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Behav. Sci., Volume 14, Issue 4 (April 2024) – 90 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): During meditation, practitioners often report a feeling of their body's boundaries fading. When asked about the root cause of this experience, they attribute it to a sense of letting go of the need for self-protection and feeling more connected to the world around them. Building on anecdotal reports, we conducted an experimental study on the impact of mindfulness meditation on peripersonal space sharpness, revealing a blurring of the boundary between the self and the environment, aligning with meditators' reports. Our experimental investigation offers crucial insights into the core mechanisms underlying the influence of mindfulness meditation on psychological well-being and social cognition and potentially resonating with the Buddhist concept of anatta, or non-self. View this paper
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13 pages, 2074 KiB  
Article
Adaptation and Validation of the 3 × 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire in a Population of Athletes
by Cristina García-Romero, Elkin Eduardo Roldan-Aguilar, Carlos Alberto Hurtado-Castaño, Josune Rodríguez-Negro and Oliver Ramos-Álvarez
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040350 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1183
Abstract
(1) Background: Sport goals, although widely recognised as crucial for motivation and performance in sport, are multifaceted and can be difficult to measure directly. The present research aims to validate the 3 × 2 achievement goals questionnaire of Mascret in Spanish in a [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Sport goals, although widely recognised as crucial for motivation and performance in sport, are multifaceted and can be difficult to measure directly. The present research aims to validate the 3 × 2 achievement goals questionnaire of Mascret in Spanish in a population of athletes. (2) Method: By using a latent factor approach, it is possible to identify the underlying dimensions of these goals and to better understand how they are structured. For this purpose, this questionnaire has been translated and compared with the life satisfaction scale. An exploration of the multifaceted nature of sport goals has been carried out using structural equation modelling. A total of 580 athletes (463 males and 216 females, M = 21.5, SD = 2.36) from different sport disciplines and from 12 autonomous communities in Spain participated in the research. (3) Results: The results show that the questionnaire presents a high scale reliability and that all items contribute significantly to the internal consistency of the scale. (4) Conclusions: The adaptation of this scale to the Spanish population of athletes can be a valid and useful tool to measure and understand motivation and goals in the sport context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity for Psychological and Cognitive Development)
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11 pages, 1138 KiB  
Review
Rest to Promote Learning: A Brain Default Mode Network Perspective
by Wei Luo, Biao Liu, Ying Tang, Jingwen Huang and Ji Wu
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040349 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 715
Abstract
The brain often switches freely between focused attention and divergent thinking, and the Default Mode Network (DMN) is activated during brain rest. Since its discovery, the DMN, together with its function and characteristics, indicates that learning does not stop when the brain “rests”. [...] Read more.
The brain often switches freely between focused attention and divergent thinking, and the Default Mode Network (DMN) is activated during brain rest. Since its discovery, the DMN, together with its function and characteristics, indicates that learning does not stop when the brain “rests”. Therefore, DMN plays an important role in learning. Neural activities such as beta wave rhythm regulation, “subconscious” divergence thinking mode initiation, hippocampal function, and neural replay occur during default mode, all of which explains that “rest” promotes learning. This paper summarized the function and neural mechanism of DMN in learning and proposed that the DMN plays an essential role in learning, which is that it enables rest to promote learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroscience and Education: A Fruitful Partnership)
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14 pages, 714 KiB  
Article
Does the Cognitive Reflection Test Work with Chinese College Students? Evidence from a Time-Limited Study
by Zhaoxian Li, Shangsong Yan, Jie Liu, Wei Bao and Junlong Luo
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040348 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 610
Abstract
The cognitive reflection test (CRT) is an experiment task commonly used in Western countries to test intuitive and analytical thinking styles. However, the validity of this task for Chinese participants has not been explored. Therefore, this study recruited Chinese college students to finish [...] Read more.
The cognitive reflection test (CRT) is an experiment task commonly used in Western countries to test intuitive and analytical thinking styles. However, the validity of this task for Chinese participants has not been explored. Therefore, this study recruited Chinese college students to finish CRT tasks with various experimental designs. To gauge the accuracy of the CRT tasks, 438 Chinese college students first completed online questionnaires. Participants were then invited to participate in an offline laboratory with the same experimental settings. Finally, time pressure was used to strictly control intuition and analytical thinking to explore the performance of Chinese college students on CRT tasks. The results show that of the three experiments, Chinese college students had the highest accuracy in the offline test, and the CRT’s intuitive conflict problem still applies to Chinese students under the time-limited condition. This study demonstrates the validity of the CRT in China and proves that time pressure is an effective method for identifying individuals with strong logic ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cognition)
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16 pages, 848 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Muslim and Christian Destinations on Tourists’ Behavioural Intentions and Risk Perceptions
by Rita R. Carballo, Carmelo J. León and María M. Carballo
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040347 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 598
Abstract
This paper studies the factors that influence tourists’ risk perceptions of various destinations with different attributes and sociocultural profiles. Factor analysis is utilised to investigate the determinants of risk perceptions, finding that they are influenced both by the type of risk (delinquency, health, [...] Read more.
This paper studies the factors that influence tourists’ risk perceptions of various destinations with different attributes and sociocultural profiles. Factor analysis is utilised to investigate the determinants of risk perceptions, finding that they are influenced both by the type of risk (delinquency, health, accident, environment and catastrophe) and by the characteristics of the destination regarding the management of risk. Structural equations modelling is conducted to study the relationships between risk perceptions, destination image and visiting intentions across destinations. Multi-group analysis across different destinations proves that tourists’ risk perceptions have different influences on destination image and visiting intentions. The results show that there are significant differences according to the predominant religion at the destinations, i.e., Muslin and Christian. The implication is that different dimensions of perceived risks and destination socio-culture contexts have different influences on the behaviour of tourists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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15 pages, 785 KiB  
Article
Research on the Impact of Industrial Policy on the Innovation Behavior of Strategic Emerging Industries
by Wei Yang, Xueke Wang and Dandan Zhou
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040346 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 709
Abstract
Cultivating strategic emerging industries (SEIs) is an important strategy for most countries around the world to seize the economic frontier. Academics have not yet reached a unified conclusion on whether the adoption of industrial policy from the government level can effectively promote its [...] Read more.
