Cognitive Control and Interaction

A special issue of Behavioral Sciences (ISSN 2076-328X). This special issue belongs to the section "Cognition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 12059

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health (NEUROFARBA), University of Florence, 50100 Florence, Italy
Interests: cognitive control; inhibitory control; cognitive processes; time perception

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Guest Editor
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Florence, 50139 Firenze, Italy
Interests: ambient assisted living; cloud service robotics; ICT system for dual-task cognitive activation; pattern recognition; signal processing and experimental protocol definition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, 50139 Florence, Italy
Interests: motor control; motor timing; cognitive-motor mechanisms; adaptive control; kinematics; excellent performance; neurorehabilitation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cognitive control is the key process in decision making and in the optimization of our behavior in our environment. Withholding and selecting the most appropriate action forms the basis of our interaction in our physical and social environment (both cooperative and competitive). Several studies delineated the fundamentals of cognitive control and the associated neural correlates. In particular, cognitive control operates through two phases—proactive and reactive modes—depending on the time the action is withheld. The proactive process is a type of control intervening before event occurrence, whereas the reactive process it is thought to be a “cut-trigger”, which stops an already-initiated motor response. Although it is well known that both processes play a fundamental role in gaining successful cognitive control, the way in which these processes intervene during a human interaction with different agents (humans or non-humans) in different environments (natural or virtual) is still a matter of debate.

This Special Issue aims to explore the contribution of cognitive control from different perspectives, with a particular focus on proactive and reactive processes in different types of environments and social interactions. We welcome theoretical and/or empirical contributions that expand our knowledge of cognitive control and decision making in physical and virtual environments with different agents (such as human–human or human–robot) of interaction.

Dr. Gioele Gavazzi
Dr. Laura Fiorini
Dr. Riccardo Bravi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • inhibitory control
  • cognitive control
  • interaction
  • robot
  • human–robot interaction
  • virtual environment
  • competition
  • cooperation

