Behaviors in Educational Settings

A special issue of Behavioral Sciences (ISSN 2076-328X). This special issue belongs to the section "Educational Psychology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2024) | Viewed by 65949

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Graduate School of Education, Fordham University, New York, NY 10023, USA
Interests: learning disabilities; developmental disabilities; STEM learning; special education and school psychology issues based on a multicultural perspective
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Graduate School of Education, Fordham University, New York, NY 10023, USA
Interests: training educators and families in assessment; interventions for children with challenging behaviors and Asian families and children with and without disabilities
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Teacher Education, College of Education and Behavioral Sciences, Nicollas State University, Thibodaux, LA 70731, USA
Interests: special education and social skills interventions for preschoolers; meta-analysis approaches; behavioral disorders
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Human behaviors in educational settings have great applications in different aspects of learning and teaching, such as how a teacher remains interested in teaching and how a learner engages in challenging behaviors during learning. This Special Issue welcomes original research, reviews of the disciplines, conceptual and theoretical work, applied research, translational research, program development, or curriculum developments that focus on human behaviors in the contexts of any educational setting. Areas of interests include but are not limited to human behaviors related to learning and teaching, social behaviors, applied and translational behavior analysis, behavioral therapy, behavioral consultation, experimental behavioral analysis, clinical behavioral analysis, behavioral training, behavioral intervention, professional training, and incidental teaching with a focus on behavioral changes in educational settings. In light of these premises, this Special Issue aims at advancing the literature on human behaviors in educational settings from diverse perspectives. We therefore welcome theoretical and/or empirical contributions that broaden knowledge on the topic. 

Prof. Dr. Yi Ding
Prof. Dr. Su-Je Cho
Dr. Cynthia Dong
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Behavioral Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • teacher behaviors
  • learning behaviors
  • social behaviors at school
  • behavioral analysis 
  • applied behavioral analysis 
  • children and adolescents
  • behavioral intervention
  • behavioral consultation
  • behavioral therapy 
  • curriculum development
  • program development 

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Published Papers (38 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 170 KiB  
Editorial
Behaviors in Educational Settings during and after the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Xin Dong and Yi Ding
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050411 - 15 May 2023
Viewed by 1268
Abstract
This editorial is an introduction to the Special Issue “Behaviors in Educational Setting” [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)

Research

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15 pages, 1011 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Supervisor–Postgraduate Relationship on Master’s Students’ Research Learning Engagement—The Mediating Effect of Academic Aspiration
by Jianhe Zhang, Meiyin Wu and Guangjin Zhang
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040334 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Research learning engagement is the basic element of master’s students’ innovation output, and the supervisor is the first responsible body for master’s students’ cultivation. Exploring the influence of the supervisor–postgraduate relationship on master’s students’ research learning engagement, with a focus on the mediating [...] Read more.
Research learning engagement is the basic element of master’s students’ innovation output, and the supervisor is the first responsible body for master’s students’ cultivation. Exploring the influence of the supervisor–postgraduate relationship on master’s students’ research learning engagement, with a focus on the mediating role of academic aspiration, is of great significance for the improvement of master’s students’ cultivation quality. We surveyed 569 master’s students at a university in Wuhan, China, using 3 measurement tools: the Supervisor–Postgraduate Relationship Scale, the Research Learning Engagement Scale, and the Academic Aspirations Scale. The results showed that: (1) The supervisor–postgraduate relationship positively and significantly predicted master’s students’ research learning engagement, and academic aspiration played a fully mediating role in the process. (2) There were differences in the effects of the three dimensions of the supervisor–postgraduate relationship on master’s students’ research learning engagement, with research collaboration having the greatest total effect on the impact of master’s students’ research learning engagement. This study emphasizes the importance of the supervisor–postgraduate relationship and academic aspirations and provides some implications for improving the research learning engagement of master’s students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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12 pages, 686 KiB  
Article
Psychometric Properties of a Short Academic Motivation Scale (SAMS) in Medical Students
by Jai Pascual-Mariño, Mardel Morales-García, Liset Z. Sairitupa-Sanchez, Oscar Mamani-Benito, Percy G. Ruiz Mamani, Sandra B. Morales-García, Oriana Rivera-Lozada and Wilter C. Morales-García
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040316 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 858
Abstract
Background: Medical education represents a complex field of study, influenced by various psychological, demographic, and contextual factors. Academic motivation, essential for educational success, has been linked to critical decisions in medical careers and can be modulated by contextual elements such as socioeconomic [...] Read more.
Background: Medical education represents a complex field of study, influenced by various psychological, demographic, and contextual factors. Academic motivation, essential for educational success, has been linked to critical decisions in medical careers and can be modulated by contextual elements such as socioeconomic and geographical environments. The theory of self-determination has provided a solid framework for understanding the multidimensional nature of motivation. Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the Short Scale of Academic Motivation among Peruvian medical students. Methods: Using an instrumental design, the factorial structure, reliability, and gender invariance of the SAMS-S were assessed. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to validate the scale’s structure based on seven dimensions. Additionally, reliability was assessed through Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and omega coefficient, and gender invariance was determined through multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. Results: The Peruvian version of the SAMS-S showed a good fit in the CFA with satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices. However, challenges in discriminant validity among certain dimensions were detected, suggesting the presence of a second-order factor. The proposed second-order model yielded an adequate fit (χ2 = 198.26, df = 70, CFI = 0.92, TLI = 0.90, RMSEA = 0.08 [90% CI: 0.07–0.1], SRMR = 0.07), validating the factorial structure of the SAMS-S. The scale’s reliability and its subscales were within acceptable ranges. Furthermore, the gender invariance of the SAMS-S was confirmed at all levels, from configural to strict. Conclusions: The second-order model of the SAMS-S presents as a valid and reliable tool for measuring academic motivation among medical students in Peru. Its robustness and adaptability make it relevant for future research in similar educational contexts and can serve as a basis for interventions aimed at improving academic motivation in this specific group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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18 pages, 3375 KiB  
Article
Teachers’ Perceptions and Position Regarding the Problem of Bullying and Its Socio-Educational Prevention
by Sara Martínez-Carrera, Cristina Sánchez-Martínez, Isabel Martínez-Carrera and Miguel Ángel Díaz Dieguez
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030229 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 946
Abstract
The problems that arise with coexistence between schoolchildren are a challenge when it comes to carrying out the teaching–learning process. In recent years, the presence of bullying has increased in schools. The aim of this study is to identify the perceptions of teachers [...] Read more.
The problems that arise with coexistence between schoolchildren are a challenge when it comes to carrying out the teaching–learning process. In recent years, the presence of bullying has increased in schools. The aim of this study is to identify the perceptions of teachers regarding the problems of coexistence among schoolchildren, more specifically concerning bullying, as well as to identify their position regarding the prevention of bullying. Research was carried out using a mixed approach. A total of 225 education professionals from different schools in Spain took part. From the results and our conclusions, it should be noted that teachers consider themselves to have a high level of knowledge of the essential characteristics of the dynamics of bullying, of the actors involved, and of some preventive measures that can be carried out to avoid this type of behaviour as much as possible. On the other hand, a large number of teachers downplay the importance of the problem of coexistence in their fields, and/or are not able to identify it, which makes it impossible to act. Some schools hardly carry out any prevention work, which makes it difficult to eradicate bullying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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17 pages, 4493 KiB  
Article
Relationship between the College Student and the Campus Club: An Evolutionary Game Theory Analysis
by Lei Duan, Zhong Wang, Guanyu Zhu and Yahui Zhang
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030182 - 25 Feb 2024
Viewed by 846
Abstract
In this paper, we use an evolutionary game theory approach to build a relationship model of students and clubs for the purpose of improving student enthusiasm for participating in club activities. First, the process of the model building is introduced, which mainly includes [...] Read more.