Cultivating strategic emerging industries (SEIs) is an important strategy for most countries around the world to seize the economic frontier. Academics have not yet reached a unified conclusion on whether the adoption of industrial policy from the government level can effectively promote its R&D and innovation behaviors and contribute to industrial upgrading. Based on the data regarding 33,425 Shanghai and Shenzhen A-share-listed companies from 2007 to 2020, this article employs the difference-in-difference model (DID) and the mediated effect model to identify the effect and mechanism of how industrial policy affects the innovation behavior of SEIs. The results of this study show that the promulgation and implementation of industrial policies can help stimulate enterprises to carry out R&D and innovation behaviors and improve the innovation level of SEIs. Its promoting effect on state-owned enterprises is more significant than that on non-state-owned enterprises, and its promoting effect on the eastern and central regions is more significant than that on the western region. Further analysis reveals that government subsidies and tax incentives are important transmission mechanisms through which industrial policy affects firms’ innovation, with government subsidies playing a positive facilitating role and tax incentives having a negative impact. Full article
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14 pages, 689 KiB  
Article
Teachers’ Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Commitment: A Moderated Mediation Model of Teachers’ Psychological Well-Being and Principal Transformational Leadership
by Mingwei Li, Feifei Liu and Chuanli Yang
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040345 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 966
Abstract
Given the global challenge of increasing teacher attrition and turnover rates, the exploration of factors and mechanisms that improve teachers’ organizational commitment has become a pivotal topic in educational research. In this context, the present study examines the influence of teachers’ emotional intelligence [...] Read more.
Given the global challenge of increasing teacher attrition and turnover rates, the exploration of factors and mechanisms that improve teachers’ organizational commitment has become a pivotal topic in educational research. In this context, the present study examines the influence of teachers’ emotional intelligence on their organizational commitment, with a specific inquiry into the mediating role of teachers’ psychological well-being and the moderating role of principal transformational leadership, as informed by the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and the trait activation theory. We verified this study’s hypotheses based on 768 valid questionnaires collected from Chinese primary and secondary school teachers. The results reveal that teachers’ emotional intelligence can predict their organizational commitment both directly and indirectly through the mediating role of psychological well-being. Additionally, principal transformational leadership amplifies the positive effect of teachers’ emotional intelligence on psychological well-being and, subsequently, organizational commitment. These findings theoretically deepen our understanding of the psychological pathways and the boundary conditions linking teachers’ emotional intelligence to their organizational commitment, while also offering valuable practical implications for building a stable and effective teaching workforce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings—2nd Edition)
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23 pages, 4119 KiB  
Article
A Pioneer Tool to Reduce Restrictive Practices toward People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
by Victoria Sánchez-Gómez, Miguel Ángel Verdugo, Manuela Crespo and Amalia San Román
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040344 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 669
Abstract
Reducing restrictive practices toward individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities is a globally recognized imperative and human rights priority. This paper presents a novel tool called LibRe for assessing and reducing restrictive practices. This tool involved an instrumental multistage design and collaboration between [...] Read more.
Reducing restrictive practices toward individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities is a globally recognized imperative and human rights priority. This paper presents a novel tool called LibRe for assessing and reducing restrictive practices. This tool involved an instrumental multistage design and collaboration between professionals, individuals with disabilities, family members, and experts from different fields. It addresses diverse restrictive practices in five key domains: physical or mechanical, chemical or pharmacological, structural, relational, and practices related to contexts and supports. It addresses practices that are pertinent to the Spanish context and that existing tools have not covered. Embedded as a step within an organizational approach, LibRe fosters organizational transformation and provides resources to achieve outcomes within reduction plans for restrictive practices. In total, 156 teams comprising 585 professionals, 64 people with disabilities, and 44 family members responded to the tool. In terms of evidence for internal structure validity, the oblique five-factor model exhibited an adequate fit through confirmatory factor analysis, along with satisfactory reliability indices, according to ordinal alpha and omega. Users positively appraised the tool’s usefulness and identified its strengths and challenges. Although further research is needed, preliminary evidence frames LibRe as a useful resource for practice and research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatric, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders)
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19 pages, 736 KiB  
Article
Recognizing and Looking at Masked Emotional Faces in Alexithymia
by Marla Fuchs, Anette Kersting, Thomas Suslow and Charlott Maria Bodenschatz
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040343 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 772
Abstract
Alexithymia is a clinically relevant personality construct characterized by difficulties identifying and communicating one’s emotions and externally oriented thinking. Alexithymia has been found to be related to poor emotion decoding and diminished attention to the eyes. The present eye tracking study investigated whether [...] Read more.
Alexithymia is a clinically relevant personality construct characterized by difficulties identifying and communicating one’s emotions and externally oriented thinking. Alexithymia has been found to be related to poor emotion decoding and diminished attention to the eyes. The present eye tracking study investigated whether high levels of alexithymia are related to impairments in recognizing emotions in masked faces and reduced attentional preference for the eyes. An emotion recognition task with happy, fearful, disgusted, and neutral faces with face masks was administered to high-alexithymic and non-alexithymic individuals. Hit rates, latencies of correct responses, and fixation duration on eyes and face mask were analyzed as a function of group and sex. Alexithymia had no effects on accuracy and speed of emotion recognition. However, alexithymic men showed less attentional preference for the eyes relative to the mask than non-alexithymic men, which was due to their increased attention to face masks. No fixation duration differences were observed between alexithymic and non-alexithymic women. Our data indicate that high levels of alexithymia might not have adverse effects on the efficiency of emotion recognition from faces wearing masks. Future research on gaze behavior during facial emotion recognition in high alexithymia should consider sex as a moderating variable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatric, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders)
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18 pages, 345 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Psychosocial Factors on the Successful Formal Education Trajectories of Young Spanish People in Vulnerable Situations
by Edgar C. Campos, Susana Fonseca, Deibe Fernández-Simo and Carlos Rosón
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040342 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Young people in vulnerable situations tend to have more difficulties realizing successful formal education trajectories. It is extremely important to conduct studies that explore the key dimensions that can help young people overcome the conditioning of vulnerable situations, assisting in the achievement of [...] Read more.
