Dietary Antioxidants and Animal Nutrition

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2024) | Viewed by 22215

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Guest Editor
Animal Production Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Puerta de Hierro s/n., 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: vitamins; micronutrients; antioxidants; lipid metabolism; oxidative status; lipid oxidation; animal nutrition; gut health; quality
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Dear Colleagues,

The balance between pro-oxidant/antioxidant agents in an organism can largely determine the nutrient expenditure as well as the immune status and absence of disease, which in turn can affect productive performances, as well as the quality of the products. Therefore, trying to control oxidative stress in animals, especially in critical periods, is of special relevance to achieve greater efficiencies. For this, the organism possesses control mechanisms at the cellular level, the functioning of which can be increased by the contribution of exogenous antioxidants. Although the diet is a major point of entry for exogenous antioxidants into the individual, there are currently many ingredients whose antioxidant activity or effects in the animal are still unknown.

As a guest editor, I invite you to submit your latest research findings or a review article to this Special Issue, which will bring together current research on antioxidants in animal nutrition. This research may include the use of different compounds of natural or synthetic origin, from extracts of plants, herbs, fruits or seeds, by-products of ingredients of plant origin, vitamins, or minerals, etc., applied to different species or physiological states, in which their administration produces positive or negative effects on the health, productive performances or quality of the products.

Dr. Ana Isabel Rey Muñoz
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • productive performances
  • oxidative status
  • health and immunity
  • shelf-life
  • quality of products of animal origin

Published Papers (14 papers)

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24 pages, 6984 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Callicarpa nudiflora Aqueous Extract Supplementation on Growth Performance, Growth Hormone, Antioxidant and Immune Function, and Intestinal Health of Broilers
by Mengjie Liu, Gengxiong Huang, Yulin Lin, Yiwen Huang, Zhaoying Xuan, Jianchi Lun, Shiqi He, Jing Zhou, Xiaoli Chen, Qian Qu, Weijie Lv and Shining Guo
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13050572 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 541
Abstract
C. nudiflora is notably rich in flavonoids and phenylethanoid glycosides, making it a significant natural source of antioxidants. We examined the effects of C. nudiflora aqueous extract (CNE) on growth performance, antioxidant function, immunity, intestinal barrier function, nutrient transporters, and microbiota of broilers. [...] Read more.
C. nudiflora is notably rich in flavonoids and phenylethanoid glycosides, making it a significant natural source of antioxidants. We examined the effects of C. nudiflora aqueous extract (CNE) on growth performance, antioxidant function, immunity, intestinal barrier function, nutrient transporters, and microbiota of broilers. A total of 360 one-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to four treatment groups: a basal diet with 0 (control, CON), 300 mg/kg (CNEL), 500 mg/kg (CNEM), and 700 mg/kg (CNEH) CNE for 42 days. CNEL and CNEM groups quadratically increased body weight and average daily gain but decreased feed-to-gain ratios during the starter and whole phases. Regarding the immune response of broilers, CNE treatment linearly down-regulated jejunal myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) expression and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interferon-γ expression in the liver (d 21), while decreasing jejunal IL-1β expression and the concentration of serum tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 (d 42). The CNEM and CNEH groups had lower MyD88 and nuclear factor kappa B expression in the liver (d 21) compared to the CON group. Broilers in the CNEL and CNEM groups had higher spleen index and thymus index (d 21) and interleukin-10 expression from the liver and jejunal mucosa (d 42) than that in the CON group. For the antioxidant capacity of broilers, CNE treatment linearly decreased the content of malonaldehyde and increased the activity of total antioxidant capacity in serum (d 42). CNEM and CNEH groups