In this paper, we use an evolutionary game theory approach to build a relationship model of students and clubs for the purpose of improving student enthusiasm for participating in club activities. First, the process of the model building is introduced, which mainly includes the basic assumptions and the equilibrium point stability analysis. Based on this analysis, we find that the motivation adjustment of students and clubs is a dynamic process and that unilateral efforts alone cannot achieve an ideal result. Then, we use real data from Yanshan University to evaluate the model, the results of which indicate that the model can analyze the relationship between students and clubs effectively. Finally, we provide relevant suggestions based on the model established in this study, whereby we contribute a theoretical basis and practical guidance for how students can actively participate in clubs, as well as how clubs can better develop themselves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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13 pages, 276 KiB  
Article
Effects of Adjunct Questions on L2 Reading Comprehension with Texts of Different Types
by Yunmei Sun, Wenhui Zhou and Shifang Tang
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(2), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14020138 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 744
Abstract
Answering text-related questions while reading is a questioning strategy which is called adjunct questions or embedded questions, the benefits of which have been established in first-language reading as to enhance comprehension. The present study aims to study the effects different adjunct questions exert [...] Read more.
Answering text-related questions while reading is a questioning strategy which is called adjunct questions or embedded questions, the benefits of which have been established in first-language reading as to enhance comprehension. The present study aims to study the effects different adjunct questions exert on second-language (L2) readers’ comprehension of texts of various types. One hundred and forty-four intermediate-level Chinese EFL learners participated in this study and were divided randomly into six groups. Each group was given either a narrative or an expository text with ‘what or why’ questions or no questions. A brief topic familiarity questionnaire was attached to the end of each text paper. The results showed that inserted adjunct questions improved the readers’ reading comprehension both in expository and narrative texts, but only narrative texts inserted with why questions had significant effects on the L2 reading comprehension. The findings suggested that text types and question types modulate the effects of inserted adjunct questions on the English reading of intermediate learners. Pedagogical implications and suggestions for future studies are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
14 pages, 1094 KiB  
Article
Navigating Uncertainty: Teachers’ Insights on Their Preservice Training and Its Influence on Self-Efficacy during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Yonit Nissim and Eitan Simon
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(2), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14020135 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 914
Abstract
This quantitative study investigates teachers’ perceptions of self-efficacy during the COVID-19 pandemic and explores the correlation between these perceptions and the preservice training they received. The research addresses the cognitive connection between teachers’ current self-efficacy, particularly their satisfaction with and appreciation of preservice [...] Read more.
This quantitative study investigates teachers’ perceptions of self-efficacy during the COVID-19 pandemic and explores the correlation between these perceptions and the preservice training they received. The research addresses the cognitive connection between teachers’ current self-efficacy, particularly their satisfaction with and appreciation of preservice lecturers. The connection between self-efficacy and “cognitive connection” lies in the intricate interplay of cognitive processes, observational learning, and the formation of beliefs and perceptions. The way individuals cognitively process information, make connections between experiences, and interpret feedback significantly influences their self-efficacy beliefs and behaviors. Utilizing a retrospective lens, the study reveals a significant correlation between teachers’ evaluation of their preservice training, especially their appreciation of lecturers, and their present self-efficacy. The findings highlight that teachers, amidst the challenges of the pandemic, evaluated their self-efficacy at a remarkably high level. This underscores their resilience during a period of unprecedented uncertainty demanding substantial personal and professional adaptability. The nuanced interplay observed suggests that teachers’ sense of self-efficacy serves as a predictive variable of their mental and professional resilience when confronting uncertainty and navigating rapid and profound changes, as exemplified by the exigencies of the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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20 pages, 1272 KiB  
Article
Implementation of the Prevent-Teach-Reinforce Model for Elementary School Students Needing Intensive Behavior Intervention
by Sofia Ford, Kwang-Sun Cho Blair, Rose Iovannone and Daniel Kwak
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14020093 - 27 Jan 2024
Viewed by 854
Abstract
This study evaluated the implementation of the school-based Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model for elementary school students who engage in high levels of challenging behavior. Three students (one with speech or language impairment and two without disabilities) and their classroom teachers in two public schools [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the implementation of the school-based Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model for elementary school students who engage in high levels of challenging behavior. Three students (one with speech or language impairment and two without disabilities) and their classroom teachers in two public schools participated in the team-based PTR process, which involved teaming and goal setting, functional behavior assessment, intervention, and evaluation. A multiple-baseline-across-participants design was used to evaluate the impact of PTR on student behaviors. Direct and indirect observations of student behaviors were conducted across target and generalization academic time periods. The findings indicated that the PTR intervention effectively improved the classroom behaviors of all three participating students in both target and generalization academic time periods, decreasing disruptive behavior and increasing on-task behavior. Social validity assessments with the participating teachers and one student indicated high levels of acceptability of and satisfaction with the PTR intervention goals, procedures, and outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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26 pages, 959 KiB  
Article
Personal and Psychological Traits of University-Going Women That Affect Opportunities and Entrepreneurial Intentions
by Luis Enrique Valdez-Juárez, Elva Alicia Ramos-Escobar, José Alonso Ruiz-Zamora and Edith Patricia Borboa-Álvarez
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14010066 - 18 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1273
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to analyze how personality traits and psychological profiles influence the detection of entrepreneurial opportunities by, and the intentions of, university-going women in the northwest region of Mexico. It also examines how business opportunities are decisive when it [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research is to analyze how personality traits and psychological profiles influence the detection of entrepreneurial opportunities by, and the intentions of, university-going women in the northwest region of Mexico. It also examines how business opportunities are decisive when it comes to awakening entrepreneurial intention. The moderating and mediating effects of the detection of business opportunities and the psychological profile are also examined with respect to the direct relationship between personal traits and entrepreneurial intentions. For this study, information was collected from 1197 students attending the Autonomous University of Baja California and the Technological Institute of Sonora through a digital survey (Google Forms) distributed via email during the second half of 2022. The PLS-SEM statistical technique was used to test the hypotheses of the proposed theoretical model. The results revealed that personality traits have positive and significant effects on the psychological profile and on business opportunities. However, it was clearly observed that one’s personal traits and psychological profile have little or no influence on entrepreneurial intentions. We also found that the psychological profile is the construct that most influences business opportunities. In addition, it was also highlighted that business opportunities contribute to awakening the entrepreneurial intentions of university-going women. On the other hand, it was revealed that business opportunities have a negative moderating effect on the relationship between the psychological profile and entrepreneurial intentions. Likewise, this study has shown that the detection of business opportunities and the psychological profile have indirect effects on the relationship between the personal traits and the entrepreneurial intentions of university-going women. This research contributes to the development and strengthening of trait theory, the theory of reasoned action, and the theory of planned behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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14 pages, 1011 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Career Calling and Resilience among Rural-Oriented Pre-Service Teachers: The Chain Mediating Role of Career Adaptability and Decent Work
by Ya Wen, Huaruo Chen, Fei Liu and Xindong Wei
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14010011 - 22 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1290
Abstract
From a Psychology of Working Theory (PWT) perspective, this study aims to explore how career adaptability and decent work mediate the effects of career calling on the resilience of rural-oriented pre-service teachers. The Career Calling Scale, Career Adaptability Scale, Decent Work Scale, and [...] Read more.
