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Nutrients, Volume 16, Issue 7 (April-1 2024) – 183 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Previous research has indicated an association between the presence of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in breast cancer tissue and a favorable prognosis. This study aimed to further evaluate the prognostic potential of VDR located in the nuclear membrane or nucleus (liganded). The VDR protein levels were analyzed using immunohistochemistry in tumor samples from 878 breast cancer patients from Lund, Sweden, included in the Breast Cancer and Blood Study (BCBlood) from October 2002 to June 2012. The follow-up for breast cancer events and overall survival was recorded until 30 June 2019. Univariable and multivariable survival analyses were conducted, both with complete case data and with missing data imputed using multiple imputation by chained equations (MICE). View this paper
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22 pages, 707 KiB  
Article
Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Lifestyle Practices That May Lead to Breast Cancer Risk Reduction among Female University Students in Lebanon
by Nour Deeb, Farah Naja, Lara Nasreddine, Samer Kharroubi, Nadine Darwiche and Nahla Hwalla
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071095 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 953
Abstract
Research has identified both nonmodifiable and modifiable risk factors for breast cancer (BC), with accumulating evidence showing that adopting adequate dietary practices could decrease the risk of this disease. This study aimed to assess nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and lifestyle practices (KAP) that may [...] Read more.
Research has identified both nonmodifiable and modifiable risk factors for breast cancer (BC), with accumulating evidence showing that adopting adequate dietary practices could decrease the risk of this disease. This study aimed to assess nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and lifestyle practices (KAP) that may lead to BC risk reduction among female university students in Lebanon and examine the determinants of their practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a convenience sampling method, comprising 356 (response rate: 71.2%) female students at the American University of Beirut aged 18 to 25 years with no history of BC. Participants completed a pre-tested questionnaire addressing the objectives of the study. The modified Bloom’s cut-off of 75% was used to categorize knowledge and practice scores as poor or good and attitudes as negative or positive. Large proportions of students had poor knowledge (68.3%), negative attitudes (65.4%), and poor practices (98.0%) scores. Pursuing a health-related major and having a higher GPA were associated with better knowledge and attitudes while being older and having a lower degree of stress were associated with positive attitudes only. Having a lower body mass index (BMI) was associated with better practice scores. Better knowledge significantly predicted higher intake of fruits and vegetables. Overall knowledge and attitudes were significantly correlated with each other, but neither was significantly correlated with overall practice. These findings underscore the importance of implementing public health programs geared towards improving nutrition KAP that may lead to BC risk reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Policies and Education for Health Promotion)
11 pages, 977 KiB  
Systematic Review
Efficacy of a Low-FODMAP Diet for Coeliac Patients with Persistent IBS-like Symptoms despite a Gluten-Free Diet: A Systematic Review
by Francesca Lusetti, Annalisa Schiepatti, Davide Scalvini, Stiliano Maimaris and Federico Biagi
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071094 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 829
Abstract
Background: Persistent symptoms in coeliac disease (CD) can be due to not only poor gluten-free diet (GFD) adherence and complications of CD, but also functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Although the role of a low fermentable oligo-, di-, and [...] Read more.
Background: Persistent symptoms in coeliac disease (CD) can be due to not only poor gluten-free diet (GFD) adherence and complications of CD, but also functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Although the role of a low fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet is well-established in IBS, little data are available on its role in coeliac patients with persistent IBS-like symptoms despite a GFD. Methods: We systematically reviewed the literature in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines for studies evaluating the role of FODMAPs and/or a low-FODMAP diet in coeliac patients with persistent symptoms. PubMed and Embase were searched from inception to 16 January 2024 for eligible full-text papers. The study protocol was registered on Open Science Framework. Results: A total of 239 records were identified, and six papers were included. Of these, four were interventional studies comparing a low-FODMAP GFD to a regular GFD for persistent symptoms in 115 total coeliac patients (two randomized controlled trials and two open-label studies). A low-FODMAP GFD for a minimum of 4 weeks was significantly more effective than a regular GFD in reducing symptoms (p < 0.05 in 3/4 studies). Dietary FODMAP content of a conventional GFD was significantly lower than that of non-coeliac patients on a gluten-containing diet (both p < 0.05), especially regarding high-FODMAP grain products. However, coeliac patients consumed more servings of fruits/vegetables high in FODMAP. No relationship between FODMAP intake and persistence of symptoms was reported. Conclusions: A low-FODMAP diet may be beneficial for uncomplicated celiac patients with persistent IBS-like symptoms despite strict adherence to a GFD. Full article
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30 pages, 847 KiB  
Review
Nutritional Quality Implications: Exploring the Impact of a Fatty Acid-Rich Diet on Central Nervous System Development
by Katarzyna Smolińska, Aleksandra Szopa, Jan Sobczyński, Anna Serefko and Piotr Dobrowolski
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1093; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071093 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1322
Abstract
Given the comprehensive examination of the role of fatty acid-rich diets in central nervous system development in children, this study bridges significant gaps in the understanding of dietary effects on neurodevelopment. It delves into the essential functions of fatty acids in neurodevelopment, including [...] Read more.
Given the comprehensive examination of the role of fatty acid-rich diets in central nervous system development in children, this study bridges significant gaps in the understanding of dietary effects on neurodevelopment. It delves into the essential functions of fatty acids in neurodevelopment, including their contributions to neuronal membrane formation, neuroinflammatory modulation, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. Despite the acknowledged importance of these nutrients, this review reveals a lack of comprehensive synthesis in current research, particularly regarding the broader spectrum of fatty acids and their optimal levels throughout childhood. By consolidating the existing knowledge and highlighting critical research gaps, such as the effects of fatty acid metabolism on neurodevelopmental disorders and the need for age-specific dietary guidelines, this study sets a foundation for future studies. This underscores the potential of nutritional strategies to significantly influence neurodevelopmental trajectories, advocating an enriched academic and clinical understanding that can inform dietary recommendations and interventions aimed at optimizing neurological health from infancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update on Fatty Acids and the Brain)
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16 pages, 771 KiB  
Review
Biomarkers of Brain Dysfunction in Perinatal Iron Deficiency
by Raghavendra B. Rao
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1092; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071092 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 917
Abstract
Iron deficiency in the fetal and neonatal period (perinatal iron deficiency) bodes poorly for neurodevelopment. Given its common occurrence and the negative impact on brain development, a screening and treatment strategy that is focused on optimizing brain development in perinatal iron deficiency is [...] Read more.
