosinase, and xanthine oxidase. Results pointed out this biowaste extract as a promising ingredient in the composition of cosmetics. Full article
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22 pages, 1508 KiB  
Article
Exploring Beneficial Properties of Haskap Berry Leaf Compounds for Gut Health Enhancement
by Szymon Sip, Anna Sip, Piotr Szulc, Marek Selwet, Marcin Żarowski, Bogusław Czerny and Judyta Cielecka-Piontek
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030357 - 17 Mar 2024
Viewed by 765
Abstract
This study investigates the potential of formulated systems utilising haskap berry leaf extracts and dextran as carriers, to modulate both antioxidant and enzymatic inhibitory activities and their impact on the growth of specific bacterial strains. The analysis of antioxidant capacity, assessed through ABTS, [...] Read more.
This study investigates the potential of formulated systems utilising haskap berry leaf extracts and dextran as carriers, to modulate both antioxidant and enzymatic inhibitory activities and their impact on the growth of specific bacterial strains. The analysis of antioxidant capacity, assessed through ABTS, CUPRAC, DPPH, and FRAP assays, revealed varying but consistently high levels across extracts, with Extract 3 (loganic acid: 2.974 mg/g, chlorogenic acid: 1.125 mg/g, caffeic acid: 0.083 mg/g, rutin: 1.137 mg/g, and quercetin: 1.501 mg/g) exhibiting the highest values (ABTS: 0.2447 mg/mL, CUPRAC: 0.3121 mg/mL, DPPH: 0.21001 mg/mL, and FRAP: 0.3411 mg/mL). Subsequent enzymatic inhibition assays demonstrated a notable inhibitory potential against α-glucosidase (1.4915 mg/mL, expressed as acarbose equivalent), hyaluronidase (0.2982 mg/mL, expressed as quercetin equivalent), and lipase (5.8715 µg/mL, expressed as orlistat equivalent). Further system development involved integration with dextran, showcasing their preserved bioactive compound content and emphasising their stability and potential bioactivity. Evaluation of the dextran systems’ impact on bacterial growth revealed a significant proliferation of beneficial strains, particularly the Bifidobacterium and lactobacilli genus (Bifidobacterium longum: 9.54 × 107 to 1.57 × 1010 CFU/mL and Ligilactobacillus salivarius: 1.36 × 109 to 1.62 × 1010 CFU/mL), suggesting their potential to modulate gut microbiota. These findings offer a foundation for exploring the therapeutic applications of haskap berry-based dextran systems in managing conditions like diabetes, emphasising the interconnected roles of antioxidant-rich botanical extracts and dextran formulations in promoting overall metabolic health. Full article
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18 pages, 3291 KiB  
Article
Selenomethionine Alleviates Deoxynivalenol-Induced Oxidative Injury in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells Independent of MAPK Pathway Regulation
by Zhouyin Huang, Haopeng Zhong, Ting Li, Zirui Wang, Xingping Chen, Tiande Zou, Jinming You and Jun Chen
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030356 - 16 Mar 2024
Viewed by 768
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a prevalent contaminant in feed and food, posing a serious threat to the health of both humans and animals. The pig stands as an ideal subject for the study of DON due to its recognition as the most susceptible animal [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a prevalent contaminant in feed and food, posing a serious threat to the health of both humans and animals. The pig stands as an ideal subject for the study of DON due to its recognition as the most susceptible animal to DON. In this study, the IPEC-J2 cells were utilized as an in vitro model to explore the potential of SeMet in alleviating the intestinal toxicity and oxidative injury in intestinal epithelial cells when exposed to DON. Cells were treated either with or without 4.0 μM SeMet, in combination with or without a simultaneous treatment with 0.5 μg/mL DON, for a duration of 24 h. Then, cells or related samples were analyzed for cell proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, gene expressions, and protein expressions. The results showed that SeMet mitigated the cellular toxicity caused by DON, evidenced by elevated cell proliferation and the reduced LDH release of IPEC-J2 cells in the SeMet + DON group vs. the DON group. Moreover, the SeMet treatment markedly promoted antioxidant functions and decreased the oxidative injury in IPEC-J2 cell, which is indicated by the decreased ROS level and up-regulated mRNA levels of GPX1, TXNRD1, Nrf2, and GCLC in IPEC-J2 cells in the SeMet + DON group vs. the DON group. However, in both the absence and presence of exposure to DON, the SeMet treatment did not affect the protein expression of MAPK (JNK, Erk1/2, and P38) and phosphorylated MAPK (p-JNK, p-Erk1/2, and p-P38) in IPEC-J2 cells. Collectively, SeMet alleviated the DON-induced oxidative injury in porcine intestinal epithelial cells independent of the MAPK pathway regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Livestock and Poultry—2nd Edition)
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21 pages, 2815 KiB  
Article
Nanoemulsions of Phoenix dactylifera L. (Decaffeinated) and Coffea arabica L. Extracts as a Novel Approach for the Treatment of Carbon Tetrachloride-Mediated Liver Fibrosis
by Eman S. Alamri, Hala M. Bayomy, Mohamed A. Mohamady Hussein, Nawal A. Ozaybi, Seham E. Almasoudi, Nahla S. Zidan, Renad A. Albalwi, Hebatallah H. Atteia and Fayza M. EL-Ezaly
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030355 - 16 Mar 2024
Viewed by 938
Abstract
Liver fibrosis is a condition characterized by the excessive buildup of scar tissue in the liver. This scarring occurs as a result of chronic liver damage, often caused by conditions such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, certain metabolic disorders, genetic abnormalities, autoimmunity, and noninfectious [...] Read more.