Young people in vulnerable situations tend to have more difficulties realizing successful formal education trajectories. It is extremely important to conduct studies that explore the key dimensions that can help young people overcome the conditioning of vulnerable situations, assisting in the achievement of academic success. According to the existing literature, one of these key dimensions is psychosocial well-being. Thus, this qualitative research aims to identify and analyze psychosocial factors that favor successful school pathways among young people in vulnerable situations. Through a case study approach, 12 in-depth interviews were carried out with 12 young Spanish people who not only have a vulnerable background but also successful formal education trajectories. The data were explored through qualitative content analysis—NVivo11. The results revealed that young people generally associate their successful educational trajectory with the positive impact of psychosocial factors, such as the following: positive caregivers’ valuation of formal education and positive school experiences and support networks. Young people also point to many negative school experiences that have been overcome via positive attitudes and individual protective factors. The youngsters suggest changes in the educational system and teachers’ skills in order to improve the levels of psychosocial support in formal education contexts. The study’s implications and limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. Full article
13 pages, 458 KiB  
Article
Smartphone Addiction and Related Factors among Athletes
by Sultan Sahin Koybulan, Duygu Altin, Gorkem Yararbas and Hur Hassoy
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040341 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 829
Abstract
Smartphone addiction (SA) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study is to determine the level of SA in athletes affiliated to the Turkish Handball Federation in Izmir and to examine its relationship with factors such as sociodemographic status, health status, eating attitude, [...] Read more.
Smartphone addiction (SA) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study is to determine the level of SA in athletes affiliated to the Turkish Handball Federation in Izmir and to examine its relationship with factors such as sociodemographic status, health status, eating attitude, and body perception. This cross-sectional study was conducted in March–April 2021 in Izmir Province. The sample of the study consisted of 212 licensed handball athletes. The short SA scale, three-factor nutrition scale, and body perception scale were used. A chi-square test was used for bivariate comparisons and logistic regression analysis was used for multivariate comparisons. The study was completed with 202 individuals (the coverage rate was 95.3%). The prevalence of SA was found to be 27.7%. The risk of SA increased 2.49-fold (CI: 1.17–5.31, p = 0.018) in female participants, 2.01-fold (CI: 1.01–4.06, p = 0.048) in participants with alcohol use, 2.17-fold (CI: 1.04–4.58, p = 0.042) in participants with low nutritional scores, 2.65-fold (CI: 1.15–6.10, p = 0.022) in individuals with high-income status, and 2.66-fold (CI: 1.07–6.64, p = 0.036) in individuals with high body perception scale score. In total, 27.7% of the athlete sample had scores above the SA threshold. These results point out that a behavioral addiction such as SA can occur even in professionals of an activity such as sports, known for beneficial effects in terms of healthy life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridging Behavioral Sciences and Sports Sciences)
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15 pages, 452 KiB  
Systematic Review
Assessing the Psychometric Properties of the Illness Management and Recovery Scale: A Systematic Review Using the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN)
by Nuria Martín-Ordiales, María Dolores Hidalgo, María Pilar Martín-Chaparro, Júlia Ballester-Plané and Maite Barrios
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040340 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 760
Abstract
The Illness Management and Recovery Scale (IMR-S) is based on the IMR program, developed to assess the recovery process for people with severe mental disorders by considering the perceptions of clients and clinicians involved in it. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
The Illness Management and Recovery Scale (IMR-S) is based on the IMR program, developed to assess the recovery process for people with severe mental disorders by considering the perceptions of clients and clinicians involved in it. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the IMR-S so as to determine the reliability and suitability of its scores for evaluating recovery. Two coders searched five databases for studies, published between January 2004 and May 2023, that describe the psychometric assessment of the IMR-S. Studies were assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) Risk of Bias checklist. Finally, 46 papers were included. Methodological quality was very good for most of the studies that provide information on internal validity, and limited for those that report on responsiveness. Measurement properties were positive for convergent validity and measurement error. The quality of evidence was high for structural validity studies. Although this study only includes research published in English and may have overlooked certain psychometric properties evaluated in studies published in other languages, our findings suggest that the IMR-S is a valid and reliable instrument, demonstrating its potential to offer guidance for clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
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16 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
Perinatal Loss and Parents’ Grief Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Mixed-Method Research
by Ciro De Vincenzo, Loredana Cena, Alice Trainini, Chiara Nieddu, Erika Iacona, Lucia Ronconi and Ines Testoni
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040339 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 765
Abstract
Losing a child is a traumatic event, disrupting life’s natural cycle, profoundly affecting the family system, and causing enduring grief. Perinatal death, including ectopic pregnancies, miscarriages, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths, exacerbates this distress. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has challenged healthcare systems and supporting [...] Read more.