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 1735 KiB  
Article
Interplay among Anxiety, Digital Environmental Exposure, and Cognitive Control: Implications of Natural Settings
by Viola Benedetti, Fiorenza Giganti, Maria Cotugno, Chiara Noferini, Gioele Gavazzi, Giorgio Gronchi, Stefania Righi, Francesco Meneguzzo, Francesco Riccardo Becheri, Qing Li and Maria Pia Viggiano
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14040323 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 742
Abstract
Inhibitory control performance may differ greatly as a function of individual differences such as anxiety. Nonetheless, how cognitive control proficiency might be influenced by exposure to various environments and how anxiety traits might impact these effects remain unexplored. A cohort of thirty healthy [...] Read more.
Inhibitory control performance may differ greatly as a function of individual differences such as anxiety. Nonetheless, how cognitive control proficiency might be influenced by exposure to various environments and how anxiety traits might impact these effects remain unexplored. A cohort of thirty healthy volunteers participated in the study. Participants performed a Go/No-Go task before exposure to a ‘forest’ and ‘urban’ virtual environment, in a counterbalanced design, before repeating the GNG task. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was finally filled-in. Our findings unveiled an initial negative correlation between anxiety trait levels and GNG task performance, consistent with the established literature attributing difficulties in inhibitory functionality to anxiety. Additionally, different environmental exposures reported opposite trends. Exposure to the ‘forest’ environment distinctly improved the GNG performance in relation to anxiety traits, while the ‘urban’ setting demonstrated adverse effects on task performance. These results underscore the intricate relationship among cognitive control, environmental exposure, and trait anxiety. In particular, our findings highlight the potential of natural settings, such as forests, to mitigate the impact of anxiety on inhibition. This might have implications for interventions aimed at improving cognitive control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Control and Interaction)
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16 pages, 1889 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Stereotype Threat on Inhibitory Control in Individuals with Different Household Incomes
by Shanshan Wang and Dong Yang
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13121016 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1198
Abstract
Previous studies have discussed the impact of the socioeconomically disadvantaged stereotype threat (SDST) on inhibitory control. But the specific influences of the SDST on inhibitory control in different household income groups are not clear. We hypothesized that the SDST had different effects on [...] Read more.
Previous studies have discussed the impact of the socioeconomically disadvantaged stereotype threat (SDST) on inhibitory control. But the specific influences of the SDST on inhibitory control in different household income groups are not clear. We hypothesized that the SDST had different effects on inhibitory control in individuals with distinct household income, and the attribution of stimuli would influence it as well, especially the currency value of the stimuli. To investigate it, two studies were conducted, which required inhibiting their motor responses. Specifically, Study 1 explored the influence of the SDST on basic inhibitory control. Study 2 analyzed the influence of the SDST on inhibitory control when the input stimuli included currency values and monetary conception. The results revealed that the inhibitory control ability was worse in the lower income group but not during the processing of stimuli with currency value. For the effect of the SDST, it found that there was a negative effect on those with a lower household income and a positive effect on those with a higher household income. Based on the findings, the effect of the SDST on inhibitory control in human beings is not stable; instead, it varies depending on the traits of the stimuli in different tasks and of the individuals themselves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Control and Interaction)
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25 pages, 9678 KiB  
Article
Cognition and Interaction: From the Perspective of Daily Therapeutic Landscape of the Coastal Zone
by Shu-Chen Tsai, Hui Wang, Su-Hsin Lee and Zhe Zou
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(10), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13100794 - 25 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
This study explored the relationship between mental and physical therapeutic effects through three dimensions: man–environment relationships, a sense of place, and symbolic landscapes. The study used a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods. Local residents living in the coastal area of Xinglin [...] Read more.
This study explored the relationship between mental and physical therapeutic effects through three dimensions: man–environment relationships, a sense of place, and symbolic landscapes. The study used a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods. Local residents living in the coastal area of Xinglin Bay were the research objects. Quantitative data analysis revealed that the frequency of residents’ visits was an important variable affecting their physical and treatment perceptions. For those who visit frequently, these visits can evoke memories, which can better express their sensory experience. The text analysis showed that residents picked up two major landscape elements to form the sense of place and symbolic landscape: one is the water body in the coastal zone, and the other is the cultural symbol of the peninsula. Based on untoward event experience, the residents assembled the elements into a new spatial relationship with therapeutic affordance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Control and Interaction)
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12 pages, 757 KiB  
Article
Precrastination and Time Perspective: Evidence from Intertemporal Decision-Making
by Boyang Ma and Yong Zhang
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(8), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13080631 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1371
Abstract
Although procrastination has been extensively studied, precrastination remains an unsolved puzzle. Precrastination is the tendency to start tasks as soon as possible, even at the cost of extra effort. Using the near bucket paradigm with 81 undergraduate students, this study examined the relationship [...] Read more.
Although procrastination has been extensively studied, precrastination remains an unsolved puzzle. Precrastination is the tendency to start tasks as soon as possible, even at the cost of extra effort. Using the near bucket paradigm with 81 undergraduate students, this study examined the relationship between precrastination and time perspective, proactive personality, and subjects’ differential performance in intertemporal decision-making. The results confirmed the cognitive-load-reduction (CLEAR) hypothesis. Precrastination was found to be positively predicted by the future time dimension of time perspective and negatively predicted by proactive personality. In addition, there is a significant positive correlation between precrastination and delay discounting of intertemporal decision-making, which exists only for the loss situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Control and Interaction)
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19 pages, 1191 KiB  
Article
The Use of Voice Assistant for Psychological Assessment Elicits Empathy and Engagement While Maintaining Good Psychometric Properties
by Stefania Mancone, Pierluigi Diotaiuti, Giuseppe Valente, Stefano Corrado, Fernando Bellizzi, Guilherme Torres Vilarino and Alexandro Andrade
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13070550 - 2 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1502
Abstract
This study aimed to use the Alexa vocal assistant as an administerer of psychometric tests, assessing the efficiency and validity of this measurement. A total of 300 participants were administered the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). After a week, the administration was repeated, but [...] Read more.