Iron deficiency in the fetal and neonatal period (perinatal iron deficiency) bodes poorly for neurodevelopment. Given its common occurrence and the negative impact on brain development, a screening and treatment strategy that is focused on optimizing brain development in perinatal iron deficiency is necessary. Pediatric societies currently recommend a universal iron supplementation strategy for full-term and preterm infants that does not consider individual variation in body iron status and thus could lead to undertreatment or overtreatment. Moreover, the focus is on hematological normalcy and not optimal brain development. Several serum iron indices and hematological parameters in the perinatal period are associated with a risk of abnormal neurodevelopment, suggesting their potential use as biomarkers for screening and monitoring treatment in infants at risk for perinatal iron deficiency. A biomarker-based screening and treatment strategy that is focused on optimizing brain development will likely improve outcomes in perinatal iron deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron Deficiency and Iron-Related Disorders)
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17 pages, 5261 KiB  
Article
Eriocitrin Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting VEGFR2-Mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathways
by Ji-Yoon Baek, Jeong-Eun Kwak and Mok-Ryeon Ahn
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071091 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 718
Abstract
Eriocitrin, a flavanone found in peppermint and citrus fruits, is known to possess many physiological activities. However, the anti-angiogenic effects of eriocitrin are yet to be fully elucidated. Therefore, the objective of this research was to explore the anti-angiogenic effects of eriocitrin both [...] Read more.
Eriocitrin, a flavanone found in peppermint and citrus fruits, is known to possess many physiological activities. However, the anti-angiogenic effects of eriocitrin are yet to be fully elucidated. Therefore, the objective of this research was to explore the anti-angiogenic effects of eriocitrin both in vitro and in vivo as well as its underlying mechanism. Anti-angiogenic effects of eriocitrin were evaluated utilizing in vitro models of angiogenesis, including inhibition of tube formation, and induction of apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). A chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay in chick embryos was also performed to evaluate the in vivo effects of eriocitrin on angiogenesis. Results showed significant eriocitrin effects on proliferation, tube formation, migration, and apoptosis in HUVECs. Furthermore, in vivo analysis revealed that eriocitrin significantly suppressed the formation of new blood vessels. In particular, it regulated MAPK/ERK signaling pathway and VEGFR2, inhibited the downstream PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, and activated apoptosis signals such as caspase cascades. In HUVECs, the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) exhibited an inhibitory effect on angiogenesis through the suppression of the signaling pathway. Therefore, eriocitrin presents potential for development into an antiangiogenic therapeutic agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods and Health Promotion)
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15 pages, 729 KiB  
Article
Clinical Impact of Supplementation with Pasteurized Donor Human Milk by High-Temperature Short-Time Method versus Holder Method in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: A Multicentre Randomized Controlled Trial
by Nadia Raquel García-Lara, Diana Escuder-Vieco, Marta Cabrera-Lafuente, Kristin Keller, Cristina De Diego-Poncela, Concepción Jiménez-González, Raquel Núñez-Ramos, Beatriz Flores-Antón, Esperanza Escribano-Palomino, Clara Alonso-Díaz, Sara Vázquez-Román, Noelia Ureta-Velasco, Javier De La Cruz-Bértolo and Carmen Rosa Pallás-Alonso
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071090 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 886
Abstract
Nosocomial infections are a frequent and serious problem in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Donor human milk (DHM) is the best alternative for feeding these babies when mother’s own milk (MOM) is not available. Recently, a patented prototype of a High-Temperature Short-Time [...] Read more.
Nosocomial infections are a frequent and serious problem in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Donor human milk (DHM) is the best alternative for feeding these babies when mother’s own milk (MOM) is not available. Recently, a patented prototype of a High-Temperature Short-Time (HTST) pasteurizer adapted to a human milk bank setting showed a lesser impact on immunologic components. We designed a multicentre randomized controlled trial that investigates whether, in ELBW infants with an insufficient MOM supply, the administration of HTST pasteurized DHM reduces the incidence of confirmed catheter-associated sepsis compared to DHM pasteurized with the Holder method. From birth until 34 weeks postmenstrual age, patients included in the study received DHM, as a supplement, pasteurized by the Holder or HTST method. A total of 213 patients were randomized; 79 (HTST group) and 81 (Holder group) were included in the analysis. We found no difference in the frequency of nosocomial sepsis between the patients of the two methods—41.8% (33/79) of HTST group patients versus 45.7% (37/81) of Holder group patients, relative risk 0.91 (0.64–1.3), p = 0.62. In conclusion, when MOM is not available, supplementing during admission with DHM pasteurized by the HTST versus Holder method might not have an impact on the incidence of catheter-associated sepsis. Full article
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12 pages, 1101 KiB  
Article
Vitamin D Supplementation for Patients with Dysmenorrhoea: A Meta-Analysis with Trial Sequential Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials
by Kan-Chu Lin, Kuan-Ju Huang, Ming-Nan Lin, Cheng-Yu Wang and Tou-Yuan Tsai
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071089 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 2529
Abstract
Vitamin D reduces prostaglandin levels and inflammation, making it a promising treatment option for dysmenorrhoea. However, its effects on pain intensity in different types of dysmenorrhoea remain unclear. We examined whether vitamin D supplementation decreases pain intensity in patients with dysmenorrhoea. The Cochrane [...] Read more.
Vitamin D reduces prostaglandin levels and inflammation, making it a promising treatment option for dysmenorrhoea. However, its effects on pain intensity in different types of dysmenorrhoea remain unclear. We examined whether vitamin D supplementation decreases pain intensity in patients with dysmenorrhoea. The Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar, Medline, and Scopus databases were searched from inception to 30 December 2023. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating vitamin D supplementation effects on such patients were included. The primary and secondary outcomes were measured by the changes in pain intensity and rescue analgesic use, respectively. Pooled mean differences and rate ratios were calculated using a random-effect model; trial sequential analysis (TSA) was also performed. Overall, 11 studies involving 687 participants were included. Vitamin D supplementation significantly decreased pain intensity in patients with dysmenorrhoea compared with controls (pooled mean difference, −1.64; 95% confidence interval, −2.27 to −1.00; p < 0.001; CoE, moderate; I2 statistic, 79.43%) and indicated substantial heterogeneity among the included studies. TSA revealed that the current RCTs provide sufficient information. In subgroup analyses, vitamin D supplement reduced primary dysmenorrhoea pain but not secondary dysmenorrhoea pain. In conclusion, although substantial heterogeneity persists, vitamin D supplementation decreased pain intensity in patients with dysmenorrhea, especially in those with primary dysmenorrhoea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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10 pages, 643 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Status and Recurrent Major Cardiovascular Events Following Acute Myocardial Infarction—A Follow-Up Study in a Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Center
by Maria Czinege, Vasile-Bogdan Halațiu, Victoria Nyulas, Liliana-Oana Cojocariu, Bianca Ion, Violeta Mașca, Constantin Țolescu and Theodora Benedek
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1088; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071088 - 8 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 684
Abstract
Background: Acute myocardial infarction is often accompanied by malnutrition, which is associated with an imbalance between catabolic and anabolic processes. This ultimately leads to cardiac cachexia, which worsens the patient’s prognosis. We aimed to assess the correlation between nutritional status, assessed using the [...] Read more.