Losing a child is a traumatic event, disrupting life’s natural cycle, profoundly affecting the family system, and causing enduring grief. Perinatal death, including ectopic pregnancies, miscarriages, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths, exacerbates this distress. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has challenged healthcare systems and supporting services available to individuals in need. Thus, this research explores experiences of parents facing perinatal loss in 2020–2021, further focusing on the pandemic’s impact. Using a mixed-methods design with self-reports and qualitative interviews, this paper presents results from the quantitative protocol, involving an update and follow-up of a previous study. It compares measurements across scales: COVID-19: The Impact of Event Scale-Revised; The Prolonged Grief-13; The Parental Assessment of Paternal/Maternal Affectivity; The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (short version); The Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale; and The Inventory of Complicated Spiritual Grief. In the baseline measurement, 45 parents participated (37 mothers and 8 fathers), with 20 (13 mothers and 7 fathers) contributing to the follow-up and 9 engaging in interviews. Baseline results showed higher scores for mothers compared to fathers, with effect sizes ranging from small to medium (ranging from −0.02 to 0.29), though statistical significance was limited due to the small sample size. Multiple regression analysis for distress measures at baseline identified two significant predictors: maternal/paternal affectivity and gestational week. Additionally, positive support from healthcare professionals emerged as a mitigating factor, particularly in relation to Avoidance. A significant reduction in stress measures and parental affectivity was observed at the 6-month follow-up. Qualitative analysis revealed three themes: Shifts in Self-Perception and Post-Loss Growth; Conflicted Relationship with One’s Body; and Negative Impact of COVID-19 vs. Unexpectedly Positive Aspects. In conclusion, the findings emphasize the significance of psychological and psychosocial interventions based on meaning-making processes, along with the importance of spiritual care and empowerment for those navigating perinatal loss. Full article
12 pages, 690 KiB  
Article
Effect of Physical Exercise on Executive Functions Using the Emotional Stroop Task in Perimenopausal Women: A Pilot Study
by Li-Yu Wu, Hsiu-Chin Hsu, Lee-Fen Ni, Yu-Jia Yan and Ren-Jen Hwang
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040338 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Exercise has beneficial effects on emotional cognitive control for the majority of the population. However, the impact of exercise on cognitive processes in perimenopausal women remains unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of aerobic exercise on the cognitive processes of perimenopausal women [...] Read more.
Exercise has beneficial effects on emotional cognitive control for the majority of the population. However, the impact of exercise on cognitive processes in perimenopausal women remains unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of aerobic exercise on the cognitive processes of perimenopausal women using an emotional Stroop task (EST). Method: A quasi-experimental pilot study was conducted involving 14 perimenopausal women (Peri-MG) and 13 healthy young women (YG) who completed an EST before and after an aerobic cycling exercise. Mixed-effects models for repeated measures were used to analyze reaction times (RTs) and error rates (ERs) during emotional word processing (positive, negative, and neutral) for both groups. Results: Compared with the YG, the Peri-MG showed significantly shortened RTs for positive and negative emotions (p < 0.05) post-exercise, but not for neutral words. In addition, the Peri-MG exhibited significantly increased ERs for negative words at baseline compared with the YG (p < 0.05), but this difference was not observed during the post-exercise test. Conclusion: The findings suggest that aerobic exercise can enhance executive control performance in perimenopausal women. The Peri-MG exhibited marked behavioral plasticity in the form of reduced bias to salient cues that were significantly more sensitive to alterations due to exercise. This new evidence enhances the understanding of emotional vulnerability and beneficial susceptibility to exercise in perimenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Aging)
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13 pages, 853 KiB  
Commentary
Identifying Consciousness in Other Creatures: Three Initial Steps
by Alejandro Heredia Cedillo, Dennis Lambert and Ezequiel Morsella
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040337 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 729
Abstract
Identifying consciousness in other creatures, be they animals or exotic creatures that have yet to be discovered, remains a great scientific challenge. We delineate the first three steps that we think are necessary for identifying consciousness in other creatures. Step 1 is to [...] Read more.
Identifying consciousness in other creatures, be they animals or exotic creatures that have yet to be discovered, remains a great scientific challenge. We delineate the first three steps that we think are necessary for identifying consciousness in other creatures. Step 1 is to define the particular kind of consciousness in which one is interested. Step 2 is to identify, in humans, the key differences between the brain processes that are associated with consciousness and the brain processes that are not associated with consciousness. For Step 2, to identify these differences, we focus on passive frame theory. Step 3 concerns how the insights derived from consciousness research on humans (e.g., concerning these differences) can be generalized to other creatures. We discuss the significance of examining how consciousness was fashioned by the process of evolution, a process that could be happenstance and replete with incessant tinkering, yielding adaptations that can be suboptimal and counterintuitive, far different in nature from our efficiently designed robotic systems. We conclude that the more that is understood about the differences between conscious processing and unconscious processing in humans, the easier it will be to identify consciousness in other creatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cognition)
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13 pages, 266 KiB  
Review
Metacognition as a Transdiagnostic Determinant of Recovery in Schizotypy and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders
by Courtney N. Wiesepape, Elizabeth A. Smith, Jaclyn D. Hillis-Mascia, Sarah E. Queller Soza, Madyson M. Morris, Alison V. James and Alexis Stokes
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040336 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 833
Abstract
The term schizotypy refers to the latent personality organization that is thought to underpin the liability to develop schizophrenia and associated disorders. Metacognition, or the ability to understand and form increasingly complex and integrated ideas of oneself, others, and one’s community, has been [...] Read more.
The term schizotypy refers to the latent personality organization that is thought to underpin the liability to develop schizophrenia and associated disorders. Metacognition, or the ability to understand and form increasingly complex and integrated ideas of oneself, others, and one’s community, has been proposed to be an important transdiagnostic construct across schizophrenia spectrum disorders and a range of both clinical and non-clinical manifestations of schizotypy. In this paper, we review evidence that deficits in metacognition are present in individuals with relatively high levels of schizotypy and that these deficits are related to symptomology, function, and quality of life. We address the idea that decrements in metacognition may also contribute to the progression from schizotypy to more severe manifestations, while the amelioration of these deficits may enhance aspects of recovery, including the ability to form an integrated sense of self, others, and the wider world. We also review the following two recovery-oriented psychotherapies that target metacognition to promote recovery in individuals with clinical manifestations of schizotypy: Evolutionary Systems Therapy for Schizotypy (ESTS) and Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy (MERIT). Full article
16 pages, 950 KiB  
Article
Underemployment, Work Needs, and Job Satisfaction: Does Social Support Matter?
by Furkan Kirazci and Aysenur Buyukgoze-Kavas
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040335 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 785
Abstract
Global problems that have emerged in recent years have caused an increase in underemployment rates, especially in developing countries. Researchers emphasize that underemployment has as many negative consequences as unemployment on well-being. In order to examine the variables that may buffer these consequences, [...] Read more.