Liver fibrosis is a condition characterized by the excessive buildup of scar tissue in the liver. This scarring occurs as a result of chronic liver damage, often caused by conditions such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, certain metabolic disorders, genetic abnormalities, autoimmunity, and noninfectious diseases such as fatty liver which leads to liver fibrosis. Nanoparticles have gained attention in recent years as potential therapeutic agents for liver fibrosis. They offer unique advantages due to their small size, large surface area, and ability to carry drugs or target specific cells or tissues. Studies have suggested that nanoemulsions may enhance drug delivery systems, enabling targeted drug delivery to specific sites in the liver and improving therapeutic outcomes. In this study, we explore the protective and therapeutic values with phytochemical profiling of the used agro-wastes decaffeinated palm date seeds (Phoenix dactylifera L., PSC) coffee and caffeinated Arabic coffee seeds (Coffea arabica L.; ACS). Both ACS and PSC extracts were converted into nanoemulsion (NE) forms using the oleic acid/Tween 80 system, which was recruited for the purpose of treating a rat model with liver fibrosis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were used to record the sizes, morphologies, hydrodynamic diameters, and ζ-potentials of the prepared NE-ACSE and NE-PSCE. Accordingly, the NE-ACSE and NE-PSCE imaged via TEM and their ζ-potentials were recorded at 20.7, 23.3 nm and −41.4, −28.0 mV, respectively. The antioxidant properties were determined with a DPPH scavenging assay. The synthesized NE-PSCE and NE-ACSE were employed to treat a rat model with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis, to estimate the role of each emulsion-based extract in the treatment of liver fibrosis through recording inflammatory parameters, liver functions, antioxidant enzymes, and histopathological analysis results. The nanoemulsion forms of both ACSE and PSCE provided significant increases in antioxidant enzymes, reducing inflammatory parameters, compared to other groups, where liver functions were decreased with values close to those of the control group. In conclusion, both nanoemulsions, ACSE and PSCE, provided a new avenue as therapeutic approaches for liver diseases, and further studies are encouraged to obtain maximum efficiency of treatment via the combination of both extracts. Full article
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Article
Systemic Oxidative Stress in Subacute Stroke Patients Undergoing Rehabilitation Treatment
by Carola Cocco, Mariacristina Siotto, Alessandro Guerrini, Marco Germanotta, Caterina Galluccio, Valeria Cipollini, Laura Cortellini, Arianna Pavan, Stefania Lattanzi, Sabina Insalaco, Elisabetta Ruco, Rita Mosca, Biagio Campana and Irene Aprile
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030354 - 15 Mar 2024
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Abstract
The imbalance in oxidative stress in acute stroke has been extensively studied; on the contrary, its investigation in the subacute phase is limited. The aim of this study was to analyse the variation in the systemic oxidative status in subacute post-stroke patients before [...] Read more.
The imbalance in oxidative stress in acute stroke has been extensively studied; on the contrary, its investigation in the subacute phase is limited. The aim of this study was to analyse the variation in the systemic oxidative status in subacute post-stroke patients before (T0) and after a six-week rehabilitation treatment (T1) and to investigate the relationship between systemic oxidative status and rehabilitation outcomes. We enrolled 109 subjects in two different centres, and we analysed their serum hydroperoxide levels (d-ROMs), biological antioxidant power (BAP), thiol antioxidant components (-SHp), and relative antioxidant capacity (OSI and SH-OSI indices). Activity of Daily Living (ADL), hand grip strength, and walking endurance were evaluated using the modified Barthel Index, the Hand Grip test, and the 6-min walk test, respectively. At T0, most of the patients showed very high levels of d-ROMs and suboptimal levels of the BAP, OSI, and SH-OSI indices. Comparing the T1 and T0 data, we observed an improvement in the rehabilitation outcomes and a significant decrease in d-ROMs (549 ± 126 vs. 523 ± 148, p = 0.023), as well as an improvement in the OSI and SH-OSI indices (4.3 ± 1.3 vs. 4.7 ± 1.5, p = 0.001; 11.0 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.4, p < 0.001). In addition, significant correlations were seen between the oxidative stress parameters and the rehabilitation outcomes. These results suggest monitoring the systemic oxidative stress status in post-stroke patients in order to plan a tailored intervention, considering its relationship with functional recovery. Full article
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