This study aimed to use the Alexa vocal assistant as an administerer of psychometric tests, assessing the efficiency and validity of this measurement. A total of 300 participants were administered the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). After a week, the administration was repeated, but the participants were randomly divided into groups of 100 participants each. In the first, the test was administered by means of a paper version; in the second, the questionnaire was read to the participants in person, and the operator contemporaneously recorded the answers declared by the participants; in the third group, the questionnaire was directly administered by the Alexa voice device, after specific reprogramming. The third group was also administered, as a post-session survey, the Engagement and Perceptions of the Bot Scale (EPVS), a short version of the Communication Styles Inventory (CSI), the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS), and an additional six items to measure degrees of concentration, ease, and perceived pressure at the beginning and at the end of the administration. The results confirmed that the IRI did keep measurement invariance within the three conditions. The administration through vocal assistant showed an empathic activation effect significantly superior to the conditions of pencil–paper and operator-in-presence. The results indicated an engagement and positive evaluation of the interactive experience, with reported perceptions of closeness, warmth, competence, and human-likeness associated with higher values of empathetic activation and lower values of personal discomfort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Control and Interaction)
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14 pages, 753 KiB  
Article
Measuring the Relative Utility Loss of Legitimacy Deviation: A Discussion Based on the Public Goods Experiment
by Wenjie Zhang, Xianchen Zhu, Hongyu Guan and Tao Li
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050366 - 28 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1017
Abstract
In order to understand the differences in individual behavior across different contexts, this study introduces legitimate behavior and its deviation into a utility function. We hypothesize that people have preferences for adhering to the legitimate behavior that is required by the behavioral norm [...] Read more.
In order to understand the differences in individual behavior across different contexts, this study introduces legitimate behavior and its deviation into a utility function. We hypothesize that people have preferences for adhering to the legitimate behavior that is required by the behavioral norm embedded in a particular context; furthermore, deviating from this legitimate behavior may generate a utility loss for them. We apply our model in the context of conditional contributions in a public goods experiment; moreover, we verify that the behavioral pattern of this conditional cooperation is derived from subjects’ preferences for complying with the legitimate behavior required by the norm of the conditional cooperation activated in the experimental context. Furthermore, we attempt to measure the individual-level degrees of respect for the legitimate behavior in the given context using observable experimental data. The measurement results reveal that the subjects’ relative sensitivities to deviations are highly centrally distributed; additionally, most subjects have a relatively high degree of respect for the legitimate behavior required by the conditional cooperation norm. Accordingly, this paper will help to improve our understanding of the micro mechanism underlying individual behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Control and Interaction)
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12 pages, 577 KiB  
Article
Conflict Detection in Moderate Base-Rate Tasks: A Multi-Measure Study
by Jianyong Yang, Zhujing Hu, Dandan Nie and Debiao Zhu
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13040319 - 7 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1503
Abstract
Empirical studies have found that although humans often rely on heuristic intuition to make stereotypical judgments during extreme base-rate tasks, they can at least detect conflicts between stereotypical and base-rate responses, which supports the dual-processing view of flawless conflict detection. The current study [...] Read more.
Empirical studies have found that although humans often rely on heuristic intuition to make stereotypical judgments during extreme base-rate tasks, they can at least detect conflicts between stereotypical and base-rate responses, which supports the dual-processing view of flawless conflict detection. The current study combines the conflict detection paradigm with moderate base-rate tasks of different scales to test the generalization and boundaries of flawless conflict detection. After controlling for possible confounding by the “storage failure” factor, the conflict detection results indicated that reasoners providing stereotypical heuristic responses to conflict problems were slower to respond, less confident in their stereotypical responses, and slower to indicate their reduced confidence than reasoners who answered no-conflict problems. Moreover, none of these differences were affected by different scales. The results suggest that stereotypical reasoners are not blind heuristic performers and that they at least realize that their heuristic responses are not entirely warranted, which supports the argument for flawless conflict detection and extends the boundaries of flawless conflict detection. We discuss the implications of these findings for views of detection, human rationality, and the boundaries of conflict detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Control and Interaction)
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18 pages, 3171 KiB  
Article
Design and Validation of a Test to Evaluate the Execution Time and Decision-Making in Technical–Tactical Football Actions (Passing and Driving)
by Guillermo Andres Calle-Jaramillo, Enoc Valentin Gonzalez-Palacio, Lewis Adrian Perez-Mendez, Andres Rojas-Jaramillo and Jose Antonio Gonzalez-Jurado
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13020101 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2582
Abstract
Reaction time and decision-making (DMA) in football have usually been evaluated using edited images or videos of game situations. The purpose of this research is to design and validate a test that simultaneously evaluates execution time (ET) and decision-making (DMA) in the subcategories [...] Read more.
Reaction time and decision-making (DMA) in football have usually been evaluated using edited images or videos of game situations. The purpose of this research is to design and validate a test that simultaneously evaluates execution time (ET) and decision-making (DMA) in the subcategories of type of action (TA) and direction of movement (DM). Methodology: A quantitative, cross-sectional, and descriptive study of 30 young players. A total of 32 stimuli were programmed, corresponding to 64 responses, from which the total index (TI) was obtained from the division between DMA and ET. Results: The content validity index (CVI = 0.78) showed a high degree of consensus among experts. In the validation process, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess intraclass and interobserver reliability, and a moderate level of agreement was found between subjects for the TA (ICC = 0.593) and ET (ICC = 0.602) and a moderate high level of concordance for DM (ICC = 0.804) and TI (ICC = 0.855). Regarding interobserver reliability, an excellent level of agreement was found for all variables: TA (ICC = 0.998), DM (ICC = 0.998), ET (ICC = 1.000), and TI (ICC = 1.000). For the relationship between intraobserver and interobserver variables, statistical significance was established as p < 0.01. Finally, the intraobserver ETM (5.40%) and interobserver ETM (0.42%) was low compared with the reference value (5.9%). Conclusion: The designed test meets the validity criteria since the variables show sufficient intraclass reliability (test–retest) and reliability among observers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Control and Interaction)
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