Global problems that have emerged in recent years have caused an increase in underemployment rates, especially in developing countries. Researchers emphasize that underemployment has as many negative consequences as unemployment on well-being. In order to examine the variables that may buffer these consequences, we draw on the Psychology of Working Theory to propose a model in which a mediating role of psychological needs and a moderating role of social support are assumed in the relationship between underemployment and job satisfaction. We collected and analyzed data from 459 Turkish employees (181 women and 278 men) and found that underemployment was negatively related to job satisfaction and that work needs satisfaction mediated the relationship between underemployment and job satisfaction. Further, social support moderated the relationship between subjective underemployment and job satisfaction, so it was insignificant when social support was higher. These findings provide researchers and practitioners with a different perspective on underemployment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Job-Related Stress, Burnout and Quality of Life)
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15 pages, 1011 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Supervisor–Postgraduate Relationship on Master’s Students’ Research Learning Engagement—The Mediating Effect of Academic Aspiration
by Jianhe Zhang, Meiyin Wu and Guangjin Zhang
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040334 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 822
Abstract
Research learning engagement is the basic element of master’s students’ innovation output, and the supervisor is the first responsible body for master’s students’ cultivation. Exploring the influence of the supervisor–postgraduate relationship on master’s students’ research learning engagement, with a focus on the mediating [...] Read more.
Research learning engagement is the basic element of master’s students’ innovation output, and the supervisor is the first responsible body for master’s students’ cultivation. Exploring the influence of the supervisor–postgraduate relationship on master’s students’ research learning engagement, with a focus on the mediating role of academic aspiration, is of great significance for the improvement of master’s students’ cultivation quality. We surveyed 569 master’s students at a university in Wuhan, China, using 3 measurement tools: the Supervisor–Postgraduate Relationship Scale, the Research Learning Engagement Scale, and the Academic Aspirations Scale. The results showed that: (1) The supervisor–postgraduate relationship positively and significantly predicted master’s students’ research learning engagement, and academic aspiration played a fully mediating role in the process. (2) There were differences in the effects of the three dimensions of the supervisor–postgraduate relationship on master’s students’ research learning engagement, with research collaboration having the greatest total effect on the impact of master’s students’ research learning engagement. This study emphasizes the importance of the supervisor–postgraduate relationship and academic aspirations and provides some implications for improving the research learning engagement of master’s students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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23 pages, 342 KiB  
Article
Adult Maltese Women’s Understanding of How Childhood Domestic Violence Has Impacted Their Relationships with Their Parents and Siblings: A Grounded Theory Study
by Clarissa Sammut-Scerri and Arlene Vetere
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040333 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 754
Abstract
Most of the literature that has looked at children’s relationships with their parents in the domestic violence context has focused solely on the children’s relationship with one parent or is studied from the perspective of one parent, usually the mother. Sibling relationships in [...] Read more.
Most of the literature that has looked at children’s relationships with their parents in the domestic violence context has focused solely on the children’s relationship with one parent or is studied from the perspective of one parent, usually the mother. Sibling relationships in the same context are also under-studied. This paper explores in more detail the complexity of children’s relationships with their mothers, fathers, and siblings over time from the perspective of adult women and survivors of childhood domestic violence. Methods: A grounded theory methodology was used to analyse the interviews with 15 women aged twenty to forty-three years of age living in Malta. Results: the analysis showed that the domestic violence context remains significant in these important relationships for these women. The relationship with the father remains strongly influenced by the dynamics of fear, love, and retaliation, with cycles of cut-off and connection from the adult daughter’s end. The relationship with the mother is complicated—feelings of love that are seen as having been limited and complicated by betrayal if there was abuse from the mother. Similarly, for the siblings, the roles of the early family of origin remain persistent and significant. However, in some of these relationships, there has been transformation, reconciliation, and forgiveness. The article offers implications for therapeutic practice for dealing with the complexity of these relationships and ideas for future research. Full article
17 pages, 567 KiB  
Article
Negative Acts in the Courtroom: Characteristics, Distribution, and Frequency among a National Cohort of Danish Prosecutors
by Amanda Ryssel Hovman, Jesper Pihl-Thingvad, Ask Elklit, Kirsten Kaya Roessler and Maria Louison Vang
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040332 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 896
Abstract
Danish prosecutors report exposure to negative acts from professional counterparts in courtrooms, which is associated with an increased risk of burnout. However, knowledge of the characteristics of these acts is limited. Based on existing theoretical frameworks, this study aims to characterize these negative [...] Read more.
