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Behav. Sci., Volume 14, Issue 3 (March 2024) – 114 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): With focus being placed on emotional arousals, attitudes towards advertisements, and donation anxiety, this study utilizes the Theory of Planned Behaviors to uncover the determinants of donation intention. After surveying 414 participants across Greek society, and through use of structural equation modeling, we found that attitudes and anxiety have direct impacts on the behavioural intention to donate, while emotional arousals act as partial mediators, implying that both cognitive assessments and emotional responses influence donation intentions. These findings underscore the barriers that anxieties impose while highlighting the potential of positive attitudes and advertising. Our results advocate the use of emotionally resonant marketing strategies to enhance donor recruitment. View this paper
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15 pages, 1966 KiB  
Article
What Are the Economic Arguments for Mandating LGBT+ Health Training for Healthcare Providers? An Economic Evaluation of the Impacts of LGBT+ Health Training on Cervical Screening
by Saima Bashir, William Whittaker and Catherine Meads
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030260 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 679
Abstract
Background: Equitable access to healthcare is a priority of many healthcare systems, aiming to ensure access is driven by need and not minority groups such as those defined by sexual orientation. However, there are healthcare areas where inequity in access across sexual [...] Read more.
Background: Equitable access to healthcare is a priority of many healthcare systems, aiming to ensure access is driven by need and not minority groups such as those defined by sexual orientation. However, there are healthcare areas where inequity in access across sexual orientation groups is found that are not justified based on need. Mandated LGBTQ+-specific training of the healthcare workforce may help address some barriers of access for these groups. The study aims to understand the potential economic implications for mandated LGBTQ+-specific healthcare training on the healthcare system in England, UK to inform commissioning of training provision. Methods: Cervical cancer screening was used as an exemplar case where there appears to be inequity in access for different sexual orientation groups. A decision model was developed and analysed that considered the impacts of greater uptake of screening for lesbian and bisexual women due to LGBTQ+ training. Costs took the perspective of the healthcare system and outcomes modelled were cancer cases averted in a timeframe of 5 years. Results: Based on cervical cancer screening alone, where training costs are fully attributed to this service, training would likely result in fewer cancer cases detected in the lesbian and bisexual populations, though this comes at a modest increase in healthcare sector costs, with this increase largely reflecting a greater volume of screens. Training costs do not appear to be a major component of the cost implications. Conclusions: In resource-constrained systems with increasing pressures for efficiency savings, the opportunity cost of delivering training is a realistic component of the commissioning decision. The findings in this paper provide a signal that mandated LGBTQ+ training in healthcare could lead to potentially greater outcomes and in breaking down barriers of access and could also enable the healthcare system to provide more equitable access to healthcare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contemporary Perspectives on LGBTQ Psychology and Health)
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14 pages, 852 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Gaming Behavior on School Adjustment among Korean Adolescents: The Moderating Effect of Self-Regulation
by Jisue Lee and Goo-Churl Jeong
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030259 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 562
Abstract
With the rise of digital devices, gaming has become both a pastime and part of the culture for young people. Teenagers use games to communicate, enjoy leisure time, and relieve stress. However, the maladaptive use of gaming can lead to difficulties in adolescents’ [...] Read more.
With the rise of digital devices, gaming has become both a pastime and part of the culture for young people. Teenagers use games to communicate, enjoy leisure time, and relieve stress. However, the maladaptive use of gaming can lead to difficulties in adolescents’ daily lives and school adjustment. Increasing adolescents’ self-regulation competencies can improve maladaptive gaming behaviors and help them use gaming adaptively. Therefore, this study examined the moderating effect of self-regulation on the impact of adolescent gaming behavior on school adjustment. This study considered 359 adolescent participants in South Korea. Data were analyzed using hierarchical regression to test the moderating effect. The results indicated that adolescents’ adaptive use of games significantly increased school adjustment. Self-regulation significantly moderated the negative effects of the maladaptive use of games on school adjustment. Furthermore, the results revealed that the groups with highly adaptive and maladaptive use of games had high school adjustment but low self-regulation, indicating that they required active intervention. Full article
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15 pages, 518 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Executive Functions and Body Weight: Sex as a Moderating Variable
by Ciro Rosario Ilardi, Antonietta Monda, Alessandro Iavarone, Sergio Chieffi, Maria Casillo, Antonietta Messina, Ines Villano, Giovanni Federico, Vincenzo Alfano, Marco Salvatore, Walter Sapuppo, Vincenzo Monda, Marcellino Monda, Girolamo Di Maio and Marco La Marra
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030258 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 641
Abstract
This study explores the interplay between executive functions and body weight, examining both the influence of biological factors, specifically sex, and methodological issues, such as the choice between Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as the primary anthropometric measure. A total [...] Read more.
This study explores the interplay between executive functions and body weight, examining both the influence of biological factors, specifically sex, and methodological issues, such as the choice between Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as the primary anthropometric measure. A total of 386 participants (222 females, mean age = 45.98 years, SD = 17.70) were enrolled, from whom sociodemographic (sex, age, years of formal education) and anthropometric (BMI and WC) data were collected. Executive functions were evaluated using the Frontal Assessment Battery–15 (FAB15). The results showed the increased effectiveness of WC over BMI in examining the relationships between executive functions, sex differences, and body weight. In particular, this study revealed that there was a significant moderating effect of sex at comparable levels of executive functioning. Specifically, women with higher executive performance had lower WCs than their male counterparts, suggesting that executive function has a greater impact on WC in women than in men. Our findings highlight the importance of conducting more in-depth investigations of the complex relationship between cognitive deficits and weight gain, considering confounding variables of behavioral, psychobiological, and neurophysiological origin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neural Correlates of Cognitive and Affective Processing)
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17 pages, 687 KiB  
Article
Action Speaks Louder: The Role of Proactive Behavior between Creative Leadership and Employees’ Creativity
by Xiaozhou Zhou, Jie Zhong and Li Zhang
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030257 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Drawing on social learning theory, this study presents a moderated mediation model to examine the role of proactive behavior and conformity value in the positive relationship between creative leadership and employees’ creativity. Two-wave data are collected from 230 employees and their leaders in [...] Read more.