Background: Acute myocardial infarction is often accompanied by malnutrition, which is associated with an imbalance between catabolic and anabolic processes. This ultimately leads to cardiac cachexia, which worsens the patient’s prognosis. We aimed to assess the correlation between nutritional status, assessed using the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score, and the rate of major cardiovascular adverse events (MACE). Methods: The present investigation was a non-randomized, prospective, observational study in which 108 patients with acute myocardial infarction were included. Nutritional status was assessed using the CONUT score. Based on the CONUT score, the patients were divided as follows: Group 1—normal or mild nutritional status (CONUT < 3 points, n = 76), and Group 2—moderate to severe nutritional deficiency (CONUT ≥ 3 points, n = 32). Demographic, echocardiographic, and laboratory parameters were obtained for all patients, as well as the MACE rate at 1 and 3 months of follow-up. Results: The MACE occurred more frequently in patients with impaired nutritional status at both 1-month follow-up (46.9% versus 9.2%; p < 0.0001) and 3-month follow-up (68.8% versus 10.5%; p < 0.0001). In terms of cardiovascular events, patients with poor nutritional status, with a CONUT score ≥ 3, presented more frequent non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization procedure, and ventricular arrhythmia. Also, the number of cardiovascular deaths was higher in the undernourished group. Conclusions: This study found that patients with poor nutritional status experienced inflammatory status, frailty, and cardiovascular events more often than those with normal nutritional status at 1-month and 3-month follow-up after an acute myocardial infarction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Lipoproteins and Cardiovascular Diseases)
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13 pages, 306 KiB  
Review
Food Allergy Risk: A Comprehensive Review of Maternal Interventions for Food Allergy Prevention
by Sara Manti, Francesca Galletta, Chiara Lucia Bencivenga, Irene Bettini, Angela Klain, Elisabetta D’Addio, Francesca Mori, Amelia Licari, Michele Miraglia del Giudice and Cristiana Indolfi
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071087 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1293
Abstract
Food allergy represents a global health problem impacting patients’ and caregivers’ quality of life and contributing to increased healthcare costs. Efforts to identify preventive measures starting from pregnancy have recently intensified. This review aims to provide an overview of the role of maternal [...] Read more.
Food allergy represents a global health problem impacting patients’ and caregivers’ quality of life and contributing to increased healthcare costs. Efforts to identify preventive measures starting from pregnancy have recently intensified. This review aims to provide an overview of the role of maternal factors in food allergy prevention. Several studies indicate that avoiding food allergens during pregnancy does not reduce the risk of developing food allergies. International guidelines unanimously discourage avoidance diets due to potential adverse effects on essential nutrient intake and overall health for both women and children. Research on probiotics and prebiotics during pregnancy as preventive measures is promising, though evidence remains limited. Consequently, guidelines lack specific recommendations for their use in preventing food allergies. Similarly, given the absence of conclusive evidence, it is not possible to formulate definitive conclusions on the supplementation of vitamins, omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), and other antioxidant substances. A combination of maternal interventions, breastfeeding, and early introduction of foods to infants can reduce the risk of food allergies in the child. Further studies are needed to clarify the interaction between genetics, immunological pathways, and environmental factors Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Intolerance and Food Allergy: Novel Aspects in a Changing World)
20 pages, 52598 KiB  
Article
Resveratrol Improves Hyperuricemia and Ameliorates Renal Injury by Modulating the Gut Microbiota
by Yuqing Zhou, Yupeng Zeng, Ruijie Wang, Juan Pang, Xin Wang, Zhijun Pan, Yufeng Jin, Yu Chen, Yan Yang and Wenhua Ling
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071086 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1660
Abstract
Resveratrol (RES) has been reported to prevent hyperuricemia (HUA); however, its effect on intestinal uric acid metabolism remains unclear. This study evaluated the impact of RES on intestinal uric acid metabolism in mice with HUA induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Moreover, we [...] Read more.
Resveratrol (RES) has been reported to prevent hyperuricemia (HUA); however, its effect on intestinal uric acid metabolism remains unclear. This study evaluated the impact of RES on intestinal uric acid metabolism in mice with HUA induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Moreover, we revealed the underlying mechanism through metagenomics, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and 16S ribosomal RNA analysis. We demonstrated that RES reduced the serum uric acid, creatinine, urea nitrogen, and urinary protein levels, and improved the glomerular atrophy, unclear renal tubule structure, fibrosis, and renal inflammation. The results also showed that RES increased intestinal uric acid degradation. RES significantly changed the intestinal flora composition of HFD-fed mice by enriching the beneficial bacteria that degrade uric acid, reducing harmful bacteria that promote inflammation, and improving microbial function via the upregulation of purine metabolism. The FMT results further showed that the intestinal microbiota is essential for the effect of RES on HUA, and that Lactobacillus may play a key role in this process. The present study demonstrated that RES alleviates HFD-induced HUA and renal injury by regulating the gut microbiota composition and the metabolism of uric acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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11 pages, 590 KiB  
Article
Intake of Table Sugar and Their Corresponding Food Sources in Adults from the 2017–2018 Brazilian National Dietary Survey
by Fábio da Veiga Ued, Paula Victória Félix, Carlos Alberto Nogueira-de-Almeida and Mauro Fisberg
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071085 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 625
Abstract
Excessive intake of free sugars is associated with adverse health outcomes. Table sugar is one of the main dietary sources of free sugars; however, the amount added by Brazilian consumers in their culinary preparations is unknown. The aims were to estimate the daily [...] Read more.
Excessive intake of free sugars is associated with adverse health outcomes. Table sugar is one of the main dietary sources of free sugars; however, the amount added by Brazilian consumers in their culinary preparations is unknown. The aims were to estimate the daily intake of table sugar (g/day), its contribution to total energy intake (E%) and the main food groups that contribute to the intake of this sugar in a nationwide multi-ethnic sample of Brazilian adults (2017–2018 Brazilian National Dietary Survey). Based on two 24-h recalls adjusted for the within-person variation, the overall median table sugar intake was 14.3 g/day, corresponding to 3.2 E%. Males, individuals living in rural areas, with low income, low education and experiencing food insecurity had a higher intake of table sugar. The main food sources of table sugar were coffee (55.8%), juice (33.9%), milk-based preparations and smoothies (3.1%), powdered and processed juice (2.7%), whole milk (1.9%), and tea (1.6%). There are no recommendations regarding the limit of table sugar intake, but considering that the WHO limits the intake of free sugars to <10 E%, it is concluded that table sugar intake by Brazilians corresponds to about 30% of the upper recommended daily intake of free sugars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbohydrates)
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17 pages, 315 KiB  
Article
The Risk of Oral Cancer and the High Consumption of Thermally Processed Meat Containing Mutagenic and Carcinogenic Compounds
by Sylwia Bulanda, Karolina Lau, Agnieszka Nowak, Dorota Łyko-Morawska, Anna Kotylak and Beata Janoszka
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071084 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1199
Abstract
The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified the consumption of heat-processed meat as a direct human carcinogen and the consumption of red meat as a probable carcinogen. Mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds present in meat dishes include, among others, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [...] Read more.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified the consumption of heat-processed meat as a direct human carcinogen and the consumption of red meat as a probable carcinogen. Mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds present in meat dishes include, among others, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs). These compounds can cause the development of gastrointestinal cancer. Oral cancer is one of the world’s research priorities due to the ever-increasing incidence rate. However, the effect of diet on oral cancer is still a poorly recognized issue. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the risk of oral cancer and dietary ingredients with a particular emphasis on red meat and thermally processed meat. This study was conducted among patients with oral cancer in 2022 and 2023. The shortened standardized Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and a multivariate regression statistical analysis were used. The high consumption of red meat in general and thermally processed meat, especially smoked, fried, roasted and boiled, increases the risk of oral cavity cancer. Limiting the consumption of meat products and modifying the methods of preparing meat dishes may reduce exposure to carcinogenic compounds from the diet and thus reduce the risk of developing oral cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Do We Have a Specific Diet for Cancer Prevention?)