Danish prosecutors report exposure to negative acts from professional counterparts in courtrooms, which is associated with an increased risk of burnout. However, knowledge of the characteristics of these acts is limited. Based on existing theoretical frameworks, this study aims to characterize these negative acts. A nation-wide survey of Danish prosecutors (response rate: 81%) yielded 687 descriptions of experiences with negative acts from professional counterparts from a career perspective. These were analyzed using theory-directed content analysis based on the Stress-as-Offense-to-Self (SOS) theory by Semmer and colleagues and Cortina and colleagues’ characterization of incivility in American courtrooms. We identified a total of 15 types of behavior within the three main themes: illegitimate tasks (n = 22), illegitimate stressors (n = 68), and illegitimate behavior (n = 612). Tentative differences in the distribution of experienced negative acts from a career perspective were found for gender and seniority. Women reported negative acts more frequently than men, and assistant prosecutors reported verbal abuse more frequently than senior prosecutors, who, conversely, more often reported a perceived lack of court management. More prospective research is needed on negative acts experienced by prosecutors to assess the scope of these in Danish courtrooms and how they impact the risk of burnout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preventing and Addressing Negative Behaviors in the Workplace)
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20 pages, 284 KiB  
Article
Differential Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence during COVID-19: A Cross-Regional Study in Mexico
by Sofia Navarrete Zur and Paola M. Sesia
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040331 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1274
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic brought on a marked increase in intimate partner violence (IPV) worldwide, Mexico being no exception. Factors that exacerbated gender-based violence (GBV) in the household during the pandemic include gendered loss of income, regression in access to social and legal justice [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic brought on a marked increase in intimate partner violence (IPV) worldwide, Mexico being no exception. Factors that exacerbated gender-based violence (GBV) in the household during the pandemic include gendered loss of income, regression in access to social and legal justice resources, reversal to more traditional gender norms and roles, and increased alcoholism. While there are studies about the prevalence and determinants of IPV in rural and urban Mexico, there appears to be a lack of information regarding how these realities differed as they interacted with the compounding pressures of the COVID-19 pandemic. Stemming from 10 ethnographic interviews with women across rural and urban localities of Oaxaca, Mexico City, and Mexico State, who were recruited from NGOs providing psychological and legal services against GBV, we analyze some factors associated with the prevalence of IPV during confinement. We conclude that all women in our study experienced IPV both before and during the pandemic, with variations in IPV patterns influenced by their rural or urban residence, socio-economic status, ethnic-racial identity, and proximity to the abuser’s network. We also found that not all impacts were negative, rather COVID-19 measures had a paradoxical effect for some women where restrictions on geographical mobility and decrease in access to alcohol became pivotal protective factors. We recommend that public policymakers and civil society organizations alike pay attention to these differential challenges and benefits in their crisis responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Domestic Violence during and after the Lockdown: The Shadow Pandemic)
17 pages, 688 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effects of Physical Activity on Cognition, Behavior, and Motor Skills in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies
by Sara Suárez-Manzano, Alberto Ruiz-Ariza, Nuno Eduardo Marques de Loureiro and Emilio J. Martínez-López
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040330 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1081
Abstract
The aim of this paper was to analyze the acute and chronic effects of physical activity (PA) on cognition, behavior, and motor skill in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), taking into account potential confounders. In addition, it was intended to elaborate a [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper was to analyze the acute and chronic effects of physical activity (PA) on cognition, behavior, and motor skill in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), taking into account potential confounders. In addition, it was intended to elaborate a guide of educational applications with strategies for PA use. Studies were identified in four databases from January 2010 to June 2023. A total of 19 interventional studies met the inclusion criteria. PA programs ranged from two weeks to one year in duration, with a frequency of one to five sessions per week. More than 58% of the studies showed positive effects of PA on cognition, and 45.5% on behavior and motor skill. Moderate–vigorous PA for 15–30 min has shown acute effects on cognition, general behavior, and stereotypic/repetitive behaviors in youth with ASD. A total of 9 out of 14 studies showed chronic effects on general behavior and stereotypic behaviors, and only 6 on motor skills. Full article
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15 pages, 1804 KiB  
Article
Rehabilitation of Individuals with Special Educational Needs through Music: An Accreditation Model Proposal
by Hazan Kurtaslan and Ü. Ezgi Güleken
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040329 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 685
Abstract
This study aims to eliminate the current deficiency in the use of music in the field of special education, to increase musical activities in special education, and to present an accreditation model proposal to increase the skills of institutions, educators, and students. The [...] Read more.
This study aims to eliminate the current deficiency in the use of music in the field of special education, to increase musical activities in special education, and to present an accreditation model proposal to increase the skills of institutions, educators, and students. The research was designed with a grounded theory study pattern, one of the qualitative research methods. Data for the research were collected examining the necessary documents, and through semi-structured interviews with experts in both the field of special education and music. As a result of the interviews, it was concluded that music was used as both a goal and a tool in the education of individuals receiving special education and that different skills were developed through rhythm, melody, and lyrics. It has been revealed that individuals’ body coordination skills are improved through the rhythm in music, self-care skills are improved through melodies and lyrics, and behavioral disorders are corrected through rhythm, melodies, and lyrics. All these results led to the emergence of an accreditation model proposal to develop and rehabilitate individuals receiving special education through music. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatric, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders)
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12 pages, 1805 KiB  
Article
The Role of Triggers in Physical Activity among College Students: An Extended Model of the Theory of Planned Behavior
by Yunbo Wang and Hyoung-Kil Kang
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040328 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 763
Abstract
Objective: This study aims to extend the Theory of Planned Behavior with Triggers (TPBT) to improve the prediction of physical activity (PA) behavior using the TPB model. Methods: Questionnaires, including the TPB scale, PA rating scale (PARS-3), and triggers scale, were administered to [...] Read more.