Drawing on social learning theory, this study presents a moderated mediation model to examine the role of proactive behavior and conformity value in the positive relationship between creative leadership and employees’ creativity. Two-wave data are collected from 230 employees and their leaders in an automobile manufacturing enterprise in China, in which employees are encouraged to be creative because they need to implement novel designs and proposals to attract consumers. Statistical analysis reveals that proactive behavior partially mediates the influence of creative leadership on employees’ creativity. Conformity value moderates not only the relationship between creative leadership and proactive behavior but also the indirect effect of creative leadership on employees’ creativity via proactive behavior. The relationship and the mediating mechanism are stronger in the presence of employees’ higher conformity value. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications as well as future research directions of the findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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16 pages, 1174 KiB  
Article
Employee Proactive Personality and Career Growth: The Role of Proactive Behavior and Leader Proactive Personality
by Guimei Ma, Xianru Zhu, Bing Ma and Hermann Lassleben
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030256 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 643
Abstract
Based on social information processing theory, this research examines whether and how an employee’s proactive personality influences intrinsic and extrinsic career growth. It also examines the mediating effects of two types of proactive behaviors (voice behavior and taking charge) and the moderating effect [...] Read more.
Based on social information processing theory, this research examines whether and how an employee’s proactive personality influences intrinsic and extrinsic career growth. It also examines the mediating effects of two types of proactive behaviors (voice behavior and taking charge) and the moderating effect of a leader’s proactive personality. A sample of 307 employee-leader dyads participated in this survey. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses, and the bootstrap procedure was used to test the indirect effects. Results show that an employee’s proactive personality has significant positive effects on both intrinsic and extrinsic career growth. The mediating effect of taking charge was confirmed, while the mediating effect of voice behavior was not. Leader proactive personality weakens the relationship between employee proactive personality and the two types of proactive behaviors. Employee proactive personality is more positively related to intrinsic and extrinsic career growth via proactive behaviors when a leader’s proactive personality is low. This study extends the literature on proactive personality, proactive behavior, and career development by examining the underlying determination, mediation, and moderation mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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10 pages, 877 KiB  
Article
Worry about the Future in the Climate Change Emergency: A Mediation Analysis of the Role of Eco-Anxiety and Emotion Regulation
by Luisa Orrù, Federica Taccini and Stefania Mannarini
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030255 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 616
Abstract
The climate change emergency is one of the most important challenges of our time, and its impact on mental health has been evident for years. It is very important for clinicians to delve deeper into these manifestations. There are a wide variety of [...] Read more.
The climate change emergency is one of the most important challenges of our time, and its impact on mental health has been evident for years. It is very important for clinicians to delve deeper into these manifestations. There are a wide variety of constructs, symptoms, and scales to measure the impact of climate change on mental health. Eco-anxiety is one of the constructs that has specifically emerged, in association with worry, about the future. In mental health studies, it is important to explore the relationship between eco-anxiety and emotion regulation and how much this relationship leads to worry about the future in order to be able to offer clinical intervention recommendations. Indeed, the hypothesis of this study is that it is possible to develop worries about the future when symptoms of eco-anxiety and a poor ability to regulate emotions are present. Particularly, emotion dysregulation could increase eco-anxiety symptoms and generate worries about one’s own future. For this reason, we have chosen to explore the relationships between these three constructs with the use of a mediation analysis. For this research, 351 participants were recruited in Italy. The proposed mediation model highlighted the findings that emotion dysregulation was positively related with eco-anxiety and that eco-anxiety predicts worry about the future. An association between emotion dysregulation and worry about the future was present. Eco-anxiety appeared to be an important mediator between emotional dysregulation and worry about the future. Emotion regulation could play a pivotal role in addressing concerns about the future. These findings could pave the way for exploring new research avenues and potential clinical interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Shaping of Services for Health Promotion)
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14 pages, 271 KiB  
Review
The Role of Sport Psychology in Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation in Junior Athletes
by Moritz Weiß, Matthias Büttner and Fabio Richlan
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030254 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 826
Abstract
Sports injuries have historically been addressed and treated from a purely physical perspective. Nevertheless, like in many other aspects of sports, it has become evident during the last decades that psychological considerations and consequent interventions are both vital and inevitable in the work [...] Read more.
Sports injuries have historically been addressed and treated from a purely physical perspective. Nevertheless, like in many other aspects of sports, it has become evident during the last decades that psychological considerations and consequent interventions are both vital and inevitable in the work with athletes, particularly in the work with junior athletes. Especially in the domains of sports injury prevention and rehabilitation, psychological measures can yield significant benefits for junior athletes. Stress management techniques, cognitive restructuring, mindfulness, motor imagery, or seeking social support have been demonstrated as being highly effective. These techniques, many of them originally intended by sport psychologists to optimize performance, now aid junior athletes in performing at their best while also preventing injury and facilitating a safe return to competition after injury. During injury rehabilitation, sport psychological measures play an important role as well. The purpose of this review is firstly to provide an overview of the psychological factors that significantly support both injury prevention and rehabilitation. We subsequently elaborate on the identification and optimization of these factors by presenting evidence-based psychological interventions and training programs. In addition, we provide science-informed fundamentals that may serve as a basis for the adaptation and/or development of novel psychological measures to support junior athletes during injury prevention and rehabilitation. Full article
15 pages, 1965 KiB  
Article
“Mom Said after the Spring Festival, I’ve Grown a Year”: Chinese Preschoolers’ Perspectives on Growing Up
by Yinshan Su and Jin Huang
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030253 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Previous studies on child development have emphasized universal developmental stages and socialization, overlooking a direct investigation of young children’s subjective understanding of growing up. This study explored the perspectives of preschool children on growing up. Participant observations, semi-structured interviews, and drawing-telling were employed [...] Read more.