linearly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in serum and heme oxygenase-1 expression in the liver, while increasing the activity of glutathione peroxidase in serum, jejunal nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 expression, and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 expression in the liver (d 42). As for the growth hormone of broilers, CNEM group increased the level of serum insulin-like growth factor 1 and up-regulated jejunal glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) expression (d 21). Broilers in the CNEM and CNEH groups had higher jejunal GLP-2 expression and growth hormone (GH) expression in the liver and the level of serum GH (d 42) than that in the CON group. Additionally, the villus height and jejunal Occludin and Claudin-1 expression in the CNEM group increased. CNE-containing diets resulted in a linear increase in the expression of jejunal zonula occluden-1 (d 21), villus height to crypt depth ratio, jejunal Occludin, excitatory amino acid transporters-3, and peptide-transporter 1 (d 42). The regulation of Oscillospira, Ruminococcaceae_Ruminococcus, and Butyricicoccus genera indicated that CNEH altered the composition of the cecal microbiota. In general, supplementing broilers with C. nudiflora aqueous extract could boost hormones, immune and antioxidant function, and gut health, improving their growth performance. Hence, CNE was a promising poultry feed additive, with 500 mg/kg appearing to be the optimal dose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Animal Nutrition)
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18 pages, 2859 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Effect of Maternal Antioxidant Supplementation on the Lipid Profile of the Progeny According to the Sow’s Parity Number
by Gerardo Gómez, Hernan D. Laviano, Juan García-Casco, Maria Muñoz, Fernando Gómez, Fernando Sánchez-Esquiliche, Antonio González-Bulnes, Clemente López-Bote, Cristina Óvilo and Ana I. Rey
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030379 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1068
Abstract
Pig feeding prior to the extensive fattening phase might affect the final lipid profile and product quality. This study evaluates how maternal supplementation with vitamin E (VITE) (100 mg/kg), hydroxytyrosol (HXT) (1.5 mg/kg), or combined administration (VE + HXT) affects the piglet’s plasma [...] Read more.
Pig feeding prior to the extensive fattening phase might affect the final lipid profile and product quality. This study evaluates how maternal supplementation with vitamin E (VITE) (100 mg/kg), hydroxytyrosol (HXT) (1.5 mg/kg), or combined administration (VE + HXT) affects the piglet’s plasma and tissues’ fatty acid profiles and lipid stability according to the sow’s parity number (PN), as well as the possible changes to the lipid profile after extensive feeding. The sows’ PN affected the total fatty acid profile of plasma, muscle, and liver of piglets, with lower Δ-9 and Δ-6 desaturase indices but higher Δ-5 in those from primiparous (P) than multiparous (M) sows. Dietary VITE was more effective at decreasing C16:0 and saturated fatty acids in the muscle of piglets born from M than P sows, and modified the liver phospholipids in a different way. Sows’ supplementation with HXT increased C18:2n-6 in triglycerides and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in muscle phospholipids. In the liver, HXT supplementation also increased free-PUFA and free-n-3 fatty acids. However, lipid oxidation of piglets’ tissues was not affected by the antioxidant supplementation, and it was higher in the livers of piglets born from M sows. The fatty acid profile in the muscle of pigs after extensive feeding was not affected by the PN, but it was by the sows’ antioxidant supplementation, with positive effects on quality by both compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Animal Nutrition)
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13 pages, 270 KiB  
Article
Dietary Puerarin Supplementation Improves Immune Response and Antioxidant Capacity of Sows
by Shanchuan Cao, Xinglai Li, Heng Yin, Juan Wang and Jingbo Liu
Antioxidants 2024, 13(3), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox13030290 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 809
Abstract
Puerarin is an isoflavone extracted from Pueraria mirifica, a wildlife leguminous plant. It has been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial properties. However, the effects of directly adding puerarin to the diets of sows, in terms of reproductive performance and antioxidant [...] Read more.