Objective: This study aims to extend the Theory of Planned Behavior with Triggers (TPBT) to improve the prediction of physical activity (PA) behavior using the TPB model. Methods: Questionnaires, including the TPB scale, PA rating scale (PARS-3), and triggers scale, were administered to 596 Chinese college students, and the data were analyzed using SPSS 23.0 and AMOS 24.0. Results: Subjective norm (SN), attitude (AT), and perceived behavioral control (PBC) all significantly and positively affected behavioral intention (BI). The path coefficient of PA behavior was significantly influenced by the interaction term of three types of triggers and BI, and the TPB with Triggers (TPBT) model improved the explanation rate of PA behavior. Conclusion: Triggers have a moderating effect on the relationship between BI and PA behavior, and the TPBT model better explains college students’ PA behavior. Among the three dimensions of triggers, people are more receptive to facilitator and signal triggers than spark triggers. This has practical implications for practitioners designing interventions to promote PA among college students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
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21 pages, 520 KiB  
Article
A Single-Session Process-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention Combined with Multimodal Rehabilitation Treatment for Chronic Pain Associated with Emotional Disorders
by Cristiana-Manuela Cojocaru, Cosmin Octavian Popa, Alina Schenk, Zsolt Jakab, Bogdan Andrei Suciu, Peter Olah, Horațiu Popoviciu and Simona Szasz
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040327 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1102
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Defined by chronic pain, rheumatic diseases are often co-occurring with anxiety and depression. Among the available psychological interventions, cognitive-behavioral therapies have an already-proven efficiency in these cases. However, the need to adjust their structure became ubiquitous during the post-pandemic period. [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Defined by chronic pain, rheumatic diseases are often co-occurring with anxiety and depression. Among the available psychological interventions, cognitive-behavioral therapies have an already-proven efficiency in these cases. However, the need to adjust their structure became ubiquitous during the post-pandemic period. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of a single-session, process-based cognitive-behavioral intervention for patients with rheumatic conditions within an in-patient setting. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 participants (mean age 58.9 years) completed the single-session intervention. Assessments were conducted prior to the intervention, post-intervention and after one month. Results: Pearson’s correlations, paired samples T tests and a covariance analysis based on the Linear Mixed Model were performed for exploring the relations between baseline variables and evaluating the impact of the SSI intervention. Immediately after the intervention, a significant reduction in cognitive fusion (p = 0.001, d = 1.78), experiential avoidance (p = 0.001, d = 1.4) and dysfunctional behavioral processes was observed. At the one-month evaluation, participants reported decreased pain (p = 0.001, d = 1.11), anxiety (p = 0.004, d = 0.55) and depression (p = 0.001, d = 0.72). Conclusions: The single-session, process-based approach represents a promising intervention in healthcare contexts, as an integrative part of a multimodal rehabilitation treatment in patients with rheumatic conditions. Full article
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15 pages, 759 KiB  
Review
Needs of Family Caregivers of People with Lower Limb Amputations: A Scoping Review
by Diana Rodrigues, Rosa Silva, Sofia Castanheira, Luís Carvalho and Cristina Pinto
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040326 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 803
Abstract
Lower limb amputation affects several parameters of a patient’s life. Family caregivers providing care for these patients experience multiple feelings and needs; knowing caregivers’ needs is essential to prepare them for this new role, as well as the health planning of this type [...] Read more.
Lower limb amputation affects several parameters of a patient’s life. Family caregivers providing care for these patients experience multiple feelings and needs; knowing caregivers’ needs is essential to prepare them for this new role, as well as the health planning of this type of care. This scoping review aimed to identify and map the needs of family caregivers of people with lower limb amputations. This scoping review was conducted in accordance with the JBI methodological framework and the PRISMA-ScR reporting guidelines. A bibliographical search was carried out on the needs of family caregivers of lower limb amputees in 15 databases. Two independent reviewers extracted data using a data extraction tool developed for this scoping review. Eight studies were included in the present review (n = 6 quantitative studies; n = 2 reviews). Results indicate that family caregivers of people with lower limb amputations may experience an extensive range of needs, as follows: (i) mental health and psychological support, (ii) physical health, (iii) health and well-being, (iv) supportive care, (v) social support, and (vi) educational/informational support. The needs identified in this review can help to develop interventions and programs that provide better support during the situational transition process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Participation and Mental Health among Older Adults)
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17 pages, 244 KiB  
Article
A Recovery-Oriented Approach: Application of Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy (MERIT) for Youth with Clinical High Risk (CHR) for Psychosis
by Bethany L. Leonhardt, Andrew C. Visco, Jay A. Hamm and Jenifer L. Vohs
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040325 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 747
Abstract
Clinical High Risk for psychosis (CHR) refers to a phase of heightened risk for developing overt psychosis. CHR often emerges during adolescence or early adulthood. CHR has been identified as a group to target for intervention, with the hope that early intervention can [...] Read more.
Clinical High Risk for psychosis (CHR) refers to a phase of heightened risk for developing overt psychosis. CHR often emerges during adolescence or early adulthood. CHR has been identified as a group to target for intervention, with the hope that early intervention can both stave off prolonged suffering and intervene before mental health challenges become part of an individual’s identity. However, there are few treatment modalities that can address some of the specific needs of CHR. Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy (MERIT) is an integrative psychotherapy that can be applied to the CHR population. MERIT offers unique advantages to working with the CHR population as it aims to improve self-direction and recovery through stimulation of metacognitive capacity, a phenomenon that has been associated with recovery. This paper explores unique aspects of the CHR population and how MERIT can address barriers to recovery for individuals experiencing psychosis-like symptoms. Several case examples and a clinical vignette using MERIT to support patients with CHR are offered to exemplify this approach. MERIT offers a way to assist persons with CHR to address barriers to their personal recovery and to develop nuanced understandings of ways to master challenges. Full article
19 pages, 2190 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Peer Competition-Induced Anxiety on Massive Open Online Course Learning: The Mediating Role of the Behavioral Inhibition System
by Cui Liu, Mengzhen Fang, Min Wang, Yifang Wu, Wen Chen and Yahua Cheng
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040324 - 14 Apr 2024
Viewed by 771
Abstract
With the increased emphasis on competition in academic settings, anxiety is becoming more common, which inevitably has some impact on students’ learning processes and results. This study aimed to explore how competition-induced anxiety influences students’ subjective cognitive load (SCL), attention levels, and test [...] Read more.
With the increased emphasis on competition in academic settings, anxiety is becoming more common, which inevitably has some impact on students’ learning processes and results. This study aimed to explore how competition-induced anxiety influences students’ subjective cognitive load (SCL), attention levels, and test scores. We also investigated the mediating role of the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system (BIS/BAS) in those factors. A total of 101 college students were recruited in Study 1 to learn from five micro-lectures from massive open online courses (MOOCs) under competitive and non-competitive conditions. The results showed that participants’ state anxiety (SA) scores were higher after the experiment, participants under the competition condition had higher test scores, and the relationship between SA/ trait anxiety (TA) and SCL could be mediated by the BIS. To obtain more objective data on learning processes (attention levels), we conducted Study 2, which collected behavioral and EEG data from 42 college students during the online learning. The results showed that the competition group had higher SA, lower attention levels, and worse test scores, and the relationship between SA/TA and attention levels could be mediated through the BIS. The present study not only expands previous research by finding that BIS functioning plays an important role in the effects of anxiety on cognitive load and attention but also offers implications for using competitive strategies to motivate students according to their aptitudes. Full article
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13 pages, 1735 KiB  
Article
Interplay among Anxiety, Digital Environmental Exposure, and Cognitive Control: Implications of Natural Settings
by Viola Benedetti, Fiorenza Giganti, Maria Cotugno, Chiara Noferini, Gioele Gavazzi, Giorgio Gronchi, Stefania Righi, Francesco Meneguzzo, Francesco Riccardo Becheri, Qing Li and Maria Pia Viggiano
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040323 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 751
Abstract
Inhibitory control performance may differ greatly as a function of individual differences such as anxiety. Nonetheless, how cognitive control proficiency might be influenced by exposure to various environments and how anxiety traits might impact these effects remain unexplored. A cohort of thirty healthy [...] Read more.
