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Behav. Sci., Volume 14, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 74 articles

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17 pages, 284 KiB  
Article
“Today, I Say It’s Mine!”: Professional Identity Construction among Jewish and Arab School Counselors Coping with CSA Disclosure in Israel
by Dafna Zinn, Efrat Lusky-Weisrose, Jordan Shaibe, Laura I. Sigad and Dafna Tener
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050424 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 371
Abstract
School counselors play a crucial role in preventing, disclosing, and intervening in child sexual abuse cases (CSA) and in maintaining safe and protected school environments. However, research on their experiences coping with CSA remains limited. The purpose of the present study was to [...] Read more.
School counselors play a crucial role in preventing, disclosing, and intervening in child sexual abuse cases (CSA) and in maintaining safe and protected school environments. However, research on their experiences coping with CSA remains limited. The purpose of the present study was to describe and analyze the coping experiences of Israeli Jewish and Arab school counselors with CSA disclosure, particularly the consequences for their processes of professional identity construction (the ongoing process through which they develop and refine their sense of self in their profession). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 Israeli Jewish and Arab school counselors working in elementary schools (grades 1–6) with significant experience in coping with CSA. Two themes surfaced, reflecting the counselors’ professional identity construction: (1) Counselors’ professional identity transformation following encounters with CSA among their students; (2) Integrating professional knowledge, attitudes, and engagement behaviors into professional identity. The findings describe a trajectory of transformation and professional development among the counselors, beginning with defining and refining their professional roles and followed by the integration of professional knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors into their professional routines. Arab counselors also highlighted specific sociocultural challenges within this process, relating to the gap between cultural values and role expectations. Implications for future research, policy, and practice are discussed. Full article
13 pages, 1948 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Skill Level on the Integration of Information and Post-Error Adjustment during Action Anticipation in Basketball
by Zhefu Chen, Danlei Wang, Wenxuan Fang and Mengkai Luan
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050423 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 458
Abstract
The present study examined the impact of skill level on the integration of contextual prior information and kinematic information alongside post-error adjustment during action anticipation in basketball. Twenty-three collegiate basketball players and twenty-three control participants engaged in anticipating as quickly and accurately as [...] Read more.
The present study examined the impact of skill level on the integration of contextual prior information and kinematic information alongside post-error adjustment during action anticipation in basketball. Twenty-three collegiate basketball players and twenty-three control participants engaged in anticipating as quickly and accurately as possible the outcomes of free throws, utilizing video clips depicting basketball players’ actions, both with and without contextual prior information. Anticipatory performance and the difference in anticipatory performance following errors and correct responses were analyzed based on skill level and the congruency of contextual prior information (none, congruent, and incongruent). The findings revealed that the congruency of contextual prior information significantly affects action anticipation, with skill level moderating this effect. Moreover, skill level influenced the congruency effect on accuracy discrepancies between post-error and post-correct trials during action anticipation, with controls showing greater sensitivity to previous trial performance compared to experts. These results provide further evidence for the notion that individuals employ Bayesian reliability-based strategies to integrate different information sources and underscore the role of skill level in adjusting anticipatory judgments following errors during action anticipation. These insights contribute to a deeper understanding of the cognitive and behavioral mechanisms that differentiate skill levels in action anticipation, potentially guiding the development of targeted training interventions. Full article
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12 pages, 311 KiB  
Article
Protective and Risk Factors for Suicidal Behaviour in Self-Declared LGBTIQ+ Adolescents
by David Sánchez-Teruel, Francisca López-Torrecillas, María Auxiliadora Robles-Bello and Nieves Valencia-Naranjo
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050422 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 635
Abstract
Background: Adolescents who identify as sexual minorities often face social stigmatisation, which can lead to increased adversity and a higher risk of suicidal behaviours. However, there are also protective factors that may promote resilience to these risk behaviours. This study aims to identify [...] Read more.
Background: Adolescents who identify as sexual minorities often face social stigmatisation, which can lead to increased adversity and a higher risk of suicidal behaviours. However, there are also protective factors that may promote resilience to these risk behaviours. This study aims to identify factors that predict resilience in sexual minority adolescents with high suicidal vulnerability. Methods: The study sample comprised 78 self-reported LGBTIQ+ adolescents aged between 13 and 18 years old (M = 16.11, SD = 1.56) who had previously attempted suicide. They completed several psychosocial instruments to measure risk and protective variables related to suicidal vulnerability. Results: Entrapment was found to be the most predictive risk variable for suicide attempts. However, protective variables promoting resilience were also found, such as adequate parental communication, life satisfaction, and cognitive reframing. Discussion: The findings related to prevention of suicide attempts are discussed and we highlight the urgent need to enhance certain internal and contextual protective factors to promote resilience in the face of suicidal vulnerability in certain clinical subpopulations exposed to highly adverse situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Risk Assessment, Management and Prevention in Adolescents)
15 pages, 1495 KiB  
Article
Effects of Future Subjective Expectations on Cognitive Decline and Dementia among Middle-Aged and Older Adults
by Minsung Sohn, Xianhua Che and Hee-Jung Park
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050421 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 469
Abstract
This study investigated the impact of subjective expectations of the future (e.g., income, life expectancy, and national policies) on the onset of dementia and mild cognitive impairment by sex and age in middle-aged and older adults. The Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) [...] Read more.