Previous studies on child development have emphasized universal developmental stages and socialization, overlooking a direct investigation of young children’s subjective understanding of growing up. This study explored the perspectives of preschool children on growing up. Participant observations, semi-structured interviews, and drawing-telling were employed to investigate 56 urban Chinese preschoolers. The theoretical framework adopted for this study was Merleau-Ponty’s existential phenomenology, providing a lens through which the children’s voices were elucidated. The results revealed that children perceive their growth holistically across four themes: body, space, skills, and relations. Their perception of growing up adheres to a structure–agency duality, where social influences and children’s agency coalesce to shape their understanding of growing up. Adults contribute by embedding significance in daily situations and designated “occupations”, while children actively reinterpret these societal narratives, forging their conceptions of growing up. These findings suggest a need for educational approaches that resonate with children’s interpretations of their evolving lifeworld beyond merely imparting knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Educational Psychology)
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12 pages, 462 KiB  
Article
Mood Lifters for Graduate Students and Young Adults: A Mixed-Methods Investigation into Mechanisms of Change in Online Group Therapy
by Elena L. Pokowitz, Neema Prakash, Dennis Planaj, Sophia Oprandi and Patricia J. Deldin
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030252 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 832
Abstract
Mood Lifters (ML) is a dimensional, group-based, peer-led mental health program that has shown efficacy in mitigating psychopathology and promoting wellness within a variety of populations. There is not yet evidence for mechanism(s) driving these changes. Qualitative data exploring the lived experiences of [...] Read more.
Mood Lifters (ML) is a dimensional, group-based, peer-led mental health program that has shown efficacy in mitigating psychopathology and promoting wellness within a variety of populations. There is not yet evidence for mechanism(s) driving these changes. Qualitative data exploring the lived experiences of participants may be a unique way to develop hypotheses about the potential mechanisms driving change. The current study used qualitative and quantitative data from the ML for Graduate Students (ML-GS) and Young Adults (ML-YA) studies to generate hypotheses regarding potential mechanisms of changes experienced in ML. Seventy-nine graduate students and fifty-nine non-student young adults provided quantitative and qualitative feedback after participating in a 12-week virtual ML program. Inductive qualitative analysis was conducted within a reflexive thematic framework. Descriptive statistics of quantitative measures were also calculated. Three themes suggest potential directions for future mechanism research on virtual ML programs. Most participants emphasized the social connections built in groups as the most potent and powerful aspects of ML, while others focused on the design or content of the program. Quantitative data presented contextualize the lived experiences of participants. Future ML research should explore the three themes identified within this study through continued qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis. NCT05078450. Full article
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11 pages, 251 KiB  
Article
A 6-Item Family Resilience Scale (FRS6) for Measuring Longitudinal Trajectory of Family Adjustment
by Catherine So Kum Tang, Tiffany Sok U Siu, Tak Sang Chow and Sin Hang Kwok
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030251 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Two studies were conducted in Hong Kong to validate a brief measure of family resilience based on the three-factor CPR model. The CPR model stipulates that family resilience comprises three major factors: Communication and Connectedness (C), Positive Framing (P), and External Resources (R). [...] Read more.
Two studies were conducted in Hong Kong to validate a brief measure of family resilience based on the three-factor CPR model. The CPR model stipulates that family resilience comprises three major factors: Communication and Connectedness (C), Positive Framing (P), and External Resources (R). Study 1 abbreviated the 16-item Family Resilience Scale (FRS16) into six items (FRS6) with a parent sample in the community (N = 1270). Study 2 tested the validity of the FRS6 with a single parent sample (N = 336). The result of Study 1 suggests a dominant general family resilience factor structure with three distinct subfactors. The highest factor loading items from each of the three subfactors were retained in the six-item FRS6. The resultant FRS6 was internally consistent and related to various correlates in similar or better strengths as compared to the FRS16. The results of a separate sample in Study 2 indicated that the FRS6 demonstrated satisfactory internal reliability and correlated significantly with individual resilience, quality of life, anxiety, and depression in the expected directions. Both studies supported that the FRS6 is a psychometrically sound measure of family resilience and can be used in longitudinal studies that aim to chart the trajectory of family adjustment following life adversities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Resilience Psychology)
17 pages, 645 KiB  
Article
Compete or Cooperate? Goal Orientations and Coworker Popularity in the Knowledge-Sharing Dilemma
by Heesun Chae and Inyong Shin
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030250 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Focusing on two goal orientations (the learning and performance prove-goal orientation), this study proposed a different mechanism for dealing with the knowledge-sharing dilemma. We analyzed data from 257 employee–coworker dyads, finding that the learning goal orientation positively affected knowledge sharing, while the performance [...] Read more.
Focusing on two goal orientations (the learning and performance prove-goal orientation), this study proposed a different mechanism for dealing with the knowledge-sharing dilemma. We analyzed data from 257 employee–coworker dyads, finding that the learning goal orientation positively affected knowledge sharing, while the performance prove-goal orientation negatively affected knowledge sharing. In addition, highlighting the importance of coworker influence, our analysis showed that coworker popularity served as social cue to boost the main effects of knowledge sharing. Specifically, the positive relationship between the learning goal orientation and knowledge sharing and the negative relationship between the performance prove-goal orientation and knowledge sharing were stronger when coworker popularity was higher. These findings contribute to articulating theoretical directions at the individual level for addressing the dilemma associated with knowledge sharing. Furthermore, they offer practical implications by emphasizing the ongoing importance of considering the influence of coworkers, who serve as crucial exchange partners during task execution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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19 pages, 1123 KiB  
Article
From Stress to Screen: Understanding Cyberloafing through Cognitive and Affective Pathways
by Xinyuan Lu, Yizhou Wang, Xiaoxiao Chen and Quan Lu
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030249 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 641
Abstract
This investigation delves into the pervasive yet insufficiently examined phenomenon of “cyberloafing”, characterized by employees engaging in non-work-related internet activities during office hours. Despite its frequent occurrence in contemporary work environments, the fundamental mechanisms underpinning cyberloafing remain largely uncharted. This study uses the [...] Read more.