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13 pages, 1041 KiB  
Article
Do Herbal Supplements and Probiotics Complement Antibiotics and Diet in the Management of SIBO? A Randomized Clinical Trial
by Lucia Redondo-Cuevas, Lucia Belloch, Vanesa Martín-Carbonell, Angela Nicolás, Iulia Alexandra, Laura Sanchis, Marina Ynfante, Michel Colmenares, María Mora, Ana Reyes Liebana, Beatriz Antequera, Francisco Grau, José Ramón Molés, Rubén Cuesta, Samuel Díaz, Noelia Sancho, Héctor Tomás, José Gonzalvo, Mercedes Jaén, Eva Sánchez, Ana Garayoa, Nadia Moreno, Ana Gallén, Ernesto Cortés-Castell and Xavier Cortés-Rizoadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071083 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 2339
Abstract
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) arises from dysbiosis in the small intestine, manifesting with abdominal symptoms. This study aims to assess the efficacy of combined antibiotic therapy, herbal supplements, probiotics, and dietary modifications in SIBO management. A total of 179 SIBO-diagnosed patients underwent [...] Read more.
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) arises from dysbiosis in the small intestine, manifesting with abdominal symptoms. This study aims to assess the efficacy of combined antibiotic therapy, herbal supplements, probiotics, and dietary modifications in SIBO management. A total of 179 SIBO-diagnosed patients underwent clinical evaluation and breath testing. Patients were categorized into hydrogen (H2-SIBO) and methane (CH4-SIBO) groups. The control group received standard antibiotic therapy and a low-FODMAP diet, while the intervention group received additional herbal antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics. After treatment, both groups exhibited reduced gas levels, particularly in CH4-SIBO. Clinical remission rates were higher in the intervention group, especially in CH4-SIBO cases. Logistic regression analysis showed gas concentrations at diagnosis as significant predictors of treatment success. In conclusion, adjunctive herbal supplements and probiotics did not significantly impact gas levels, but showed potential for clinical improvement, especially in CH4-SIBO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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16 pages, 672 KiB  
Article
The Effect of a Program to Improve Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet on Cardiometabolic Parameters in 7034 Spanish Workers
by Ignacio Ramírez Gallegos, Marta Marina Arroyo, Ángel Arturo López-González, Maria Teófila Vicente-Herrero, Daniela Vallejos, Tomás Sastre-Alzamora and José Ignacio Ramírez-Manent
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071082 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Background: Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases include a large group of pathologies and constitute one of the most serious chronic health problems facing the 21st century, with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Unhealthy diets influence the development of these pathologies. The Mediterranean [...] Read more.
Background: Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases include a large group of pathologies and constitute one of the most serious chronic health problems facing the 21st century, with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Unhealthy diets influence the development of these pathologies. The Mediterranean diet can be an important part in the treatment of these diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a program that aims to increase adherence to the Mediterranean diet on the improvement of different cardiometabolic risk parameters. Methods: A prospective intervention study was carried out on 7034 Spanish workers. Prior to the intervention, 22 cardiometabolic risk scales were evaluated. Participants in this study were informed both orally and in writing of the characteristics and benefits of the Mediterranean diet and were given the website of the Ministry of Health, Consumption and Social Welfare of Spain, which provides advice on nutrition. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was reinforced by sending a monthly SMS to their mobile phones. After six months of follow-up, the 22 risk scales were re-evaluated to assess changes. Means and standard deviations were calculated using Student’s t test to analyse quantitative variables. Prevalence was calculated using the Chi-square test when the variables were qualitative. Results: All the cardiometabolic risk scales studied decreased after implementing a program to improve and enhance adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The number of losses in the sample was very low, standing at 4.31%. Conclusions: The Mediterranean diet is effective in reducing all cardiovascular risk scales evaluated. The mean values and prevalence of high values of the different cardiometabolic risk scales analysed led to lower values after the implementation of the program to increase adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We observed a significant positive difference in metabolic age in both sexes. We have obtained a significant improvement in the insulin resistance index, especially in the SPISE-IR index, data that we have not found in previous publications. Easy access to the Internet and new information and communication technologies facilitate adherence to a diet and can reduce the number of losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Assessment in Preventing and Managing Obesity)
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9 pages, 242 KiB  
Perspective
Mapping Treatment Advances in the Neurobiology of Binge Eating Disorder: A Concept Paper
by Brooke Donnelly and Phillipa Hay
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071081 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 968
Abstract
Binge eating disorder (BED) is a complex and heritable mental health disorder, with genetic, neurobiological, neuroendocrinological, environmental and developmental factors all demonstrated to contribute to the aetiology of this illness. Although psychotherapy is the gold standard for treating BED, a significant subgroup of [...] Read more.
Binge eating disorder (BED) is a complex and heritable mental health disorder, with genetic, neurobiological, neuroendocrinological, environmental and developmental factors all demonstrated to contribute to the aetiology of this illness. Although psychotherapy is the gold standard for treating BED, a significant subgroup of those treated do not recover. Neurobiological research highlights aberrances in neural regions associated with reward processing, emotion processing, self-regulation and executive function processes, which are clear therapeutic targets for future treatment frameworks. Evidence is emerging of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, which may mediate energy balance, high-lighting a possible underlying pathogenesis factor of BED, and provides a potential therapeutic strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychobiology of Eating Disorders)
11 pages, 445 KiB  
Article
Clusters in Infant Environmental Factors Influence School-Age Children’s Vegetable Preferences in Japan
by Yudai Yonezawa, Tomoka Okame, Nozomi Tobiishi, Yume Tetsuno, Miho Sakurai, Shigenori Suzuki and Yuji Wada
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1080; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071080 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1420
Abstract
It remains unclear how the various environmental factors are combined in practice to influence vegetable preferences in school-aged children. This study aimed to clarify the environmental factors during infancy and their association with vegetable preference in school-aged children. To find clusters of early [...] Read more.