This study investigated the impact of subjective expectations of the future (e.g., income, life expectancy, and national policies) on the onset of dementia and mild cognitive impairment by sex and age in middle-aged and older adults. The Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) data from 2008 to 2020, comprising 4116 people above 45 years, were used. A time-series analysis and multiple panel logistic regression were conducted to highlight subjective expectation trends and their effect on dementia and mild cognitive impairment, respectively. Low subjective expectations of the future negatively affected cognitive impairment (total: odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–1.03) and dementia (total: OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03–1.06), and those of national policies were the biggest risk factors for cognitive impairment (total: OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.12–1.22) and dementia (total: OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07–1.13). Individuals about to retire and with low expectations of workability were more likely to develop cognitive impairment (total: OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.02–1.06). Subjective expectations of economic downturn also caused cognitive impairment, especially in women (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01–1.07) and early stage older adults (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02–1.10). Policymakers must consider the impact of changes in national policies and living environments on cognitive impairment and dementia in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wellness and Well-Being of Older People)
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12 pages, 574 KiB  
Article
Exercise Addiction and Intimate Partner Violence: The Role of Impulsivity, Self-Esteem, and Emotional Dependence
by Leticia Olave, Itziar Iruarrizaga, Marta Herrero, Patricia Macía, Janire Momeñe, Laura Macía, José Antonio Muñiz and Ana Estevez
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050420 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Given the scarcity of studies linking exercise addiction to intimate partner violence, the present study aims to analyze the relationship between these variables and examine the potential mediating roles of emotional dependence, impulsivity, and self-esteem. This is a non-experimental, cross-sectional correlational design study. [...] Read more.
Given the scarcity of studies linking exercise addiction to intimate partner violence, the present study aims to analyze the relationship between these variables and examine the potential mediating roles of emotional dependence, impulsivity, and self-esteem. This is a non-experimental, cross-sectional correlational design study. The sample comprised 887 university students (86% women, mean age 20.82 years, SD = 3.63). Elevated levels of exercise addiction were associated with increased impulsivity, emotional dependence, and exerted violence, as well as decreased self-esteem and perceived violence. Mediation models were tested, explaining 7% of the variance in received violence, 13% of the variance in exerted violence, and 6% of the variance in perceived violence. Higher levels of exercise addiction were linked to increased received and exerted violence and decreased perceived violence, attributed to the positive impact of exercise addiction on emotional dependence. This study highlights the mediating roles of self-esteem and impulsivity in the relationship between exercise addiction and partner violence. Identifying risk or vulnerability factors such as emotional dependence, impulsivity, and self-esteem related to exercise addiction and interpersonal partner violence is especially relevant for designing and implementing preventive interventions in the general young population. Full article
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21 pages, 617 KiB  
Article
“Pay Attention! Pay Attention! Pay Attention!!!”: The Pivotal Role of Educators and the Educational System as Experienced by Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse
by Laura I. Sigad, Dafna Tener, Efrat Lusky-Weisrose, Jordan Shaibe and Carmit Katz
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050419 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Educational institutions and educators are significant in children’s lives, and they have a crucial role in implementing policies, practices, and sexual education to enhance children’s safety. Such policies and practices should be based on the voices of CSA survivors. This study explored child [...] Read more.
Educational institutions and educators are significant in children’s lives, and they have a crucial role in implementing policies, practices, and sexual education to enhance children’s safety. Such policies and practices should be based on the voices of CSA survivors. This study explored child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors’ viewpoints on their past experiences with educators and the educational system. A qualitative thematic approach was used to analyze 61 written testimonies collected in 2020–2021 by the Israeli Independent Public Inquiry on CSA. Two interrelated themes arose: (1) CSA survivors’ retrospective perspectives of educators and the educational system’s responses to signs of their CSA, described as ranging from abusive to life-saving. Specifically, they shared three types of responses: (a) harmful and hurtful; (b) dismissive and ignoring; and (c) accepting and attending. (2) The second theme described the survivors’ messages to educators to promote constructive change. The survivors conveyed expectations that educators should play a central role in CSA prevention, detection, and intervention and, specifically, the need for educators to receive professional training, provide beneficial sexual education, and identify and respond to CSA. The findings promoted moving beyond individual-level interventions to focus on improving educational institutional and organizational cultures related to CSA in both national and international contexts. Full article
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11 pages, 221 KiB  
Article
The Way Older Childless Women Value Their Life—A Qualitative Study
by Tom Boker Gonen, Yaacov G. Bachner and Vered Slonim-Nevo
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050418 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Older women without children, like all older adults, evaluate their lives and face a conflict between despair and ego integrity as proposed by Erikson’s theory of development. Their uniqueness lies in their deviation from the societal norm of parenthood prevalent in pro-natalist societies [...] Read more.
Older women without children, like all older adults, evaluate their lives and face a conflict between despair and ego integrity as proposed by Erikson’s theory of development. Their uniqueness lies in their deviation from the societal norm of parenthood prevalent in pro-natalist societies such as Israel. This study aims to explore how older childless women evaluate their lives. Using a qualitative approach, 20 semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with women over 60 years of age who do not have children. Three main themes emerged from the participants’ responses: their experiences as women without children in a pro-natalist society, the significance of freedom in their lives, and their life experiences from conflicting perspectives—an internal and external locus of control. The study’s findings demonstrate that older childless women adeptly utilize different perspectives across various aspects of their lives, contributing to ego integrity, contrary to the prevailing societal notion that in the absence of children, women are damaged and lack identity. It is conceivable that other segments of the older adult population, diverging from mainstream societal norms, may similarly leverage these different perspectives to uphold their ego. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Interactions and Aging)
29 pages, 917 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Impact of Role Models and Mentors on the Mental and Physical Wellbeing of Sexual and Gender Minorities
by Jason Cottle, Anna L. Drozdik and Katharine A. Rimes
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050417 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 437
Abstract
Sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) experience a higher mental health burden compared to their cisgender, heterosexual counterparts. Role models and mentors are important for wellbeing and development; however, little evidence exists exploring their impact on SGM people. This systematic scoping review identifies their [...] Read more.
Sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) experience a higher mental health burden compared to their cisgender, heterosexual counterparts. Role models and mentors are important for wellbeing and development; however, little evidence exists exploring their impact on SGM people. This systematic scoping review identifies their association with mental and physical wellbeing. Eight databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, ERIC, Science Citation Index, Scopus, EPub and PsychInfo) were searched for eligible publications from 2000 to 2022. Two researchers identified studies, extracted data, completed quality appraisals using CASP checklists, and grouped data into outcomes relating to role model impact. From 501 citations, 12 studies (n = 1468 SGM people aged 15–63 years) were included. Positive role models and mentors encouraged identity acceptance through destigmatisation and positive affirmation, increased SGMs’ psychological wellbeing through improved psychological safety and self-confidence and improved their sexual health knowledge. Potential role models and mentors displaying negative behaviours could cause stigmatisation, as well as reduce identity acceptance and psychological safety. Information regarding the perceived influence of role models and mentors on substance abuse and other physical health outcomes was limited. SGMs report greater benefits from relationships with others of shared minority status, providing incentives to match mentees with role models and mentors who share or empathise with their experiences of marginalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contemporary Perspectives on LGBTQ Psychology and Health)
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12 pages, 984 KiB  
Article
The Aesthetic Developmental Characteristics of Contour Features in Children and Adolescents with High- and Low- Level Visual Aesthetic Sensitivity across Grade Levels
by Ju Zhang, Zijia Lu, Yongsheng Wang and Xuejun Bai
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050416 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 368
Abstract
This study examined the aesthetic developmental characteristics of contour features (curved and sharp corners) among children and adolescents with different levels (high and low) of visual aesthetic sensitivity in three grades (4, 6, and 8). The results revealed that (1) there was a [...] Read more.
This study examined the aesthetic developmental characteristics of contour features (curved and sharp corners) among children and adolescents with different levels (high and low) of visual aesthetic sensitivity in three grades (4, 6, and 8). The results revealed that (1) there was a significant main effect of contour features, with children and adolescents liking curved contours and perceiving them as more beautiful than sharp-angled contours; (2) there was a significant interaction with contour features in grades 6 and 4, and there was no significant difference in liking curved contours and perceiving them to be more beautiful between students in grades 6 and 4. However, grade 6 students disliked sharp-angled contours and perceived them as more unattractive than grade 4 students; and (3) there was a significant interaction between the level of visual aesthetic sensitivity and contour features, as children and adolescents with both high and low levels of visual aesthetic sensitivity preferred curved contours and considered them more beautiful. However, children and adolescents with high-level visual aesthetic sensitivity disliked sharp-angled contours and considered them more unattractive compared to students with low-level visual aesthetic sensitivity. The results proposed that children and adolescents preferred curved contours, 6th graders were more sensitive to curved contours than 4th graders, and children and adolescents with high-level visual aesthetic sensitivity were more sensitive to sharp-angled contours than children and adolescents with low-level visual aesthetic sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cognition)
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19 pages, 4599 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Parental Autonomy Support and Children’s Self-Concept in China—The Role of Basic Psychological Needs
by Wei Chen, Ying Sun and Yiqing He
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050415 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 505
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between parental autonomy support and children’s self-concept, and to explore the role of basic psychological needs in Chinese primary schools from the perspective of self-determination theory. A total of 3109 children aged 6–13 years participated in [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between parental autonomy support and children’s self-concept, and to explore the role of basic psychological needs in Chinese primary schools from the perspective of self-determination theory. A total of 3109 children aged 6–13 years participated in eastern China. The results indicated a significant correlation between parental autonomy support, basic psychological needs, and children’s self-concept. Basic psychological needs play a partial mediating role between parental autonomy support and children’s self-concept. Specifically, autonomy support varied by need types whereas parental control steadily played a negative predictive role. Parental autonomy support and control predicted children’s self-concept differently through three basic psychological needs, with differences across gender and grades. Boys and elder children had stronger relationships to competence needs, while girls were sensitive to autonomy needs; in addition, both of them were sensitive to relatedness needs. The mediating effects model and cross-group analyses revealed the complex predictive role of parental autonomy support on children’s self-concept in China, providing an effective entry point for cross-cultural research and family education to improve children’s psychological well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Developmental Psychology)
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14 pages, 788 KiB  
Article
The Association between Cyberbullying Victimization and Depression among Children: A Moderated Mediation Model
by Kuai Song, Feng-Juan Zhou, Geng-Feng Niu, Cui-Ying Fan and Zong-Kui Zhou
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050414 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 671
Abstract
Cyberbullying victimization is becoming more prevalent and adversely affects mental health. This research explores the relationship between the two variables and the underlying mechanism, especially for children, as the impact of mental health in childhood might last a lifetime. Primary school students ( [...] Read more.
Cyberbullying victimization is becoming more prevalent and adversely affects mental health. This research explores the relationship between the two variables and the underlying mechanism, especially for children, as the impact of mental health in childhood might last a lifetime. Primary school students (N = 344; Mage = 9.90; 43.90% girls) completed self-report questionnaires regarding cyberbullying victimization, self-perceived social competence, optimism, and depression at school. Gender and grade were controlled as covariates. Depression was positively predicted by cyberbullying victimization, while self-perceived social competence played a partially mediating role. In addition, optimism directly and indirectly moderated the effects of cyberbullying victimization on depression. Specifically, the effects were stronger for children with low levels of optimism. Therefore, efforts to enhance children’s self-perceived social competence and optimism may reduce their depression resulting from cyberbullying victimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
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12 pages, 559 KiB  
Article
Influence of Leaders’ Emotional Labor and Its Perceived Appropriateness on Employees’ Emotional Labor
by Xiuli Tang and Yingkang Gu
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050413 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Emotional labor is a crucial yet often overlooked aspect of effective leadership. To address this, the current study adopts the Emotion as Social Information (EASI) model as a theoretical framework to investigate the influence of leaders’ emotional labor and perceived appropriateness on employees’ [...] Read more.