From a Psychology of Working Theory (PWT) perspective, this study aims to explore how career adaptability and decent work mediate the effects of career calling on the resilience of rural-oriented pre-service teachers. The Career Calling Scale, Career Adaptability Scale, Decent Work Scale, and Resilience Scale were used to survey 393 rural-oriented pre-service teachers. The results found that career calling positively predicted the resilience of rural-oriented pre-service teachers; career adaptability mediated the relationship between career calling and resilience of rural-oriented pre-service teachers; decent work mediated the relationship between career calling and resilience of rural oriented pre-service teachers; and career adaptability and decent work play a chain mediating role between career calling and career adaptability of rural-oriented pre-service teachers. Therefore, this study concludes that career calling not only directly influences the resilience of rural-oriented pre-service teachers, but also indirectly influences the resilience of rural-oriented pre-service teachers through career adaptability and decent work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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11 pages, 498 KiB  
Article
Narrative Approach and Mentalization
by Alessandro Frolli, Francesco Cerciello, Sonia Ciotola, Maria Carla Ricci, Clara Esposito and Luigia Simona Sica
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13120994 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1363
Abstract
The core focus of this research centered on the intricate relationship between mentalization, the fundamental mental process underlying social interactions, and the narrative approach proposed by Bruner. Mentalization, encompassing both implicit and explicit interpretations of one’s and others’ actions, plays a pivotal role [...] Read more.
The core focus of this research centered on the intricate relationship between mentalization, the fundamental mental process underlying social interactions, and the narrative approach proposed by Bruner. Mentalization, encompassing both implicit and explicit interpretations of one’s and others’ actions, plays a pivotal role in shaping the complexity of social interactions. Concurrently, the narrative approach, as elucidated by Bruner, serves as the primary interpretative and cognitive tool through which individuals derive meaning from their experiences. Narrative, in essence, empowers individuals to imbue their experiences with significance, constructing knowledge and enabling a reinterpretation of their lives by reconstructing the meanings attached to events. This intertwining of mentalization and the narrative approach is particularly salient, given their shared reliance on autobiographical narratives and the inference of mental states. In the context of this study, our primary objective was to explore how practical and theoretical activities, rooted in the re-elaboration of personal life information and events, could serve as a catalyst for enhancing mentalization skills. By engaging students in activities specifically designed to encourage the reinterpretation of their life experiences, we aimed to bolster their ability to infer mental states effectively. These enhanced mentalization skills, we hypothesized, form the foundational basis for executing complex educational tasks rooted in constructed teaching methodologies. In summary, this research serves as a pioneering exploration into the synergistic interrelation of mentalization and the narrative approach, offering valuable insights for educators and practitioners aiming to foster enhanced social cognition and enriched educational experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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16 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
Exploring Chinese and Korean American Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Cultural Identity as Assets and Barriers
by Jiayi Wang, KeAysia Aiyanna Lana Jackson, Eui Kyung Kim and Kevin Han
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13120969 - 25 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1043
Abstract
The representation of Asian American teachers in schools is a unique asset in promoting diversity and advocating for social justice. However, they also face various barriers that negatively affect their work experiences. The diverse nature of the Asian American population is likely to [...] Read more.
The representation of Asian American teachers in schools is a unique asset in promoting diversity and advocating for social justice. However, they also face various barriers that negatively affect their work experiences. The diverse nature of the Asian American population is likely to yield different assets and barriers among teachers from different ethnic groups. To gain insight into how Chinese and Korean American teachers perceive their cultural identity in their teaching practices, we utilized a qualitative approach by conducting semi-structured interviews with nine teachers who identified as Chinese and/or Korean American in K-12 public schools in California. Findings based on thematic analyses of the interview data revealed several assets, including empathy and understanding towards minority groups, more exposure to diversity, increased representation, and shared language skills. However, there were also identified barriers, including internalized model minority beliefs, cultural expectations of being passive observers, internalized racism, an overemphasis on education, and a savior complex. Based on our findings, we provide practical suggestions for recruiting and retaining Chinese and Korean American teachers in schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
21 pages, 1482 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Classroom Size and Window View on Young Children’s Executive Functions and Physiological Responses, Based on VR Technology
by Kijoo Cha
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110936 - 16 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
Despite the increasing enrollment of young children in childcare institutes, there have been few empirical studies on the effects of spatial elements on their development. This study explored the impact of preschool classroom size (large vs. small) and window view (natural vs. built [...] Read more.
Despite the increasing enrollment of young children in childcare institutes, there have been few empirical studies on the effects of spatial elements on their development. This study explored the impact of preschool classroom size (large vs. small) and window view (natural vs. built environment) on young children’s executive functions and physiological stress responses, using cortisol and heart rate variability (HRV) as indicators and employing virtual reality (VR) technology. Out of 144 participants aged 61–85 months, three were excluded due to missing values and outliers. Executive function tests were administered, and saliva samples were collected before and after VR exposure; HRV data were gathered during the experience. ANCOVA results indicated significant improvements in cognitive flexibility, as measured based on the Dimensional Change Card Sorting task, in the large classroom condition, and a marginally significant decrease in visuo-spatial working memory, as measured with the Corsi block task, in the small classroom condition. The classroom size conditions did not significantly differ in cortisol response, but the large classroom condition showed marginally significant HRV indices, suggesting increased relaxation. No significant effects on executive functions or physiological responses were found in either window view condition. Overall, the findings suggest that classroom size may influence young children’s cognitive flexibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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13 pages, 706 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Visual Cueing on Students with and without Math Learning Difficulties in Online Problem Solving: Evidence from Eye Movement
by Shuang Wei, Qingli Lei, Yingjie Chen and Yan Ping Xin
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110927 - 14 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1441
Abstract
This study investigated the impact of visual cueing on attention guidance, deep-thinking promotion, and performance optimization in arithmetic word problem solving for students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD). The participants included eight students with MLD and twenty students without MLD who attempted to [...] Read more.
This study investigated the impact of visual cueing on attention guidance, deep-thinking promotion, and performance optimization in arithmetic word problem solving for students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD). The participants included eight students with MLD and twenty students without MLD who attempted to solve mathematical word problems with and without visual cueing. Eye movements were recorded during the tasks. A repeated-measure design and nonparametric tests were applied to enhance the statistical power of the study. The data analysis results indicated that visual cueing effectively guided and sustained the attention of students with MLD, reducing their off-task duration. However, it showed limited influence in facilitating deep thinking and performance improvement for these students. There were no significant attention-guidance or performance-improvement effects observed in the problem-solving processes of students without MLD, who initially demonstrated better concentration levels and performance. The potential explanations for these findings are further discussed in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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12 pages, 1117 KiB  
Article
Exploring Emotional Intelligence and Sociodemographics in Higher Education; the Imperative for Skills and Curriculum Development
by Sanaa Abouhasera, Marawan Abu-Madi, Mohammed Al-Hamdani and Atiyeh M. Abdallah
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110911 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1350
Abstract
There is increasing interest in understanding the nature and impact of emotional intelligence (EI) in educational institutions and the workplace since EI is associated with academic performance, career success, job satisfaction, and management skills. Here we measured EI levels in students and employees [...] Read more.