Puerarin is an isoflavone extracted from Pueraria mirifica, a wildlife leguminous plant. It has been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial properties. However, the effects of directly adding puerarin to the diets of sows, in terms of reproductive performance and antioxidant properties, have not been reported. For this study, 240 sows with varying parities were selected and randomly divided into six treatment groups using a two × three experimental design. The six treatment groups consisted of two diets (control and puerarin) and three parities (zero, one, and two parities or more). The puerarin group was supplemented with 1 g/kg of puerarin. The experiment commenced with mating and continued until 21 days post-delivery. The sow reproductive performance was not affected by supplementing their diets with puerarin (p > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with puerarin significantly increased the daily body weight (BW) gain of piglets and their mean BW at weaning (p < 0.05). Compared with the control group, sows in the puerarin group had significantly higher glutathione peroxidase activity in serum and also significantly increased immunoglobulin A and G levels in serum, colostrum, and milk, but significantly lower malondialdehyde concentration in serum (p < 0.05). Thus, puerarin improved the immune response and antioxidant capacity of sows and increased the daily BW gain of their offspring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Animal Nutrition)
15 pages, 2277 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Capacity, Inflammatory Response, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Hu Sheep in Response to Dietary Soluble Protein Levels with Decreased Crude Protein Content
by Xin Zhang, Zhenbin Zhang, Yiquan Sun, Yang Liu, Xinhuang Zhong, Jun Zhu, Xiang Yu, Yue Lu, Zhiqi Lu, Xuezhao Sun, Huanyong Han and Mengzhi Wang
Antioxidants 2023, 12(12), 2098; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12122098 - 11 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1118
Abstract
Manipulating dietary nutrients, especially protein fractions, holds significance in enhancing the antioxidant capacity and immunity function of ruminants. This study investigated the impact of dietary adjustments in soluble protein (SP) levels, in conjunction with a reduction in crude protein (CP) content, on the [...] Read more.
Manipulating dietary nutrients, especially protein fractions, holds significance in enhancing the antioxidant capacity and immunity function of ruminants. This study investigated the impact of dietary adjustments in soluble protein (SP) levels, in conjunction with a reduction in crude protein (CP) content, on the antioxidant capacity, inflammatory response, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of sheep. This study had four dietary treatments, including a control diet (CON) adhering to NRC standards with a CP content of 16.7% on a dry matter basis and three diets with an approximately 10% reduction in CP content compared to CON with SP levels (% of CP) of 21.2 (SPA), 25.9 (SPB) and 29.4% (SPC), respectively. Thirty-two healthy male Hu sheep, with an initial live weight of 40.37 ± 1.18 kg and age of 6 months, were randomly divided into four groups to receive these respective diets. Our data revealed no significant differences in slaughter performance among treatments (p > 0.05), although low-protein treatments decreased the stomachus compositus index (p < 0.05). Compared with CON, as SP was adjusted to 21.2%, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and catalase (CAT) concentrations were decreased in the serum (p < 0.05), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) content was decreased in jejunum and ileum (p < 0.05), superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration was reduced in the duodenum (p < 0.05), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was increased in spleen and ileum (p < 0.05). On the other hand, pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8) contents were upregulated in the serum (p < 0.05), while immunoglobulin (IgA and IgM) contents were reduced in the duodenum (p < 0.05) with SP adjustments. Additionally, the SPB and SPC diets reduced the content of saturated fatty acids and increased the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with CON (p < 0.05), along with retention in the tenderness and water-holding capacity of the longissimus lumborum muscle. In summary, reducing CP by 10% with an SP proportion of ~25–30% improved meat quality without compromising antioxidant capacity and immunity function, while lower SP levels had adverse effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Animal Nutrition)
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12 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
Replacement of Vitamin E by an Extract from an Olive Oil By-Product, Rich in Hydroxytyrosol, in Broiler Diets: Effects on Growth Performance and Breast Meat Quality
by Nereida L. Corrales, Fernando Sevillano, Rosa Escudero, Gonzalo G. Mateos and David Menoyo
Antioxidants 2023, 12(11), 1940; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12111940 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1198
Abstract
The hypothesis of this experiment was that a liquid rich in hydroxytyrosol (HT) obtained from “alperujo”, an olive oil by-product, could replace part of the added vitamin E (VE) as an antioxidant in poultry diets. There were five diets that differed exclusively in [...] Read more.