Emotional labor is a crucial yet often overlooked aspect of effective leadership. To address this, the current study adopts the Emotion as Social Information (EASI) model as a theoretical framework to investigate the influence of leaders’ emotional labor and perceived appropriateness on employees’ emotional labor. A two (leaders’ emotional labor strategies: surface acting vs. deep acting) by two (perceived appropriateness: appropriate vs. inappropriate) between-subjects experiment was designed with a sample of 120 front-line service employees from hotels in Shanghai. The results showed that regardless of whether the perception of a leader’s surface acting was deemed appropriate or not, employees tended to perform surface acting, while the impact of the perceived appropriateness regarding the leader’s deep acting was different, wherein an appropriate display of deep acting by the leader significantly influenced employees to engage in deep acting themselves. The managerial implications and limitations of the findings are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing Organizational Behaviors for Sustainable Wellbeing at Work)
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13 pages, 252 KiB  
Article
Aggressive and Withdrawn Behaviour at School through the Lens of Teachers and Peers: A Qualitative Study
by Susanna Pallini, Antonia Lonigro, Barbara Barcaccia, Fiorenzo Laghi and Barry H. Schneider
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050412 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 539
Abstract
We explored teachers’ understanding of children with aggressive or socially withdrawn behaviour in their classes and we associated our findings with a status of rejected, neglected, or popular, as provided by peer nominations. Five kindergarten and elementary school teachers scored their 143 pupils [...] Read more.
We explored teachers’ understanding of children with aggressive or socially withdrawn behaviour in their classes and we associated our findings with a status of rejected, neglected, or popular, as provided by peer nominations. Five kindergarten and elementary school teachers scored their 143 pupils with the Child Behaviour Checklist for Withdrawal and Aggression. Subsequently, only those children whose scores were 1 standard deviation above the mean for withdrawal or for aggression were included in the final sample (n = 46; Mage = 6.5 years, SD = 1.7; age range = 4–9 years). The final sample included 31 children (21.67%; females = 16) who were assessed as displaying withdrawn behaviour, and 15 (10.48%; females = 5) displaying aggressive behaviour. An open-ended semi-structured interview was administered to teachers, who described children with socially withdrawn behaviour as introverted and untalkative, children with aggressive behaviour as hostile, rule-breaking and highly active, and children with socially withdrawn or aggressive behaviour as isolated, even though different reasons were provided. The results of the sociometric status in children with socially withdrawn or aggressive behaviour are discussed. Full article
15 pages, 1512 KiB  
Article
Consumer Psychology of Mysterious Consumption: Embracing Uncertainty through a Perception of Control
by Wei Ding and Seunghee Han
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050411 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 534
Abstract
Mysterious consumption, characterized by product purchases without knowledge of their exact nature, is gaining popularity in the modern marketplace. In two online experiments, we examined how consumers’ psychological states, particularly their sense of personal control, influence their perception and intent to purchase mysterious [...] Read more.
Mysterious consumption, characterized by product purchases without knowledge of their exact nature, is gaining popularity in the modern marketplace. In two online experiments, we examined how consumers’ psychological states, particularly their sense of personal control, influence their perception and intent to purchase mysterious products in the context of purchasing a random flight ticket. Study 1 demonstrated that when consumers experience low personal control, as opposed to high personal control, they are less likely to value the uncertainty inherent in random flight tickets, resulting in decreased purchase intentions. Study 2 revealed that introducing even limited choice options to random flight tickets can enhance consumers’ appreciation of uncertainty, thereby increasing their purchase intention. This effect was especially notable among those initially hesitant to embrace uncertainty, ultimately boosting their intent to purchase. These findings deepen our understanding of consumer psychology surrounding mystery consumption and provide practical insights for marketers seeking to tailor their products and marketing appeals to consumers’ psychological states. Full article
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18 pages, 648 KiB  
Article
Utility of Single Items within the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R): A Bayesian Network Approach and Relative Importance Analysis
by Jenny Mei Yiu Huen, Augustine Osman, Bob Lew and Paul Siu Fai Yip
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050410 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 506
Abstract
The Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) comprises four content-specific items widely used to assess the history of suicide-related thoughts, plans or attempts, frequency of suicidal ideation, communication of intent to die by suicide and self-reported likelihood of a suicide attempt. Each item focuses on [...] Read more.
The Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) comprises four content-specific items widely used to assess the history of suicide-related thoughts, plans or attempts, frequency of suicidal ideation, communication of intent to die by suicide and self-reported likelihood of a suicide attempt. Each item focuses on a specific parameter of the suicide-related thoughts and behaviors construct. Past research has primarily focused on the total score. This study used Bayesian network modeling and relative importance analyses on SBQ-R data from 1160 U.S. and 1141 Chinese undergraduate students. The Bayesian network analysis results showed that Item 1 is suitable for identifying other parameters of the suicide-related thoughts and behaviors construct. The results of the relative importance analysis further highlighted the relevancy of each SBQ-R item score when examining evidence for suicide-related thoughts and behaviors. These findings provided empirical support for using the SBQ-R item scores to understand the performances of different suicide-related behavior parameters. Further, they demonstrated the potential value of examining individual item-level responses to offer clinically meaningful insights. To conclude, the SBQ-R allows for the evaluation of each critical suicide-related thought and behavior parameter and the overall suicide risk. Full article
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14 pages, 1769 KiB  
Article
Factors Affecting Sustainability-Related Career Expectations among Engineering Undergraduates in China: An Empirical Study Based on a Modified College Impact Model
by Wenjing Yuan, Yonghong Ma, Yichu Deng and Xianwei Liu
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050409 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 504
Abstract
The international engineering education community has reached a consensus regarding the need to enhance engineering students’ awareness of and capability to provide sustainable services in their future careers. Based on a modified college impact model, this study analyzed the impacts of curricular emphasis, [...] Read more.