There is increasing interest in understanding the nature and impact of emotional intelligence (EI) in educational institutions and the workplace since EI is associated with academic performance, career success, job satisfaction, and management skills. Here we measured EI levels in students and employees at Qatar University and examined associations with sociodemographic variables. This cross-sectional study used the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF) questionnaire to quantify EI. Of 517 respondents, 315 were students and 202 were employees. The mean global EI level across all participants was 4.80 ± 0.78, with EI highest in the well-being domain (5.43 ± 1.04). Overall, older respondents had higher EI than younger respondents. There was no significant effect of gender, marital status, or employment position on EI. However, there were significant two- and three-way interactions. As a standalone variable, age was the most important factor influencing EI development in our cohort. However, three-way interactions revealed complex effects between age, gender, and marital status and EI. Our findings support a need for workshops on EI for employees and integrating dedicated courses into existing curricula to equip students with effective interpersonal relationship skills that foster EI development. Developing such interpersonal skills could help to promote personal, professional, and academic success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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15 pages, 599 KiB  
Article
Divided Village, Divided Identity? Exploring the Professional Identity of Teachers Amid the Geopolitical Configuration in Al-Ghajar
by Yonit Nissim and Eitan Simon
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13110878 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 973
Abstract
This quantitative research is based on a validated research questionnaire. It presents a preliminary exploratory study examining perspectives of professional identity as reflected in self-reports of the teachers of Al-Ghajar, a village on Israel’s northern border, given its unique geographical and geopolitical configuration. [...] Read more.
This quantitative research is based on a validated research questionnaire. It presents a preliminary exploratory study examining perspectives of professional identity as reflected in self-reports of the teachers of Al-Ghajar, a village on Israel’s northern border, given its unique geographical and geopolitical configuration. The current study is the first of its kind, clarifying the teachers’ perception of their professional identity in the unique space in which they live and work via a questionnaire completed by 61 teachers of both genders from kindergarten through high school. The findings show that there are strong positive correlations: “love for the profession” and “self-fulfillment” have a very strong positive correlation (0.831). There is also a positive correlation (0.430) between the indicators of “professional skills” and “professional unity” suggesting that the teachers’ perceptions of professional identity are holistic in all examined dimensions. These perceptions are motivated by a strong sense of mission that influences their profession and their sense of satisfaction. Al-Ghajar, as a unique enclave, has created a geopolitical configuration that contributes to the construction of the professional identity of teachers in the village. The research conclusion indicates that the ability to legitimize one’s role has important implications for the quality of teaching, as it can help teachers form familiar, affiliated, and secure identities. These are key traits since a positive sense of professional self is a prerequisite for job satisfaction and resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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18 pages, 973 KiB  
Article
Post-Secondary Education Outcomes for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Self-Determination, Independent Living, Employment, and the Impact of COVID-19
by Dalun Zhang, Eric Roberts, Robert Maddalozzo, Yi-Fan Li, Meagan Orsag and Tracy Glass
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(10), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13100832 - 11 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1187
Abstract
Post-secondary education (PSE) plays an important role in preparing individuals with an intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) to gain employment and independent living. Despite the recent increase in PSE programs, however, there is a lack of research examining outcomes of individuals with IDD [...] Read more.
Post-secondary education (PSE) plays an important role in preparing individuals with an intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) to gain employment and independent living. Despite the recent increase in PSE programs, however, there is a lack of research examining outcomes of individuals with IDD who have attended a PSE program. This study examined three years of data from students who participated in one PSE program that focuses on the acquisition of skills regarding self-determination, employment, and independent living. We analyzed the outcome data of program graduates regarding their acquisition of skills in employment and self-determination, as well as follow-up data on employment. It was found that participation in the program increased self-determination and post-secondary readiness. Our findings also indicated that the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the self-determination scores of participants and their employment outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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12 pages, 880 KiB  
Article
Shame Memory’s Impact on Depression among Junior Middle School Students: A Moderated Mediation Model
by Xinxin Yu, Yijing Pan, Jiaojun Ouyang and Peizhen Sun
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(10), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13100802 - 27 Sep 2023
Viewed by 913
Abstract
(1) Objective: While recent studies have shed light on the effects of shame memories on mental well-being, there is still limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms linking shame memories and depression. Based on the biopsychosocial model and cognitive therapy theory, this study examined [...] Read more.
(1) Objective: While recent studies have shed light on the effects of shame memories on mental well-being, there is still limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms linking shame memories and depression. Based on the biopsychosocial model and cognitive therapy theory, this study examined the association between shame memory and depression and the indirect role of emotion management and self-criticism. (2) Methods: A total of 1004 junior high school students were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the event impact scale, the self-criticism scale of the depressive experiences questionnaire, and the emotional intelligence scale. (3) Results: Shame memory had a significant positive correlation with depression. The relationship between shame memory and depression was partially mediated by self-criticism. Emotional management was found to regulate the latter half of the mediating effect of shame memory on depression. (4) Conclusions: Self-criticism plays a mediating role in the relationship between shame memory and depression, as well as emotion management plays a moderating role between self-criticism and depression. This perspective will contribute to the growing body of knowledge about the impact of shame memories on depression among junior high school children but also offers a feasible plan for follow-up intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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18 pages, 666 KiB  
Article
Validation of an Abbreviated Scale of the CENVI Questionnaire to Evaluate the Perception of School Violence and Coexistence Management of Chilean Students: Differences between Pandemic and Post-Pandemic
by Flavio Muñoz-Troncoso, Isabel Cuadrado-Gordillo, Enrique Riquelme-Mella, Gerardo Muñoz-Troncoso, Edgardo Miranda-Zapata, Karina Bizama-Colihuinca and Ekaterina Legaz-Vladímirskaya
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(8), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13080686 - 17 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1194
Abstract
The objective of the study was to specify an abbreviated model of the school coexistence questionnaire for non-violence (CENVI) for students from 5th to 8th grade (9 to 14 years old), in order to determine the perception of violence and management of school [...] Read more.