This investigation delves into the pervasive yet insufficiently examined phenomenon of “cyberloafing”, characterized by employees engaging in non-work-related internet activities during office hours. Despite its frequent occurrence in contemporary work environments, the fundamental mechanisms underpinning cyberloafing remain largely uncharted. This study uses the conservation of resources theory and the cognitive–affective personality system framework to demystify the relationship between role stress and cyberloafing. We developed a dual-path model to assess the mediating roles of perceived insider status and emotional exhaustion. Employing SPSS and Smart PLS for data analysis, our research sampled 210 corporate employees. The findings reveal that role stress predicts perceived insider status and emotional exhaustion significantly. Notably, while perceived insider status negatively correlates with cyberloafing, emotional exhaustion shows a positive correlation. These factors mediate the relationship between role stress and cyberloafing, underscoring a multifaceted dynamic. Our results provide new theoretical insights into the mechanisms of employee counterproductive behavior, specifically in the context of cyberloafing, and broaden our understanding of its determinants. This study illuminates theoretical nuances and offers practical implications for managerial strategies and future scholarly inquiries into organizational behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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21 pages, 1066 KiB  
Article
Measuring Occupational Well-Being Indicators: Scale Construction and Validation
by Hanvedes Daovisan and Ungsinun Intarakamhang
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030248 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 897
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to carry out the scale development of occupational well-being (OWB) (affective, professional, social, cognitive, psychological and psychosomatic well-being) in Laos. Using multiple sampling data, we developed a valid OWB scale with a large Laotian sample (n [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to carry out the scale development of occupational well-being (OWB) (affective, professional, social, cognitive, psychological and psychosomatic well-being) in Laos. Using multiple sampling data, we developed a valid OWB scale with a large Laotian sample (n = 1745). The validity of the OWB-47 scale was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Cross-validity, the initial model, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed using Stata 19 to assess the validity of the scale development. Consistent with the valid model, the CFA revealed a unidimensional structure in the OWB scale. The initial measurement of the OWB scale was significantly correlated with the measure of the six-dimensional model. Regarding the full model testing, the CFA model was developed to test the validity of the OWB-47 scale, suggesting the acceptability of the fit model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing Organizational Behaviors for Sustainable Wellbeing at Work)
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21 pages, 975 KiB  
Article
Empowering and Educating Parents to Implement a Home Intervention: Effects on Preschool Children’s Engagement in Hands-on Constructive Play
by Michelle Boulanger Thompson, Yaoying Xu, Chin-Chih Chen and Kathleen Rudasill
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030247 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 864
Abstract
Constructive play is a creative process-oriented activity that promotes children’s engaged learning through building and designing with materials. This study investigated a parent-implemented intervention to promote active engagement in constructive play for preschool-aged children at risk for developmental delay. This study utilized a [...] Read more.
Constructive play is a creative process-oriented activity that promotes children’s engaged learning through building and designing with materials. This study investigated a parent-implemented intervention to promote active engagement in constructive play for preschool-aged children at risk for developmental delay. This study utilized a single-subject multiple-baseline across-participants design with four participants. Visual analysis of the data identified a functional relation between the temporal, physical, and social–emotional environmental support provided by the parents and the children’s active engagement in constructive play. Parents reported the intervention as meaningful to their lives, indicating strong social validity. These findings highlight the importance of centering and working with parents in their home environment and provide evidence that empowering parents to provide support and minimize barriers facilitates children’s active engagement in constructive play. Full article
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9 pages, 200 KiB  
Article
An Investigation of Employment Hope as a Key Factor Influencing Perceptions of Subjective Recovery among Adults with Serious Mental Illness Seeking Community Work
by Marina Kukla, Alan B. McGuire, Kenneth C. Weber, Jessi Hatfield, Nancy Henry, Eric Kulesza and Angela L. Rollins
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030246 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 687
Abstract
Introduction: Employment is an important contributor to recovery in people with serious mental illness (SMI), yet studies have not explored how subjective elements of employment hope contribute to perceptions of global recovery in this population. Methods: The current study examined the relationship between [...] Read more.
Introduction: Employment is an important contributor to recovery in people with serious mental illness (SMI), yet studies have not explored how subjective elements of employment hope contribute to perceptions of global recovery in this population. Methods: The current study examined the relationship between employment hope and subjective recovery in 276 unemployed adults with SMI participating in a multi-site clinical trial of a cognitive behavioral group intervention tailored toward work and combined with vocational rehabilitation. Participants had diagnoses of schizophrenia spectrum, bipolar, depressive, and posttraumatic stress disorders, and were receiving services at three Veterans Affairs healthcare facilities in the United States. Data were collected at study baseline. Linear regression analysis examined the relationship between employment hope (Short Employment Hope Scale; EHS-14) and subjective recovery (Recovery Assessment Scale; RAS) after controlling for psychiatric symptom severity and mental-health-related burden on daily life. Results: After accounting for covariates, employment hope significantly contributed to the regression model explaining subjective recovery. The overall model of predictor variables explained 52.5% of the variance in recovery. The results further explore the relationships between EHS-14 and RAS subscales. Conclusions: The findings suggest that employment hope is a key intervention target to bolster subjective recovery in this vulnerable population. Full article
15 pages, 1807 KiB  
Article
Empathy and Schizotypy: A Network Comparison of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index in High and Low Schizotypy Groups
by Lillian A. Hammer, Aleksandr Karnick, Kendall Beals, Lauren Luther and Kelsey A. Bonfils
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030245 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 682
Abstract
Empathy is a multifaceted concept that is vital to effective social functioning; yet, it is impaired in high schizotypy groups. Furthermore, empathy has been found to be a mediator in the relationship between schizotypy and social functioning, highlighting the importance of empathy as [...] Read more.