It remains unclear how the various environmental factors are combined in practice to influence vegetable preferences in school-aged children. This study aimed to clarify the environmental factors during infancy and their association with vegetable preference in school-aged children. To find clusters of early childhood environmental factors, we conducted a factor analysis on 58 items related to early childhood environmental factors and a k-means cluster analysis using the factors obtained. The association of the extracted factors and clusters with vegetable preferences was assessed by multiple regression analysis. Twelve factors relating to vegetable eating, cooking and harvesting experience, and parental attitudes were extracted by factor analysis. Three clusters, “low awareness of experiences”, “high awareness” and “low positive encouragement”, were then extracted. In the multiple regression analysis, all 12 factors were found to be associated with vegetable preferences. Furthermore, it was found that the “high awareness” group had a significantly higher score for vegetable preference than the “low awareness of experiences” group (β = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.37–0.74). Thus, the study found that environmental factors during infancy, in isolation and combination, influenced vegetable preferences in school-aged children. Assessing the combination of various environmental factors during infancy may contribute to a better understanding of future vegetable preferences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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17 pages, 1730 KiB  
Article
A Gnotobiotic Mouse Model with Divergent Equol-Producing Phenotypes: Potential for Determining Microbial-Driven Health Impacts of Soy Isoflavone Daidzein
by Lindsay M. Leonard, Abigayle M. R. Simpson, Shiyu Li, Lavanya Reddivari and Tzu-Wen L. Cross
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1079; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071079 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 741
Abstract
The implications of soy consumption on human health have been a subject of debate, largely due to the mixed evidence regarding its benefits and potential risks. The variability in responses to soy has been partly attributed to differences in the metabolism of soy [...] Read more.
The implications of soy consumption on human health have been a subject of debate, largely due to the mixed evidence regarding its benefits and potential risks. The variability in responses to soy has been partly attributed to differences in the metabolism of soy isoflavones, compounds with structural similarities to estrogen. Approximately one-third of humans possess gut bacteria capable of converting soy isoflavone daidzein into equol, a metabolite produced exclusively by gut microbiota with significant estrogenic potency. In contrast, lab-raised rodents are efficient equol producers, except for those raised germ-free. This discrepancy raises concerns about the applicability of traditional rodent models to humans. Herein, we designed a gnotobiotic mouse model to differentiate between equol producers and non-producers by introducing synthetic bacterial communities with and without the equol-producing capacity into female and male germ-free mice. These gnotobiotic mice display equol-producing phenotypes consistent with the capacity of the gut microbiota received. Our findings confirm the model’s efficacy in mimicking human equol production capacity, offering a promising tool for future studies to explore the relationship between endogenous equol production and health outcomes like cardiometabolic health and fertility. This approach aims to refine dietary guidelines by considering individual microbiome differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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22 pages, 2275 KiB  
Article
Online Questionnaire with Fibromyalgia Patients Shows Negative Correlations between Disease Severity and Adherence to Mediterranean Diet
by Elisa Proietti, Fabio Rapallo, Elena Molinari, Viviana Mucci, Lucio Marinelli, Consuelo Borgarelli, Bruno Burlando, Livia Pisciotta and Ilaria Demori
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071078 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 758
Abstract
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a multidimensional disorder in which intense chronic pain is accompanied by a variety of psychophysical symptoms that impose a burden on the patients’ quality of life. Despite the efforts and the recent advancement in research, FM pathogenesis and effective treatment [...] Read more.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a multidimensional disorder in which intense chronic pain is accompanied by a variety of psychophysical symptoms that impose a burden on the patients’ quality of life. Despite the efforts and the recent advancement in research, FM pathogenesis and effective treatment remain unknown. Recently, the possible role of dietary patterns and/or components has been gaining attention. The current study aimed to investigate a potential correlation between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and FM severity in a sample of Italian FM patients. An online survey was designed, composed of customized questions and validated questionnaires with the aim of investigating the intensity and type of pain, the presence of other psychophysical symptoms, the overall impact of FM, general food and lifestyle habits, and adherence to the MedDiet. The collected responses were analyzed for descriptive statistics, linear regression, and propensity score analyses. The results show that, despite considerable use of pharmaceuticals and supplements, FM participants suffered from a high-severity grade disease. However, those with good adherence to the MedDiet experienced a lower pain intensity and overall FM impact. A propensity score analysis indicates a positive influence of the MedDiet against FM severity, thus unveiling the need for well-designed intervention studies to evaluate the therapeutic potential of different dietary patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Clinical Health Outcomes)
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25 pages, 3022 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Neuro-Hormonal Dynamics after the Administration of Probiotic Microbial Strains in a Murine Model of Hyperthyroidism
by Sorina Nicoleta Voicu, Anca Ioana (Amzăr) Scărlătescu, Miruna-Maria Apetroaei, Marina Ionela (Ilie) Nedea, Ionuț Emilian Blejan, Denisa Ioana Udeanu, Bruno Ștefan Velescu, Manuela Ghica, Octavian Alexandru Nedea, Călin Pavel Cobelschi and Andreea Letiția Arsene
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1077; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071077 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 747
Abstract
The microbiota–gut–brain axis has received increasing attention in recent years through its bidirectional communication system, governed by the ability of gut microorganisms to generate and regulate a wide range of neurotransmitters in the host body. In this research, we delve into the intricate [...] Read more.
The microbiota–gut–brain axis has received increasing attention in recent years through its bidirectional communication system, governed by the ability of gut microorganisms to generate and regulate a wide range of neurotransmitters in the host body. In this research, we delve into the intricate area of microbial endocrinology by exploring the dynamic oscillations in neurotransmitter levels within plasma and brain samples. Our experimental model involved inducing hyperthyroidism in mice after a “probiotic load” timeframe using two strains of probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Saccharomyces boulardii, and their combination). These probiotic interventions continued throughout the experiment and were intended to uncover potential modulatory effects on neurotransmitter levels and discern if certain probiotic strains exhibit any protection from hyperthyroidism. Moreover, we aimed to outline the eventual connections between the gut microbiota and the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis. As our study reveals, there are significant fluctuations in crucial neurotransmitters within the hyperthyroidism model, related to the specific probiotic strain or combination. These findings could support future therapeutic approaches, help healthcare professionals choose between different probiotic therapies, and also allow us proceed with caution when administering such treatments, depending on the health status of hyperthyroid patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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18 pages, 1445 KiB  
Article
Gut Microbial Dysbiosis Differs in Two Distinct Cachectic Tumor-Bearing Models Consuming the Same Diet
by Lauri O. Byerley, Brittany Lorenzen, Hsiao-Man Chang, William G. Hartman, Michael J. Keenan, Ryan Page, Meng Luo, Scot E. Dowd and Christopher M. Taylor
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071076 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 713
Abstract
The impact of cancer cachexia on the colonic microbiota is poorly characterized. This study assessed the effect of two cachectic-producing tumor types on the gut microbiota to determine if a similar dysbiosis could be found. In addition, it was determined if a diet [...] Read more.