The objective of the study was to specify an abbreviated model of the school coexistence questionnaire for non-violence (CENVI) for students from 5th to 8th grade (9 to 14 years old), in order to determine the perception of violence and management of school coexistence, and the differences between Mapuche and non-Mapuche students. A total of 1870 students from schools in the city of Temuco (Chile) responded to the CENVI questionnaire. There were two samples: (1) Pandemic, with online, face-to-face and hybrid classes; and (2) Post-pandemic, with face-to-face classes. Sample 1 consisted of 848 students aged 9 to 15 years (M = 11.90; SD = 1.27). Sample 2 consisted of 1022 students aged 9 to 14 years (M = 11.46; SD = 1.14). The questionnaire was validated using expert inter-judgment and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. A good fit of the proposed model to the data and good internal consistency measured according to the composite reliability were found, and convergent validity was demonstrated. Mapuche students perceived more physical violence and social exclusion. Cut-off points were proposed for the interpretation of the results. In the data, the effect of Coexistence Management on School Violence was null. The discussion approaches the findings from the literature on education in spaces of socio-cultural diversity in a Mapuche context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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17 pages, 963 KiB  
Article
Vocational Interests and Teaching Preferences: Who Prefers Which Teaching Topic in the Nature–Human–Society Subject?
by Angelika Pahl and Reinhard Tschiesner
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(8), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13080658 - 05 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
This study focuses on the vocational interests of trainee teachers for kindergarten and primary school, investigating whether the RIASEC-interest dimensions are related to teaching preferences in the Swiss subject of Nature–Human–Society, which is characterized by its multidisciplinarity. Interests are a source of individual [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the vocational interests of trainee teachers for kindergarten and primary school, investigating whether the RIASEC-interest dimensions are related to teaching preferences in the Swiss subject of Nature–Human–Society, which is characterized by its multidisciplinarity. Interests are a source of individual differences in people and important to study since they influence intrinsic motivation, and thus, behavior, effort, and occupational decisions. The results of the conducted survey, composed of the Nature–Human–Society questionnaire and the general interest structure test (AIST-R), show, in a sample of 220 participants, that trainee teachers’ vocational interests were partly related to their previous experiences in the specific content domains of Nature–Human–Society and slightly differed by gender. The RIASEC interest dimensions of social, investigative, realistic, and partly artistic evidence significant correlations with preferences in the teaching topics of the Nature–Human–Society subject. It became clear that trainee teachers with high realistic and investigative interests and low social and artistic interests tended to prefer thing-related teaching topics, while pronounced social and artistic interests with low realistic and investigative interests were associated with teaching preferences for people-related topics in the subject of Nature–Human–Society. The dominant role of Prediger’s people- versus thing-related interest orientation could thus also be confirmed in the choice of favorite teaching topics, signaling that teachers feel comfortable with those topics that match their interest structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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13 pages, 671 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Students’ Perceived Effectiveness of Online Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Empirical Analysis Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)
by Qamar Ali, Azhar Abbas, Ali Raza, Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan, Hasan Zulfiqar, Muhammad Amjed Iqbal, Roshan K. Nayak and Bader Alhafi Alotaibi
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13070578 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1332
Abstract
The world faced COVID-19, which was a threat to public health and disturbed the educational system and economic stability. Educational institutes were closed for a longer period, and students faced difficulty to complete their syllabus. The government adopted a policy of “suspending classes [...] Read more.
The world faced COVID-19, which was a threat to public health and disturbed the educational system and economic stability. Educational institutes were closed for a longer period, and students faced difficulty to complete their syllabus. The government adopted a policy of “suspending classes without stopping learning” to continue education activities. However, student satisfaction with online education is a growing concern. Satisfaction of students is an important indicator of academic quality. Therefore, this study attempts to investigate the influencing factors behind learning satisfaction using information from 335 students from various institutes in Pakistan. This research examined the impact of computer and internet knowledge, instructor and course material, and Learning Management Systems (LMS) on learning satisfaction. The path coefficients were obtained via Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). The LMS is a tool that facilitates the learning process with the provision of all types of educational material. The path coefficient was more in the case of LMS (0.489), which indicates its positive and significant role to attain learning satisfaction. The instructor and course material ordered second (0.261), which shows that the quality of an instructor and course material also plays a positive role to attain learning satisfaction. The computer and internet are essential ingredients of online education, showing a significant and positive path coefficient (0.123), implying that computer and internet knowledge could enhance learning satisfaction. The universities should develop their LMS to implement online education with quality course materials. It is also vital that the instructor should be up to date with modern learning techniques while ensuring internet connectivity, especially in rural areas. The government should provide an internet connection to students at discounted rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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15 pages, 643 KiB  
Article
A Follow-Up Study on the Influence of Personal, Family, and School Factors on Learning Outcomes of Students with Disabilities in Senior High School
by Shu-Jou Sun and Wei-Sho Ho
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13070554 - 04 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1432
Abstract
The purposes of this study were to describe the learning outcomes of students with disabilities in senior high school, to establish a model to explain the effects of personal, family, and school experience factors on the learning outcomes of students with disabilities, and [...] Read more.
The purposes of this study were to describe the learning outcomes of students with disabilities in senior high school, to establish a model to explain the effects of personal, family, and school experience factors on the learning outcomes of students with disabilities, and to determine the relationship between post-school and in-school outcomes. There were 496 participants selected in the 2011 and 2012 academic year from the database of Special Needs Education Longitudinal Study. The survey data obtained from questionnaires for teachers, parents, and students were used to conduct secondary analysis. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages, a PLS structural equation model, and multiple regression were used in this study. The results of this study were as follows: (1) Students with disabilities had the best learning performances in school, and most parents were satisfied with their students’ education in school; however, employment performance was the weakest upon leaving school. (2) School experience factors had the greatest influence on the school learning outcomes model, followed by student factors and family factors. (3) In-school outcomes effectively predicted postsecondary education, employment, social adaptation, and satisfaction after leaving school. In conclusion, the results of this study found that personal, family, and school factors have a significant impact on the learning outcomes of students with disabilities, and in-school outcomes can effectively predict postsecondary education, social adaptation, and satisfaction after leaving school. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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17 pages, 718 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Technology-Based Self-Monitoring of Performance with Differential Reinforcement for Students with Disabilities
by Madeline R. Risse, Kwang-Sun Cho Blair and Danielle A. Russo
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13060508 - 18 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2172
Abstract
This study evaluated the use of a technology-based self-monitoring of performance (SMP) with differential reinforcement to increase task completion and reduce off-task behavior for three 5th-grade students with disabilities. A concurrent multiple baseline design across participants was used to examine the impact of [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the use of a technology-based self-monitoring of performance (SMP) with differential reinforcement to increase task completion and reduce off-task behavior for three 5th-grade students with disabilities. A concurrent multiple baseline design across participants was used to examine the impact of the intervention on the targeted behaviors when implemented by a general education teacher and its maintenance effects with a delay of reinforcement. The implementation involved training students to use a mobile app for SMP and providing differential reinforcement contingent on task completion and accuracy of self-monitoring during academic periods. The secondary measure of off-task behavior was included to evaluate the relationship between task completion and engagement. The results demonstrated that the technology-based SMP with differential reinforcement increased task completion and reduced off-task behavior for all students. Furthermore, the gradual fading of the reinforcement, with a 45 min delay, was successful for all students. The efficiency and immediacy of the intervention suggest that technology-based SMP with differential reinforcement holds promise as a practical, efficient, and effective school-based intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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13 pages, 872 KiB  
Article
Approaches to Learning of Preschool Children in China: A Comparison between Only Children and Non-Only Children
by Xiumin Hong, Qianqian Liu and Sijie Zhao
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050418 - 15 May 2023
Viewed by 1183
Abstract
Preschool children are at the initial stage of individual development and at a critical period in cultivating their approaches to learning. In the context of China’s frequently adjusted birth policies, further research is necessary on children’s approaches to learning in families of different [...] Read more.