Empathy is a multifaceted concept that is vital to effective social functioning; yet, it is impaired in high schizotypy groups. Furthermore, empathy has been found to be a mediator in the relationship between schizotypy and social functioning, highlighting the importance of empathy as a driver in social outcomes. Despite this, the four-factor structure of a widely-used measure of empathy—the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI)—has been found to be psychometrically weak in high schizotypy samples. As such, this study aimed to assess differences in the item-level network of the IRI between high (n = 427) and low schizotypy groups (n = 470). The results reveal that there are significant differences in the structure of these networks, though they evidence similar strengths. Within the high schizotypy group, the network structure was consistent with the four-factor structure of the IRI subscales; items from each subscale clustered together and were distinct from those in the other subscales. By contrast, the low schizotypy group evidenced six clusters that did not mirror the IRI subscales. These results suggest that the item-level structure of the IRI is dependent upon the level of schizotypy of the sample, with the high schizotypy group’s network functioning similarly to what would be expected from the original four-factor structure. Full article
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17 pages, 1417 KiB  
Article
Attentional Bias of Individuals with Social Anxiety towards Facial and Somatic Emotional Cues in a Holistic Manner
by Yuetan Wang, Jingjing Liang, Ziwen Zhu, Jingyi Gao, Qiuyan Yao and Xiaobin Ding
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030244 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 681
Abstract
Attentional bias towards threatening information is a crucial factor contributing to the development and persistence of social anxiety. However, the attentional bias towards threat information and the preferential processing pattern of emotional cues in individuals with social anxiety disorder during integrated facial and [...] Read more.
Attentional bias towards threatening information is a crucial factor contributing to the development and persistence of social anxiety. However, the attentional bias towards threat information and the preferential processing pattern of emotional cues in individuals with social anxiety disorder during integrated facial and physical stimuli processing remain unclear. In this study, we employed a dot-probe paradigm to investigate the attentional bias towards integrated emotions (facial–body) among students with high and low levels of social anxiety (Experiment 1). Experiments 2 and 3 examined the attentional bias of socially anxious individuals when faced with conflicting emotional cues from faces or bodies in relation to integrated emotions. The data revealed that participants both high and low levels of social anxiety participants exhibited accelerated orienting and biased attention towards facial–body emotional processing. When there was inconsistency between emotional cues from faces or bodies and integrated emotions, higher levels of social anxiety were associated with increased vigilance towards threatening faces or bodies. These findings underscore that individuals with social anxiety possess an ability to rapidly capture threatening cues during the processing of facial–body emotional stimuli while also demonstrating a tendency to avoid relying solely on facial cues by compensating through bodily cues for emotion perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatric, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders)
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25 pages, 3551 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Overview of Micro-Influencer Marketing: Decoding the Current Landscape, Impacts, and Trends
by Jie Chen, Yangting Zhang, Han Cai, Lu Liu, Miyan Liao and Jiaming Fang
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030243 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1270
Abstract
This research provides a comprehensive overview of micro-influence marketing, analyzing the characteristics of influencers and the mechanisms of their impact. A systematic review was conducted, encompassing 2091 citing articles and references across 74 studies involving 95 research institutions and over 12,000 samples. Employing [...] Read more.
This research provides a comprehensive overview of micro-influence marketing, analyzing the characteristics of influencers and the mechanisms of their impact. A systematic review was conducted, encompassing 2091 citing articles and references across 74 studies involving 95 research institutions and over 12,000 samples. Employing an interdisciplinary approach that integrates insights from computer science, information science, communication, culture, psychology, sociology, education, business, and management, this study outlines the distinct features of micro-influencers. These features include performable authenticity, affinity expressed through consistency and transparency, musical and artistic media talent, and competitive individual traits. The research synthesizes antecedents of trust and attachment mechanisms commonly employed in influencer theory, taking an objective standpoint and minimizing emphasis on audience engagement and perception to trigger influence. The findings highlight that followers’ pursuit of self-branding, driven by self-consciousness, social consciousness, credibility, and social presence, significantly influences the impact of self-expressive products on the audience’s purchase intention. The research contributes to micro-influence marketing theory by integrating mechanics, offering practical implications for micro-influencers, and suggesting future research agendas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Behavioral Economics)
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21 pages, 639 KiB  
Article
The Mediating Role of Emotional Arousal and Donation Anxiety on Blood Donation Intentions: Expanding on the Theory of Planned Behavior
by Stefanos Balaskas, Maria Koutroumani and Maria Rigou
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030242 - 17 Mar 2024
Viewed by 762
Abstract
Blood donation is essential in health-care systems worldwide, dealing with the demand for transfusions, and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. A major obstacle is raising the rate of blood donations by recruiting and retaining donors in an efficient manner. [...] Read more.
Blood donation is essential in health-care systems worldwide, dealing with the demand for transfusions, and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. A major obstacle is raising the rate of blood donations by recruiting and retaining donors in an efficient manner. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of blood donation, utilizing an enhanced framework based on the theory of planned behavior with an emphasis on emotional arousal (positive and negative), attitudes towards advertisements, and blood donation anxiety, revealing critical psychological and communicative determinants of blood donation intention. To achieve this, a quantitative non-experimental correlational technique was employed to collect data from 414 individuals using an online questionnaire circulated across Greek society. The data were analyzed using structural equation modelling, with a focus on the direct impacts on donation intentions and the role of emotional arousal as a mediator. The findings indicate that attitudes and anxiety have strong direct impacts on the behavioral intention to donate, underlining the important barriers generated by donation anxieties as well as the efficacy of positive attitudes and successful advertising. Furthermore, the study demonstrates emotional arousal as a partial mediator, implying that both cognitive assessments and emotional responses play a role in influencing donation intentions. This study takes on a new approach to give emphasis and provide evidence of the mediating effect of emotional arousal on donation intention, utilizing structural equation modeling. Despite the critical role of marketing as a primary source of blood donors, the implementation of emotional marketing techniques has been one aspect less addressed throughout marketing professionals and communication efforts. Our results demonstrate the significance of emotional arousal on blood donation intentions, thus suggesting a more emotionally resonant approach of attracting potential donors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatric, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders)
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12 pages, 529 KiB  
Article
The Mediating Effect of Depression on the Relationship between Loneliness and Substance Use in Korean Adolescents
by Hyesun Kim
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030241 - 17 Mar 2024
Viewed by 669
Abstract
Substance use among adolescents is a major emerging health problem worldwide. Although loneliness and depression are major risk factors for substance use, few studies have examined the relationship between loneliness, depression, and substance use in adolescents. This study aimed to determine the mediating [...] Read more.