The hypothesis of this experiment was that a liquid rich in hydroxytyrosol (HT) obtained from “alperujo”, an olive oil by-product, could replace part of the added vitamin E (VE) as an antioxidant in poultry diets. There were five diets that differed exclusively in the substitution of supplemental VE (0 to 40 mg/kg, with differences of 10 mg/kg) by HT (30 to 0 mg/kg, with differences of 7.5 mg/kg). The basal diet was based on corn and soybean meal and provided 10 mg VE/kg. From 0 to 39 d of age, the growth performance of the birds was not affected by diet. The birds were slaughtered at 39 d of age to evaluate the quality of the breast, and malonaldehyde concentration, pH, color, and drip loss were measured. In terms of meat lipid oxidation, the combination of 22.5 mg HT/kg and 10 mg of added VE/kg equalized to a diet supplemented with 40 mg VE/kg. Meat color improved in broilers fed 7.5 mg HT/kg and 30 mg VE/kg. It is concluded that once the nutritional requirements of the birds in VE are satisfied, the dietary supplementation with the olive oil by-product rich in HT can be used as a strategy to spare VE in broiler diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Animal Nutrition)
16 pages, 1289 KiB  
Article
Replacement of Vitamin E by an Extract from an Olive Oil by-Product, Rich in Hydroxytyrosol, in Broiler Diets: Effects on Liver Traits, Oxidation, Lipid Profile, and Transcriptome
by Javier Herrero-Encinas, Nereida L. Corrales, Fernando Sevillano, Robert Ringseis, Klaus Eder and David Menoyo
Antioxidants 2023, 12(9), 1751; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12091751 - 12 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1404
Abstract
The study examines the effect of replacing vitamin E (VE) with a liquid obtained from alpeorujo, an olive oil by-product rich in hydroxytyrosol (HT), as an antioxidant in broiler chicken feeds on the gene expression, lipid profile, and oxidation in the liver. There [...] Read more.
The study examines the effect of replacing vitamin E (VE) with a liquid obtained from alpeorujo, an olive oil by-product rich in hydroxytyrosol (HT), as an antioxidant in broiler chicken feeds on the gene expression, lipid profile, and oxidation in the liver. There were five diets that differed only in the substitution of supplemental VE (0 to 40 mg/kg with differences of 10 mg/kg) by HT (30 to 0 mg/kg with differences of 7.5 mg/kg). A linear decrease (p < 0.05) in α-tocopherol concentration in the liver was observed with the replacement of VE by HT. There were no significant changes in triglyceride, cholesterol, or TBARS concentrations. The hepatic transcriptome showed 378 differentially expressed genes between broilers fed HT15 (20 mg/kg VE and 15 mg/kg HT) and HT0 (40 mg/kg VE) diets (p < 0.05 and fold change less or higher than 1.3). Significant changes in cell cycle, cell nucleus activity, neuroactivity, and necroptosis pathways and functions were observed. It is concluded that the olive oil by-product, rich in HT, could be used to spare VE as an antioxidant in broiler diets without affecting liver lipid and TBARS concentrations. The differential gene expression analysis showed a potential role of olive polyphenols in enhancing the chicken immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Animal Nutrition)
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17 pages, 340 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Supplementation of a Resin-Purified Aqueous-Isopropanol Olive Leaf Extract on Meat and Liver Antioxidant Parameters in Broilers
by Konstantina Vasilopoulou, Georgios A. Papadopoulos, Styliani Lioliopoulou, Ioanna Pyrka, Nikolaos Nenadis, Soumela Savvidou, George Symeon, Vassilios Dotas, Ioannis Panitsidis, Georgios Arsenos and Ilias Giannenas
Antioxidants 2023, 12(9), 1723; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12091723 - 5 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
Olive leaves are byproducts οf the agro-industrial sector and are rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. They could be supplemented in poultry diets powdered or less frequently as extracts to improve performance, health and product quality. The objective of this study was [...] Read more.
