To solve the problems of poor stability and low monitoring precision in the online detection of rice moisture in the drying tower, we designed an online detection device for rice moisture at the outlet of the drying tower. The structure of a tri-plate capacitor was adopted, and the electrostatic field of the tri-plate capacitor was simulated using COMSOL software. A central composite design of three factors and five levels was carried out with the thickness, spacing, and area of the plates as the influencing factors and the capacitance-specific sensitivity as the test index. This device was composed of a dynamic acquisition device and a detection system. The dynamic sampling device was found to achieve dynamic continuous sampling and static intermittent measurements of rice using a ten-shaped leaf plate structure. The hardware circuit of the inspection system with STM32F407ZGT6 as the main control chip was designed to realize stable communication between the master and slave computers. Additionally, an optimized BP neural network prediction model based on the genetic algorithm was established using the MATLAB software. Indoor static and dynamic verification tests were also carried out. The results showed that the optimal plate structure parameter combination includes a plate thickness of 1 mm, plate spacing of 100 mm, and relative area of 18,000.069 mm2
while satisfying the mechanical design and practical application needs of the device. The structure of the BP neural network was 2-90-1, the length of individual code in the genetic algorithm was 361, and the prediction model was trained 765 times to obtain a minimum MSE
value of 1.9683 × 10−5
, which was lower than that of the unoptimized BP neural network with an MSE
of 7.1215 × 10−4
. The mean relative error of the device was 1.44% under the static test and 2.103% under the dynamic test, which met the accuracy requirements for the design of the device.