Preschool children are at the initial stage of individual development and at a critical period in cultivating their approaches to learning. In the context of China’s frequently adjusted birth policies, further research is necessary on children’s approaches to learning in families of different sizes. A questionnaire survey was administered to 5454 only child and 4632 non-only child parents from the east, middle, and west of China. The study found that children’s approaches to learning generally developed well, but non-only children’s approaches to learning was significantly lower than those of only children. There are four profiles of approaches to learning for both the only children and the non-only children. This study also found that gender, social skills, family income, and type of preschool exert significant influences on children’s approaches to learning. Parents’ educational background had a significant influence on only children’s approaches to learning but had no significant influence on non-only children’s approaches to learning. We provide practical implications for promoting children’s approaches to learning in families of different sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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26 pages, 6594 KiB  
Article
Analyzing the Relationship between Supervisors and Post-Graduates Based on Differential Game Theory
by Fangfang Liu, Ning Fan, Jiangjun Zhu, Chaoping Li and Shaobo Xie
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050414 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
A healthy relationship between supervisors and postgraduates is critical for their academic achievements and personal development. This paper quantitatively discusses such a relationship from the viewpoint of differential game theory. First, a mathematic model was established to describe the evolutionary dynamics of the [...] Read more.
A healthy relationship between supervisors and postgraduates is critical for their academic achievements and personal development. This paper quantitatively discusses such a relationship from the viewpoint of differential game theory. First, a mathematic model was established to describe the evolutionary dynamics of the academic level of the supervisor-postgraduate community, which is related to the two parties’ positive and negative efforts. Then, the objective function aimed at maximizing the individual and total benefit of the community was constructed. After that, the differential game relationships in the non-cooperative, cooperative and Stackelberg scenarios were formulated and solved. A comparison of the three game scenarios showed that the optimal academic level and total benefit of the community were 22% higher in the cooperative scenario than in the non-cooperative and Stackelberg game scenarios. Moreover, the influence of model parameters on the game results was analyzed. The results indicate that, for the supervisor-led Stackelberg game, when the sharing cost ratio is increased to a specific level, the supervisor’s optimal benefit will not be further improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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14 pages, 699 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Aggressive Behavior in Greek Elementary School Settings from Teachers’ Perspectives
by Argyro Bourou and Effie Papageorgiou
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050390 - 08 May 2023
Viewed by 1580
Abstract
The present study aims to estimate the prevalence of bullying in Greek elementary schools and to study the risk factors that lead to bullying episodes. A structured questionnaire was given to 221 teachers of elementary schools and 71 kindergarten teachers from urban and [...] Read more.
The present study aims to estimate the prevalence of bullying in Greek elementary schools and to study the risk factors that lead to bullying episodes. A structured questionnaire was given to 221 teachers of elementary schools and 71 kindergarten teachers from urban and rural Greek schools. They were asked to note the forms and the frequency of aggressive behaviors that they had witnessed during the school years 2020–2021 and 2021–2022, as well as the sociodemographic characteristics of the aggressive children involved. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted, and the obtained results show that specific forms of aggression are significantly correlated with gender and low academic performance. In addition, there is no form of aggressive behavior that is associated with the perpetrator’s age, nationality or family status. Further, the results of the factor analysis revealed four dominant factors in the aggressive behavior observed by teachers. The forms of bullying and the prevailing factors of aggressive behavior that dominate in Greek school settings are reported in the present study. Furthermore, a novel evaluation tool for teachers could potentially be developed based on the results of the present study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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22 pages, 302 KiB  
Article
Translating School Faculty Experiences Using PBIS into Recommendations for Practice
by Hannah M. Terrell and Su-Je Cho
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050372 - 02 May 2023
Viewed by 1888
Abstract
Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a behaviorally based framework that seeks to improve student outcomes in schools. This framework is implemented at differing levels of intensity within a school based on students’ unique needs. Special education teachers and school psychologists are [...] Read more.
Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a behaviorally based framework that seeks to improve student outcomes in schools. This framework is implemented at differing levels of intensity within a school based on students’ unique needs. Special education teachers and school psychologists are integral pieces of PBIS implementation. Within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, these service providers may face unique challenges in implementing PBIS principles in schools, particularly due to new or adapted role demands and increased feelings of burnout. The current study examined special education teachers’ and school psychologists’ perceptions of their schools’ practices related to PBIS in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic within five dimensions of understanding and school-based support, as well as overall satisfaction with PBIS in their school. Opportunities for professional development and the presence of PBIS teams emerged as major contributors to faculty satisfaction; however, only about half of participants indicated access to these resources. Special education teachers indicated higher levels of satisfaction with their administrative support and school communication practices when compared to school psychologists. Best practices and reflections from interview participants are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
17 pages, 932 KiB  
Article
The Effect of the Organizational Climate on the Integrative–Qualitative Intentional Behavior in Romanian Preschool Education—A Top-Down Perspective
by Adela Redeș, Dana Rad, Alina Roman, Mușata Bocoș, Olga Chiș, Claudiu Langa, Daniela Roman, Daniel Mara, Elena-Lucia Mara, Alina Costin, Editha Coșarbă and Ciprian Baciu
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13040342 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1691
Abstract
The concept of educational organizational climate relates to the relational, social, psychological, affective, intellectual, cultural and moral environment that characterizes educational/teaching and managerial activity at the level of a school organization. This study is based on the theory of planned behavior framework in [...] Read more.
The concept of educational organizational climate relates to the relational, social, psychological, affective, intellectual, cultural and moral environment that characterizes educational/teaching and managerial activity at the level of a school organization. This study is based on the theory of planned behavior framework in measuring preschool teachers’ intentional integrative–qualitative behaviors and Marzano’s Model of Teaching Effectiveness. The Marzano Model outlines educational strategies and gives teachers and administrators tools to help teachers become more effective. A sample of 200 valid responses was gathered in an online investigation that targeted preschool educators from Romania. Marzano’s Model of Teaching Effectiveness is an evaluation tool used to measure the success of highly effective teachers, which is further utilized in this study to measure preschool teachers’ effectiveness in relation to intentional integrative–qualitative behaviors. The integrative–qualitative intentional behaviors are measured with the IQIB scale. This research assumes collegiality and professionalism as independent variables and interrogates preschool teachers’ behavioral intention toward adopting integrative–qualitative behaviors through the sequential mediators of Planning and Preparing, Reflecting on Teaching and Classroom Strategies and Behaviors from a top-down perspective. The results revealed a significant indirect effect of Collegiality and Professionalism on preschool teachers’ behavioral intention toward adopting intentional integrative–qualitative behaviors through the sequential mediators Planning and Preparing, Reflecting on Teaching and Classroom Strategies and Behaviors, confirming our hypothesis. Discussion and implications are offered from a top-down sustainable educational management perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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17 pages, 2003 KiB  
Article
Ethnic Differences in Response to COVID-19: A Study of American-Asian and Non-Asian College Students
by Yijun Zhao, Yi Ding, Hayet Chekired, Ying Wu and Qian Wang
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13040325 - 10 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1441
Abstract
Asian American students have experienced additional physical and emotional hardships associated with the COVID-19 pandemic due to increased xenophobic and anti-Asian discrimination. This study investigates different coping patterns and risk factors affecting Asian and non-Asian college students in response to COVID-19 challenges by [...] Read more.