The international engineering education community has reached a consensus regarding the need to enhance engineering students’ awareness of and capability to provide sustainable services in their future careers. Based on a modified college impact model, this study analyzed the impacts of curricular emphasis, curricular instruction, and sustainability-related career self-efficacy on the sustainability-related career expectations of engineering students and investigated the moderating effects of gender on the relationships among the research variables. The results show that both curricular emphasis and curricular instruction have direct positive effects on the sustainability-related career expectations of engineering students; sustainability-related career self-efficacy plays a partial mediating role in this process; and gender significantly moderates the influence of curricular emphasis and curricular instruction on sustainability-related career expectations. The findings of this study provide empirical evidence that can be used by higher education institutions and engineering educators to enhance the belief of engineering students in their ability to solve sustainability-related issues in their future careers and promote the diversification of engineering education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue External Influences in Adolescents’ Career Development)
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14 pages, 276 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Complexities of Student Learning Progress in Texas: A Study of COVID-19 and Rural vs. Non-Rural Districts
by Shifang Tang, Zhuoying Wang, Lei Zhang and David Jimenez
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050408 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 501
Abstract
In this study, we investigate the impact of COVID-19 on academic achievement in Texas public schools. Demographic and Grade 5 STAAR test data were collected from 1155 public school districts for 2018–2019 and 2020–2021. Multiple regression was adopted to analyze the differences between [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigate the impact of COVID-19 on academic achievement in Texas public schools. Demographic and Grade 5 STAAR test data were collected from 1155 public school districts for 2018–2019 and 2020–2021. Multiple regression was adopted to analyze the differences between rural and non-rural districts, as well as the impact of demographic characteristics on students’ achievement. The results reveal significant differences in demographic characteristics between the two academic years, with non-rural districts exhibiting a greater decline in academic achievement than rural districts. Additionally, the findings suggest that higher teacher salaries correlate with better academic performance across various subjects and that English learners require additional support to acquire content knowledge and skills. We further confirm that the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the academic learning experience of Texas students, with rural districts displaying more resilience than non-rural districts. Full article
14 pages, 420 KiB  
Article
Emotion Recognition and Self-Reported Emotion Processing in Alcohol and Cannabis Co-Using Young Adults
by Anita Cservenka and Lacey C. Donahue
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050407 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Alcohol and cannabis use are each associated with impairments in emotion recognition accuracy, which may promote interpersonal problems. It is unclear if emotion recognition or self-reported emotion processing differs between young adult alcohol and cannabis co-users (ACCs) and healthy controls (HCs). This study [...] Read more.
Alcohol and cannabis use are each associated with impairments in emotion recognition accuracy, which may promote interpersonal problems. It is unclear if emotion recognition or self-reported emotion processing differs between young adult alcohol and cannabis co-users (ACCs) and healthy controls (HCs). This study examined whether ACCs and HCs differed in their emotion recognition across two different behavioral tasks with static or dynamic faces and determined if there were differences in self-reported socio-emotional processing and alexithymia. 22 ACCs (mean age = 21.27 ± 1.75) and 25 HCs (mean age = 21.48 ± 2.68), matched on age, sex, and IQ, completed the Metrisquare Emotion Recognition Task and CANTAB Emotion Recognition Task. The ACCs and HCs were compared on task accuracy and self-reported measures, including the Social Emotional Questionnaire (SEQ) and the Perth Alexithymia Questionnaire (PAQ). No significant main effects of the Group variable or the Emotion–Group interaction variable were present for either task. The ACCs had lower SEQ (p = 0.014) and higher PAQ (p = 0.024) scores relative to the HCs, indicating greater difficulties in socio-emotional processing and identifying one’s own emotions, respectively. Understanding the behavioral correlates of the self-reported difficulties in emotion processing reported by ACCs is needed to develop interventions to reduce these symptoms and promote healthy socio-emotional functioning in this population. Full article
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14 pages, 485 KiB  
Article
Ill, but Still Attractive? The Impact of Mental Illness on Attractiveness Perceptions and Social Judgment
by Nilüfer Aydin, Miriam Clivia Plewe, Luisa Afra Malin Mahr and Janet Kleber
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050406 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 523
Abstract
In line with the “beautiful-is-good” heuristic, numerous studies show that physically attractive individuals are perceived in a more positive light. However, building on previous findings suggesting that the “beauty–good” relationship is bidirectional, the present research investigates how information on a stigmatized attribute impacts [...] Read more.
In line with the “beautiful-is-good” heuristic, numerous studies show that physically attractive individuals are perceived in a more positive light. However, building on previous findings suggesting that the “beauty–good” relationship is bidirectional, the present research investigates how information on a stigmatized attribute impacts attractiveness perceptions and social judgments. Within a controlled experimental design, we present evidence that the mere label of mental illness (i.e., schizophrenia) decreased the positivity of personality evaluations and perceived attractiveness of a male target that had previously been validated to be highly attractive. Consistent with the “good-is-beautiful” heuristic, a mental illness label led to decreased perceptions of attractiveness, which was mediated by the inference of less positive personality characteristics. This finding lends further support for the bidirectional nature of the “beauty–good” relationship and provides a valuable avenue for future research on the multifaceted ways in which the stigma of mental illness affects social perceptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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15 pages, 548 KiB  
Article
Exploring Aggressive Behaviors in Greek Secondary Schools: Prevalence, Sociodemographic Factors, and Comparative Analysis with Elementary School Students
by Argyro Bourou, Petros Karkalousos, Anastasios G. Kriebardis and Effie Papageorgiou
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050405 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 650
Abstract
The main objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of bullying in Greek secondary schools and detect the possible characteristics of bullies’ profiles in Greek school settings. A structured questionnaire was given to one hundred ninety-two (n = 192) educators at [...] Read more.