Substance use among adolescents is a major emerging health problem worldwide. Although loneliness and depression are major risk factors for substance use, few studies have examined the relationship between loneliness, depression, and substance use in adolescents. This study aimed to determine the mediating effect of depression on the relationship between loneliness and substance use among Korean adolescents, based on the data from 53,310 adolescents from the 17th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey in 2021. Using a complex sample analysis module, hierarchical logistic regression analysis was employed to confirm the mediating effect of depression on the relationship between loneliness and substance use. The results showed that loneliness and depression have a significant effect on substance use (smoking, drinking alcohol, and drug use). Depression was found to have a partial mediating effect on the relationship between loneliness and substance use. Overall, the results suggested that loneliness and depression in adolescents increase substance use, and loneliness can affect substance use through depression. Therefore, proactive strategies to prevent and reduce loneliness and depression in adolescents can be effective in preventing substance use. Full article
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13 pages, 1764 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Meta-Analysis on the Effectiveness of Gratitude Promotion Programs for South Korean College Students
by Namki Lee and Yucheon Kim
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030240 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 784
Abstract
This study delves into the importance and consequences of gratitude promotion programs for South Korean college students. It uses meta-analyses to evaluate the effects of such programs on this demographic, shedding light on their significance and implications. To that end, we selected 11 [...] Read more.
This study delves into the importance and consequences of gratitude promotion programs for South Korean college students. It uses meta-analyses to evaluate the effects of such programs on this demographic, shedding light on their significance and implications. To that end, we selected 11 papers in which 683 persons participated as study subjects, analyzing them using the PRISMA methodology. We observed an overall effect size of 0.6671, categorized as above medium. The effect sizes of the sub-areas were cognitive (d = 1.37), emotional (d = 0.60), and behavioral (d = 0.77), with the cognitive area exhibiting the largest effect size. When categorized by program type, the effect size (d = 0.85) for the program involving gratitude practice and gratitude recording surpassed the effect size (d = 0.77) of the programs where participants solely engaged in gratitude recording. According to program execution durations, the largest effect size (d = 1.61) appeared in the group that executed the program for the longest period of at least 16 weeks. This study highlights the areas where gratitude promotion programs for college students prove to be most effective. These findings offer valuable insights for tailoring and developing gratitude promotion programs in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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15 pages, 656 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Interplay between Wellness Motivation, Engagement, Satisfaction, and Destination Loyalty
by Young-joo Ahn and Katie Bokyun Kim
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030239 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 747
Abstract
Increased awareness of negative psychological symptoms and the negative impact of the pandemic has led to a rising demand for wellness-related travel experiences. There is a need for research on tourists’ experiential and reflective engagement in order to maximize positive outcomes such as [...] Read more.
Increased awareness of negative psychological symptoms and the negative impact of the pandemic has led to a rising demand for wellness-related travel experiences. There is a need for research on tourists’ experiential and reflective engagement in order to maximize positive outcomes such as overall satisfaction, positive WOM, and recommendations. These positive outcomes are crucial for attracting tourists and strengthening destinations’ brands. As there are few empirical studies, research on the effects of engagement on satisfaction and behavioral intentions is necessary. This study aimed to examine the relationships between wellness motivation, engagement, satisfaction, and destination loyalty among wellness tourists. It also aimed to examine the mediating effects of two engagement factors, experiential and reflective engagement, between wellness motivation and positive outcomes. A total of 319 respondents were used for the analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted. The results found that wellness motivation is composed of six wellness motivation components, namely physical motivation, transcendence, relaxation, social motivation, self-esteem, and escape, each representing first-order factors. Wellness motivation is positively associated with reflective and experiential engagement. Engagement positively affects satisfaction and destination loyalty. This study provides several implications, theoretically and practically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Psychology)
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12 pages, 856 KiB  
Article
Insecure Attachment and Depressive Symptoms among a Large Sample of Chinese Young Adults: The Mediating Role of Positive and Negative Self-Compassion
by Shuhan Yang, Yizhen Ren, Xi Song, Jie Ge and Yu Peng
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030238 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 773
Abstract
Objective: The present study aimed to explore the relationship between insecure attachment (attachment anxiety and avoidance) and depressive symptoms in Chinese young adults as well as the mediating roles of positive and negative self-compassion. Methods: An online survey was administered among college students [...] Read more.
Objective: The present study aimed to explore the relationship between insecure attachment (attachment anxiety and avoidance) and depressive symptoms in Chinese young adults as well as the mediating roles of positive and negative self-compassion. Methods: An online survey was administered among college students in mainland China. This involved their completion of questionnaires encompassing socio-demographic details, attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, self-compassion, and depressive symptoms. Results: Attachment anxiety and avoidance exhibited connections with depressive symptoms through increased negative self-compassion and decreased positive self-compassion. Attachment anxiety was associated with depressive symptoms primarily through the mediating effect of negative self-compassion. Conversely, attachment avoidance was related to depressive symptoms mainly through the mediating role of positive self-compassion. Conclusions: Attachment anxiety exerted a slightly stronger influence on negative self-compassion, whereas attachment avoidance exhibited a more prominent impact on positive self-compassion. Despite these differences, both attachment styles were comparable in their overall influence on depressive symptoms. This revelation provides fresh insights into the relationship between insecure attachment and depressive symptoms among young adults, underscoring the importance for intervention program development. Full article
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7 pages, 218 KiB  
Case Report
Successful Pharmacologic Treatment of Self-Bloodletting with Factitious Chronic Anemia (Lasthénie de Ferjol Syndrome) with High-Dose Serotonergic Medication: A Case Report
by Stefan Mestermann, Laura Rudtke, Razvan-Marius Brazdis, Thanos Tsaktanis, Johannes Kornhuber and Norbert Thürauf
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030237 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 866
Abstract
Self-induced bloodletting (SBL) is a very rare form of self-injury (SI) seen primarily in adolescents and young adults with personality and eating disorders. It can result in complications like malaise, fatigue, or iron-deficiency anemia (Lasthénie de Ferjol syndrome, LFS), and poses a risk [...] Read more.