The impact of cancer cachexia on the colonic microbiota is poorly characterized. This study assessed the effect of two cachectic-producing tumor types on the gut microbiota to determine if a similar dysbiosis could be found. In addition, it was determined if a diet containing an immunonutrient-rich food (walnuts) known to promote the growth of probiotic bacteria in the colon could alter the dysbiosis and slow cachexia. Male Fisher 344 rats were randomly assigned to a semi-purified diet with or without walnuts. Then, within each diet group, rats were further assigned randomly to a treatment group: tumor-bearing ad libitum fed (TB), non-tumor-bearing ad libitum fed (NTB-AL), and non-tumor-bearing group pair-fed to the TB (NTB-PF). The TB group was implanted either with the Ward colon carcinoma or MCA-induced sarcoma, both transplantable tumor lines. Fecal samples were collected after the development of cachexia, and bacteria species were identified using 16S rRNA gene analysis. Both TB groups developed cachexia but had a differently altered gut microbiome. Beta diversity was unaffected by treatment (NTB-AL, TB, and NTB-PF) regardless of tumor type but was affected by diet. Also, diet consistently changed the relative abundance of several bacteria taxa, while treatment and tumor type did not. The control diet increased the abundance of A. Anaeroplasma, while the walnut diet increased the genus Ruminococcus. There were no common fecal bacterial changes characteristic of cachexia found. Diet consistently changed the gut microbiota, but these changes were insufficient to slow the progression of cachexia, suggesting cancer cachexia is more complex than a few gut microbiota shifts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle, the Gut Microbiome, and Our Well-Being)
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11 pages, 1310 KiB  
Opinion
Homicide or Happiness: Did Folate Fortification and Public Health Campaigns Influence Homicide Rates and the Great American Crime Decline?
by Stephen J. Schoenthaler, Susan L. Prescott and Alan C. Logan
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071075 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1138
Abstract
The last several years have witnessed a remarkable growth in research directed at nutrition and behavior, with increased interest in the field of nutritional criminology. It is becoming clear that dietary patterns and specific nutrients play an important role in cognition and behavior, [...] Read more.
The last several years have witnessed a remarkable growth in research directed at nutrition and behavior, with increased interest in the field of nutritional criminology. It is becoming clear that dietary patterns and specific nutrients play an important role in cognition and behavior, including those related to aggression, violence, and antisocial activity. Included in this expanding knowledge base is the recognition that folate, through multiple pathways, including enzymatic reactions and gut microbiome ecology, plays a critical role in central nervous system functioning. These mechanistic advances allow for a retrospective analysis of a topic that remains unexplained—the sudden and unpredicted drop in homicide and other violent crime rates in the United States and other nations in the 1990s. Here, we revisit this marked reduction in homicide rates through the lens of the coincident public health campaign (and subsequent mandatory fortification) to increase folic acid intake. Based on objectively measured blood folate levels through the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, there is little doubt that tissue folate witnessed a dramatic rise at the national level from 1988 through 2000. Drawing from accumulated and emerging research on the neurobehavioral aspects of folate, it is our contention that this relatively sudden and massive increase in tissue folate levels may have contributed to reductions in violent crime in the United States. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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15 pages, 1779 KiB  
Article
A Stress Reduction Intervention for Lactating Mothers Alters Maternal Gut, Breast Milk, and Infant Gut Microbiomes: Data from a Randomized Controlled Trial
by Jinyue Yu, Yan Zhang, Jonathan C. K. Wells, Zhuang Wei, Mona Bajaj-Elliott, Dennis Sandris Nielsen and Mary S. Fewtrell
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071074 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1282
Abstract
Background: This secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated how the maternal gut, breast milk, and infant gut microbiomes may contribute to the effects of a relaxation intervention, which reduced maternal stress and promoted infant weight gain. Methods: An [...] Read more.
Background: This secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated how the maternal gut, breast milk, and infant gut microbiomes may contribute to the effects of a relaxation intervention, which reduced maternal stress and promoted infant weight gain. Methods: An RCT was undertaken in healthy Chinese primiparous mother–infant pairs (340/7–376/7gestation weeks). Mothers were randomly allocated to either the intervention group (IG, listening to relaxation meditation) or the control group (CG). Outcomes were the differences in microbiome composition and the diversity in the maternal gut, breast milk, and infant gut at 1 (baseline) and 8 weeks (post-intervention) between IG and CG, assessed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of fecal and breastmilk samples. Results: In total, 38 mother–infant pairs were included in this analysis (IG = 19, CG = 19). The overall microbiome community structure in the maternal gut was significantly different between the IG and CG at 1 week, with the difference being more significant at 8 weeks (Bray–Curtis distance R2 = 0.04 vs. R2 = 0.13). Post-intervention, a significantly lower α-diversity was observed in IG breast milk (observed features: CG = 295 vs. IG = 255, p = 0.032); the Bifidobacterium genera presented a higher relative abundance. A significantly higher α-diversity was observed in IG infant gut (observed features: CG = 73 vs. IG = 113, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The findings were consistent with the hypothesis that the microbiome might mediate observed relaxation intervention effects via gut–brain axis and entero-mammary pathways; but confirmation is required. Full article
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24 pages, 2066 KiB  
Review
Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning in Nutrition: A Systematic Review
by Tagne Poupi Theodore Armand, Kintoh Allen Nfor, Jung-In Kim and Hee-Cheol Kim
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071073 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 2001
Abstract
In industry 4.0, where the automation and digitalization of entities and processes are fundamental, artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly becoming a pivotal tool offering innovative solutions in various domains. In this context, nutrition, a critical aspect of public health, is no exception to [...] Read more.