Olive leaves are byproducts οf the agro-industrial sector and are rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. They could be supplemented in poultry diets powdered or less frequently as extracts to improve performance, health and product quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible beneficial effects of an aqueous isopropanol olive leaf extract—purified through filtration (250–25 µm) and a resin (XAD-4)—when supplemented in broiler chickens’ diets, on meat quality parameters, focusing mainly on antioxidant parameters as there is limited published information. For this purpose, four-hundred-and-eighty-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: T1 (control: basal diet); T2 (1% olive leaf extract); T3 (2.5% olive leaf extract); T4 (positive control: 0.1% encapsulated oregano oil commercially used as feed additive). At the end of the experimental period (day 42), the birds were slaughtered, and samples from breast, thigh meat and liver were collected for antioxidant parameters evaluation. On day 1, after slaughter, in thigh meat, Malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in T2 compared to T3, and total phenolic content (TPC) was higher in T2 compared to T3 and T4. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was increased in T2 and T4 breast meat compared to the control. In liver, T4 treatment resulted in higher TPC. The lack of dose-dependent effect for olive leaf extract may be attributed to the pro-oxidant effects of some bioactive compounds found in olive leaves, such as oleuropein, when supplemented at higher levels. In summary, it can be inferred that the inclusion of 1% olive leaf extract in the feed of broilers has the potential to mitigate oxidation in broiler meat and maybe enhance its quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Animal Nutrition)
16 pages, 948 KiB  
Article
Different Effect of Vitamin E or Hydroxytyrosol Supplementation to Sow’s Diet on Oxidative Status and Performances of Weaned Piglets
by Gerardo Gómez, Hernan D. Laviano, Juan M. García-Casco, Rosa Escudero, María Muñoz, Ana Heras-Molina, Antonio González-Bulnes, Cristina Óvilo, Clemente López-Bote and Ana I. Rey
Antioxidants 2023, 12(8), 1504; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12081504 - 27 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 973
Abstract
Different feeding strategies are being applied to sows in order to obtain homogeneous piglets’ weights and improved health status. This study evaluated how the dietary supplementation of vitamin E (VE) (100 mg/kg), hydroxytyrosol (HXT) (1.5 mg/kg) or the combined administration (VE + HXT) [...] Read more.
Different feeding strategies are being applied to sows in order to obtain homogeneous piglets’ weights and improved health status. This study evaluated how the dietary supplementation of vitamin E (VE) (100 mg/kg), hydroxytyrosol (HXT) (1.5 mg/kg) or the combined administration (VE + HXT) given to Iberian sows from day 85 of gestation affected the growth pattern of the piglets and their oxidative status; and quantified what these effects were due to. Dietary VE and HXT improved the oxidative status of sows and piglets. Both VE and HXT modified the growth pattern at birth and performances of the piglets in a different way according to the growing period. Piglets’ performances were positively correlated with plasma VE and negatively with plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) of the sow. However, the highest variation in growth patterns was explained by the colostrum composition. Significant linear equations were observed between piglets’ performances and colostrum saturated (SAT), n-7 monounsaturated fatty acids (C16:1n-7 and C18:1n-7) and different desaturases indices. This study would confirm that VE supplementation to the sow diet could be more adequate than HXT for the improved development during the first weeks of a piglet’s life. The combined administration of both antioxidants would not produce additional positive effects compared to the individual supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Animal Nutrition)
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16 pages, 2962 KiB  
Article
Colour Stability, Fatty Acid Profile, and Lipid Oxidation in Meat Stored in Modified Atmosphere Packaging from Light Lambs Fed with Concentrate with Carob Pulp (Ceratonia siliqua L.)