Self-induced bloodletting (SBL) is a very rare form of self-injury (SI) seen primarily in adolescents and young adults with personality and eating disorders. It can result in complications like malaise, fatigue, or iron-deficiency anemia (Lasthénie de Ferjol syndrome, LFS), and poses a risk of accidental death or suicide. The condition often goes undetected due to patient concealment. There is no specific treatment established, and pharmacological strategies remain uncertain. We discuss the case of a 22-year-old female patient treated at our Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Department following a suicide attempt via SBL. She self-administered a venous cannula, losing 1.5 L of blood. Diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia (LFS), she was initially treated with mirtazapine, risperidone, lithium, and later off-label high-dose clomipramine (300 mg/d). Clomipramine significantly reduced her SBL and suicidal thoughts, and her hemoglobin levels re-normalized under iron-substitution therapy. Despite improvement and later discharge, she attempted suicide by SBL again three months later, having stopped clomipramine due to adverse side effects. High-dose escitalopram was administered, leading to a decrease and eventual cessation of her SBL urges. This case demonstrates that patients with SBL/LFS can benefit from high-dose clomipramine or escitalopram. Despite its rarity, the consideration of high-dose serotonergic antidepressants is crucial in psychiatric diagnostics and treatment for patients affected by SBL/LFS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Illnesses and Related Self-Injury Behavior)
20 pages, 1064 KiB  
Article
Performance Pressure and Employee Presenteeism: The Joint Effects of Authoritarian Leadership and Independent Self-Construal
by Siyi Zhang, Haijia Wang and Qi He
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030236 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 774
Abstract
Due to the increasing competition in the market and the limited availability of high-quality employment opportunities, an increasing number of employees struggle to maintain a balance between their physical conditions and performance demands, resulting in a more widespread occurrence of “working while ill”. [...] Read more.
Due to the increasing competition in the market and the limited availability of high-quality employment opportunities, an increasing number of employees struggle to maintain a balance between their physical conditions and performance demands, resulting in a more widespread occurrence of “working while ill”. However, little is known about the controlled motivation behind the phenomenon under pressure. Drawing on self-determination theory, this study utilized 281 questionnaire data to examine the positive effect of performance pressure on employee presenteeism, and to explore the moderating role of authoritarian leadership and its joint moderation function effect with independent self-construal. The results indicated that performance pressure had a significant positive effect on employee presenteeism. Authoritarian leadership imposed an enhanced moderating effect between performance pressure and employee presenteeism, while independent self-construal diminished the augmentative moderating role played by authoritarian leadership in the relationship between performance pressure and employee presenteeism. This study reveals the controlled motivation of employee presenteeism under performance pressure, taking into account the cultural background and organizational context of China. Moreover, it also offers novel perspectives for effectively managing this phenomenon. Full article
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14 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
Influence of Personality Traits and Organizational Justice on Job Satisfaction among Nurses
by Marin Mamić, Tihomir Jovanović, Slavka Galić, Ivana Jelinčić, Štefica Mikšić, Božica Lovrić, Ivanka Zirdum, Kristijan Matković, Goran Zukanović, Goranka Radmilović, Tihana Mendeš, Mirela Frančina and Ivan Vukoja
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030235 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 906
Abstract
The purpose of this research was to examine whether demographic variables, personality traits, and workplace variables (working in shifts, job tenure, and perceived organizational justice) contribute the most to the prediction of job satisfaction in nurses. The survey included 161 nurses. The instruments [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research was to examine whether demographic variables, personality traits, and workplace variables (working in shifts, job tenure, and perceived organizational justice) contribute the most to the prediction of job satisfaction in nurses. The survey included 161 nurses. The instruments used in this research were as follows: the Demographic Data Questionnaire, the Perceived Organizational Justice Scale, the Job Satisfaction Scale, and the NEO five-factor inventory. The study findings indicated that age, health status, distributive justice, and procedural justice positively contribute to job satisfaction among nurses, while neuroticism contributes negatively. Older nurses, those in better health, those who are satisfied with the organization’s decision-making process, and those who feel adequately rewarded for their contributions tend to be more satisfied with their jobs. Conversely, nurses with a higher level of the neuroticism personality trait tend to be less satisfied with their job. The strongest predictors of job satisfaction among nurses were found to be health status, the personality trait of neuroticism, and distributive and procedural justice, with the age of nurses being slightly less powerful but still significant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
12 pages, 973 KiB  
Article
Stress Control in Older People through Healing Garden Activities
by Sun-Hee Kim, Joo-Bong Seo and Byung-Yeol Ryu
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030234 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 665
Abstract
This study, conducted on a group older than 60-years-of-age, sought to verify if healing garden activities control stress in older people. The experimental group performed garden activities once a week for 12 weeks, for 2 h each day, and the control group continued [...] Read more.