In industry 4.0, where the automation and digitalization of entities and processes are fundamental, artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly becoming a pivotal tool offering innovative solutions in various domains. In this context, nutrition, a critical aspect of public health, is no exception to the fields influenced by the integration of AI technology. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the current landscape of AI in nutrition, providing a deep understanding of the potential of AI, machine learning (ML), and deep learning (DL) in nutrition sciences and highlighting eventual challenges and futuristic directions. A hybrid approach from the systematic literature review (SLR) guidelines and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was adopted to systematically analyze the scientific literature from a search of major databases on artificial intelligence in nutrition sciences. A rigorous study selection was conducted using the most appropriate eligibility criteria, followed by a methodological quality assessment ensuring the robustness of the included studies. This review identifies several AI applications in nutrition, spanning smart and personalized nutrition, dietary assessment, food recognition and tracking, predictive modeling for disease prevention, and disease diagnosis and monitoring. The selected studies demonstrated the versatility of machine learning and deep learning techniques in handling complex relationships within nutritional datasets. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of AI applications in nutrition sciences and identifies challenges and opportunities. With the rapid advancement in AI, its integration into nutrition holds significant promise to enhance individual nutritional outcomes and optimize dietary recommendations. Researchers, policymakers, and healthcare professionals can utilize this research to design future projects and support evidence-based decision-making in AI for nutrition and dietary guidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Transformations in Nutrition)
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10 pages, 917 KiB  
Brief Report
How Promising Are “Ultraprocessed” Front-of-Package Labels? A Formative Study with US Adults
by Aline D’Angelo Campos, Shu Wen Ng, Katherine McNeel and Marissa G. Hall
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071072 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1432
Abstract
High levels of food processing can have detrimental health effects independent of nutrient content. Experts and advocates have proposed adding information about food processing status to front-of-package labeling schemes, which currently exclusively focus on nutrient content. How consumers would perceive “ultraprocessed” labels has [...] Read more.
High levels of food processing can have detrimental health effects independent of nutrient content. Experts and advocates have proposed adding information about food processing status to front-of-package labeling schemes, which currently exclusively focus on nutrient content. How consumers would perceive “ultraprocessed” labels has not yet been examined. To address this gap, we conducted a within-subjects online experiment with a convenience sample of 600 US adults. Participants viewed a product under three labeling conditions (control, “ultraprocessed” label, and “ultraprocessed” plus “high in sugar” label) in random order for a single product. The “ultraprocessed” label led participants to report thinking more about the risks of eating the product and discouraging them from wanting to buy the product more than the control, despite not grabbing more attention than the control. The “ultraprocessed” plus “high in sugar” labels grabbed more attention, led participants to think more about the risks of eating the product, and discouraged them from wanting to buy the product more than the “ultraprocessed” label alone. “Ultraprocessed” labels may constitute promising messages that could work in tandem with nutrient labels, and further research should examine how they would influence consumers’ actual intentions and behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Consumer Behaviour and Healthy Food Consumption)
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35 pages, 2745 KiB  
Review
Influence of Bariatric Surgery on Gut Microbiota Composition and Its Implication on Brain and Peripheral Targets
by Sevag Hamamah, Andras Hajnal and Mihai Covasa
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1071; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071071 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1747
Abstract
Obesity remains a significant global health challenge, with bariatric surgery remaining as one of the most effective treatments for severe obesity and its related comorbidities. This review highlights the multifaceted impact of bariatric surgery beyond mere physical restriction or nutrient malabsorption, underscoring the [...] Read more.
Obesity remains a significant global health challenge, with bariatric surgery remaining as one of the most effective treatments for severe obesity and its related comorbidities. This review highlights the multifaceted impact of bariatric surgery beyond mere physical restriction or nutrient malabsorption, underscoring the importance of the gut microbiome and neurohormonal signals in mediating the profound effects on weight loss and behavior modification. The various bariatric surgery procedures, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG), act through distinct mechanisms to alter the gut microbiome, subsequently impacting metabolic health, energy balance, and food reward behaviors. Emerging evidence has shown that bariatric surgery induces profound changes in the composition of the gut microbiome, notably altering the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and enhancing populations of beneficial bacteria such as Akkermansia. These microbiota shifts have far-reaching effects beyond gut health, influencing dopamine-mediated reward pathways in the brain and modulating the secretion and action of key gut hormones including ghrelin, leptin, GLP-1, PYY, and CCK. The resultant changes in dopamine signaling and hormone levels contribute to reduced hedonic eating, enhanced satiety, and improved metabolic outcomes. Further, post-bariatric surgical effects on satiation targets are in part mediated by metabolic byproducts of gut microbiota like short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and bile acids, which play a pivotal role in modulating metabolism and energy expenditure and reducing obesity-associated inflammation, as well as influencing food reward pathways, potentially contributing to the regulation of body weight and reduction in hedonic eating behaviors. Overall, a better understanding of these mechanisms opens the door to developing non-surgical interventions that replicate the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery on the gut microbiome, dopamine signaling, and gut hormone regulation, offering new avenues for obesity treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Taste, Reward and Bariatric Surgery)
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18 pages, 1740 KiB  
Review
Effects of Exercise on Gut Microbiota of Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Leizi Min, Alimjan Ablitip, Rui Wang, Torquati Luciana, Mengxian Wei and Xindong Ma
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071070 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1452
Abstract
Background: The equilibrium between gut microbiota (GM) and the host plays a pivotal role in maintaining overall health, influencing various physiological and metabolic functions. Emerging research suggests that exercise modulates the abundance and functionality of gut bacteria, yet the comprehensive effects on GM [...] Read more.
Background: The equilibrium between gut microbiota (GM) and the host plays a pivotal role in maintaining overall health, influencing various physiological and metabolic functions. Emerging research suggests that exercise modulates the abundance and functionality of gut bacteria, yet the comprehensive effects on GM diversity remain to be synthesized. Objectives and Design: The study aims to quantitatively examine the effect of exercise on the diversity of gut microbiota of adults using a systemic review and meta-analysis approach. Methods: PubMed, Ebsco, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Data were searched from their inception to September 2023. Exercise intervention studies with a control group that describe and compare the composition of GM in adults, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were included in this meta-analysis. Results: A total of 25 studies were included in this meta-analysis with a total of 1044 participants. Based on a fixed-effects model [Chi2 = 29.40, df = 20 (p = 0.08); I2 = 32%], the pooled analysis showed that compared with the control group, exercise intervention can significantly increase the alpha diversity of adult GM, using the Shannon index as an example [WMD = 0.05, 95% CI (0.00, 0.09); Z = 1.99 (p = 0.05)]. In addition, exercise interventions were found to significantly alter GM, notably decreasing Bacteroidetes and increasing Firmicutes, indicating a shift in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. The subgroup analysis indicates that females and older adults appear to exhibit more significant changes in the Shannon Index and observed OTUs. Conclusions: Exercise may be a promising way to improve GM in adults. In particular, the Shannon index was significantly increased after exercise. Distinct responses in GM diversity to exercise interventions based on gender and age implicated that more research was needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Nutrition for Human Health)
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29 pages, 1288 KiB  
Systematic Review
Malnutrition-Related Health Outcomes in Older Adults with Hip Fractures: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Manuela Chiavarini, Giorgia Maria Ricciotti, Anita Genga, Maria Ilaria Faggi, Alessia Rinaldi, Oriana Dunia Toscano, Marcello Mario D’Errico and Pamela Barbadoro
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071069 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1317
Abstract
Hip fracture is a common condition in older adults, leading to disability and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated the association between nutritional status and the risk of a negative health outcome after fractures. In this systematic review, we evaluated the association between malnutrition [...] Read more.