The main objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of bullying in Greek secondary schools and detect the possible characteristics of bullies’ profiles in Greek school settings. A structured questionnaire was given to one hundred ninety-two (n = 192) educators at Greek junior high schools in urban and rural areas. The educators were asked to report the frequencies and forms of aggressive behavior observed during the 2022–2023 school year, the bullies’ sociodemographic characteristics, and ways of dealing with bullying episodes. The data are presented, after conducting statistical analyses, in comparison with data for elementary school students. The results revealed that higher rates of bullying were reported compared with elementary school children. Moreover, according to teachers’ observations, aggressive behavior is independent of a pupil’s diagnosis, but specific types are correlated significantly with a pupil’s gender, nationality, low academic performance, and popularity. Factor analysis showed two main factors of aggression types, where common points and differences with elementary school students are mentioned. Implementations for the prevention of school bullying are discussed. Full article
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18 pages, 439 KiB  
Article
Trust in Acquaintances, Strangers and Institutions among Individuals of Different Socioeconomic Statuses during Public Health Emergencies: The Moderation of Family Structure and Policy Perception
by Xueyan Li, Xiaoli Sun and Qianqian Shao
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050404 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 648
Abstract
Trust plays a crucial role in effectively responding to public health emergencies. Drawing on COVID-19 survey data conducted in Hubei, China, during August 2020 with a sample size of 5494, this study investigated the influence of individuals’ socioeconomic status on trust in acquaintances, [...] Read more.
Trust plays a crucial role in effectively responding to public health emergencies. Drawing on COVID-19 survey data conducted in Hubei, China, during August 2020 with a sample size of 5494, this study investigated the influence of individuals’ socioeconomic status on trust in acquaintances, strangers and institutions, and how this relationship is moderated by epidemic prevention, policy perception and family structure. The findings showed that individuals with higher socioeconomic status tend to have higher levels of trust. Those with higher income but being married demonstrate higher trust. When perceiving epidemic prevention policies as stringent, those with higher income display increased trust in acquaintances and institutions; similarly, those with lower education levels exhibit heightened trust in acquaintances and strangers. Individuals working in social organizations express higher trust in strangers; however, their trust is compromised under stringent epidemic prevention policies due to potentially heavier work burdens. Full article
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9 pages, 1063 KiB  
Article
Postural Control and Muscle Activity during Dual-Task in Young Adults
by Marina Saraiva, João Paulo Vilas-Boas and Maria António Castro
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050403 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 591
Abstract
In everyday life, we recurrently perform two tasks simultaneously, which is called dual-tasking. A common dual task is smartphone use while standing or walking. According to previous studies, this task can compromise postural stability. However, few studies have analyzed lower limb muscle activity [...] Read more.
In everyday life, we recurrently perform two tasks simultaneously, which is called dual-tasking. A common dual task is smartphone use while standing or walking. According to previous studies, this task can compromise postural stability. However, few studies have analyzed lower limb muscle activity during dual-tasking using smartphones. This study aimed to assess the postural sway and muscle activity during dual-tasking in young adults. Thirty-six healthy young adults (23.08 ± 3.92 years) participated in this study. They performed a single task (ST: keeping a quiet standing posture) and a dual task (DT: keeping the ST while simultaneously performing a cognitive task on their smartphone). Postural sway was assessed through the center of pressure (CoP) analysis using a force platform: total CoP displacement, CoP displacement in the anterior–posterior and medial–lateral directions, mean total velocity of the CoP, mean velocity of the CoP in the anterior–posterior and medial–lateral directions, and 95% confidence ellipse sway area. A surface electromyography system recorded the muscle activity of the lumbar spinal erector and five muscles of the lower limb (bilaterally). The results showed an increase in postural sway from the ST to the DT in all CoP variables (p < 0.05), and muscle activity in most muscles analyzed decreased from the ST to the DT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our results reflect a decentralization of attention from motor performance once postural sway increased and muscle activity decreased in dual-task conditions. Full article
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11 pages, 228 KiB  
Article
Drinking While Stressed and Drinking to Cope Differentially Relate to Mental Health
by Carley Vornlocher and Michelle N. Shiota
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050402 - 12 May 2024
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Excessive alcohol use, as well as drinking to manage distress, are known to undermine mental health. The current study examined the unique associations of simply consuming alcohol while stressed, versus using alcohol to cope with distress, with mental health during the early stages [...] Read more.
Excessive alcohol use, as well as drinking to manage distress, are known to undermine mental health. The current study examined the unique associations of simply consuming alcohol while stressed, versus using alcohol to cope with distress, with mental health during the early stages of COVID-19. Participants (N = 264) reported their alcohol use and use of alcohol/substances to cope with stress daily for 22 days and completed measures of mental health at baseline and every 7 days thereafter. Hierarchical regression models were tested to predict drinking while stressed, drinking to cope, and mental health. At baseline, drinking while stressed was not significantly associated with mental health when coping motives were accounted for. However, drinking to cope was significantly associated with greater stress, anxiety, depression, and loneliness. Drinking while stressed was significantly predicted by baseline stress and loneliness, while drinking to cope was significantly predicted by baseline anxiety. Drinking while stressed was not a significant predictor of change in mental health when coping motives were accounted for. Drinking to cope was a significant predictor of increases in depression but not of change in stress, anxiety, or loneliness. The motivation to manage distress appears to be driving the negative effects of alcohol use on mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress and Drinking)
11 pages, 1419 KiB  
Article
Hierarchical Constraints on the Distribution of Attention in Dynamic Displays
by Haokui Xu, Jifan Zhou and Mowei Shen
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050401 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Human vision is remarkably good at recovering the latent hierarchical structure of dynamic scenes. Here, we explore how visual attention operates with this hierarchical motion representation. The way in which attention responds to surface physical features has been extensively explored. However, we know [...] Read more.