by Diego Nicolas Bottegal, Sandra Lobón, María Ángeles Latorre, Juan Ramón Bertolín and Javier Álvarez-Rodríguez
Antioxidants 2023, 12(8), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12081482 - 25 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
There is a growing interest in using by-products rich in polyphenols, such as carob pulp (Cp, Ceratonia siliqua L.), as a dietary source of antioxidants for animals. This study assesses the effects of including Cp in lambs’ diet and meat display time (0, [...] Read more.
There is a growing interest in using by-products rich in polyphenols, such as carob pulp (Cp, Ceratonia siliqua L.), as a dietary source of antioxidants for animals. This study assesses the effects of including Cp in lambs’ diet and meat display time (0, 7, 9, and 11 days) in modified atmosphere packaging on meat colour, fatty acid (FA) composition, tocopherol levels, and lipid oxidation values in the Semimembranosus muscle of 40 light lambs. The lambs were fed with concentrates supplemented with increasing Cp levels (0, 150, and 300 g/kg) for 45 days before slaughter. Metmyoglobin (MMb) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents increased linearly with display time (p < 0.05), regardless of diet (p > 0.05). At 11 days of display, MMb (28 ± 0.8%) and MDA (0.6 ± 0.1 mg MDA/kg of meat) contents remained within the acceptable limits. The α-tocopherol content was lower in the 30% Cp group and meat (p < 0.05). Total saturated and monounsaturated FA contents (934 ± 64 and 823 ± 65 mg/100 g of meat, respectively) did not differ significantly among the groups. However, the meat from lambs fed with 30% Cp showed reduced levels of branched-chain FAs, while polyunsaturated FAs increased (p < 0.05) compared to the control lambs. The inclusion of Cp in the lamb’s diet, up to 30%, did not lead to meat deterioration and improved certain quality parameters, including a healthier FA profile. These findings highlight Cp’s potential as an alternative antioxidant source in animal diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Animal Nutrition)
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17 pages, 823 KiB  
Article
Dietary Guanidine Acetic Acid Improves Ruminal Antioxidant Capacity and Alters Rumen Fermentation and Microflora in Rapid-Growing Lambs
by Wenjuan Li, Zhaoyang Cui, Yaowen Jiang, Ailiyasi Aisikaer, Qichao Wu, Fang Zhang, Weikang Wang, Yukun Bo and Hongjian Yang
Antioxidants 2023, 12(3), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12030772 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1884
Abstract
Guanidine acetic acid (GAA) has been reported to improve growth performance, nutrient utilization, and meat quality in livestock. This study aimed to investigate whether coated GAA (CGAA) in comparison with uncoated GAA (UGAA) could have different effects on rumen fermentation, antioxidant capacity, and [...] Read more.