Asian American students have experienced additional physical and emotional hardships associated with the COVID-19 pandemic due to increased xenophobic and anti-Asian discrimination. This study investigates different coping patterns and risk factors affecting Asian and non-Asian college students in response to COVID-19 challenges by studying the differences in their responses within four domains after the onset of the pandemic: academic adjustment, emotional adjustment, social support, and discriminatory impacts related to COVID-19. We first employed a machine learning approach to identify well-adjusted and poorly adjusted students in each of the four domains for the Asian and non-Asian groups, respectively. Next, we applied the SHAP method to study the principal risk factors associated with each classification task and analyzed the differences between the two groups. We based our study on a proprietary survey dataset collected from U.S. college students during the initial peak of the pandemic. Our findings provide insights into the risk factors and their directional impact affecting Asian and non-Asian students’ well-being during the pandemic. The results could help universities establish customized strategies to support these two groups of students in this era of uncertainty. Applications for international communities are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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16 pages, 864 KiB  
Article
Implementation of Check-In/Check-Out to Improve Classroom Behavior of At-Risk Elementary School Students
by Ashley L. Sottilare and Kwang-Sun Cho Blair
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030257 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2935
Abstract
The multi-tiered school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports offers a comprehensive model for the prevention of behavioral and academic problems in schools. This study evaluated Check-in/Check-out (CICO), a Tier 2 intervention, with three elementary school students from a high-need population, whose problem behavior [...] Read more.
The multi-tiered school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports offers a comprehensive model for the prevention of behavioral and academic problems in schools. This study evaluated Check-in/Check-out (CICO), a Tier 2 intervention, with three elementary school students from a high-need population, whose problem behavior was hypothesized to be maintained by teacher attention. The study employed a concurrent multiple baseline design across participants, a single case experimental design to examine the effects of CICO on student academic engagement and problem behavior during instruction. Results indicated that implementation of CICO with fidelity by the CICO coordinator, classroom teachers, and parents lead to increased academic engagement and reduced problem behavior in all three students. Tau-U Effect sizes were medium to large for academic engagement and small to medium for problem behavior across students. Data on two students indicate that systematically fading the number of times teachers utilize the daily report card has the potential for promoting maintenance effects. For one student, fading of the coordinator was successful. Social validity assessment indicated high levels of satisfaction with the CICO intervention by the participating students, teachers, and one parent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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15 pages, 2028 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Physical Education Classroom Teaching after Implementation of the Chinese Health Physical Education Curriculum Model: A Video-Based Assessment
by Chao Liu, Cuixiang Dong, Xiaohui Li, Huanhuan Huang and Qiulin Wang
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030251 - 12 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1992
Abstract
This study assessed the Chinese health physical education curriculum model recently suggested to meet the recommended physical education curriculum reforms addressing the declining physical and mental health of students in China. We used video analyses of 41 physical education classroom teaching cases with [...] Read more.
This study assessed the Chinese health physical education curriculum model recently suggested to meet the recommended physical education curriculum reforms addressing the declining physical and mental health of students in China. We used video analyses of 41 physical education classroom teaching cases with a physical education classroom teaching behavior analysis system to provide quantitative and qualitative behavioral data. We established reference ranges for classroom teaching behavior indicators, summarized classroom teaching patterns, and assessed classroom discourse and the emotional climate. Notable findings included teachers in elementary schools using closed-ended questions, predictable responses, and general feedback significantly more often than teachers in senior high school, and ball sports instructors using demonstration and competition significantly more frequently than instructors in athletics. Overall, three teaching patterns were most commonly used—lecture, practice, and dialogue—with practice being dominant. Analysis of the top 50 most commonly spoken words by teachers identified five types of discourse—motivational, directive, specialized, transitional, and regulatory—with motivational words being most frequent. The classroom atmosphere was mainly positive. These findings provide evidence that the use of this curriculum model may bring positive changes to physical education classroom teaching methods in China and will inform subsequent innovative physical education classroom teaching practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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17 pages, 1514 KiB  
Article
A New Explanation for the Attitude-Behavior Inconsistency Based on the Contextualized Attitude
by Yuan Yuan, Rui Sun, Jiajia Zuo and Xue Chen
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030223 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1824
Abstract
Inconsistency between attitude and behavior is a major obstacle to research on the predictive power of attitudes on behavior. To clarify the mechanism underlying such inconsistency, we combined event-related potential (ERP) and questionnaires to explore the relationship between contextualized attitudes and retrospective attitudes [...] Read more.
Inconsistency between attitude and behavior is a major obstacle to research on the predictive power of attitudes on behavior. To clarify the mechanism underlying such inconsistency, we combined event-related potential (ERP) and questionnaires to explore the relationship between contextualized attitudes and retrospective attitudes in the context of illusion of privacy empowerment (IPE). When the participants read the IPE events (including platform empowerment intention, technique, result, etc.) on slides, we measured retrospective attitudes with questionnaires and recorded contextualized attitudes with ERPs. We found that individuals’ retrospective attitudes were different from contextualized attitudes: retrospective attitudes were mainly affected by the individual’s analytic system, while contextualized attitudes were mainly affected by the direct stimulus-response (i.e., heuristic system). Therefore, retrospective attitudes may not accurately reflect individual cognition in the immediate context, and inconsistency between attitudes and behavior may be caused by the mismatch between retrospective attitudes and immediate behavior. Our findings provide a more reasonable account of the relationship between attitudes and behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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16 pages, 1261 KiB  
Article
Reducing Bullying through Empathy Training: The Effect of Teacher’s Passive Presence
by Teodora Palade and Emilia Pascal
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13030216 - 02 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2601
Abstract
Bullying is a serious problem in schools all around the globe, and implementing intervention strategies effective over time is still difficult, despite the consistent literature on the subject. In this study, we tested the efficiency of a 5-day intensive empathy training program in [...] Read more.
Bullying is a serious problem in schools all around the globe, and implementing intervention strategies effective over time is still difficult, despite the consistent literature on the subject. In this study, we tested the efficiency of a 5-day intensive empathy training program in reducing bullying among third graders. The sample included three classes of third graders (N = 64, Mage = 9.45; SDage = 0.50) from a Romanian school. A 3 × 3 mixed experimental design was used where we manipulated the type of intervention (control group—no empathy training, experimental group 1—empathy training with the teacher present, and experimental group 2—empathy training without teacher present) and the time of measurement (pre-test, post-test, and 3 weeks’ follow-up). The results showed that the intervention determined a significant increase in empathy and a significant decrease in verbal bullying but only for the experimental group where the teacher was physically present in the classroom during the intervention. Moreover, the pattern of results showed that the effects of the intervention increased 21 days after it was completed, meaning that the program could have long-term effects. No significant change in physical bullying behaviors was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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19 pages, 1308 KiB  
Article
A Network Analysis-Driven Sequential Mediation Analysis of Students’ Perceived Classroom Comfort and Perceived Faculty Support on the Relationship between Teachers’ Cognitive Presence and Students’ Grit—A Holistic Learning Approach
by Tiberiu Dughi, Dana Rad, Remus Runcan, Roxana Chiș, Gabriela Vancu, Roxana Maier, Alina Costin, Gavril Rad, Sabin Chiș, Chinaza Uleanya and Macovei Crenguța Mihaela
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020147 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
The interaction between teachers and students is critical to the learning process. Student success and learner satisfaction have consistently improved in educational situations where instructors and students connect frequently and meaningfully. The Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework, as well as the sense of [...] Read more.