Inhibitory control performance may differ greatly as a function of individual differences such as anxiety. Nonetheless, how cognitive control proficiency might be influenced by exposure to various environments and how anxiety traits might impact these effects remain unexplored. A cohort of thirty healthy volunteers participated in the study. Participants performed a Go/No-Go task before exposure to a ‘forest’ and ‘urban’ virtual environment, in a counterbalanced design, before repeating the GNG task. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was finally filled-in. Our findings unveiled an initial negative correlation between anxiety trait levels and GNG task performance, consistent with the established literature attributing difficulties in inhibitory functionality to anxiety. Additionally, different environmental exposures reported opposite trends. Exposure to the ‘forest’ environment distinctly improved the GNG performance in relation to anxiety traits, while the ‘urban’ setting demonstrated adverse effects on task performance. These results underscore the intricate relationship among cognitive control, environmental exposure, and trait anxiety. In particular, our findings highlight the potential of natural settings, such as forests, to mitigate the impact of anxiety on inhibition. This might have implications for interventions aimed at improving cognitive control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Control and Interaction)
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21 pages, 1256 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Job Stress on Burnout and Turnover Intention: The Moderating Effects of Job Security and Financial Dependency
by Engin Üngüren, Neslihan Onur, Hüsne Demirel and Ömer Akgün Tekin
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040322 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1215
Abstract
(1) Background: The hospitality industry is known for exposing employees to work stress, which can lead to work-related burnout and high turnover rates. This study aims to examine the relationships between work stress, work-related burnout, and turnover intention. It also explores the mediating [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The hospitality industry is known for exposing employees to work stress, which can lead to work-related burnout and high turnover rates. This study aims to examine the relationships between work stress, work-related burnout, and turnover intention. It also explores the mediating role of work-related burnout and the moderating role of job security and financial dependence. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 494 hotel employees working in five-star hotels in Belek and Manavgat, Türkiye, using a moderated mediation research model. The study found that work stress increases work-related burnout, which in turn increases turnover intention. Additionally, work-related burnout was found to mediate the relationship between work stress and turnover intention. Furthermore, it was found that perceived job security moderates the relationship between work stress levels and work-related burnout. Additionally, the variable of financial dependence was found to moderate the relationship between employees’ levels of work-related burnout and their turnover intentions. Similarly, the study found that the financial dependence variable moderates the effect of work-related burnout on employees’ turnover intention. Additionally, the study found that employees’ perception of job security moderates the impact of work stress on work-related burnout. In conclusion, the study suggests that positive perceptions of job security can mitigate the impact of work stress on work-related burnout. Similarly, the impact of work-related burnout on turnover intention diminishes as the degree of financial dependence rises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Job-Related Stress, Burnout and Quality of Life)
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13 pages, 820 KiB  
Article
Primary Arterial Hypertension Associated with Cognitive Dysfunction in Young Adults: Results from a Cross-Sectional Controlled Study
by Kristijonas Puteikis, Karolis Ažukaitis, Danguolė Dadurkevičienė, Kazys Simanauskas, Vaida Šileikienė, Augustina Jankauskienė and Rūta Mameniškienė
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040321 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 748
Abstract
Despite evidence of primary hypertension (PH)-associated cognitive dysfunction in pediatric, middle-aged, and older adult populations, respective data in young adults remains scarce. We aimed to define differences in cognitive performance between individuals with PH and healthy controls in early adulthood. A convenience sample [...] Read more.
Despite evidence of primary hypertension (PH)-associated cognitive dysfunction in pediatric, middle-aged, and older adult populations, respective data in young adults remains scarce. We aimed to define differences in cognitive performance between individuals with PH and healthy controls in early adulthood. A convenience sample of young adults (age 18–45 years) with PH and their healthy sex, age, education, and household income matched counterparts were cross-sectionally tested for verbal fluency, verbal memory, general intelligence, reaction speed, attention, visual memory, and executive functioning. Between-group differences were determined using Student’s t and Mann-Whitney U tests. Sensitivity analysis was performed by adjusting for body mass index (BMI) in analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and regression models. Thirty-three adults with PH (22, 66.7% male, median age 38.8, interquartile range (IQR) = 33.2–41.6 years) and twenty-two healthy controls (9, 40.9% male, median age 36.1, IQR = 27.5–39.8 years) completed the neuropsychological assessment. Participants with PH performed worse on computerized tasks of reaction time (median response time (Z = −2.019, p = 0.044), median time for release of response button (Z = −2.509, p = 0.012)) and sustained attention (signal detection measure, RVPA (t = 2.373, p = 0.021), false alarms ÷ (false alarms + correct rejections), RVPPFA (Z = −2.052, p = 0.040)). The group variable was not a statistically significant predictor of performance in these domains after adjustment for BMI (p > 0.05). In regression analyses, high office systolic blood pressure (oSBP) was independently associated with poor sustained attention (βSBP(st.) = −0.283, multiple R2 = 0.252 (RVPA), βSBP(st.) = 0.551, multiple R2 = 0.386 (RVPPFA)). Young adults with PH were found to perform worse in tasks of response speed and sustained attention. While the difference between neuropsychological evaluation results in PH and control groups was confounded by BMI, oSBP measures were independently related to sustained attention. The selectivity of PH-associated cognitive profile in young adults has to be confirmed in larger trials. Full article
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