Guanidine acetic acid (GAA) has been reported to improve growth performance, nutrient utilization, and meat quality in livestock. This study aimed to investigate whether coated GAA (CGAA) in comparison with uncoated GAA (UGAA) could have different effects on rumen fermentation, antioxidant capacity, and microflora composition in the rumen. Seventy-two lambs were randomly arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial experiment design with two diets of different forage type (OH: oaten hay; OHWS: oaten hay plus wheat silage) and three GAA treatments within each diet (control, diet without GAA addition; UGAA, uncoated GAA; CGAA, coated GAA). The whole feeding trial lasted for 120 days. The lambs in the OH group presented lower total volatile fatty acid (VFA), alpha diversity, Firmicutes, NK4A214_group, and Lachnospiraceae_NK3A20_group than those on the OHWS diet in the last 60 days of the feeding stage (p < 0.05). Regardless of what GAA form was added, dietary GAA supplementation increased the total VFA, microbial crude protein (MCP), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and antioxidant capacity in rumen during lamb feedlotting (p < 0.05). However, molar propionate proportion, acetate:propionate ratio (A:P), and relative Succiniclasticum abundance decreased with GAA addition in the first 60 days of the growing stage, while the molar butyrate proportion and NK4A214_group (p < 0.05) in response to GAA addition increased in the last 60 days of feeding. These findings indicated that dietary GAA enhanced antioxidant capacity and fermentation characteristics in the rumen, but the addition of uncoated GAA in diets might cause some dysbacteriosis of the rumen microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Animal Nutrition)
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14 pages, 330 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dietary Amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus chlorostachys) Supplemented with Enzyme Blend on Egg Quality, Serum Biochemistry and Antioxidant Status in Laying Hens
by Hossein Janmohammadi, Babak Hosseintabar-Ghasemabad, Majid Oliyai, Sadegh Alijani, Ivan Fedorovich Gorlov, Marina Ivanovna Slozhenkina, Aleksandr Anatolievich Mosolov, Lourdes Suarez Ramirez, Alireza Seidavi, Vito Laudadio, Vincenzo Tufarelli and Marco Ragni
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12020456 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2056
Abstract
A feeding trial was performed to assess the effects of dietary raw amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus chlorostachys) grain (RAG), with or without an enzyme blend, on the productive performance, blood biochemistry, and antioxidant status in laying hens. The trial was conducted following [...] Read more.
A feeding trial was performed to assess the effects of dietary raw amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus chlorostachys) grain (RAG), with or without an enzyme blend, on the productive performance, blood biochemistry, and antioxidant status in laying hens. The trial was conducted following a completely randomized design by factorial method, including five levels of RAG (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40%, respectively) and two levels of enzyme blend (0 −E and 0.025 +E %). A total of 960 White Leghorn (Hy-line W-36) laying hens (56 weeks of age) were divided into 10 groups with eight repetitions, including 12 birds. The trial period was ten weeks. Results showed that RAG levels in feed (>10%) led to a significant decrease in blood total cholesterol (TC), but they also significantly decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR) (p ˂ 0.05) as measured by feed intake (FI), hen daily production (HDP), egg weight (EW), and mass (EM), leading to overall worse productivity compared to the control group. On the contrary, the addition of the enzyme blend led to an improvement in the investigated production traits (p ˂ 0.05), with the exception of HDP. The enzyme blend was also capable of recovering productive performance when combined with low concentrations of RAG (10%) (p ˂ 0.05), and RAG × enzyme blend groups showed the lowest values of TC (p ˂ 0.05). Moreover, the interaction effects for atherogenic index (LDL/HDL) indicated a significant and promising reduction in response to the addition of RAG both in the presence and absence of the enzyme blend (p ˂ 0.05), and this additive also significantly reduced levels of egg yolk cholesterol (p ˂ 0.05). In summary, the evidence gathered in this trial showed that dietary RAG had positive effects on egg quality characteristics, leading to the production of low-cholesterol eggs, and, at the same time, it may improve the health status of laying hens. Furthermore, the addition of an enzyme blend allowed feeding up to 10% RAG in the diet, leading to an optimal balance between animal productivity and the beneficial effects of RAG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Animal Nutrition)
21 pages, 1056 KiB  
Article
Dietary Protected Sodium Butyrate and/or Olive Leaf and Grape-Based By-Product Supplementation Modifies Productive Performance, Antioxidant Status and Meat Quality in Broilers
by Almudena de-Cara, Beatriz Saldaña, Patricia Vázquez and Ana I Rey
Antioxidants 2023, 12(1), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12010201 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2100
Abstract
To meet the demand for chicken meat production, new additives that promote growth and health without adverse effects on meat quality are being investigated. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of protected sodium butyrate (PSB) (0 vs. 2 g/kg), an olive [...] Read more.