Human vision is remarkably good at recovering the latent hierarchical structure of dynamic scenes. Here, we explore how visual attention operates with this hierarchical motion representation. The way in which attention responds to surface physical features has been extensively explored. However, we know little about how the distribution of attention can be distorted by the latent hierarchical structure. To explore this topic, we conducted two experiments to investigate the relationship between minimal graph distance (MGD), one key factor in hierarchical representation, and attentional distribution. In Experiment 1, we constructed three hierarchical structures consisting of two moving objects with different MGDs. In Experiment 2, we generated three moving objects from one hierarchy to eliminate the influence of different structures. Attention was probed by the classic congruent–incongruent cueing paradigm. Our results show that the cueing effect is significantly smaller when the MGD between two objects is shorter, which suggests that attention is not evenly distributed across multiple moving objects but distorted by their latent hierarchical structure. As neither the latent structure nor the graph distance was part of the explicit task, our results also imply that both the construction of hierarchical representation and the attention to that representation are spontaneous and automatic. Full article
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15 pages, 451 KiB  
Article
Empathy and Coping Strategies Predict Quality of Life in Japanese Healthcare Professionals
by Kotaro Shoji, Norihito Noguchi, Fumiko Waki, Taku Saito, Masato Kitano, Naoki Edo, Minori Koga, Hiroyuki Toda, Nobuhisa Kobayashi, Takehito Sawamura and Masanori Nagamine
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050400 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 656
Abstract
Burnout and secondary traumatic stress (STS), also referred to as compassion fatigue, are undeniable negative consequences experienced by healthcare professionals when working with patients. As frontline healthcare professionals are essential to communities, it is crucial to understand their mental health and how they [...] Read more.
Burnout and secondary traumatic stress (STS), also referred to as compassion fatigue, are undeniable negative consequences experienced by healthcare professionals when working with patients. As frontline healthcare professionals are essential to communities, it is crucial to understand their mental health and how they cope with negative psychological responses. This study investigated the relationships between burnout, STS, compassion satisfaction, dispositional empathy, and stress management among Japanese healthcare professionals and students taking care of patients in clinical practice. The participants were 506 Japanese healthcare professionals and students (doctors, nurses, medical students, and nursing students) affiliated with Japanese Ministry of Defense Hospitals. The data were collected from March 2020 to May 2021. We assessed burnout, STS, and compassion satisfaction using the Professional Quality of Life Scale, dispositional empathy using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, and coping with stress using the Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Inventory (Brief-COPE). Exploratory factor analysis of the Brief-COPE yielded three factors: active coping; support-seeking; and indirect coping. Personal distress, a self-oriented emotional empathy index, was related to higher burnout and STS scores and lower compassion satisfaction. Empathic concern, an other-oriented emotional empathy index, was associated with lower burnout and higher compassion satisfaction. Active coping strategies were associated with lower burnout and higher compassion satisfaction, whereas indirect coping strategies were associated with higher burnout and STS scores. In a comparison of empathy in professional categories, nurses presented higher personal distress than nursing students, and medical doctors showed lower fantasy tendencies than medical students. These results imply the complex relationships between empathy, coping strategies, and psychological responses among healthcare professionals. Further longitudinal study is needed to explore these complex relationships and to develop more precise and effective psycho-educational interventions to prevent burnout and STS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trauma, Resilience and Mental Health)
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12 pages, 598 KiB  
Article
Social–Emotional Competence among School-Aged Children in the Chinese Context: Validation of the Washoe County School District Social–Emotional Competency Assessment
by Rebecca Y. M. Cheung and Ocean O. S. Ng
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050399 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 480
Abstract
The present study aims to validate the 40-item and the brief 17-item Washoe County School District Social–Emotional Competency Assessment (WCSD-SECA), a self-report measure of social–emotional competencies, among Chinese school-aged children residing in Hong Kong. A total of 349 children (M = 9.86 [...] Read more.
The present study aims to validate the 40-item and the brief 17-item Washoe County School District Social–Emotional Competency Assessment (WCSD-SECA), a self-report measure of social–emotional competencies, among Chinese school-aged children residing in Hong Kong. A total of 349 children (M = 9.86 years, SD = 1.22; 45.82% girls) and their parents (77.84% mothers) completed a set of questionnaires independently. The factor structure of both versions of the WCSD-SECA was assessed via confirmatory factor analyses. Structural equation models were then conducted to examine the predictive validity of the WCSD-SECA. The findings indicated that both the 40-item and the 17-item versions of the WCSD-SECA fit the data adequately. Both versions were also associated with self-reported positive and negative affect and parent-reported internalizing problems and externalizing problems. Additionally, social–emotional competencies as measured by the 40-item version were significantly associated with parent-reported prosocial behavior, whereas those as measured by the 17-item version were associated with prosocial behavior with a marginal significance. The findings demonstrated an adequate factor structure and predictive validity of the full version and the brief version of the WCSD-SECA in assessing social–emotional competencies. Hence, they serve as a useful tool for researchers, educators, and mental health practitioners to evaluate school-aged children’s social–emotional competencies in the Chinese context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social-Emotional Competence: Theories, Correlates, and Measures)
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10 pages, 233 KiB  
Article
Jesters of Well-Being: Examining the Relationship between Clown Doctors and Patients
by Alberto Dionigi, Alessandra Fermani and Carla Canestrari
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050398 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 780
Abstract
Clown doctors play a crucial role in enhancing the well-being of patients through the use of humor. However, little is known about how the use of humor by clown doctors changes in relation to the developmental age of patients. This research explores the [...] Read more.