The interaction between teachers and students is critical to the learning process. Student success and learner satisfaction have consistently improved in educational situations where instructors and students connect frequently and meaningfully. The Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework, as well as the sense of belonging concept, have received a significant amount of attention from researchers investigating online learning since its debut. The current study focuses on the CoI framework in general, and in particular on studies on teaching, social, and cognitive presences in connection to students’ feeling of belonging and grit enhancement. This research investigated the opinion of 310 students at the Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad regarding their satisfaction with their teachers’ presences, their academic sense of belonging, and their grit. Our methodology followed an innovative approach. First, we employed a network analysis on all subscales’ mean scores, and then we performed a sequential mediation analysis based on both the network analysis results and the conclusions from the literature review. We tested whether students’ perceived classroom comfort and perceived faculty support sequentially mediated the relationship between teacher’s cognitive presence and students’ grit. According to the scientific literature, teacher’s cognitive presence consists of four fundamental categories: triggering events, exploration, integration, and resolution, which specifically the validation of knowledge by cooperation and reflection in a community of inquiry. We further tested if sense of belonging might mediate the relationship between teachers’ cognitive presence and students’ grit. The results show that students’ perceived classroom comfort and perceived faculty support partially and significantly sequentially mediate the relationship between teachers’ cognitive presence triggering events and students’ grit. The results are then further used to suggest possible recommendations for designing holistic learning environments in Romanian higher education institutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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14 pages, 550 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Principals’ Leadership Styles and Teachers’ Behavior
by Kazi Enamul Hoque and Zarin Tasnim Raya
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020111 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6907
Abstract
An effective leader follows a style that helps maintain good relations with his staff. A school leader should use a style best suited to his teachers’ behavior. This research investigates the association between four leadership styles (instructional, democratic, transformational, and laissez-faire) and teachers’ [...] Read more.
An effective leader follows a style that helps maintain good relations with his staff. A school leader should use a style best suited to his teachers’ behavior. This research investigates the association between four leadership styles (instructional, democratic, transformational, and laissez-faire) and teachers’ behavior in Malaysia. This study applied a quantitative research method using a survey technique by administering questionnaires. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Multiple regression and ANOVA were used to study the strength of the relationship between variables. The research found average care of the principals towards teachers’ emotional behavior. Democratic leadership style showed significant relationships that explain 28.5% of the variation in the emotional behavior of the teachers. Leaders with a democratic leadership style were more aware of and responded positively to teachers’ psychometric behavior. School principals with transformational leadership styles responded positively to teachers’ pro-social behavior, although the relationship was weak. These results indicate that a democratic leadership style addresses the issues of teachers’ emotional behavior, while instructional leadership, which is the most perceived leadership style, does not. The result of this study can guide Malaysian school principals in choosing the appropriate leadership style best suited to teachers’ behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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19 pages, 462 KiB  
Article
Parent Perceptions of the Effects of Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions for Children with Autism
by Pamela Jean Giambona, Yi Ding, Su-Je Cho, Chun Zhang and Yangqian Shen
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13010045 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2304
Abstract
The current study aimed to understand parents’ perceptions of the effects of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) based on the principles of applied behavioral analysis (ABA) and the lasting outcomes for their children with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, this study sought [...] Read more.
The current study aimed to understand parents’ perceptions of the effects of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) based on the principles of applied behavioral analysis (ABA) and the lasting outcomes for their children with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, this study sought to examine parent perceptions of the relationship between the intensity of ABA interventions and current autism symptom severity, adaptive functioning, and school placement. The current study employed a convergent parallel mixed-methods design, which consisted of collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and combining both quantitative and qualitative data. Overall, results suggested that the intensity of previous ABA interventions was a unique predictor of current school placement. Additionally, results suggested that the intensity of previous ABA interventions was a unique predictor of adaptive skills, which was supported by parent interviews. However, the intensity of previous ABA interventions was not a unique predictor of current autism severity. Parent responses to interview questions revealed the imperative nature of the interventions and their effect on service delivery for their children with ASD. Overall, this study provided an increased understanding of parents’ perceptions of the effectiveness of EIBI, which in turn may be central to understanding service utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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16 pages, 841 KiB  
Article
Effects of Motivational and Behavioral Factors on Job Productivity: An Empirical Investigation from Academic Librarians in Pakistan
by Khurram Shahzad, Shakeel Ahmad Khan, Abid Iqbal and Omer Shabbir
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13010041 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3649
Abstract
The major objective of the current study was to find out the impact of motivational factors on the job outcomes of librarians working in HEC-recognized university libraries in Pakistan. A survey research method followed by predictive correlational design was applied to test the [...] Read more.
The major objective of the current study was to find out the impact of motivational factors on the job outcomes of librarians working in HEC-recognized university libraries in Pakistan. A survey research method followed by predictive correlational design was applied to test the constructed hypotheses in this study. The population of the study was library professionals working in the university libraries of Lahore, Pakistan. There were 13 public sector universities and 21 private sector universities. The census sampling technique was used to collect data from the respondents of the 34 universities. Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire. Out of 225 respondents, 189 completed questionnaires were received. Hence, the response rate was 84%. The gathered data were analyzed through SPSS software. Descriptive and inferential statistical tests were applied to find out the impact of motivational and behavioral factors on the job outcomes of information professionals. The findings of the study showed that different types of motivation influenced information professionals to carry out innovative and value-added services in the workplace. Rewards, a sense of honor, an amicable work environment, and autonomy were the key categories of motivation that encouraged information professionals to undertake efficient job performance. Recommendations provided through a framework based on the findings of the study will prove to be a benchmark for policymakers, human resource managers, and heads of institutions in order to formulate such techniques that might motivate information professionals for the implementation of user-centric services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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9 pages, 223 KiB  
Brief Report
Inquiring about Loss Aversion of Achievement Value
by Chung-Chin Wu
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050400 - 10 May 2023
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
According to the achievement motivation theory, in achievement context, students may have to not only approach success/gain (e.g., strive to get a better grade) but also avoid failure/loss (e.g., avoid performing worse). However, these two types of achievement motivation have often been investigated [...] Read more.
According to the achievement motivation theory, in achievement context, students may have to not only approach success/gain (e.g., strive to get a better grade) but also avoid failure/loss (e.g., avoid performing worse). However, these two types of achievement motivation have often been investigated separately. In contrast, loss aversion, a central argument in prospect theory, posits that avoiding losses has a greater impact on preferences than does approaching gains; suggesting that gain approach and loss avoidance should be treated as asymmetric forces that can be analyzed simultaneously to study approach to gain and avoidance to loss among students in terms of grades. The main purposes of this study were to propose an alternative measure to frame the dynamic evaluation process in the context of achievement that considers students’ sensitivity to performance change, and to further investigate students’ loss aversion in relation to grades through intrapersonal and interpersonal comparisons. A total of 41 and 72 college students participated in study 1 and study 2, respectively. One-way repeated measure ANOVA was conducted for the former sample while the single sample t-tests and independent sample ANOVA were used for the latter. Through the implementation of this alternative measure, the results revealed that (1) college students were more sensitive to performance changes than to their current or final performance, and (2) loss aversion was dependent on the referents. Students were averse to interpersonal loss, but not to intrapersonal loss. These findings indicate the usefulness of the proposed measure for investigating the asymmetric responses between two types of achievement motivation, and the proposed measure can be used to extend and revise the explanatory boundaries of prospect theory and self-discrepancy theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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