This study, conducted on a group older than 60-years-of-age, sought to verify if healing garden activities control stress in older people. The experimental group performed garden activities once a week for 12 weeks, for 2 h each day, and the control group continued their daily lives. Each group’s cumulative stress at the beginning and end, along with total power (TP), the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval (SDNN), and the root mean square differences of successive R–R intervals (RMSSD), were measured using u-Bio MACPA, a stress index meter. The analysis showed that the experimental group had a statistically significant decrease in cumulative stress, compared to the control group; and also that TP significantly increased, compared to the control group. The SDNN and RMSSD of the experimental group increased, and decreased in the control group, but the changes were not statistically significant. The fact that cumulative stress decreased and stress evaluation indicators increased shows that daily stress can be controlled through healing garden activities. However, due to the small number of participants in the experiment, its ability to be generalized to all elderly people is subject to a number of limitations. Nevertheless, I think it is meaningful that the finding that garden activities are significant in mediating stress in the elderly was verified using a scientific measurement instrument. Future studies should explore the healing effectiveness of gardens in other age groups. Full article
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19 pages, 2618 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Time Monitoring on the Development of Time-Based Prospective Memory among Children Aged 7–11 Years Old
by Yinya Wang, Zhi Ren, Yaqi Yue, Xi Zheng, Xinyuan Zhang and Lijuan Wang
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030233 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 679
Abstract
Time-based prospective memory (TBPM) refers to the ability of an individual to successfully execute an expected plan in the future at a certain time point or after a definite period of time. This study investigated the potential developmental mechanism of school-age children’s TBPM [...] Read more.
Time-based prospective memory (TBPM) refers to the ability of an individual to successfully execute an expected plan in the future at a certain time point or after a definite period of time. This study investigated the potential developmental mechanism of school-age children’s TBPM ability from the perspective of time monitoring. Experiment 1 used a between-subjects design of three ages (7, 9, 11) × two TBPM types (time point, time period) to investigate the trends and characteristics of two types of TBPM in children aged 7–11 years old. Experiment 2 used a between-subjects design of three ages (7, 9, 11) × two monitoring conditions (free monitoring, fixed monitoring) to investigate differences in two types of TBPM and monitoring behavior among school-age children under different monitoring conditions. These results showed that the age effect of TBPM was affected by the type of prospective memory (PM) and that time-point PM performance was significantly better than time-period PM performance among school-age children. These findings indicate that clear and definite external cues are helpful for school-age children in performing TBPM tasks. Moreover, there were significant differences found in the TBPM performance of school-age children under different time monitoring conditions. The performance of older children was significantly better than that of younger children. This indicates that older children can better allocate their attentional resources and use time monitoring strategies to improve their performance in PM tasks. Accordingly, this study showed that the TBPM ability of 7- to 11-year-old children is in continuous development and that the time monitoring behavior in the TBPM task is affected by task type and monitoring conditions. Full article
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17 pages, 488 KiB  
Article
Attitudes Formation toward Minority Outgroups in Times of Global Crisis—The Role of Good and Bad Digital News Consumption
by Nonna Kushnirovich and Sabina Lissitsa
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030232 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 670
Abstract
This paper examines the relationships between the consumption of ‘bad’ or ‘good’ digital economic news and attitudes toward immigrant and ethnic minorities during the crisis that developed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study considered attitudes toward two minority groups in Israel: immigrant citizens [...] Read more.
This paper examines the relationships between the consumption of ‘bad’ or ‘good’ digital economic news and attitudes toward immigrant and ethnic minorities during the crisis that developed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study considered attitudes toward two minority groups in Israel: immigrant citizens from English-speaking countries, and Israeli Palestinian citizens, an ethnic minority. The data were collected through an online survey of 866 respondents, who were members of the majority population group. The study found that, during the global crisis, exposure to bad digital news was associated with more positive attitudes toward both disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged minority groups. Moreover, in times of global crisis, people focused mostly on local rather than global digital news. In contrast to the idea of Intergroup Threat Theory, the study revealed that feelings of economic threat during the global crisis engendered higher cohesion between different population groups, and more positive attitudes toward minorities. In times of crisis, bad news for the economy brings good news for social solidarity—people tend to rally around the flag; this phenomenon even occurs between groups engaged in years-long, protracted conflict. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosocial Factors and Risk Behavior among Minority Populations)
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12 pages, 1353 KiB  
Article
Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) of Brain Microstructure in Adolescent Cannabis and Nicotine Use
by Alexander L Wallace, Kelly E. Courtney, Natasha E. Wade, Laura E. Hatz, Rachel Baca, Aaron Jacobson, Thomas T. Liu and Joanna Jacobus
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs14030231 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 791
Abstract
Introduction: Despite evidence suggesting deleterious effects of cannabis and nicotine tobacco product (NTP) use on white matter integrity, there have been limited studies examining white matter integrity among users of both cannabis and nicotine. Further, updated white matter methodology provides opportunities to investigate [...] Read more.
Introduction: Despite evidence suggesting deleterious effects of cannabis and nicotine tobacco product (NTP) use on white matter integrity, there have been limited studies examining white matter integrity among users of both cannabis and nicotine. Further, updated white matter methodology provides opportunities to investigate use patterns on neurite orientation dispersion and density (NODDI) indices and subtle tissue changes related to the intra- and extra-neurite compartment. We aimed to investigate how cannabis and NTP use among adolescents and young adults interacts to impact the white matter integrity microstructure. Materials and Methods: A total of 221 participants between the ages of 16 and 22 completed the Customary Drinking and Drug Use Record (CDDR) to measure substance use, and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) session. Participants were divided into NTP-control and NTP groupings and cannabis-control and cannabis groupings (≥26 NTP/cannabis uses in past 6 months). Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and two-way between-subjects ANOVA investigated the effects of NTP use group, cannabis use group, and their interaction on fractional anisotropy (FA) and NODDI indices while controlling for age and biological sex. Results: NTP use was associated with decreased FA values and increased orientation dispersion in the left anterior capsule. There were no significant effects of cannabis use or the interaction of NTP and cannabis use on white matter outcomes. Discussion: NTP use was associated with altered white matter integrity in an adolescent and young adult sample. Findings suggest that NTP-associated alterations may be linked to altered fiber tract geometry and dispersed neurite structures versus myelination, as well as differential effects of NTP and cannabis use on white matter structure. Future work is needed to investigate how altered white matter is related to downstream behavioral effects from NTP use. Full article
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