Hip fracture is a common condition in older adults, leading to disability and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated the association between nutritional status and the risk of a negative health outcome after fractures. In this systematic review, we evaluated the association between malnutrition and mortality, changes in mobility/living arrangements, and postoperative complications, such as delirium, in older patients with hip fractures. A literature search on the PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases, up to September 2023, was conducted to identify all studies involving older subjects that reported an association between MNA/GNRI/PNI/CONUT and health outcome after hip fracture. Meta-analysis was performed by a random-effects model using risk values (RR, OR, and HR) extracted from the 14 eligible selected studies. Malnutrition significantly increased the risk of any analyzed adverse outcome by 70% at 1 month, and up to 250% at 1 year. Malnutrition significantly increased delirium risk by 275% (OR = 2.75; 95% CI 1.80–4.18; p ≤ 0.05), mortality risk by 342% (OR = 3.42; 95% CI 2.14–5.48; p ≤ 0.05), mortality hazard risk by 351% (HR = 3.51; 95% CI 1.63–7.55; p ≤ 0.05) at 1 month, and transfer-to-more-supported-living-arrangements risk by 218% (OR = 2.18; 95% CI 1.58–3.01; p ≤ 0.05), and declined mobility risk by 41% (OR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.14–1.75; p ≤ 0.05), mortality risk by 368% (OR = 3.68; 95% CI 3.00–4.52; p ≤ 0.05), and mortality hazard risk by 234% (HR = 2.34; 95% CI 1.91–2.87; p ≤ 0.05) at 1 year. Malnutrition of older patients increases the risk of death and worsens mobility and independence after hip fractures. The results of the present study highlight the importance of nutritional status evaluation of older subjects with hip fractures in order to prevent potential adverse outcomes (Registration No: CRD42023468751). Full article
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17 pages, 326 KiB  
Article
Predictors of Mental Health Outcomes in a Multidisciplinary Weight Management Program for Class 3 Obesity
by Ashley Lam, Milan K. Piya, Nasim Foroughi, Mohammed Mohsin, Ritesh Chimoriya, Nic Kormas, Janet Conti and Phillipa Hay
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071068 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 792
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the potential predictors of improvement in mental health outcomes following participation in an intensive non-surgical outpatient weight management program (WMP) in an Australian public hospital. This was a retrospective cohort study of all adults with Class 3 obesity [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the potential predictors of improvement in mental health outcomes following participation in an intensive non-surgical outpatient weight management program (WMP) in an Australian public hospital. This was a retrospective cohort study of all adults with Class 3 obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2) who enrolled in the WMP from March 2018 to June 2021. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Short Version (EDE-QS), Kessler-10 Psychological Distress Scale, and 36-Item Short-Form Survey (SF-36) at baseline and 12-month follow-up. A total of 115 patients completed 12 months in the WMP and were included in the study, with 76.5% being female, a mean ± SD age at baseline of 51.3 ± 13.8 years, a weight of 146 ± 26 kg, and a BMI of 51.1 ± 8.6 kg/m2. The participants lost an average of 8.6 ± 0.2 kg over 12 months, and greater weight loss at follow-up was significantly associated with improved global EDE-QS scores, psychological distress, and improved mental health quality of life. However, improvements in most mental health outcomes were not predicted by weight loss alone. Notably, a lower eating disorder risk at baseline was associated with less psychological distress at follow-up and greater weight loss at follow-up. Our results also found an association between reduced psychological distress and reduced binge eating frequency. These findings support the inclusion components of obesity interventions that target the psychological correlates of obesity to support improved outcomes in people with Class 3 obesity. Future studies should aim to identify which aspects of the WMP helped improve people’s psychological outcomes. Full article
12 pages, 579 KiB  
Article
Blood Phytosterol Concentration and Genetic Variant Associations in a Sample Population
by Leticia Garrido-Sanchez, Elisabet Leiva-Badosa, Josep Llop-Talaveron, Xavier Pintó-Sala, Toni Lozano-Andreu, Emili Corbella-Inglés, Pedro Alia-Ramos, Lluis Arias-Barquet, Josep Maria Ramon-Torrel and Maria B. Badía-Tahull
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1067; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071067 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 569
Abstract
The main objective of this study was to determine plasma levels of PS and to study SNVs rs41360247, rs4245791, rs4148217, and rs11887534 of ABCG8 and the r657152 SNV at the ABO blood group locus in a sample of a population treated at our [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study was to determine plasma levels of PS and to study SNVs rs41360247, rs4245791, rs4148217, and rs11887534 of ABCG8 and the r657152 SNV at the ABO blood group locus in a sample of a population treated at our hospital, and to determine whether these SNVs are related to plasma PS concentrations. The secondary objective was to establish the variables associated with plasma PS concentrations in adults. Participants completed a dietary habit questionnaire and a blood sample was collected to obtain the following variables: campesterol, sitosterol, sitostanol, lanosterol, stigmasterol, biochemical parameters, and the SNVs. In addition, biometric and demographic variables were also recorded. In the generalized linear model, cholesterol and age were positively associated with total PS levels, while BMI was negatively related. For rs4245791, homozygous T allele individuals showed a significantly lower campesterol concentration compared with C homozygotes, and the GG alleles of rs657152 had the lowest levels of campesterol compared with the other alleles of the SNV. Conclusions: The screening of certain SNVs could help prevent the increase in plasma PS and maybe PNALD in some patients. However, further studies on the determinants of plasma phytosterol concentrations are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gene Interaction)
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30 pages, 1925 KiB  
Review
Polyphenolic Compounds: Orchestrating Intestinal Microbiota Harmony during Aging
by Quélita Cristina Pereira, Isabela Monique Fortunato, Fabricio de Sousa Oliveira, Marisa Claudia Alvarez, Tanila Wood dos Santos and Marcelo Lima Ribeiro
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 1066; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16071066 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
In the aging process, physiological decline occurs, posing a substantial threat to the physical and mental well-being of the elderly and contributing to the onset of age-related diseases. While traditional perspectives considered the maintenance of life as influenced by a myriad of factors, [...] Read more.
In the aging process, physiological decline occurs, posing a substantial threat to the physical and mental well-being of the elderly and contributing to the onset of age-related diseases. While traditional perspectives considered the maintenance of life as influenced by a myriad of factors, including environmental, genetic, epigenetic, and lifestyle elements such as exercise and diet, the pivotal role of symbiotic microorganisms had been understated. Presently, it is acknowledged that the intestinal microbiota plays a profound role in overall health by signaling to both the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as other distant organs. Disruption in this bidirectional communication between bacteria and the host results in dysbiosis, fostering the development of various diseases, including neurological disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. This review aims to delve into the intricate biological mechanisms underpinning dysbiosis associated with aging and the clinical ramifications of such dysregulation. Furthermore, we aspire to explore bioactive compounds endowed with functional properties capable of modulating and restoring balance in this aging-related dysbiotic process through epigenetics alterations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Management and Nutritional Health for Age-Related Diseases)
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