To meet the demand for chicken meat production, new additives that promote growth and health without adverse effects on meat quality are being investigated. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of protected sodium butyrate (PSB) (0 vs. 2 g/kg), an olive leaf and grape-based by-product (OLG-mix), or a combined supplementation of PSB and OLG-mix on productive performance, antioxidant status, carcass, and meat quality in broilers. PSB improved performance parameters with greater effect in the initial phase. Both, PSB and OLG-mix increased the plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD); however, PSB supplementation was more effective to delay the lipid oxidation of meat from the initial day of storage. OLG-mix produced meat with greater color intensity, b* value and lesser drip losses than PSB. The combination of PSB + OLG-mix did not produce more marked effects that the individual administration; except to control the oxidation of meat. Linear and positive correlations between antioxidant enzymes and weight gain were observed. Significant linear and negative relationships were quantified between plasma SOD and meat lipid oxidation according to dietary treatment. Therefore, the present study would be a first approximation to the possibilities for predicting growth range and meat quality through the evaluation of the blood oxidative status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Animal Nutrition)
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Review

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33 pages, 1779 KiB  
Review
Curcumin as a Potential Antioxidant in Stress Regulation of Terrestrial, Avian, and Aquatic Animals: A Review
by Do Thi Cat Tuong, Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Elena Smirnova, Sungyeon Chin, Anjana Sureshbabu, Adhimoolam Karthikeyan and Taesun Min
Antioxidants 2023, 12(9), 1700; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12091700 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1955
Abstract
Stress has brought about a variety of harmful impacts on different animals, leading to difficulties in the management of animal husbandry and aquaculture. Curcumin has been recognized as a potential component to ameliorate the adverse influence of animal stress induced by toxicity, inflammation, [...] Read more.
Stress has brought about a variety of harmful impacts on different animals, leading to difficulties in the management of animal husbandry and aquaculture. Curcumin has been recognized as a potential component to ameliorate the adverse influence of animal stress induced by toxicity, inflammation, diseases, thermal effect, and so on. In detail, this compound is known to offer various outstanding functions, including antibacterial properties, antioxidant effects, immune response recovery, and behavioral restoration of animals under stress conditions. However, curcumin still has some limitations, owing to its low bioavailability. This review summarizes the latest updates on the regulatory effects of curcumin in terms of stress management in terrestrial, avian, and aquatic animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Animal Nutrition)
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29 pages, 1392 KiB  
Review
Ramifications of Heat Stress on Rabbit Production and Role of Nutraceuticals in Alleviating Its Negative Impacts: An Updated Review
by Tarek A. Ebeid, Hamad S. Aljabeili, Ibrahim H. Al-Homidan, Zdeněk Volek and Hassan Barakat
Antioxidants 2023, 12(7), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12071407 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3045
Abstract
Heat stress has become a widespread concern worldwide, which is a major environmental stress that causes substantial economic loss in the rabbit industry. Compared to other agricultural animals, rabbits are more sensitive to heat stress as they have fewer sweat glands and a [...] Read more.
Heat stress has become a widespread concern worldwide, which is a major environmental stress that causes substantial economic loss in the rabbit industry. Compared to other agricultural animals, rabbits are more sensitive to heat stress as they have fewer sweat glands and a thicker coat of fur, increasing the heat dissipation complexity. Thus, heat stress hurts rabbits’ productivity, meat quality, reproductive performance, antioxidative properties, immune responsiveness, intestinal histomorphology, and microbiome. Nutraceuticals include vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, organic acids, fatty acids, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, enzymes, and medicinal plants due to the possible impacts on maintaining common biological situations, strengthening immune response, and preventing illness, which ultimately led to an increase in productivity. Nutraceuticals have recently attracted a lot of attention to alleviate the adverse impacts of heat stress in rabbit farms. The objective of the current review is to provide acquaintance with the recent findings about the impact of heat stress on rabbit productivity and the advantages of dietary supplementation of nutraceuticals in mitigating it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Animal Nutrition)
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