Clown doctors play a crucial role in enhancing the well-being of patients through the use of humor. However, little is known about how the use of humor by clown doctors changes in relation to the developmental age of patients. This research explores the interplay between the type of humor used by clown doctors, their experience (in terms of years of clowning and type of clowning), and the developmental age of the patients (children, adolescents, adults, elderly). Data for this cross-sectional study were collected through an online survey distributed to 210 Italian clown doctors (143 females, 67 males), aged between 18 and 75 years (M = 47.34, SD = 12.31), affiliated with different Clown Care Units. The survey included the Comic Styles Markers, questions on the patients’ developmental age, type of clowning (Auguste vs. Whiteface), and years of experience. The findings enhance our understanding on how clown doctors interact with patients of different developmental ages. The discussion draws connections to previous studies conducted on groups of clown doctors, providing a broader context for understanding the implications of humorous interactions in this unique healthcare domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Humor Use in Interpersonal Relationships)
16 pages, 7842 KiB  
Article
Impact of Relational Coordination on Job Satisfaction and Willingness to Stay: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Healthcare Professionals in South Tyrol, Italy
by Christian J. Wiedermann, Verena Barbieri, Adolf Engl and Giuliano Piccoliori
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050397 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 603
Abstract
Job satisfaction and willingness to stay are critical for workforce stability in a challenging healthcare environment. This study examined how relational coordination, a key factor in teamwork and communication, influences outcomes among healthcare professionals in a bilingual, culturally mixed region of Italy. This [...] Read more.
Job satisfaction and willingness to stay are critical for workforce stability in a challenging healthcare environment. This study examined how relational coordination, a key factor in teamwork and communication, influences outcomes among healthcare professionals in a bilingual, culturally mixed region of Italy. This cross-sectional survey included general practitioners, hospital physicians, nurses, and administrators from the South Tyrol Health Service, using the ‘Relational Coordination Survey’ and additional measures of job satisfaction and willingness to stay. The analytical methods used included descriptive statistics, correlations, and regression analyses. This study applied path analysis, including mediation and moderation techniques, to investigate the roles of relational coordination and job satisfaction in influencing the willingness to stay. It employs Conditional Process Analysis with the PROCESS macro in SPSS, focusing on models for moderated mediation analysis. The results indicated a critical influence of relational coordination on both job satisfaction and willingness to stay among the 525 healthcare professionals. Job satisfaction varied by health district and years of service, with midcareer professionals being the least satisfied. The findings highlight the central role of relational coordination in job satisfaction and willingness to stay and confirm that low job satisfaction increases turnover intentions. Relational coordination directly enhanced job satisfaction and willingness to stay, while also serving as a mediating factor that amplifies the impact of job satisfaction on retention intentions. This study reinforces the need for strong teamwork and communication to stabilize the healthcare workforce. Targeted interventions aimed at improving relational coordination could significantly enhance job satisfaction and retention among healthcare professionals, particularly in culturally diverse settings such as South Tyrol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Outlooks on Relationships in the Workplace)
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15 pages, 520 KiB  
Article
Learning to Read in an Intermediate Depth Orthography: The Longitudinal Role of Grapheme Sounding on Different Types of Reading Fluency
by Sandra Fernandes, Luís Querido and Arlette Verhaeghe
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050396 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Phonological processing skills, such as phonological awareness, are known predictors of reading acquisition in alphabetic languages with varying degrees of orthographic complexity. However, the role of multi-letter-sound knowledge, an important foundation for early reading development, in supporting reading fluency development remains to be [...] Read more.
Phonological processing skills, such as phonological awareness, are known predictors of reading acquisition in alphabetic languages with varying degrees of orthographic complexity. However, the role of multi-letter-sound knowledge, an important foundation for early reading development, in supporting reading fluency development remains to be determined. This study examined whether two core foundational skills, phonemic awareness and grapheme sounding, have a predictive role in reading fluency development in an intermediate-depth orthography. The participants were 62 children learning to read in European Portuguese, and they were longitudinally assessed on phonemic awareness, complex grapheme sounding, and reading fluency (decoding, word, and text) from Grade 2 to Grade 3. The results showed that grapheme sounding predicted reading fluency development controlled for nonverbal intelligence and vocabulary, short-term verbal memory, and phonemic awareness. Grapheme sounding plays a prominent role in predicting reading fluency outcomes, whereas phonemic awareness (both accuracy and time per correct item) did not contribute to any of the three types of reading fluency. The fact that grapheme-sounding predicted reading fluency is likely due to complex grapheme-phoneme correspondences being required to achieve proficient reading. These findings provide insights into the cognitive processes underlying reading development in intermediate-depth orthographies and have implications for early literacy instruction. Full article
10 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
The Comparison of Lifestyles, Mental Risks, and Physical Indices among Individuals with Ultra-High Risk of Psychosis, Patients with Schizophrenia, and the General Public
by Ching-Lun Tsai, Chi-Ming Chu, Hsien-Yuan Lane, Shiah-Lian Chen, Cheng-Hao Tu and Wei-Fen Ma
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14050395 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 621
Abstract
(1) Background: Early interventions may effectively reduce the risk of mental disorders in individuals with ultra-high risk. Specifying the health needs of individuals with ultra-high risk is crucial before the implementation of successful early intervention. This study aimed to explore the differences in [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Early interventions may effectively reduce the risk of mental disorders in individuals with ultra-high risk. Specifying the health needs of individuals with ultra-high risk is crucial before the implementation of successful early intervention. This study aimed to explore the differences in lifestyles, mental risks, and physical indices among individuals with ultra-high risk, patients with schizophrenia, and healthy subjects. (2) Methods: A cross-section design applying seven questionnaires with physical examinations for 144 participants aged 13–45 years old was conducted in this study. The questionnaires included one about personal data, four on mental risks, and two for lifestyles. (3) Results: The individuals with ultra-high risk scored similarly in many dimensions as the patients with schizophrenia, but they displayed lower positive symptoms, lower negative symptoms, lower prodromal symptoms, higher interpersonal deficits, lower nutrition intake, and higher levels of exercise than the patients with schizophrenia. Female individuals with ultra-high risk had lower self-esteem, higher positive symptoms, lower nutrition intake, and higher exercise levels than male ones. (4) Conclusions: The study pinpointed specific health needs with interpersonal deficits, nutrition intake, and physical activity for the individuals with ultra-high risk. Future interventions targeted on improving social function, dietary pattern, and exercise will be beneficial. Full article
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